Name Roll No. Learning Center Code Course/Programme SEMESTER Subject code Date of submission : Kartikeya Sengar : 511030557 : 0826 : BBA :6 : BB0027 :


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with the specific U. A diffuse culture is one in which both public and private space are similar in size and individuals guard their public space carefully. because once they are in.S. however. and bowling alley and even his wife might address him formally in public. Bob might just be one of the guys. Write a note on specific Vs diffused Culture Answer: Specific Vs Diffused Culture A specific culture is one in which individuals have a large public space they readily let other enter and share and a small private space they guard closely and share with only close friends and associates. Therefore. When golfing. University. while Venezuela. and background connections.. people have large public spaces and often conduct themselves differently depending on their public role. Individuals in these cultures often appear to be indirect and introverted and work and private life often are closely linked. In diffuse cultures. age. 2 . they should respect a person’s title. In high diffuse cultures. because entry into public space affords entry into private space as well. when individuals from diffuse cultures do business in specific cultures. people are not quickly invited into a person’s open. Austria.D. people often are invited into a person’s open. Professor. often giving the impression that Germans are stuffy or aloof. they should try to get to the point and be efficient. he might be referred to by the store clerk as Bob and he might even ask the clerk’s advice regarding some of his intended purchases.S. cultural values. When shopping. local market.P L SUBHASHINI BBA 511033149 BB0027 – CROSS CULTRUAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS Assignment Set. Trompenaars recommends that when those from specific cultures do business in diffuse cultures. and they should not get impatient when people are being indirect or circuitous.S. individuals in these cultures often are open and extroverted and there is a strong separation of work and private life.2 (60 Marks) 1. public space. Herr Professor Doktor Schmidt would be referred to this way at the university. In specific cultures. Bob has private space that is off-limits to the students who must call him Doctor in class. learn to structure meetings with the judicious use of agendas and not use their titles or acknowledge achievements or skills. Conversely. on the other hand. The reason for these changes in status is that. Smith by students when at his U. however. At the same time. A great deal of formality is maintained. BB0022 – CAPITAL AND MONEY MARKET pg. the United Kingdom. in Germany. a person’s public and private life often are similar. even to a golf partner who happens to be a graduate student in his department. public space. there is easy entry into the private space as well. Ph. the United States. China and Spain are diffuse cultures. An example of these specific and diffuse cultural dimensions is provided by the nited States and Germany. such as Robert Smith. and Switzerland all are specific cultures. generally would be called Dr. A U.

Examples include Denmark. narrow at the top and broad at the base. Carefully designed rules and policies are relied on and things are done “by the book. the subordinate would not feel any pressure to let the boss win. employees know what they are supposed to do and everything is co-coordinated from the top. Answer: The family culture is characterized by a strong emphasis on hierarchic authority and orientation to the person. Eiffel Tower Culture: Eiffel Tower Culture is characterized by a strong emphasis on the hierarchy and orientation to the task. jobs are well defined. however. BB0022 – CAPITAL AND MONEY MARKET pg. 3 . The way that people in this culture lear and change differs sharply from that in the family culture. job descriptions altered. The person holding the top position in the Eiffel Tower culture could be replaced at any time and this would have no effect on the work that organization members are doing or on the organization’s reasons for existence. this culture operates very much like a formal hierarchy – impersonal and efficient. In fact. In addition. Eiffel Tower cultures most commonly are found in Northwest European countries. if the boss of an Eiffel Tower subsidiary were playing golf with a subordinate. This same. thus the term “Eiffel Tower.” Conflicts are viewed as irrational and offences against efficiency. When changes need to be made. Germany and the Netherlands. Therefore. Explain Eiffel Tower Culture.” which is constructed in this manner. In this culture. methodic approach is used in motivating and rewarding people and in resolving conflict. As a result. The Eiffel Tower culture is characterized by a strong emphasis on hierarchy and orientation to the task. relationships are specific and status remains with the job. Manuals must be rewritten. these managers seldom create off-the-job relationships with their people. The guided missile culture is characterized by a strong emphasis on equality in the workplace and orientation to the task. Under this organizational cultural. criticisms and complaints are handled through channels.P L SUBHASHINI BBA 511033149 2. the Eiffel Tower culture often is ill equipped to handle things. because they believe this could affect their rational judgement. promotions reconsidered and qualifications reassessed. procedures changed. this culture is steep. The incubator culture is characterized by a strong emphasis on equality and orientation to the person.

