GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual

INTERNAL

Product Name GSM BSS Product Version V00R01

Confidentiality Level INTERNAL Total 42 pages

GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual

For internal use only

Prepared by

GSM&UMTS Network Performance Research Department

Dong Xuan

Date

2008-2-21

Reviewed by Reviewed by Granted by

Date Date Date

yyyy-mm-dd yyyy-mm-dd yyyy-mm-dd

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved

2012-12-12

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GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual

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Revision Record
Date 2008-1-21 2008-3-20 Revision Version 0.9 1.0 Draft completed. The document is modified according to review comments. Dong Xuan Wang Fei Change Description Author

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GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual

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GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual

Key words: MOS, interference, BER, C/I, power control, DTX, frequency hopping, PESQ, PSQM /PSQM+, PAMS Abstract: With the development of the radio network, mobile operators become more focused on end users’ experience instead of key performance indicators (KPIs). The improvement of the end users’ experience and the improvement of the network capacity are regarded as KPIs. Therefore, Huawei must pay close attention to the improvement of the soft capability of the network quality as well as the fulfillment of KPIs. At present, there are three methods of evaluating the speech quality: subjective evaluation, objective evaluation, and estimation. Among the three methods, objective evaluation is the most accurate. The PESQ algorithm defined by the ITU can objectively evaluate the speech quality of the communication network. This document uses the mean opinion score (MOS) to label the speech quality after objective evaluation. This document describes the factors of MOS, the impact of each factor on the MOS, and the methods of improving the network QoS and then the speech quality. It also describes the attention points during the test of speech quality of the existing network and the device capability value of the lab test. In addition, this document introduces the differences between the speech test tools. The methods and principles of using the test tools are omitted. This document serves as a reference to the acceptance of network KPIs and the marketing bidding.

References: ITU-T P.800\ ITU-T P.830\ ITU-T P.861\ ITU-T P.862\ITU-T P.853

List of acronyms:
Acronym MOS
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Expansion Mean Opinion Score
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PESQ PSQM PAMS

Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality Perceptual Speech Quality Measurement Perceptual Analyse Measurement Sytem

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......11 1....2.............2...............2........................................10 1...........................2 Objective Speech Quality Evaluation ........................................................................................... 9 1..........1 Consistency Check and Sample Check ................................ 20 2...........1 Process of Analyzing the Problem of Low MOS...3 Impact of Handover on the Speech Quality ..............................6 Impact of Speech Coding Rate on the Speech Quality .........862) Recommendation or Algorithm.......3.....GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Contents 1 Basic Principles of MOS ...........2 Um Interface Check ........1 Recommendation (Mapping Function for Transforming) .......29 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 5 of 42 .....................25 3............................................................................................................4 P...........................................2..........................4 Impact of DTX on the Speech Quality ......... 21 3 Method of Analyzing the Problem of Low MOS...........2 Impact of Field Intensity and C/I on the Speech Quality.............. 21 3.24 3..... 20 2.............5 UMG 16 2 Factors That Affect the MOS in GSM ............2......................3 P862.................................... 17 2.......................2......................3............3 BTS 15 1............................ 13 1............................861) Recommendation or Algorithm .. 24 3................4 BSC 15 1..............................................................................................................................2 MS 14 1....3.....................................................................3 BTS Check ............................... 18 2....................................................................................... 19 2................................3.................................2................................................................................... 17 2........12 1............................ 9 1........................................2....2 Method of Solving the Problem of Low MOS..............................................5 Impact of Speed (Frequency Deviation) on the Speech Quality ......................................................................................7 Impact of Transmission Quality on the Speech Quality .........................1 Subjective Speech Quality Evaluation ....... 18 2..........1 PSQM (P................................. 10 1..........................2 PESQ (P......................3 Speech Processing of Involved NEs ............29 3..10 1..........563 Recommendation .....1 Introduction to GSM Speech Acoustic Principles ...........4 Abis Transmission Check .................... 21 3.............................................................................

...................................................................................................7 MGW Check....................................................35 5..........2........................................................1 GSM Speech Signal Process ...............................2......................31 3..31 4 Test Methods and Suggestions ........................................................................ 35 5............................................1 Differences Between Speech Signal Process and Signaling Process ........... 35 5..................................................30 3................................................................................................................1 Test Tool Selection and Test Suggestions .1................................................................................ 33 4......................2 Requirements for Configuration Data in Existing Network .................................2.........GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 3.2 Suggestions on the Test of the Existing Network .............2............................................................................5 BSC Check ................................2 Signaling Process ..........1 Test Requirements ........................................................ 34 5 MOS Cases....................................................... 33 4...........................6 A Interface Transmission Check ...........31 3.... 39 6..........................8 Miscellaneous (Comparison of MOS Before and After Network Replacement) ............................. 39 6.................................................. 41 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 6 of 42 ......................................................................2 Identified MOS Problems ..............35 5.................1............. 36 6 Feedback on MOS or Speech Problems ....................................................................

