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CHANGING STUDENT TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION ABOUT PROBLEM SOLVING THROUGH THE INTEGRATION OF ICT IN A MATHEMATICS TEACHING METHODS COURSE

Munirah Ghazali, Zurida Ismail, S. Abdul Rahman School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia Abstrak: Penyelesaian masalah adalah salah satu ciri penting dalam aktiviti matematik dan juga satu pendekatan untuk mengembangkan pengetahuan matematik. Tujuan utama pengajaran dan pembelajaran matematik adalah untuk mengembangkan keupayaan untuk menyelesaikan masalah matematik yang kompleks. Namun, proses penyelesaian masalah dalam matematik tidak diberi perhatian yang sepatutnya. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan guru sendiri kurang selesa dengan aspek penyelesaian masalah. Oleh itu, guru tidak mengajar teknik dan proses penyelesaian masalah. Kertas ini akan melihat kepercayaan guru pelatih tentang penyelesaian masalah dan bagaimana kepercayaan berubah dengan pengunaan teknologi maklumat. Langkah ini adalah satu usaha yang mengintegrasikan teknologi komunikasi maklumat dalam kursus kaedah pengajaran matematik dengan tujuan mengubah kepercayaan dan persepsi pelajar tentang penyelesaian masalah supaya mereka boleh menjadi penyelesai masalah yang lebih berupaya selain daripada meningkatkan keupayaan mereka mengembangkan strategi penyelesaian masalah yang lebih luas.

INTRODUCTION The National Council for Teachers of Mathematics (2000) has given strong emphasis to problem solving in the mathematics classroom. The process of problem solving, according to Polya (1957), involves four steps: understanding the problem, devising a plan (solution), implementing the plan and looking back (examining the solution). These processes demand the ability to develop a deep understanding of the problem and to devise a plan to solve it. Problem solving (Polya, 1973; Schoenfeld, 1985) has been advocated as revealing more of the strategies employed by children in the course of solving mathematical problems. While problem solving can be described through the use of heuristics and meta-cognitive strategies, the underlying assumption is that all mathematical entities consist of well-organized structures, waiting to be discovered. Teachers of mathematics should inculcate in children the inclination to develop strategies in the process of solving problems and to value its importance. However, the process of problem solving has not been given proper emphasis in schools, possibly due to the fact that teachers themselves are not very competent problem solvers and the burden of syllabus to finish and public examinations to prepare the students for. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ICT and mathematics problem solving Amarasinghe and Lambdin (2000) described three different varieties of technology usage: technology as a data analysis tool, as a problem-solving / mathematical modeling tool, and using technology to integrate mathematics with a context. Children believed that if they had greater access to current technology in their education then they would get greater satisfaction from school, learn more, produce more high quality projects, and perform better on tests and assessments (NetDay, 2004). There is evidence that students who are given more complex, intellectually challenging, and authentic assessments perform better on standardized tests (Newmann, Bryk & Nagaoka, 2001).

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Munirah Ghazali, Zurida Ismail and S. Abdul Rahman

Technology is now seen as an essential tool in the teaching and learning of mathematics (Ittigson & Zewe, 2003; Harskamp & Suhre, 2006). Earlier on, Duffy and Cunningham (1996) state: Technology is seen as an integral part of the cognitive activity….This view of distributed cognition significantly impacts how we think of the role of technology in education and training, the focus is not on the individual in isolation and what he or she knows, but on the activity in the environment. It is the activity – focused and contextualized – that is central... The process of construction is directed towards creating a world that makes sense to us, that is adequate for our everyday functioning (pp. 187-188). Many researchers (Balacheff & Kaput, 1996; Kilpatrick & Davis, 1993) have discussed the impact of technological forces on learning and teaching mathematics. ICT improves the way mathematics should be taught and enhances student understanding of basic concepts. The researchers argued that with the introduction of technology, it is possible to deemphasize algorithmic skills; the resulting void may be filled by an increased emphasis on the development of mathematical concepts. Technology saves time and gives students access to powerful new ways to explore concepts at a depth that has not been possible in the past. In this manner, students can concentrate on problem-solving processes rather than on calculations related to the problems (Ittigson & Zewe, 2003) thereby promoting higher order thinking and better problem solving strategies among students. Many technologies are a natural match for designing and developing innovative constructivist learning environments and real-world assessments (Tileston, 2000). Technology, according to Jonassen, Peck, and Wilson (1999) refers to “the designs and environments that engage learners” (p. 12). The focus of both constructivism and technology are then on the creation of learning environments. The task of the learner is seen as dynamic, and the computer makes available new learning opportunities. The power of computers leads to fundamental changes in mathematics instruction. For example, the ability to build and run complex mathematical models, and easy exploration of “what if” questions through parametric variation have opened up new avenues for mathematics (Dreyfus, 1991). Furthermore, as Munirah (1996) observes, the teaching of calculus has seen a dramatic change now that activities such as exploring data or graphical data analysis have been revolutionized by the computer technology. It is also reported that weaker students often are better able to succeed with the help of technology, and thereby come to recognize that mathematics is not just for their more able classmates. Although there has been much written about the potential of technology to change how mathematics is taught, there does not seem to be much written about how the use of technology changed students’ perception about mathematical problem solving. We are interested to know whether the use of technology could change students’ perceptions of problem solving. However, we are aware that students were not exposed and didn’t have the experience of using technology during their school mathematics lessons. Attitudes & anxiety toward computer use We were also interested to investigate the students’ attitudes and anxiety level as they actually use computers in this project. Attitude has been defined as an inclination to act or to be in a state of ‘readiness’ to act (Gagne, 1985). A positive attitude arises due to previous successful experiences or from a perception that success is possible. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, Bagozzi, and Warshaw, 1992) suggests 38

