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Food Additives I INTRODUCTION Food Additives, compounds not generally regarded as foods that are added to foods as an aid to processing or manufacture, or to improve the keeping qualities, flavour, colour, texture, appearance, or stability of the food, or as a convenience to the consumer. Vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients added to fortify or enrich the food are generally excluded from the definition of additives, as are herbs, spices, salt, and yeast or protein hydrolysates used to enhance the flavour. Additives may be extracted from natural sources, synthesized in the laboratory so as to be chemically the same as naturally occurring compounds (and hence known as “nature identical”), or they may be synthetic compounds that do not occur in nature. In most countries, only compounds that have been tested exhaustively for safety, and are included in a list of permitted additives, may be used in food manufacture. They must be declared on the label by class of compound, name, and/or number in the permitted list. While most additives may be used wherever there is a need, the use of some compounds is restricted to specified foods. Where laboratory testing has shown that high intakes of an additive have an adverse effect (in experiments on animals), the amount that may be used is controlled by law, so as to ensure that the total intake from all foods in a daily diet is within a safe range. This Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is usually one-hundredth of the highest dose that has no detectable effect in laboratory tests. Compounds for which no adverse effects can be detected, even using extremely high levels of intake, are classified as “ADI not determined”, and may be used without any limitation, although the intensity of colour and flavour will usually limit the amount that is used. Additives are classified by their function, as detailed below. II COLOURS

A range of organic compounds, some synthetic chemicals, and other naturally occurring plant pigments, including chlorophyll,

Vitamins C and E are also commonly used as antioxidants. Acids and their salts are used both as flavourings. and fumaric acids. malic. including sodium. are used both as flavours and to control the acidity of foods. hydrochloric. and sulphuric acids and their salts. V ACIDITY REGULATORS Alkalis. citric. malic. Such compounds include sorbic and benzoic acids and their salts. Others. including biphenyl and its derivatives. Synthetic antioxidants include esters of gallic acid. also have valuable antimicrobial action. potassium. sulphur dioxide and its salts. and anthocyanins may be added to foods to enhance the colour. and magnesium hydroxides. Other compounds. propionic. may be used to neutralize excess acidity (sourness) in foods. and so increase the safe storage life of the product. as well as . as well as having useful antimicrobial action. they obviously enhance the nutritional value of the food to which they are added. propionic. and K) against damage by oxidation. there is some evidence that synthetic antioxidants used in food manufacture also have useful antioxidant action in the body. IV ANTIOXIDANTS These are used to prevent rancidity in fatty foods and to protect the fat-soluble vitamins (A. including acetic. as well as nitrites and nitrates used in pickling salts. D. phosphoric. be classified as preservatives. and may. and also to control the pH of foods.carotenoids. salts of calcium and iron may enhance the nutritional value of the food as well as its colour. a variety of naturally occurring organic acids. calcium. butylated hydroxytoluene. are used only on the skins of citrus and other fruits to minimize bacterial or fungal attack. tartaric. Some mineral salts are also used as colours. including ascorbic (vitamin C). In addition. III PRESERVATIVES Preservatives are used to protect foods against the growth of micro-organisms that might cause spoilage or food poisoning. and fumaric acids and their salts. in addition. E. lactic acid (formed in soured or fermented milk). indeed. Some. including acetic acid (vinegar). and butylated hydroxyanisole.

Many are also used to form jellies. compounds that are used include bone meal (which is also used for enrichment of flour with calcium). In addition. or anticaking agents. and to slow the staling of baked goods. VI EMULSIFIERS AND STABILIZERS Additives in this group are used to enable oils and fats to mix with water and to form smooth emulsions (for example margarine and mayonnaise). to give a smooth creamy texture to foods. including alginates. A variety of plant gums. some of the acids listed above. raising agents. guar gum. and gluconates. such compounds include glutamic acid and its salts (especially monosodium glutamate). VIII FLAVOURING AGENTS These include sweeteners. stearates. as may pectins and the various cellulose derivatives that are widely used. polyphosphates. including acting as emulsifying agents. without giving any particular flavour of their own. and synthetic compounds designed to mimic natural flavours.carbon dioxide and carbonates or bicarbonates may be used either as buffers or for special purposes. natural extracts of fruits and herbs. agar. may make a useful contribution to the intake of nonstarch polysaccharide (dietary fibre). a number of compounds are used to enhance the flavour of foods. VII ANTICAKING AGENTS Anticaking agents are used to ensure that powders such as flour or salt remain free-flowing. and carob gum. Other emulsifying agents include lecithin and a variety of salts and esters of fatty acids. and nucleic acid derivatives. . silicates.