................. 24 TABLE 5 IMPACT OF TFO ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF SPEECH QUALITY (GSM REC...............................................................................GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Tables TABLE 1 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE QUALITY GRADE................ SCORE................................. 21 TABLE 4 MAPPING BETWEEN SPEECH SAMPLE AND MOS... 30 TABLE 6 IDENTIFIED MOS PROBLEMS .. 41 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 7 of 42 ........................................................................................... AND LISTENING EFFECT SCALE . 9 TABLE 2 IMPACT OF DTX ON THE SPEECH QUALITY .................... 06.............................................................................. 36 TABLE 7 NETWORK CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS TO BE PROVIDED .... 19 TABLE 3 MAPPING BETWEEN THE SPEECH CODING SCHEME AND THE MOS VALUE .....................85) .............

........... 16 FIGURE 8 CODEC CASCADING ..................... 15 FIGURE 7 HANDLING PROCESS IN THE GTCS ............................................ 14 FIGURE 6 SPEECH PROCESSING ON THE BTS SIDE .................................................................1 ...................................................... 26 FIGURE 11 BSC6000 SPEECH PROCESS .............................. 35 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 8 of 42 ... 12 FIGURE 3 OVERALL SPEECH QUALITY PREDICTION OF P............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 FIGURE 2 MAPPING BETWEEN P862 AND P862...........................563 ........................................................................................................................................ 24 FIGURE 10 SPEECH DATA TRANSMISSION ON THE UM INTERFACE (SCHEMATIC DRAWING) ......................................... 14 FIGURE 5 SPEECH PROCESSING ON THE MS SIDE................................................................................................. 13 FIGURE 4 TYPICAL MOS TEST PROCESS ...................................................................................... 17 FIGURE 9 FAULT LOCATION FLOW ......................................GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Figures FIGURE 1 PESQ PROCESS ................

score. the listening effect scale is introduced in this method. abundant listeners and speech materials and a fixed test environment are required to obtain an accurate result.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 1 Basic Principles of MOS 1. The MOS reflects the opinion of a person about the speech quality. In the MOS method.830 defines a subjective evaluation method toward speech quality. each quality grade mapping to a score. The scores vary largely from listener to listener. Note that the opinion of a listener about the speech quality is generally related to the listening effect of the listener. MOS. so the MOS method is widely used. Therefore. and listening effect scale Quality Grade Very good Score Listening Effect Scale 5 The listener can be totally relaxed without paying attention.1 Subjective Speech Quality Evaluation ITU-T Rec. The MOS method uses an evaluation system of five quality grades. different persons subjectively compare the original speech materials and the system-processed speech materials and then obtain an opinion score. a mean score is obtained through statistical treatment. In this method. Table 1 describes the relations between the quality grade. dozens of persons are invited to listen in the same channel environment and to give a score. Table 1 Relations between the quality grade. Then. The MOS is obtained through the division of the total opinion scores by the number of persons. The listener should pay some attention. P. Therefore. score. The listener should pay very close Page 9 of 42 Good 4 Average Poor 2012-12-12 3 2 Huawei Technologies Proprietary . and listening effect scale. that is. The listener should pay close attention.

2. with each grade further classified in the form of percentages through the %PoW (Percent Poor or Worse) and %GoB (Percent Good or Better) scales. Very poor 1 The listener cannot understand even with very close attention. such as PSQM. are introduced. several objective evaluation methods. the factors such as the listening environment. In addition.861 by the ITU-T. someone uses a computer to generate a wave file. and P862. see the next section. the Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) was accepted as ITU-T Recommendation P. Therefore. 1. the test result varies from listener to listener. the PSQM was accepted as Recommendation P. an optional system based on measuring normalizing blocks (MNBs) was added to P. Through the changes in the wave file before and after network transmission. In 1996.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL attention.2 Objective Speech Quality Evaluation 1.2. it is still one of the subjective evaluation methods. listeners. For details about the objective evaluation methods. At present. In 1998. Although the PSQM involves subclassification. the quality grade is obtained to evaluate the speech quality.861) Recommendation or Algorithm The perceptual speech quality measurement (PSQM) recommendation or algorithm introduces the system of five quality grades. Although the formal subjective listening test is the most reliable evaluation method and the network performance and any coding/decoding algorithm can be evaluated.1 PSQM (P. 1.2 PESQ (P.862) Recommendation or Algorithm Jointly developed by British Telecom and KPN.862 in 2001. The PESQ 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 10 of 42 .1. PESQ. As a result.861 as an attachment. this method consumes a lot of time and money. and speech materials should be strictly controlled during the test.

Initially. In February 2001. The MOS is similar to the result of a subjective listening test. Afterwards. Figure 1 PESQ process For both the PSQM and the PAMS. The PESQ is an intrusive test algorithm. a speech reference signal should be transmitted on the telephone network. they are also used to measure the VoIP network system.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL compares an original signal with a degraded signal and then provides an MOS. packet loss. The PESQ is the industry’s best standard algorithm that has been commercially used. In addition. delay. The algorithm is powerful enough to test both the performance of a network element (NE) such as decoder and end-to-end speech quality. At the other end of the network. the PESQ was accepted as ITU-T 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 11 of 42 . It is developed on the basis of the PSQM+ and PAMS. the algorithm can give test results by degradation causes. jitter.3 P862. error. 1. The PESQ incorporates the advantages of both the PSQM and the PAMS.2. and filtering. these methods are used to measure the coding algorithm.1 Recommendation (Mapping Function for Transforming) The perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) is a method of objectively evaluating the speech quality of the communication network. such as codec distortion. Figure 1 shows the PESQ process. the sample signal and the received signal should be compared through the use of digit signal processing so that the speech quality of the network can be estimated. It improves the VoIP and hybrid end-to-end applications and modifies the MOS and MOS-LQ calculation methods.