Changing Student Teachers' Perception About Problem Solving Through The Integration of ICT In A Mathematics Teaching Methods Course

that attitudes towards its use directly influence intentions to use the computer and ultimately actual computer use. Davis et al., (1997) demonstrated that an individual’s initial attitudes regarding a computer’s ease of use and a computer’s usefulness influence attitudes toward use and that training significantly improved the computer self-efficacy of both males and females. They also reported that training programs seemed more effective for male and female respondents with positive attitudes toward computers. Anxiety by definition is intense dread, apprehension, or nagging worry. Computer anxiety as defined by Howard, Murphy & Thomas (1987) is the “fear of impending interaction with a computer that is disproportionate to the actual threat presented by the computer”. Computer anxiety can be understood to mean an uneasiness of the mind caused by the apprehension of things going wrong when using computers. Working with computers seem like an area more prone to feelings of anxiety such as irritation, frustration and bewilderment because users have to deal not only with correct use of software but at the same time, be faced with technical computer problems (Fajou, 1997). Those who are computer-anxious may experience fear of the unknown, feeling of frustration, possible embarrassment, failure and disappointment (Fajou, 1997). Rosen, Sears and Weil (1987) have established three levels of technophobia: • Anxious Technophobe: • • Exhibits the classic signs of an anxiety reaction when using technology: sweaty palms, heart palpitations, headaches. On the surface is calm and relaxed, but internally seethes with negative messages: “Everybody but me knows how to do this!” or “I’ll hit the wrong button and mess this machine up!” May be slightly anxious or use some negative statements, but generally not in need of one-on-one counseling.

Cognitive Technophobe: •

•

Uncomfortable User: •

Feelings of anxiety toward computers and computer use, are common, affecting 30 to 40% of the population (Tseng, Macleod, Wright, 1997). It was reported that one third of all college students experience some type of technophobia (DeLoughry, 1993). Despite technology proliferation, women are frequently found to be computer-anxious or “technophobic,”, and girls and young women are being left behind on the road to information technology (Cooper and Weaver, 2003). Cooper and Weaver (2003) found that computer use was directly related to Internet use. With the relationship between computer use and Internet use, it is proposed that computer anxiety could directly relate to Internet anxiety. According to Sieber et al. (1977) computer tasks also place great pressure on users due to the speed in which computers perform tasks that may prove to be overwhelming for those new to computers. Sieber et al. (1977) proposed that the level of anxiety that is initially evoked by a computer may be somewhat higher than when the same task is presented in a conventional manner. Computer anxiety has been associated with decreased use and worse, avoidance of information technology. Avoidance can seriously affect some students’ academic progress. Research has shown that computer anxiety is prevalent amongst pre-service and practicing teachers, and many suffer at substantially high levels (Ayersman, 1996). However, research suggests that computer experience is negatively related to computer anxiety (Koohang, 1989; Liu, Reed, &

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Munirah Ghazali, Zurida Ismail and S. Abdul Rahman