In many people´s minds all additives are harmful chemicals. The preservation of food has been a necessity throughout the ages. food additives have been used for centuries.prevents bread and baked foods from turning mouldy. yeast. some snack foods and baked goods. They are used in baked foods.are used as a preservative in processed meats such as ham and frankfurters to keep the products safe by preventing the growth of botulinum bacteria. Sulphites have also antioxidant properties. For example. cured meats. preventing spoilage or toxicity. fungi. sulphites help prevent colour changes in dried fruits and vegetables and inhibit bacterial growth in wine. food additives are strictly regulated and go through an authorisation procedure. fruit juices and margarine among others. They improve food safety and this is the reason why legislators have authorized their use. bacteria. • Calcium propionate (E282) .What kinds of preservatives are harmful to eat regularly for adults and children? Canada In general preservatives are not bad for your health. Preservatives limit. wine. Salt. • Nitrates and nitrites (sodium and potassium salts) (E249252) . Sulphites also have antioxidant properties. cheese. mould) that are present in or gain entry to the food. retard or arrest the growth of microorganisms (e. and vinegar to pickle to prevent colour changes in dried fruits and vegetables. Today. Sulphites also inhibit the growth of bacteria in wine and fermented foods. saltpetre (potassium nitrate) and smoke were used to preserve meat. Examples include: Sulphur dioxide and sulphites (E220-228) . but despite their modernday associations. • Preservatives are categorised as food additives. fermented foods. some snack foods and baked goods. Authorised food additives are clearly defined substances which have to fulfil strict purity criteria and maximum .g. Without preservatives our food would be not be as safe as it is today.

Since 2003 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for the evaluation of additives. it is prudent to adjust for these differences. children. Permitted food additives are broadly classified into several categories according to the functions they perform. The Panel on Food Additives. the old and the ill). Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (Panel AFC) is advising them. including observations in humans and in animal models. not anymore the detached EU Scientific Committee on Food (SCF). Again. Each has a specific name and number and their use is limited to particular foods.g. The NOAEL is then divided by a safety factor. . assist in food processing. This is called the noobserved-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and is used to determine the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) figure for each food additive. It is therefore prudent to adjust for possible differences by assuming that man is more sensitive than the most sensitive test animal. a maximum level of an additive that has no demonstrable toxic effect is determined. The NOAEL is expressed in milligrams of the additive per kilogram of bodyweight per day (mg/kg bodyweight/day). Secondly. usually 100. The use of food additives is harmonised across the EU. not humans. and all approved additives are given an E number. enhance consumer acceptability. too.levels are fixed to protect the consumer. The main uses of additives in foods are to: Ensure safety and wholesomeness Increase shelf-life Amplify or promote sensory qualities (improving texture or consistency. etc) • Improve or maintain nutritional value • • • All food additives must have not only a demonstrated useful purpose but also a thorough and rigorous scientific safety evaluation before they can be approved for use. Flavourings. which results in a large margin of safety for two main reasons: First. Safety assessment of food additives is based on reviews of all available toxicological data. From the available data. subgroups of which may show different sensitivities (e. the NOAEL is determined in animals. the reliability of toxicity tests is limited by the number of animals tested. Such tests cannot represent the diversity of the human population. Above all there must be a technological need for their use and a clear benefit to the consumer.

Some artificial food colors are suspected of contributing to hyperactivity. asthma. . The ADI is compared with "average" and "extreme" consumption estimates in the population as whole or in particular subgroups of the population. over a lifetime span. allergies. Specific foods to avoid include colored drinks. it is unlikely that any harm will result because the ADI is based on a no-observed adverse effect level. even worse.The ADI provides a large margin of safety and refers to the amount of a food additive that can be taken daily in the diet. Provided that intakes for average and extreme consumers are within the ADI. EU legislation requires that intake studies be carried out to assess any changes in intake patterns European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). need to learn how to read labels to steer clear of potential dietary pitfalls. gummy and chewy candies. color-coated candies. Check labels for: 1. Savvy shoppers seeking to eat conveniently. Even though all of these have been deemed safe to enter the edible realm. yet as healthfully as possible. To ensure that consumers are not exceeding the ADI by consuming too much or too many products containing a particular additive. and many colored cereals. and concentration difficulties in children and adults. many of these everyday chemical compounds take their toll on the body's natural balance. some have carcinogenic properties. Harmful Food Additive: Side Effect of Food Additives Food additives are everywhere on the supermarket shelf. to which a large safety margin has been applied. Artificial Food Colors Some of these coloring agents are allergenic and. learning problems. without any negative effect on health. Be especially aware of additives when using vending machines.

