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No.

140

R.A. Izmaylov, S. Y. Dudnikov, A.A. Lebedev et al.

CIEPLNE MASZYNY PRZEPLYWOWE TURBOMACHINERY

2011

Rudolf A. IZMAYLOV
Prof., Dr. Sci. (Tech), St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Russia e-mail: <ira1239@gmail.com >

Sergey Y. DUDNIKOV
Cand. Sci. (Phys-Math), Optiflame Solutions, e-mail: <sd@optiflame-spb.ru>

Alexander A. LEBEDEV
Cand. Sci. (Tech), St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Russia e-mail: <LAA7777@yandex.ru>

Evgeny N. KHOROSHEV
Director, Optiflame Solutions, e-mail: <horcheven@mail.ru>

Yuri S. CHUMAKOV
Prof., Dr. Sci. (Tech), St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Russia email:<chumako v@yandex. ru>

Yuri B. MELNIKOV
Cand. Sci. (Phys-Math), Optiflame Solutions e-mail: <melnikov@optiflame-spb. ru>

AERODYNAMICS OF SMALL WIND TURBINE: A NEW GAME ON OLD GROUND


Abstract: A new design of small wind turbine is presented. The proposed system consists of axial flow turbine, located in aerodynamically profiled ring shroud, and modern alternating current generator. Results of CFD threedimensional modelling of the system operation are presented. System prototype (diameter 0.5 m) was tested in open air on a moving car and in wind tunnel of SPSTU. Experiments were carried out at different air velocities with the measurements of flow using hotwire anemometer and pressure pick-ups. The results confirm preliminary estimations and open possibilities to produce small wind turbine up to diameter 10 m. Keywords: small wind turbine, CFD, wind tunnel test.

Our predecessors were Pierre Bollee [4], producing wind turbine for pump drive, based on shrouded axial flow turbine (Fig. 1-a), and Seiiti Awano [l], constructing similar turbine for Antarctic polar station (Fig. 1-b). Using Awano design as a prototype we use aerodynamically profiled ring shroud based on Kort Nozzle (Fig. 1-c) [3], which increases to some extent the level of flow inlet velocity in front of the guiding vanes. In such a way we get a new construction permitting to overcome unfavorable features of well known typical wind turbine with propeller blades. Inlet Fig. 6. Wind protection of avian, the shroud is useful as a means guide vanes are the means for tunnel of SPSPU for protection in case of rotor blades

R.A. Izmaylov, S. Y. Dudnikov, A.A. Lebedev et al.

destruction, all the design excludes flicker effects of TV signals and decreases radiated noise level.
a) b) c)

Fig. 1. Predecessors: a) Eolienne Bollee [4], Awano NU-102 [1], Kort Nozzle [3]

Aerodynamic design of the axial flow turbine was based on J.H. Horlock methods [2].

Fig. 2. Cross-sectional view of the axial flow turbine [1 ]

The inlet air velocity in front of the shroud at the design point was 10 m/s, ambient condition - standard atmosphere. Hub to tip ratio - 0.5, overall diameter 0.5 m. Number of blades - variable. Profiles are of TA6 type (due to manufacturing problems we choose simple circular arcs for the test). Profile chord is 30 mm, relative thickness 0.05. Inlet/outlet angles 0/45. (See Fig. 2) Airfoil NACA 4415 was chosen for ring shroud, relative thickness 0.1875 Overall length - 160 mm. Inlet contraction ratio at the guide vanes is 0.942, outlet diffuser ratio 1.176. Hemisphere is located in front of the turbine hub, outlet portion is conical. AC generator (direct drive permanent magnet) is located inside the hub. Basic idea of the aerodynamic design is shown on Fig. 3. The flow in the designed system (turbine and ring shroud) was calculated with the aid of commercial CFD. Navier-Stokes equation with appropriate boundary conditions was numerically solved for different inlet velocities. This has allowed the proper choice of the form of the ring shroud including optimal contraction/diffuser ratio. An example of flow distribution (CFD) is presented on Fig. 3. There one can clearly see some acceleration of the flow at the turbine inlet attained by the ring shroud.

Aerodynamics distribution (CFD) Turbine Fig. 3. Axial flow of Small Wind

After choosing the proper geometrical parameters of the system we have started experimental investigation of the model. We constructed a simplified wind tunnel (inverted Eiffel type) to check the ability of the turbine to generate electric power and calibrate the AC generator with Proni type torque meter. The design was simplified (plastic blades and cylindrical shroud, removed in Fig. 4).