Phillips, 1992; Maurer & Simonson, 1993-1994). As teachers gain experience with computers, anxiety is reduced. But even more critical to computer experience is the pleasantness (Gos, 1996) of these computer experiences, especially one’s first encounter with computer technology. Researchers (Loyd & Gressard, 1984; Glass & Knight, 1988), support the theory of increasing computer experience will decrease computer anxiety. Necessary & Parish (1996) found that college students with little or no computer experience have more anxiety than those students who have experience. The results of their study revealed that “increased levels of computer experience and balance of weekly computer usage were both related with reduced levels of computer related anxiety”. Glass & Knight (1988) determined those computer anxious students will become less anxious after an initial trauma period. By working through this fearful or frustrating stage, students will gain experience, thus reduce anxiety. It is reasonable to assume that by increasing computer usage thereby experience, one would naturally reduce anxiety. There are however conflicting findings to these reports. Fajou (1997) reported that subjects who exhibit computer anxiety prior to class are likely to be still anxious even after training. They further suggested that training may not be a mitigating factor for computer anxiety. One such measure that can be taken could be a one-to-one instructor and student training as an effort to overcome computer anxiety. METHODOLOGY The sample consisted of 131 student teachers attending a second-year Mathematics Teaching Methods Course at the School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia. These student teachers are from different basic mathematics qualification, gender and teaching experience. Ninety three percent of the sample was females (122) and seven percent (9) were males. Most of them are young student teachers ranging from 20 to 30 years of age with little or no teaching experience (92%). More than eighty percent of the sample was of Malay ethnicity and the rest were of Chinese and Indian ethnicity. The sample averaged fairly in their background mathematics ability ranging from good (68%) to average (32%). As part of the course requirement, the students were given a coursework in which they are required to prepare a three-part assignment. First, they are to search the World Wide Web (WWW) for at least three (3) lesson plans or articles on the use of technology, namely Excel to teach certain mathematics topics of their choice. The use of spreadsheet was suggested because of its user-friendly features and the availability of research done using it. Then they are to analyze the articles from the website and write a report on process of teaching and learning, giving attention to its strengths and weaknesses and how they would use the information to teach the topic in their own classrooms. They are also required to find two (2) articles in Mathematics Journals about the topic and include the findings in the report. Second, they are to prepare a creative and effective lesson to teach the topic they have chosen, based on the findings and analysis done in the report. This lesson should integrate the use of Excel in teaching the topic and must be prepared for a one period teaching and learning activity (forty minutes). Third, they are to carry out a micro teaching session lasting for fifteen to twenty minutes based on the lesson planned. The Indiana Mathematics Belief Scales was administered at the beginning of the semester to find out about the students’ beliefs about mathematics and problem solving. This instrument consists of items that elicit responses on beliefs about mathematical

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Changing Student Teachers' Perception About Problem Solving Through The Integration of ICT In A Mathematics Teaching Methods Course

problem solving and the processes involved in it. This 30-item questionnaire recorded responses on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree (4) to strongly disagree (1) and was administered before and after the course. Along with it, The Minnesota Computer Awareness Assessment (1979) instrument was also administered to look into the student teachers’ attitude towards learning with computers. This 30-item questionnaire also recorded responses on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree (4) to strongly disagree (1) and was also administered before and after the course. At the end of the semester, apart from The Indiana Mathematics Belief Scales and The Minnesota Computer Awareness Assessment, a post-evaluation was conducted to find out the student teachers’ perception about problem solving and how it has changed with the use of technology. DATA ANALYSIS The data was analyzed based on the Indiana Mathematics Belief Scales that comprise five categories of beliefs regarding mathematics problem solving (word problems). The five belief categories are time spent on mathematics problems, understanding the steps in solving mathematical word problems, getting the answers, attitude towards word problems and effort put in to solve the problems. The five belief scales can be summarized as follows: Belief 1: Belief 2: Belief 3: Belief 4: Belief 5: I can solve time-consuming mathematics problems. (Questions 1 – 6) There are word problems that cannot be solved with simple, step-by-step procedures. (Questions 7 – 12) Understanding of concept is important in mathematics. (Questions 13 – 18) Word problems are important in mathematics. (Questions 19 – 24) Effort can increase mathematical ability. (Questions 25 – 30)

Table 1 shows the t-test for pre- and post-time scores. The results regarding time scores indicated that the initial score level was positive with a mean of 2.84 (see Table 1).

Table 1: T-test for pre and post time scores

Time Initial Final

Table 1: T-test for pre and post time scores N mean dfe t 115 2.84 114 -0.464 115 2.84 114 -0.464

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.644 0.644

* significant at 0.05 level

Although there is a slight increase in the mean of the time scores after undergoing this course (mean = 2.85), it was not statistically significant. This shows that although the student teachers agree that they can do lengthy mathematics problems, the use of technology did not alter their view on this matter significantly. There is a notable increase in the mean of the steps scores after undergoing this course (mean = 3.04) and this was found to be statistically significant (see Table 2). This suggests that the student teachers agree that it is important to understand the steps involved in solving mathematics word problems and not merely follow simple step-by-step procedures.