including bacon. bologna. and it should be avoided by pregnant women and children under seven. and acesulfame-K are widely used in soft drinks. Children can be especially sensitive to preservatives and they may cause behavioral changes and hyperactivity. Sugar and sweeteners also contribute empty calories toward obesity. sulfites in grapes and wine. has had very little long term research. which can be carcinogenic. . and they sometimes cause allergic reactions. excessive food cravings. and its overuse can lead to numerous health issues including elevated blood sugar. BHT and EDTA are used in small quantities in grain products like cereal. but its widespread use is on the decline. 5. BHT is prohibited as a food additive in the UK. Another sweetener. 3. Still. Sulfites Sulfites include sulfur dioxide in fruits. and metabisulfites in other foods. and other foods containing oil to prevent rancidity. Nitrites and Nitrates Nitrites and nitrates can develop into nitrosamines in the body.2. nausea. soup bases. yeast problems (candida). hyperactivity. Anyone suffering from allergies or asthma should minimize or avoid sulfited foods. sold under the brand name Splenda. other synthetic sweeteners like Aspartame. Two research studies found aspartame to have caused brain tumors in lab animals. 6. and they've been known to cause allergic reactions and neurotoxic effects. or headaches. hot dogs. Sugar Sugar and high fructose corn syrup are a frequent additditve. and increased triglycerides (blood fats). Preservatives Preservatives such as BHA. hypoglycemia. Artificial Sweeteners Saccharin has been linked with cancer in laboratory animals. candies. They are often found in preserved meats. and salami. sucralose. and diabetes. Interestingly. dental cavities. These are potentially toxic to the liver and kidneys. chewing gum and a variety of other products. 4. and diarrhea.

Artificial Flavors Artificial flavors represent the largest number of food additives. So the ancient Romans used sulfites to disinfect wine containers and help preserve the wine. people have tinkered with ways to preserve and enhance food. thus it's not metabolized by the body. 9. Most of the food products with artificial flavor additives are highly processed. It's a non-absorbable oil polymer. Since the time when the kitchen stove was a campfire outside a cave. Travelers to the New World stored meat in salt to preserve it during their long voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. and it's often used as plastic food wrap. . But eating too much salt can lead to fluid retention and increased blood pressure. 10. Many grocery stores seal meats and other foods in PVC wrap. Certain consumers have reported digestive and other problems from Olestra consumption. pioneers in America used saltpeter to preserve their meat. Bugs infested it. and the air made it rancid. 8. including diarrhea and abdominal cramping. prone to rot. Salt Salt or sodium chloride is used by our bodies to maintain proper electrical conductivity within the cells and a variety of other essential functions. Later. bacteria invaded it. mold infected it. too. both of which help release the PVC into the food.7. Something had to be added to protect food and perhaps make it tastier. Olestra Olestra is a synthesized fat substitute first used in potato chips. Food was fragile. delicate. a particularly dangerous practice for warm or fatty foods. and easily injured. Both adults and children may exhibit allergic reactions and other health issues from these chemical flavorings. Food packaging PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is a known carcinogen. Europeans in the 13th and 14th centuries embraced Marco Polo because he brought back spices from the Orient to season their bland diet.

Additives prolong the life of food. Former generations could add just about anything they wanted to food . medical devices. and color additives These finely drawn legal categories were set up to ensure appropriate safety reviews of food additives. and help prevent disease. which is found in salad dressing and other food. Additives such as the artificial sweetener aspartame and the emulsifying agent polysorbate 60. Subsequent testing proved them safe. ice cream would separate into ice crystals. In 1960 the Color Additive Amendments were enacted to make sure colorings used in foods (drugs.other than pesticides and animal drugs . This covers substances that have no proven track record of safety. Drug. salt would lump. chemicals added to foods . cake wouldn't rise. and cosmetics. For purposes of FDA regulations. keep it from spoiling. generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances. and marshmallows would harden into bite-sized rocks.fall into four categories: • • • • food additives. prior-sanctioned substances. acting director of FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. add flavor. scientists just don't know that much about them. we'd live like the caveman. Depending on what category an ingredient falls in."Without food additives. But what is "safe?" . and Cosmetic Act to ensure the safety of additives. The "toughest" category .as long as it didn't poison someone. were substances that needed to be tested before they could be used because it was not known whether they were safe. But increasing knowledge about food science and the possible long-term harmful effects of food chemicals on health led Congress in 1958 to enact the Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food. as well) were terms of regulations and safety testing is the food additive category. different regulatory requirements apply. Without food additives bread would easily mold." says Richard Ronk.