5 1 0. The MOSs obtained according to P.999  5 4.1 simulates the human ear’s perception of speech more exactly than P.1 scores: y  0.6607 Mapped P. Therefore.1 are lower than those obtained according to P. several measurements should be performed 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 12 of 42 .999  0.862 3 2. P.4.5 2 1.563 Recommendation was prepared by the ITU in May 2004.5 0 –1 0 1 2 P. The watershed is at the score of 3.1 is only the mapping of P862. Therefore.862 scores into P.1 are higher than those obtained according to P.862.563 can process only the received audio streams. The high scores obtained according to P.4 P.862.862.862 3 4 5 P.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Recommendation P.4945*x4. P.862. For an accurate result.862.4 should be increased to enhance end users’ experience. Afterwards. Not an independent protocol.862.862. according to P.862. The low scores obtained according to P.862.862.862.1.5 4. As a single-end objective measurement algorithm. The following is the formula to translate P. P. the percentage of MOSs above 3.2.999 1  e 1.862.1 (mapping function for transforming) was added.862.563 Recommendation The P.563 are spread more widely than those obtained according to P.1 is more comparable to a subjective listening test than P. P. P.862.1_F1 Figure 2 Mapping between P862 and P862.862.1 1.5 4 3.

the fault should be located on the basis of the bit error rate (BER). Figure 3 shows the overall speech quality prediction of P. a reliable result can be obtained. the four NEs and the four transmission procedures should be troubleshoot.3 Speech Processing of Involved NEs This section introduces the speech processing of all the involved network elements (NEs): MS. If it is used to measure the QoS of several calls. The transmission procedures are Um-interface transmission. and UMG. If the problem occurs on the Um interface. Therefore. Abis-interface transmission.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL and the scores should be averaged. Faults in any one of the transmission procedures will lead to bit errors. Faulty speech processing of any one of the NEs will affect the speech quality.563 1. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 13 of 42 . Ater-interface transmission. The BSC6000 can perform BER detection. Accordingly. Figure 3 Overall speech quality prediction of P. BTS. if a speech-related problem occurs. the transmission quality on the Um interface should be optimized. and A-interface transmission. four transmission procedures are involved in the transmission of speech signals. If the problem occurs on the other interfaces. Figure 4 takes the DSLA as an example to illustrate a typical MOS test process.563. BSC. This method is not applicable to individual calls.

GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Comment [w1]: IP 加扰 IP scramble 终端免提接口 MS handsfree port RJ22 Handset 接口 RJ22 handset port RJ11 PSTN 接口 RJ11 PSTN port 控制 PC Controlling PC 语音质量测试仪 Speech quality tester 区分上下行 Uplink/downlink sensitive Figure 4 Typical MOS test process 1. DTX Figure 5 Speech processing on the MS side 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 14 of 42 .3.2 MS Figure 5 shows the speech processing on the MS side. Session processing A/D and D/A conversions Speech coding/decoding.

3. For the transparent transmission process. Figure 6 Speech processing on the BTS side 1. the TMU performs speech exchange with the BSC.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 1.3.4 BSC The BSC modules other than the GTCS perform transparent transmission on the speech signals. and speech connection. Instead of participating in the speech coding/decoding. 1. wiring. and the DSP performs speech coding/decoding. these modules are only responsible for the establishment of the speech channel. see the BSC6000 speech process figure.3.3 BTS On the BTS side.1 FTC Processing on Speech Coding/decoding is performed on the speech signals and rate adaptation is performed on the data signals so that the communication between a GSM subscriber and a PSTN subscriber is realized and the transparent transmission on the SS7 signaling over the A interface is implemented.4. Figure 6 shows the speech processing on the BTS side. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 15 of 42 .

Generally. if the MSs use different coding/decoding algorithms.3. The FTC loopback is one of the most commonly used method for locating the transmission problems and for checking whether the settings of the trunk parameters are accurate. codec A is cascaded with codec B.2 FTC Loopback In a loopback. As shown in Figure 8. a message is transmitted by a transmission device or transmission channel and then is received by the same to check the health of the hardware and the settings of the software parameters. the 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 16 of 42 . If the communication is performed between different networks. 1. Then.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Comment [w2]: 数据收发 Data reception/transmission 各速率语音编解码 Speech coding/decoding at different rates 语音增强和透传 Speech enhancement and transparent transmission 速率匹配 Rate adaptation 维护模块 Maintenance module Figure 7 Handling process in the GTCS 1. the compressed code stream is restored to the PCM linear code through the corresponding decoder. the coding/decoding conversion is required.5 UMG The UMG performs the coding/decoding conversion. Different coding/decoding algorithms have different impacts on the speech quality. or if the same coding/decoding uses different rates to perform communications.4.3. First. the UMG8900 coding/decoding algorithm uses the codec cascading to perform speech conversions.