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Munirah Ghazali, Zurida Ismail and S. Abdul Rahman

Table 2: T-test for pre and post steps scores

**Time Initial understanding steps Final understanding steps
**

* significant at 0.05 level

Table 2: T-test for pre and post steps scores N mean dfe 115 115 2.91 3.04 114 114

t -4.510 -4.510

Sig. (2tailed) 0.000 0.000

Table 3 indicates the positive mean scores for getting answers to mathematics word problems. There is a significant increase in the mean (mean = 3.28) after undergoing the course and it is statistically significant. This shows that the teachers believe and agree that it is important to understand the concepts in mathematics rather than just following steps and being satisfied with getting the right answers.

Table 3: T-test for pre and post answers scores

Time

Table 3: T-test for pre and post answers scores N mean dfe 114 114 3.03 3.28 113 113

t

**Initial getting answers Final getting answers
**

* significant at 0.05 level

-5.797 -5.797

Sig. (2tailed) 0.000 0.000

When effort is concerned, the study revealed that the teachers believe and strongly agree that effort can increase mathematical ability. This is indicated by the increase in the mean of the effort scores (mean = 3.71) after the course and this was found to be statistically significant (see Table 4).

Table 4: T-test for pre and post effort scores

**Time Initial effort Final effort
**

* significant at 0.05 level

Table 4: T-test for pre and post effort scores N mean dfe t 62 3.54 61 -3.257 62 3.71 61 -3.257

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.002 0.002

However, scores for attitude towards word problems in mathematics indicates a positive score that was not statistically significant (mean = 2.56). This suggests that the student teachers are uncertain about the importance of word problems in mathematics because their belief was not altered after attending the course (see Table 5)

Table 5: T-test for pre and post attitude scores

Table 5: T-test for pre and post attitude scores Time N mean dfe t Initial word problems 116 2.54 115 -0.557 Final word problems 116 2.56 115 -0.557

* significant at 0.05 level

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.579 0.579

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Changing Student Teachers' Perception About Problem Solving Through The Integration of ICT In A Mathematics Teaching Methods Course

The data also revealed that the course had a positive effect on the student teachers’ attitude towards computers. There is a notable increase in the mean of the attitude scores after undergoing this course (mean = 3.01) and this was found to be statistically significant (see Table 6)

Table 6: T-test for pre and post attitude scores

**Time Initial attitude Final attitude
**

* significant at 0.05 level

Table 6: T-test for pre and post attitude scores N mean dfe t 104 2.95 103 -1.867 104 3.01 103 -1.867

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.065 0.065

On the other hand, the anxiety scores actually went up (mean = 3.13) after the course. Although this was not statistically significant, it is something anticipated because this was a new experience for the student teachers in using ICT in teaching of mathematics (see Table 7)

Table 7: T-test for pre and post anxiety scores

**Time Initial anxiety Final anxiety
**

* significant at 0.05 level

Table 7: T-test for pre and post anxiety scores N mean dfe t 96 2.88 95 -1.178 96 3.13 95 -1.178

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.242 0.242

CONCLUSION This was a novice attempt to encourage future teachers of mathematics to integrate ICT in the teaching and learning mathematics. The findings revealed that the student teachers’ perception about problem solving in mathematics actually changed with the use of ICT. Although they were quite apprehensive at first, they seemed to enjoy it and most importantly, they experienced a new perspective on mathematical problem solving. The role of ICT is seen as supporting and enhancing the ability of the student teachers to solve mathematics problems. Significantly, it changed the way the teachers see the problems and devise ways of teaching mathematical problem solving using technology in order to offer new and powerful learning environment for our future generations. REFERENCES Adams, P. E. (1996). Hypermedia in the classroom using earth and space science CD-ROMs. Journal of Computers In Mathematics And Science Teaching, 15(1/ 2), 19-34. Amarasinghe, R., & Lambdin, D. (2000, March 8-10). Uses of computer technology in interdisciplinary mathematics learning. Paper presented at the International Conference on Learning With Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA. Ayersman, David J. (1996). Reviewing the research on hypermedia-based learning. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 28(4), 500-526.