This commonly includes a 100-fold margin of safety. Cancer is of particular concern. states that if an additive is found to cause cancer in humans or animals it may not be added to food. birth defects." in the words of one expert. If the FDA review finds that the additive is safe. These feeding studies. This means that the substance may be used in food at a level that is no more than 1/100th of the highest level at which it was fed to test animals and did not produce any harmful effects. Does it interfere with nutrition? Does it affect individuals with allergies?" When an additive is tested. "In our evaluation we examine to see whether the additive has any toxic effects. A special provision of the 1958 and 1960 additive amendments. tell us are safe to use. director of FDA's division of food and color additives. the so-called Delaney clause. and vitamins that "logic and commonsense." says Gerad McCowin. . or other injury to the animals. salt. usually done by or for a food company that wants to use or sell the additive." This group includes several hundred substances whose use in food experts consider safe based either on a history of safe use before 1958 or on published scientific evidence. Congress established the GRAS category in 1958 because it felt that it was unnecessary to require industry to develop evidence to prove the safety of substances that were already generally regarded as safe by knowledgeable scientists. Included are many spices and herbs." says Dr. an acronym for substances "generally recognized as safe. sugar. the agency establishes regulations for how it can be used in food. are designed to determine whether the substance causes cancer. The second group of substances is known as GRAS. The company submits the results of all these tests to FDA for review. George Pauli. whether it may cause birth defects. it is usually fed in large doses over an extended period to at least two kinds of animals. "These are substances that are so widely known and the information about them is so widely distributed in the scientific community."Congress has defined safety as a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from use of an additive. a consumer safety officer with FDA's division of food and color additives. that there is little question about their safety.

Based on this evidence they were removed from the GRAS list. cyclamates were banned from use in food altogether. Since the passage of the amendment. the artificial sweeteners saccharin and cyclamates are substances that were once included on the GRAS list but came under fire several years ago because of new evidence that they may cause cancer in animals. a former vice president with McCormick Spices. Food additives may also be present in food packages. If new data suggested that a GRAS or prior-sanctioned substance may be unsafe.The third category . drugs. . Colors in use when the amendments were passed were placed on a provisional approval list pending further investigation to confirm their safety. in fact. then FDA requires the manufacturer to conduct studies to ascertain the ingredient's safety. Inclusion in either of the latter two categories . The ubiquitous presence of additives in nearly all our foods adds up to big business. Department of Agriculture to be used in a specific food.GRAS and prior sanctioned . according to Dr. For example. Nearly 200 colors were on the provisional approval list in 1960. while nitrites can be used in meat.does not guarantee a substance's safety: sometimes new evidence shows that "logic and commonsense" erred."prior-sanctioned" substances . several of the colors have been dropped because manufacturers were no longer interested in marketing them or because they were found to be unsafe. they can end up in food so FDA requires that they be evaluated. The food additive industry generates approximately $10 billion a year in business.) The Color Additive Amendments subject substances in the fourth category . Richard Hall. cosmetics and medical devices to pre-market testing similar to that required for the first category food additives. (Saccharin continues to be used because Congress granted it a special exemption. Known as indirect additives. they cannot be used on vegetables because vegetables were not covered by the pre-1958 sanction. For example.dyes used in foods.S.include ingredients such as the preservative nitrite (used in meat) that had been sanctioned before the 1958 amendment by either FDA or the U.