TC.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL PCM linear code is encoded through another coding/decoding algorithm. Decoder A Encoder B PCM Encoder A Decoder B Figure 8 Codec cascading 2 Factors That Affect the MOS in GSM The MOS is affected by many factors. the radio transmission part. the frame error rate pertains to the frame handling strategy (handling of frame loss during signaling transmission). A fault in any segment of the speech transmission will result in bit errors. frame error rate. For a 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 17 of 42 . the basic processing of speech data involves source sampling. An intrinsic characteristic of radio transmission is time-variant fading and interference. Here. the speech quality is significantly affected by the Um interface. frame stealing. terrestrial transmission. bit error. that is. The codecs involve lots of redundancy operations. BTS. Even for a normally functioning network. such as the background noise. Um-interface radio transmission. echo.1 Introduction to GSM Speech Acoustic Principles In a radio network. For the wireless communication system. handover. mobile terminal (MS). so the speech quality is degraded to some extent. During the speech propagation. several NEs participate in the speech handling: MS. handover. 2. and source decoding at the receive end. internal NE processing. and MGW. and number of online subscribers (congestion degree). framing. thus leading to poor speech quality. the radio transmission characteristics are changing from time to time. The following paragraphs describe the impact of each NE on the speech quality. mute suppression. low-rate coder. source coding.

The process requires the transmission lines to be stable and the port BER to be lower than the predefined threshold. This will lead to continuous bit errors and faulty parsing of speech frames. If the speech quality is poor. the speech quality is not affected theoretically. Thus. Even for a normally functioning network. If the changes in the signal filed intensity cause the BER/FER to be greater than zero (equivalently some interference exists). the radio transmission has a great impact on the speech quality. Then. the speech quality is significantly affected by the Um interface.3 Impact of Handover on the Speech Quality The GSM network uses hard handovers.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL radio network. Both the in-network interference and the out-network interference may affect the C/I and the receive quality and degrade the demodulation capability of the BTS. frame loss may occur. a port BER test should be conducted. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 18 of 42 . In this case. If the changes in the signal field intensity do not cause the BER/FER to be greater than zero. For a radio network. so a handover from a source channel to a target channel definitely causes loss of downlink speech frames on the Abis interface. the signal is transmitted within the BSS system through the standard and non-standard interfaces. In addition. Therefore. 2. An intrinsic characteristic of the radio transmission is time-variant fading and interference. the handover parameters should be properly set to avoid frequent handovers. A speech signal is transmitted to the BSS system over the Um interface. causing adverse effect on the speech quality. the related speech transmission lines should be checked. the C/I and the field intensity have a great impact on the MOS. 2. the radio transmission characteristics are changing from time to time. audio discontinuity caused by handovers is inevitable during a call. If a transmission alarm is generated. the radio transmission has a great impact on the speech quality.2 Impact of Field Intensity and C/I on the Speech Quality For the wireless communication system. that is. the radio transmission part. Hence. the RXQUAL remains zero.

Varying from sample to sample.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL the audio discontinuity caused by handovers should be minimized to improve the speech quality. Varying from sample to sample. the VAD cannot be totally exact. Table 2 Impact of DTX on the speech quality Impact of DTX on the Speech Quality 1. 2. If the uplink DTX of the FR is enabled.2 is enabled. 1.054 on average.07. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 19 of 42 .9 is enabled. 2. the PESQ decreases by about 0.11. the statistics on the clipping are collected.12. the MOS is definitely low.05 on average.08. 2.20. the PESQ decreases by about 0.9 is enabled. If the downlink DTX of the FAMR12.053 on average. When the Comarco device marks a speech score. Therefore. Varying from sample to sample.03 to FR 0. the decrease of PESQ ranges from 0.4 Impact of DTX on the Speech Quality If the DTX is enabled for a radio network. Varying from sample to sample. If the uplink DTX of the HAMR5.08 on average. 2. Generally. the decrease of PESQ ranges from 0.33. the PESQ decreases by about 0. If the uplink DTX of the FAMR12. comfort noise and voice activity detection (VAD) are introduced. If the downlink DTX of the HAMR5. Thus. This definitely leads to the clipping of speech signals. the PESQ decreases by about 0.9 0. and the speech quality and MOS test may be greatly affected. if the intrusive algorithm is used. Varying from sample to sample. the PESQ decreases by about 0. 1. the decrease of PESQ ranges from 0. the PESQ decreases by about 0.079 on average.02 to 0.2 is enabled. the decrease of PESQ ranges from 0. Varying from sample to sample. If the downlink DTX of the FR is enabled.2 0. the loss of speech frames and the distortion of speech may occur.01 to HAMR5. the decrease of PESQ ranges from 0. Affected by the background noise and system noise.05 to 0. Table 2 describes the result of the lab test.02 to 0. the value of the clipping has a positive correlation with the clipped portion of speech. the decrease of PESQ ranges from 0.018 on average.01 to FAMR12.