The next step was carried out on a car. The turbine was installed on the roof of the car and was tested at different velocities (Fig. 5). To measure the generator characteristics a special portable data acquisition system was designed for the measurements of air velocities with the aid of vane and thermistor anemometers.

Fig. 4. Simplified wind turbine in inverted Eiffel wind tunnel


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Fig. 5. Complete turbine installed on the roof of a car

R.A. Izmaylov, S. Y. Dudnikov, A.A. Lebedev et al.

Finally, complete aerodynamic tests were carried in aerodynamic wind tunnel (Fig. 6) of StPSU (courtesy permission of prof. E. Smirnov, Head of Aerodynamic department). This tunnel of Gottingen type has diameter of section 2 m, level of turbulence is less than 0.2%, axial fan drive allows to get all the range of necessary air velocities (we restricted the upper limit to 15 m/s).

In this series of experiments, besides electrical generator data, detailed aerodynamics measurements were carried out with the aid of Prandtl tube (inlet flow control), vaned and thermistor anemometers, and hot wire anemometer (single wire), as well as semiconductor pressure pick-ups (Endevco and Honeywell types) (Fig. 7).
Fig. 7. Complete wind generator test in the SPSPU wind tunnel

The results are presented on figures below (Fig. 8-11). They clearly demonstrate the influence of the number of the blades on attainable electric power and the useful function of the ring shroud.

Aerodynamics of Small velocity (shrouded, Aeromechanical power and efficiency dependence on air Wind Turbine z32/16, 2D)

air velocity, m/s

power, R=10 Q ~M~ power, R= 23 Q -A- power, R= 37 Q -O- r, R= 10 Q -El- r, R= 23 Q A r, R= 37 Q

Fig. 8. Aeromechanical power and r dependence on air velocity (shrouded, z32/16, 2D)

Nomenclature for Fig. 8-11: R - resistance of the electric circuit T] - turbine efficiency

Fig. 4. Simplified wind turbine in inverted Eiffel wind tunnel

Fig. 9. Aeromechanical power and ^ dependence on air velocity (z32/16, 2D)

eromechanical power and efficiency dependence on air velocity (shrouded, z32/16, 3D)

R.A. Izmaylov, S. Y. Dudnikov, A.A. Lebedev et al.


Aeromechanical power and efficiency dependence on air velocity (without shroud, z32/16, 2D)
air velocity, m/s

--power, R=10 Q power, R= 23 Q -A- power, R= 37 Q R= 10 Q ^=h^, R= 23 Q A R= 37 Q


air velocity, m/s

-?-power, R=10 Q power, R= 23 Q -A-power, R= 37 Q -^-^, R= 10 Q -B-^, R= 23 Q A ^, R= 37 Q

Fig. Aeromechanical power and ^ dependence on air velocity (shrouded, z32/16, 3D)

10.

Aerodynamics of Small Wind Turbine


Aeromechanical power and efficiency dependence on air velocity (without shroud, z32/32, 2D)

air velocity, m/s power, R=10 Q power, R= 23 Q -k- power, R= 37 Q -O-r, R= 10 Q B r, R= 23 Q A r, R= 37 Q

Fig. 11. Aeromechanical power and r dependence on air velocity (z32/32, 2D)

On Fig 12 results of hotwire anemometer measurements around the wind turbine are presented (for inlet air velocity 5 m/s). They illustrate acceleration effect due to shroud at the inlet guide vanes.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Authors appreciate gratitude to Mr. V.V. Kanin for his kind support of the project resulting in participation in Skolkovo project, as well as to prof. E.M. Smirnov for his support during experimental investigation in the wind tunnel of
Fig. 12. Flow field (hot wire anemometer results) around the wind turbine

R.A. Izmaylov, S. Y. Dudnikov, A.A. Lebedev et al.

SPSU. REFERENCES [1 ] Awano, Seiiti. Axial Flow Wind Air-Turbine NU-102 with Electric Eddy- Current Brake. y tfy.- Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research. Ser. F, Logistics 3, pp. 1-57, 1979; Also: Transactions of JSME, Ser. B, vol. 46, Na 401, pp. 57-66, 1980 (in Japanese). 2]Horlock J.H. Axial Flow Turbines: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics. Butterworths, London, 1966, 266 pp. 3]Kort Nozzle. Wikipedia, Free encyclopaedia. 2011. 4]Eolienne Bollee. Wikipedia, Free encyclopedia.