but investigates complaints it receives from individuals who suffer reactions or from their physicians.) and by the frequency and consistency of the symptom's association with eating or drinking a particular product (whether the symptom occurred more than once. and some dyes. There have been two reports of chemically induced . preservatives. "NITRITES". and how soon it occurred after the suspect product was eaten). Even vitamin and mineral supplements have come in for their share of suspicion.also forwards complaints it receives to FDA. emulsifiers.manufacturer of aspartame . the body's reactions can range from headaches or hives to seizures or death. The agency must be sure that the new sweeteners. To better monitor the effects of additives and deal with consumer complaints. etc. the emulsifier polysorbate.000 complaints since its inception. FDA officials investigate the complaints. The surveillance system is passive. complaints blaming food additives for allergic reactions soared. And when that happens. AND "ARTIFICIAL DYES"] REPORTING REACTIONS TO ADDITIVES by Judy Folkenberg Some bodies just don't like certain foods. Other culprits include the flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate. [INSERT PICTURES/CAPTIONS FOR "ASPARTAME". nausea. accounting for almost 95 percent of all complaints. mood changes. With the introduction of the artificial sweetener aspartame in soft drinks in 1983. that means FDA doesn't go out looking for adverse reactions.But it is the safety of food additives that remains a key concern for FDA. dyes and other substances that food chemists concoct to add to our modern-day diet measure up to safety standards appropriate to the 1980's. Food additives have not been exempt from blame either. FDA set up the Adverse Reaction Monitoring System (ARMS) in early 1985. The NutraSweet Company . Aspartame and sulfite preservatives top the list. not the Stone Age. "SALT". which are then classified by the severity of the symptom (headaches. ARMS has received nearly 6. nitrate preservatives.

see "An Order of Fries . one blamed on consumption of large quantities of a multivitamin preparation. Discovery of the exact cause has often baffled physicians and FDA. Their most frequent complaint is headaches. FDA has proposed keeping sulfites out of many types of potatoes served in restaurants. Walter Glinsmann. their adverse reactions resulted from an underlying medical disorder? "We have no firm evidence that aspartame actually causes the number of adverse reactions that individuals claim it does. placebocontrolled. associate director for clinical nutrition at FDA." in the March 1988 FDA Consumer.Hold the Sulfites. Since August 1986. difficulty breathing or seizures). Aspartame complainers most often blamed diet soft drinks for their symptoms. cross-over study. (Most of these individuals suffer from asthma.including those in salad bars . About 1 percent of the population is sensitive to sulfites." says Dr. Was aspartame really to blame? Did all the highly publicized controversy surrounding the inclusion of aspartame in soft drinks prompt some individuals to blame health problems on aspartame? Did some individuals blame aspartame when.hepatitis. the other on a niacin supplement. in some of the aspartame cases individuals blamed the artificial sweetener for a reaction days after they had eaten or drunk a product containing the sweetener. Reported reactions due to sulfites have been far more serious. For example. in fact.) Pinpointing a specific ingredient as the cause of an allergic reaction can be a lengthy trial-and-error process. More recently. according to ARMS data. scientists reported the results of a double-blind. when FDA prohibited the use of sulfites on raw fruits and vegetables .complaints about sulfites have declined.) Approximately 50 percent of the reported sulfite reactions were classified as serious (for example. Sulfite complainers most often traced their adverse reactions to salad bars. . In a New England Journal of Medicine article on aspartame and headaches. (For more on sulfite reactions and regulations. Twenty-seven individuals (nearly all were asthmatic) may have died from sulfites. They found that the placebo caused more headaches than aspartame.

anti-caking agents to prevent clumping. preservatives to stop spoilage. "On the other hand. degraded and eventually devoid of any nutritional content." says Glinsmann. There is also no consistent relationship between a symptom and the amount of aspartame ingested or the period of time between taking aspartame and the appearance of the symptom.. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park. to give it colour.. Three studies may help answer some of the questions surrounding aspartame and adverse reactions. Ohio. Although these procedures are meant to be beneficial.Glinsmann notes that the number of adverse reactions individuals blame on aspartame are so varied that it is virtually impossible for one product to be guilty of such a multitude of sins. And the Federal Aviation Agency will conduct a series of tests with pilots during flightsimulated computer exercises to see if aspartame affects cognition and perception.and will.. whose headquarters is in Columbus.C. flavour. When a natural food source is processed. is assessing the effect of aspartame on brain chemicals. An additive is added to a food product either . is studying the relationship between aspartame and seizures in animals. Additives are then distributed to regain back the vitamins and nutrients lost through this process. More than one billion pounds of chemicals are routinely added to food each year. They put all sorts of elements on our foods. Battelle Institute. pulverized. Additives and Preservatives Processed Foods are natural foods that are put through a procedure that is designed to kill harmful bacteria. it is heated. N. there is limited evidence from challenge tests (tests in which suspected allergens are given in sufficient doses to try and provoke reactions in individuals) that at least some individuals may have an allergic-type reaction such as hives to aspartame. impaired. often they are more hazardous. I could go on.