If the speed is increased to 400 to 500 km/h. In 2007. the highest HQI reached 98. at a speed of 200 km/h. After optimizing the speech quality. which is the competitor’s level.5 Impact of Speed (Frequency Deviation) on the Speech Quality Generally. EFR. and AMR. the BER increases and the speech quality deteriorates because of multi-path interference. Table 3 lists the mapping between the speech coding scheme and the MOS value. high speed greatly affects the speech quality. FR. With the development of high-speed railways and maglev trains. The distribution of the highest SQIs is sparser than that (about 90%) with the same speech quality at a low speed. the BTS cannot correctly decode the signals from the MS. Dongguan Branch of China Mobile requested Huawei to optimize the speech quality for the railways in Dongguan under the coverage of Huawei equipment. Ensure that the speed is stable during acceptance tests or comparative tests.320 Hz to 1. however. mobile operators pay increasing attention to the speech quality in high-speed scenarios. Each speech coding scheme maps to an MOS. is only 40% and that distributed between 16 and 20 is also only 40%.2%. In addition.6 Impact of Speech Coding Rate on the Speech Quality The speech coding schemes are HR. The percentage of SQIs distributed between 20 and 30. Thus. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 20 of 42 . 2. The uplink and downlink frequency deviations may accumulate to 1. Therefore.5%. a certain frequency deviation occurs in the signals received by the BTS from the MS because of the Doppler effect.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 2. Huawei enabled the HQI (HQI indicates the percentage of quality levels 0-3 to quality levels 0-7 in the measurement report) to be 97.650 Hz.

The communication involves many NEs and interfaces. the BER and the slip rate are high and the transmission is intermittent. LAPD bad frame. If too many bad frames are generated or if the signaling retransmission occurs frequently.7 Impact of Transmission Quality on the Speech Quality Generally. poor transmission quality is equivalent to the loss of some speech frames. From the perspective of principle. if the transmission quality is poor.1 Process of Analyzing the Problem of Low MOS The MOS aims at an end-to-end communication. If the speech frames are lost. the speech quality deteriorates greatly.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Table 3 Mapping between the speech coding scheme and the MOS value 2. 3 Method of Analyzing the Problem of Low MOS 3. thus leading 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 21 of 42 . and overload. The fault in any NE or interface will cause high BER. These counters are used to monitor the transmission quality on the Abis interface. the transmission quality is probably poor. The statistics on OBJTYPE LAPD involve the retransmission of LAPD signaling.

2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 22 of 42 . Figure 9 shows the fault location flow. the involved NEs and interfaces should be checked in succession. If the MOS is low.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL to low MOS.

Miscellaneous (comparison of MOS before and after network replacement) 2012-12-12 Whether test speed (frequency deviation ) Huawei Technologies Proprietaryimpact on has an speech quality ? . test MS. and reduce the number of handovers Check the full-rate/half-rate busy threshold and parameters related to AMR rate adjustment Check the related data and disable the DTX function to perform another test and . check the configurations of the handover-related parameters . A interface check Whether intermittence occurs on A interface transmission? Whether speech damage occurs between MGWs? Whether such factors as test route are consistent in the case of comparison test? Check for intermittence alarms and bit errors on A interface Check the coding scheme between UMGs Use the same route to perform test and eliminate the effect of different factors Use the same test speed in the case of comparison test . The frequency deviation Page 23 of 42 algorithm should be enabled for the BTS if test speed reaches 200 KM/H. and test sample have an impact on the MOS test? Whether related to coverage or interference? Replace the test tool. Test MS Whether the test tool. Um interface check Whether too many handovers affect the MOS? Whether the occupied channel is half-rate channel and whether the AMR coding rate is too low? Whether the uplink/downlink DTX function is enabled and whether related to software version or hardware 3. MGW check 8.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Start Whether speech MOS problem exists End 1. or test sample Refer to the guide related to coverage or interference Optimize the neighboring cell relations. 7. then check the software version 2. BSC check Whether the local switch function is enabled 6. test MS. BTS check 4. Abis interface check Transmission bit error or intermittence on Abis interface Whether the TFO function is enabled Check for intermittence alarms and bit errors on Abis interface This function is valid for the call from one MS to another and can be used to improve the MOS This function is valid for the call from one MS to another under the same BSC and can be used to improve the MOS 5.

the MOS with the Comarco is lower than the MOS with the DSLA. the speech samples for the speech tests before and after the network replacement must be the same.2 Method of Solving the Problem of Low MOS 3.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Figure 9 Fault location flow 3. shielded cabinet in non-interference environment). The following table lists the mapping between the speech sample and the MOS. if you use the Comarco and DSLA to test the speech quality of the same speech code. Table 4 Mapping between speech sample and MOS Network 2012-12-12 Speech MOS Page 24 of 42 Huawei Technologies Proprietary . the difference in the opinion scores is large.1 Consistency Check and Sample Check The consistency check involves the test devices. Different test devices adopt different grading standards and are served by different MSs. and the grading standards adopted by the test devices. Even if the same device uses different grading standards. The Comarco and the DSLA adopt different grading standards. MS. which will definitely cause differences in the opinion scores. wireless equipment. According to Table 4. the test results differ irrespective of whether the environment (for example. The tests of a large number of speech samples show that American English has the highest MOS. German has the second highest MOS. If the test samples are different. the MOS varies according to the speech sample. test samples.2. core network equipment. For example. and Spanish has the third highest MOS. Therefore. These differences lead to various combinations. the MSs that serve the test devices. and parameter setting are the same. and test MSs.