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Munirah Ghazali, Zurida Ismail and S. Abdul Rahman

Balacheff, N., & Kaput, J. J. (1996). Computer-based learning environments in mathematics. In A. J. Bishop, K. Clements, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick & C. Laborde (Eds.), International handbook of mathematics education (pp. 469-501). Dordrecht: Kluwer. Cooper, J., & Weaver, K. D. (2003). Gender and computers: Understanding the digital divide. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Corwin Press, Inc. Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13, 319-340. Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1992). User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science, 35(12), 982-1003. Deloughry, T. J. (1993, April 28). 2 researchers say “Technophobia may afflict millions of students”. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 25-26. Denning, R., & Smith, P. J. (1997). Cooperative learning and technology. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 16(2/3), 17- 200. Dreyfus, T. (1991). On the status of visual reasoning in mathematics and mathematics education. Paper presented at the The 15th International Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Genoa. Duffy, T. M., & Cunningham, D. J. (1996). Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Educational communications and technology (pp. 170-199). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan. Fajou, S. (1997). Computer anxiety. Computer Anxiety. Gagne, R. (1985). The conditions of learning and theory of instruction. New York: CBS College Publishing. Glass, C.R. & Knight, L.A. Cognitive factors in computer anxiety, Cognitive Therapy and Research 12 (1988) (4), pp. 351–365. Gos, M.W. (1996) Computer Anxiety and Computer Experience: A New Look at an Old Relationship, The Clearinghouse, May-June 1996 v69 n5 :271-277. Harskamp, E., & Suhre, C. (2006). Improving mathematical problem solving: A computerized approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 22( 5), 801-815. Howard, G., Murphy, C., & Thomas, G. (1987). Computer anxiety considerations for design of introductory computer courses. Educational Research Quarterly, 11(4), 13-22. Ittigson, R. J., & Zewe, J. G. (2003). Technology in the mathematics classroom. In L. A. Tomei (Ed.), Challenges of Teaching with Technology Across the Curriculum: Issues and Solutions (pp. 114-133). Hershey: Information Science Publishing. Jonassen, D. H., Peck, K. L., & Wilson, B. G. (1999). Learning with technology: A constructivist perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Kilpatrick, J. & Davis, R. B. (1993). Computers and curriculum change in mathematics. In Keitel, C and Ruthven, K. (eds.), Learning from Computers: Mathematics Education and Technology. New York, Springer-Verlay, 203-221.

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Koohang, A.A. (1989, Winter). A study of attitudes toward computers: Anxiety, confidence, liking, and perception of usefulness. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 22(2), 137-150. Liu, M., Reed, W.M., & Phillips, P.D. (1992). Teacher education students and computers: Gender, major, prior computer experience, occurrence, and anxiety. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 24(2), 457-467. Loyd, B.H.,& Gressard,C. (1984).The effect of sex,age, and computer experience on computer attitudes. AEDS Journal 18(2):67-77. Maurer, M.M. & Simonson, M.R. (1993-94, Winter). The reduction of computer anxiety: Its relation to relaxation training, previous computer coursework, achievement, and need for cognition. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 26(2), 205-219. Munirah Ghazali. 1996. The use of spreadsheet in the teachnig of calculus in secondary schools. Menemui Matematik, Buletin Persatuan Matematik Malaysia, 42-52. Necessary, J.R. & Parish, T.H. (1996) The Relationship between Computer Usage and Computer-Related Attitudes and Behaviors, Education, Spring 1996, v116 n3: 384-387. NetDay. (2004). Voices and views of today’s tech-savvy students: National report on netDay speak up day for students 2003. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from http:/ /www.netday.org/speakupday2003_report.htm Newmann, F., Bryk, A., & Nagaoka, J. (2001). Improving Chicago’s schools: Authentic intellectual work and standardized tests: Conflict or coexistence? http:// ccsr.uchicago.edu/publications/p0a02.pdf (Retrieved October 12, 2007) Polya, G. (1957) How to solve it. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., Inc. Polya, G. (1973) How to solve it. New Jersey: Princeton Rosen, L. D., Sears, D. C., & Weil, M. M. (1987). Computerphobia. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 19, 167-179. Schoenfeld, A.H. 1985. Mathematical problem solving. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, Inc. Sieber, J. O’Neil, H.F., & Tobias, S. (1977). Anxiety, Learning and Instruction, Hillsdale, NJ. Erlbaum Tileston, D. (2000). 10 best teaching practices: How brain research, learning styles, and standards define teaching competencies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Tseng, H. M., Macleod, H. A., & Wright, P. (1997). Computer anxiety and computerised versus paper and pencil assessment of induced mood change. Computers and Human Behaviour 13, 305-316.

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