fruit juices. Can be found to cause hyperactivity and reacts with 222. In thirty years. asthma and migraines are common reactions to food additives. and potentially carcinogenic. It prevents yeast growth and also retards bacteria growth in wine. sugar and vinegar were the first ways to preserve foods. Propionic Acid and Propionates used in bread. and cheese for lasting freshness. margarine. confections. Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate are used to preserve oyster sauce. salads. to produce a desired effect or unintentionally through processing. Hyperactivity. cheeses. Salt. the use of additives and preservatives have exploded into N. dried fruits and vegetables. Most additives are considered 'safe' but some are known to be carcinogenic even toxic. soft drinks. fruit juices. fish sauce. Can cause adverse reactions in children. baked goods. Preservatives are added to help maintain a food's freshness and to keep it from spoiling. • Bleaches: .intentionally. We have researched some of the most common food additives and their related illnesses. allergies. there has been an incredible increase of additives since processed foods have become more abundant. 'man-made' since there is no resemblance to the natural food it once was. I like to call these products. ketchup. Sulphites destroy vitamin as well as the above illnesses. Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphites are used as bleaches and antioxidants to prevent browning in alcoholic beverages. and hyperactivity. Here are our findings: Preservatives: • • • • • Salt retards bacterial growth Nitrates and Nitrates of Sodium and Potassium can be found in some cheeses. Technology has further advanced our food choices and as a result. Causes asthma. chocolate products. or oxidizing. jams and pickled products. maintains pink colour in cured meats and prevents botulism in canned foods. Sorbic Acid and Sorbates prevent mold formation in cheese and flour confectioneries. adds flavour. nonalcoholic beverages. storage or packaging. American's food supply.

Ascorbic Acid and Ascorbates are used to preserve pork sausages by blocking oxidation. • Emulsifiers. margarine and salad dressings used as a preservative through antioxidation. and instant potatoes. Propyl Gallate are used in oils. and chewing gum. Often these are used to keep products fresh for longer periods. margarine. Some common reactions are hyperactivity. oils. cereals. and chips. Can cause gastric and skin irritation. preventing rancidity. Common effects are nausea and delirium. asthma. • Antioxidants: Are chemicals used to stop the oxidation process from taking place and prevent the product from spoiling. Stabilizers and Thickeners: These additives are used in the preparation and processing of foods used to blend or mix ingredients . These chemicals can be found in snacks. and increases cholesterol levels. Sodium Hydrogencarbonate used in tinned custards.• Sulphur Dioxide used to bleach. adverse eractions. • • • • • BHA and BHT (Butylated Hydroxyanisole) and (Butylated Hydroxytolulene) are preservatives that block oxidation in fats and oils. oils. Tert-butyl hydroquinone are added to fats. allergies. soft drinks. Bases and Buffers: • Citric Acid and Lactic Acid used to fortify beverages and dressings. disinfect and preserve dried foods. Sodium Citrate preserves cured meats and tinned baby foods through antioxidation. Butylated hydroxyanisole added to fried snacks. Acids. margarine.

frozen desserts. and nausea. Iron Ammonium Citrate can be found in powdered products as well.together to keep them from separating. or mixing agent used in milk chocolate and powdered milk. Mono-glycerides and Di-glycerides of Stearic Acid emulsifiers used in low cholesterol margarine. hot chocolate mix. garlic and onion powders. Sodium Ferrocyanide added to salt. dehydrated mash potatoes. marmalades. Mannitol found in ice cream. and salad dressings. and aerosol cream Potassium Dihydrogencitrate used in processed cheese. and fish sticks. sauces and syrups. yogurt. Sodium Alginate used in ice cream. jellies. • • • • • • • • • Carboxymethylcellulose used in batter coating. • Anti-caking Agents: These Chemicals are added to facilitate powdered foods from clumping together. frozen chips. and low calorie foods. and intolerances. frozen pizza and packet dessert toppings. Known to cause allergies. condensed and evaporated milk. mayonnaise. Also used to keep . confectioneries. cake mixtures. confections. cakes. Xanthan Gum used in seafood dressings. mayonnaise and ice cream. diarrhea. • Humectants: • Glycerin uses hydrogen bonds to hold moisture in icings and tobacco. Carageenan added to ice cream. Pectin used in jams. Calcium Phosphate found in powdered instant soups. Lecithins emulsifier. cocoa. milk and cream powders in vending machines. Can cause allergies. cheese. • • Silicates. and salad dressings to thicken the product. decorations. whipped cream. and jellies Dextrins used in icings.