5 3.61 900M English 3.54 3. For the GSM.59 3. Error correction coding: For the GSM. The error check capability of the GSM is close to that of the 3G. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 25 of 42 . The error check capability of the GSM is far weaker than that of the CDMA2000 and WCDMA.2. Figure 10 shows the data transmission and clipping.46 3.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Type 900M 900M 900M 900M 900M 900M 900M 900M Sample French Italian Arabic Russian Japanese Greek Spanish German American 3.2 Um Interface Check The GSM speech codes use the Un-equal Error Protection (UEP) mechanism. the CRC of the enhanced full-rate TCH checks ten bits. the CRC of the full-rate TCH checks only three bits.57 3.64 3. The differences between the speech data transmission on the air interface of GSM and that of WCDMA/CDMA2000 are as follows: Cyclic redundancy check (CRC): For the GSM. so the error probability is large.54 3.4 3. sub-stream C does not have error correction coding.

The errors that cannot be detected through the CRC also affect the speech quality. The frame stealing method has an impact on the speech quality. Hence. if the full-rate speech coding is used. the GSM also uses the frame stealing method to transmit some signaling. If continuous frame stealing occurs. the burst fading or interference cannot be resisted and the errors in the radio transmission cannot be reduced quickly. the speech quality 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 26 of 42 .GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Power control: The GSM does not have fast power control. Power control improves the speech quality by reducing the BER and FER. the CRC of sub-stream A checks only three bits and the error check capability is limited. 20ms speech frame Sub-stream ASub-stream B Sub-stream C Sub-stream CRC A 1/2 coding Sub-stream B Sub-stream C Sub-stream C TDMA frame Figure 10 Speech data transmission on the Um interface (schematic drawing) Like the CDMA2000. Therefore. the speech quality is greatly affected. In the GSM system.

the speech frames may be lost and thus the speech is discontinuous. The standard measuring value that corresponds to BER is RXQUAL.20020430-A-1. compare the demodulation result with the encoded result.0 G-Guide to Analyzing Network Coverage . the speech quality is affected. encode the obtained result. the factors that affect the speech quality are sub-stream A.0 3. the BER in the radio transmission can be reflected indirectly. To solve the two types of problems.2. the statistics of FER can basically reflect the speech quality because the 10-bit CRC is used.2 Coverage. Therefore. Thus. first. The interference leads to an increase of BER on the radio link.2.20050311-A-1. however. perform error correction on the demodulation result. and frame stealing. can solve the problem of poor speech quality through network optimization. third. for high speech quality. Only RxQual. refer to the corresponding guide: G-Guide to Eliminating Interference . The RBER cannot be measured.2. From the perspective of the Um interface. that is.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL can be reflected only when the measurement of the remaining bit error rate (RBER) is performed.2. In other words.and Interference-Related Problem Check If the network coverage is poor. but the GSM system provides an alternative method. it is definite that many areas in the network have poor receive quality. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 27 of 42 . 3. For the enhanced full rate (EFR). BER (or RXQual). Therefore. Thus. to measure the demodulation BER. second.3 Low MOS due to Handovers Low MOS is caused by not only frequent handovers but also the following factors. the BER must be reduced and the receive quality on the Um interface must be improved. The increase may exceed the demodulation capacity of the BTS so that speech frames cannot be identified.

4 Occupation Ratios of Half Rate and Low AMR Rate All the MOS tests using the PESQ algorithm adopt intrusive speech scores. so the handover is slow. For example. Therefore. Therefore. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 28 of 42 . and call drops. the handover-related parameters must be checked to avoid frequent handovers.2. the MOS is low if the occupation ratio of the half rate is high. When the transmission quality on the Um interface is stable. leading to low MOS. so a handover from a source channel to a target channel definitely causes loss of downlink speech frames on the Abis interface. If the QoS of the serving cell is poor for a long time. which are process values. 3. 2. The handover is not reasonable. The parameter settings are improper. The GSM network uses hard handovers. the speech call cannot be handed over to a better neighboring cell in time. and the speech quality test value of the low coding rate is high. handover failure.2. audio discontinuity caused by handovers is inevitable during a call. Several types of speech coding may be involved in the speech grading process. The speech quality test value of the high coding rate is low.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 1. so the connection on the Um interface is long. 3. Some networks disable the bad quality handover. leading to low MOS. The intra-cell handover is configured as asynchronous handover. Therefore. 4. so the MOS is low. Thus. As a consequence. the speech quality is always poor. the network speech quality test is performed on different types of speech coding. the conduct of speech quality DT test or CQT test leads to channel handovers and AMR speech coding rate handovers. the full rate and the high AMR rate coding are recommended. If the existing network has several types of speech coding. 5. a call is handed over to a cell with poor quality because of configurations. and thus the MOS is low.