Business Strategy can be defined as the basic long term goals and objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carryin out those goals. Japanese culture promotes a high safety or security need. Thus people who make decisions and the way they think.e. one study examined the cultural orientations of 522 employees of 28 Japanese-owned firms in the United States and found that the native BB0022 – CAPITAL AND MONEY MARKET pg.S. Answer: Japan is well known for its paternalistic approach to leadership. the Japanese are known to be more patient in sacrificing short-term results in order to build for the future with investment.P L SUBHASHINI BBA 511033149 3. If we wish to increase the yield of grain in certain field and on analysis it appears that the soil lacks potash. There are also power distance countries such as Arab countries and Japan in which managers observe interpersonal inequality and hierarchy. 4. potash may be said to be the strategic (or limiting) factor. People in countries such as China and Japan generally have longer time horizon than those in Canada and in U. creating positive culture for employees and creating economic value. 4 . Americans will emphasise short Towards term profits.. whereas. Managers from Latin American and African countries prefer to do business through non-equity entry mode in order to minimise exposure to risk. Implications of Culture on Business Strategy While formulating various business strategies international manager is always influenced by cultural factors which may have long term and short-term perspective. which is present among home country-based employees as well as MNC expatriates. Explain Japanese leadership approaches. The manager also has to keep in mind the legal compliance. They bring this context to work and it influences their propensity toward or against certain type of decisions. feel and act are based on their ingrained societal culture. high uncertainty avoidance countries).. Answer: Business Strategy “Strategy” is a term that can be traced back to the Ancient Greeks who used to mean the Chief Magistrate or a Military Commander-in-Chief. research and development and market share. Discuss business strategy and implications of culture on business strategy. For example. Managers who hail from uncertainty avoidance countries are more willing to take risk than their counterparts (i.A.

Another study found that Koreans also value such paternalism. counterparts. so individual action is of little consequence.” An expression that explains the Arabs’ fatalistic approach to time. BB0022 – CAPITAL AND MONEY MARKET pg. if Arabs commit themselves to a date in the future and fail to show up. Business meetings typically conclude with an offer of coffee or tea. counterparts. Americans. most do not view themselves as international managers. it is common to use the cliché “time is money. In the United States. if there are to be any. A higher power dictates the outcome of important events. there is no guilt or concern on their part. those in an Anglo culture are taught to act on logic. 5 . a favourite expression is Bukra insha Allah. What suggestions Mr Zeeshan shall give the client? Answer: Doing Business in (UAE) Arab Countries : The intense media attention given to continuing conflicts in the Middle East have pointed out that Arab cultures are distinctly different from Anglo cultures. This is a sign that the meeting is over and that future meetings.S. because they have no control over time in the first place. Japanese and U. who believe that they control their own time. Arabs often act based on emotion. Americans often find it extremely hard to do business in Arab countries and a number of Arab cultural characteristics can be cited for this difficulty. they still believe in the Japanese way of doing things and are reluctant to abandon it.S. Another Arab cultural belief that generally holds is that destiny depends more on the will of a supreme being than on the behaviour of individuals. in contrast to Westerners. managers have a basically different philosophy of managing people.S. even if they do adapt their leadership approach on the surface to that of the country in which they are operating. Japanese leadership approach is heavily group oriented.” In Arab countries. As a result. which means “tomorrow if God wills. Arabs believe that Allah controls time. paternalistic and concerned with the employee’s work and personal life. One of his client wants to do business in UAE. should now be arranged. The U.S. on the other hand. The Japanese think of themselves as Japanese managers who are operating overseas.P L SUBHASHINI BBA 511033149 Japanese employees were more likely to value paternalistic company behaviour than their U. Japanese tend to be more ethnocentric than their U. Another important cultural contrast between Arabs and Americans is that of emotion and logic. Zeeshan is a consultant. 5. Many Arabs live in unstable environments where things change constantly. so they do not develop trusting relationships with others. live in a much more predictable environment and develop trusting relationships with others. in contrast. leadership approach is almost the opposite. As a result. major differences appear in leadership approaches used by the Japanese and those in other locales. Mr. However.