Bright Blue added to beverages. and extracts. No. granules (small hard pieces). confections (food made with sweet ingredients). and cherries.marshmellows and candies soft. cake and donut mixes. dairy products. temperature. For example. To protect flavours and vitamins that may be affected by sunlight during storage. cereals. Colour additives are added to control colour loss due to exposure. For example. Citrus Red No. air. snack foods. and pies. syrups. Strawberry ice cream has the red added to it to intensify the colour.1 . dairy products. It can also be used to intensify the products natural colour. 2 . Flavour Enhancers: Disodium 5' Ribonucleotide is added to flavour crisps. hard candies and chewing gum. colour can be added as a buffer. confections. They can be used in beverages. baked goods. • • No. Colour agents are added to provide a colour to a product. They are used in coated pills. Can cause skin rashes and is not easily broken down in the body. Indigotine used in baked goods. liquids or other forms for special purposes. jellies. Lime sherbet has green dye added whereas it would be colourless if left in its natural state. Lakes are the water insoluble form of dyes. Dyes dissolve in water and are made as powders. that would otherwise be colourless. confections. condiments. desert powders. moisture and storage conditions.2 can be sprayed on the produce to hide the patches. Lakes are more stable than dyes and are ideal for colouring products containing fats and oils or items without sufficient moisture to dissolve dyes. instant noodles. called dyes and lakes. It is often used to correct discolouration in poor quality produce as well. if a batch of oranges have brown patches on the skin surface. icings. • There are two types of colouring agents. dry mixes. to make it more appealing. ice cream. light.Royal Blue. Colouring Agents: These are some of the most common dyes used in our food products. . pet foods and many other products.

No. No. 3 .Cherry Red colour cherries in fruit cocktails and in canned fruits for salads. This makes a good case to stay away from additives and preservatives. packet soups. Some common reactions are asthma. No. Fast Green added to beverages. beverages and condiments.Brilliant Blue found in tinned peas. No. and reacts with aspirin. and reacts with aspirin. jellies and desserts. Common reactions are rashes. and ice cream. cakes. Tartrazine used to colour custards. No. Can cause hyperactivity. desserts.Azorubine added to packet soups. snack foods. allergies.Cochineal colours cakes. dairy products.. cherries. No. Although we don't have all the information for each chemical.. sauces. and can react with aspirin. puddings. confections. 172 . 133 . jams.Indigotine Here is an example of a lake form of dye. No. No. 102 . soups. cakes. and high blood pressure. dessert powders. 5 . sherbet. and bacon. ice cream and confections. beverages. ice cream. 120 . puddings. Allura found in gelatins.Lemon Yellow. and fish pastes. and snack foods. Organic foods do NOT contain ANY of these additives.Iron Oxides used in tinned fish. No. biscuits.Orange Red. confections. Sunset Yellow used in cereals. confections. 150 . beverages. No. snack foods. and biscuits.• • • • • • • • • • • • No. 132 . Can be linked with hyperactivity. and dairy products.Caramel mixed into drinks. ice cream. hyperactivity. Common reactions are hyperactivity.Sunset Yellow is added to drinks.Sea Green. 122 . preserves. and cereals. baked goods. No. and vinegar. baked goods. No. hyperactivity.Orange. I • . Can be found to cause asthma. ice cream. and what effect it could have on you. confections. and confections. sauces. Know to cause hyperactivity. capsules. confections and ice cream. 6 . dairy products. pickles. ice cream. allergies. 110 .Tartrazine mixed into drinks. need to be aware that all these products could be harmful. 40 . This colouring agent can be toxic at high doses. it is used in tablets. baked goods. 3 .

natural foods.[citation needed] as well as known health side effects at high doses. . It is found naturally in leafy green vegetables. same function that an emulsifier performs can also be accomplished by shaking a product vigorously before using it. It has possible health benefits for increasing oxygen to blood. Sodium nitrate has antimicrobial properties when used as a food preservative.can't stress enough the importance of organic. Side effects may include increased risk of cancer[citation needed]. where according to MEDEM the US-NAS found no such evidence in experiments with laboratory animals[citation needed].