Therefore.3 Hardware Factors The audio discontinuity caused by BTS hardware fault affects the MOS.2 Whether the Uplink and Downlink DTX Function Is Enabled DTX means VAD and silent frames. optical transmission. Different BERs of different transmission types definitely lead to different transmission quality. If 50 ms is lost. The alarms to be checked include Broken LAPD Link and Excessive Loss of E1/T1 Signals in an Hour. The old BTS uses a too early version and is incompatible with the new BTS. so the speech quality definitely deteriorates if the uplink and downlink DTX function is enabled during the MOS test.2. replacing the speech with silent frames after the packet loss significantly affects the subjective impression. 3. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 29 of 42 .2. the 50ms clipping (VAD) at the front end and rear end does not have a great impact on the subjective impression.4 Abis Transmission Check The networks built by Huawei cover many parts of the world. The development levels of the basic communication and data communication vary from region to region. In the case of clipping during the speech. so the speech problems occur. circuit transmission. which brings about difficulties for all the perceptual models to predict the MOS.3 BTS Check 3.3. Replacing the speech with silent frames is a kind of distortion. Bugs in the speech processing part of the hardware also affect the speech quality. different regions use different transmission types: microwave transmission.3. different networks of different mobile operators should be compared on the basis of the same transmission type. The VAD cannot be 100% correct. You are advised to confirm with the R&D personnel that no identified problems exist in the version.5. and satellite transmission. the cost of investing and leasing the transmission lines is high. 3.1 Software Version Check Check for the version-related problems that have been detected.2. the quality of microwave transmission is very prone to weather conditions.2.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 3. 3. Therefore.3. For the PESQ. however. irrespective of the location.2. In addition. Here. each 50ms clipping generally leads to the decrease in the MOS of about 0. the MOS is decreased by one. Generally.

06.2. the Ater interface and local transmission resources are saved. the calling MS and called MS should be served by the same BSC.5.46 EP2 . When the BSC local switching is used.35 . Thus. Thus.53 . the Monitoring the Port BER function of the BSC and BER tester (E7580A) can be used to check whether the Abis interface has bit errors.53 .2 Whether Local Switch Is Enabled The local switch consists of BSC local switch and BTS local switch.2.2. the times of speech coding/decoding can be reduced by one through in-band signaling negotiation.5 BSC Check 3. For the BSC local switch. thus improving the speech quality. 3.5. the speech quality can be improved if the echo occurs during the call. Table 5 Impact of TFO on the improvement of speech quality (GSM Rec. if the calling MS and called MS use the same speech service type. If there is no bit error. the calling MS and called MS should be served by the same BTS or BTS group.1 Whether the TFO and EC Functions Are Enabled During a call from an MS to another.19 3. enabling the TFO function can improve the speech quality by more than 0.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL In addition. This also improves the speech quality. the speech quality can be improved. For the BTS local switch.85) DMOS HR FR EFR EP0 .39 . When the EC function is enabled. the Ater interface and Abis interface transmission resources are saved. Thus.32 EP1 .85 . the TC coding/decoding is not required if the transcoding function is implemented in the core network. the TC coding/decoding is not required because the speech signals do not pass the BSC.25 score. When the BTS local switching is used. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 30 of 42 .68 .

if the MOS deviation occurs before and after the network replacement. query the BSC alarms (for example. 3. may adversely affect the speech quality. the drive speed should be stable (at about 30 km/h) during the test. if you use an MS to call a fixed-line phone during the MOS test. As is mentioned in section UMG. or if the same coding/decoding uses different rates to perform communications. the coding/decoding conversion is required. You can refer to the section Abis Transmission Check. if the MSs use different coding/decoding algorithms. the test is equivalent to the fixed-point CQT test and thus the test result is high. however.2.6 A Interface Transmission Check The rules for checking the A interface transmission is similar to those for checking the Abis interface transmission. the Loss of E1/T1 Signals alarm) to determine whether intermittence occurs on the A interface. Therefore.8. second. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 31 of 42 .8 Miscellaneous (Comparison of MOS Before and After Network Replacement) In a network replacement project.2. if the communication is performed between different networks. the following factors should be considered: 3. If the drive speed is low. you can skip this section. use a BER tester to check whether bit errors occur on the A interface transmission.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 3. you should check whether the deterioration of the speech quality is caused by the following: whether the route between the MS and the fixed-line phone passes through two UMGs and whether the two UMGs use the speech compression algorithm. 3. The inter-code conversion. you have two methods: first.2.7 MGW Check If this problem does not occur when you use an MS to call another MS during the MOS test.2. To check the A interface transmission.1 Test Speed Generally.

3. the traffic models of the existing network are different. In a network. the speech quality in the early morning is good and that during busy hours is poor. You should also check whether the test time is consistent. Therefore. to ensure the test consistency. 3.m. if the drive speed is high (at more than 200 km/h). The results show that the QoS on the Um interface in the early morning is very good and that during busy hours is very poor.2. the network quality 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 32 of 42 . Thus. the number of mobile subscribers increases sharply.8. the receive quality deteriorates during busy hours and the corresponding SQI decreases.2 Test Route and Test Time The DT test of speech quality objectively reflects the coverage and receive quality of a network. the same test periods should be selected for the comparison test. If you test the areas with good speech quality repeatedly. the speech quality in the DT test becomes high. however. Therefore. it is definite that some areas have good speech quality and other areas have poor speech quality. all the mobile operators try to raise the frequency reuse degree within their own frequency bands. For example. If the frequency reuse degree is high. With the rapid development of mobile communications. If you test the areas with poor speech quality repeatedly. you are advised to choose the same test period.m (busy hour) in Tieling. the BTS frequency deviation algorithm should be enabled to improve the speech quality. definitely brings about large network interference. the speech quality in the DT test becomes low. In different periods. To meet the increasing capacity requirements. thus causing more in-network interference. and 9:00 p. Accordingly. the interference is strong. the generated frequency deviation affects the speech quality. A test route should not be tested repeatedly.2. The increase of the frequency reuse degree. During the DT test of speech quality. frequency is the most important resource. According to the statistics about the receive quality on the Um interface. In this case.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL In addition. Huawei has conducted comparison tests at 4:00 a.8. Therefore.3 Frequency Reuse Degree For mobile communications. the trunk coverage lines of the target network should be tested completely and the important branch lines should also be tested. The busy traffic hours in each day occur regularly. the congestion during traffic peaks is heavy.