com / and have a look at the cultural dimensions of india. (3) Much of what gets done is a result of going through administrative channels in the country. (5) Patience is critical to the success of business transactions. gives reason / meaning to ones work life and rewards in exchange for loyalty from employees. Employees expect to be directed clearly as to their functions and what is expected of them. (6) Important decisions usually are made in person. acceptance of un-equal rights between the power-privileged and those who are lesser down in the pecking order. paternalistic leader. Visit the site http://www.geert-hofstede. India scores high on this dimension. 6 . Answer: If we explore the Indian culture through the lens of the 5-D Model. Write a short note based on the observations. 6.P L SUBHASHINI BBA 511033149 Other useful guidelines for doing business in Arab cultures include : (1) It is important never to display feelings of superiority. not by correspondence or telephone. Communication is top down and directive in its style and often feedback which is negative is never offered up the ladder. 77. management directs. immediate superiors accessible but one layer above less so. we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Indian culture relative to other world cultures. It often is difficult to sidestep a lot of this red tape and efforts to do so can be regarded as disrespect for legal and governmental institutions. and attitude towards managers are formal even if one is on first name basis. one could use the following words and phrases : dependent on the boss or the power holder for direction. A great deal of what is accomplished is a result of group work and to indicate that one accomplished something alone is a mistake. Well-connected business people can get things done much faster than their counterparts who do not know the ins and outs of the system. (4) Connections are extremely important in conducting business.geert-hofstede.shtml. BB0022 – CAPITAL AND MONEY MARKET pg. (2) One should not take credit for joint efforts. indicating an appreciation for hierarchy and a Top – Down Structure in society and Organizations. Control is familiar.com/hofstede_india. If one were to encapsulate the Indian attitude. This is why an MNC’s personal presence often is a prerequisite for success in the Arab World. Real Power is centralized even though it may not appear to be and managers count on the obedience of their team members. even a psychological security. http://www. because this makes the other party feel inferior.

This means that there is a high preference for belonging to a larger social framework in which individuals are expected to act in accordance to the greater good of one’s defined in-group(s). work group and other such wider social networks that one has some affiliation toward. There is a saying that “nothing is impossible” in India. People generally do not feel driven and compelled to take action-initiatives and comfortably settle into established rolls and routines without questioning. to be rejected by one’s peers or to be thought lowly of by one’s extended and immediate in-groups. Even though it is mildly above the mid range in score. neighbors. the flash and bling that goes with advertising one’s success. In India there is acceptance of imperfection. In more Masculine countries the focus is on success and achievements. India is traditionally a patient country where tolerance for the unexpected is high . It is also an ancient country with one of the longest surviving cultures which gives it ample lessons in the value of humility and abstinence. However. BB0022 – CAPITAL AND MONEY MARKET pg. even welcomed as a break from monotony. India scores 40 on this dimension and thus has a medium low preference for avoiding uncertainty. extended family. The employer/employee relationship is one of expectations based on expectations – Loyalty by the employee and almost familial protection by the Employer. validated by material gains. the actions of the individual are influenced by various concepts such as the opinion of one’s family. India is also a spiritual country with millions of deities and various religious philosophies. with a score of 48 is a society with clear collectivistic traits. Rules are often in place just to be circumvented and one relies on innovative methods to “bypass the system”. from turning a blind eye to rules being flouted to finding a unique and inventive solution to a seemingly insurmountable problem. A word used often is “adjust” and means a wide range of things. nothing has to be perfect nor has to go exactly as planned. 7 . It is this attitude that is both the cause of misery as well as the most empowering aspect of the country.P L SUBHASHINI BBA 511033149 India. leaves him or her rudderless and with a sense of intense emptyness. India scores 56 on this dimension and is thus considered a masculine society. Hiring and promotion decisions are often made based on relationships which are the key to everything in a Collectivist society. The designer brand lable. Work is the center of one’s life and visible symbols of success in the work place are very important. In such situations. For a collectivist. is widely practiced. India is actually very masculine in terms of visual display of success and power. This often reigns in people from indulging in Masculine displays to the extent that they might be naturally inclined to. so long as one knows how to “adjust”.

In India the concept of “karma” dominates religious and philosophical thought. Time is not linear. pragmatic culture. practices and esoteric beliefs. In India there is an acceptance that there are many truths and often depends on the seeker. making it a long term. Societies that have a high score on Long Term Orientation. a changing game-plan based on changing reality and a general comfort with discovering the fated path as one goes along rather than playing to an exact plan.P L SUBHASHINI BBA 511033149 The Indians score 61. and thus not as important as to western societies which typically score low on this dimension. views. typically forgive lack of punctuality. Countries like India have a great tolerance for religious views from all over the world – Hinduism is often considered a philosophy more than even a religion. BB0022 – CAPITAL AND MONEY MARKET pg. 8 . an amalgamation of ideas.

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