The speech quality may deteriorate because of errors in engineering installation. 2. speech sample. calling method. the speech quality of the mobile operators with different frequency reuse degrees cannot be compared directly. so the speech quality of China Unicom is definitely lower than that of China Mobile. For example.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL is poor and the speech quality is poor. At present. 4 Test Methods and Suggestions 4. the acceptance standard. This may adversely affect the user experience. check that optical connector is clean and that the transmission BER is not high. or poor coverage. the test tools are selected according to the requirements of the mobile operators. if the frequency reuse degree is high. China Mobile accepts the PESQ as the evaluation standard of the existing network and Ding Li or Hua Xing as the test tool. acceptance area (recommended to exclude the suburb areas with poor coverage).8. test duration. the test MOS is low.4 Engineering Installation Quality Issues According to the experience. China Unicom adopts a plan with high frequency reuse degree to reach the same cell configuration of BTSs for China Mobile. 3. The overseas mobile operators use different evaluation standards and use such test tools as DSLA. For optical transmission. The poor engineering quality in the antenna system also causes the MOS to decrease.1 Test Tool Selection and Test Suggestions 1. Therefore. for example. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 33 of 42 . misconnection. test time. In a word.2. check that the connector (on the DDF) on each transmission segment is properly connected and that there are no exposed stubs. loose connector. During the bidding. and QVOICE. Normally. and test route are determined for the convenience of future acceptance. Cormarco. test tool.

9. it is recommended that the channels with good speech coding quality be occupied. During the test. The areas with good coverage and only a few handovers should be selected as the test routes. The TFO function should be enabled if the version is correct. The DTX function should be disabled. EFR and AMR full-rate channels. 7. long call samples are recommended. 6. 3. It is recommended that you use short call samples as the test samples to avoid some blind areas or poor-coverage areas. Note that Nokia6680 does not support half rate and has outdoor antenna (no vehicle body loss) and that Samsung zx10 supports half rate and does not have outdoor antenna. During the test. It is recommended that the idle hours be selected as the test time. it is recommended that Nokia6680 be used as the test MS. Thus. The drive speed during the drive test should not be too high. For the network that has good coverage and that does not require frequent handovers. Thus. the MOS is high. for example. the network C/I is high. In the case of outdoor antenna (vehicle body loss should be considered).GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 4. Both Nokia6680 and Samsung zx10 can be used as the test MSs. it is recommended that you use an MS to call a fixed-line phone. Note that the TFO function is valid only for the call from an MS to another.2 Suggestions on the Test of the Existing Network 1. 4. 2. 8. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 34 of 42 . 5.

the MOS is not definitely high.1.1 Differences Between Speech Signal Process and Signaling Process 5.1.1 GSM Speech Signal Process MS-BTS . The measurement of KPIs is mainly performed at the signaling measurement points in the calling process. The previous process indicates that the speech signal process and the signaling process are different in terms of the path. the internal BSC signaling process contains the signaling handling process on the Ater interface. which is omitted in this document. Good KPI 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 35 of 42 .GEIUB-GGNU-GXPUM -GGNU-GEIUT-GEIUT-GTNU-GEIUA –MSC…MS Here. The speech MOS indicates the audio experience of the end user.2 Signaling Process MS-BTS . The signaling process and the speech signal process are different. Therefore.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 5 MOS Cases 5. if the KPIs are good.GEIUB-GTNU-GEIUT-GEIUTGTNU-GDSUC-GTNU-GEIUA-MSC…MS Comment [w3]: 语音信号流向 Speech signal flow 接口 interface Figure 11 BSC6000 speech signal process 5.

2 Identified MOS Problems After the handling of MOS problems on the existing network and the crisis handling of the speech MOS. frame erase ratio (FER).GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL is only a necessary condition of high MOS. Table 6 Identified MOS problems Proble m Number In the case of FAMR/HAMR and 1 FR. and SNR. the smoothness handling performed on the 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Problem Problem Description Related Product Affected Channel Problem-Solved Version The frame loss on the uplink during the FAMR/HAMR and FR speech leads to a sharp decrease in the MOS. DPU(TC ) FAMR/HAMR /FR V9R8C01B048SP0 1 The frame loss on the uplink during the EFR/HR speech leads to a sharp decrease in the MOS. consult the product maintenance department. you can refer to the Problem Description column in the following table to check whether the version is incorrect. Table 6 lists only the problem-solved versions. In case of frame loss during a 2 handover. one frame is lost and then the frame is retransmitted. 5. If the MOS of the existing network is low and if the problem of low MOS cannot be solved after optimization. The speech MOS is closely related to the transmission quality on the Um interface. some devices of Huawei that affect the MOS are detected. C/I. interference. DPU(TC ) EFR/HR V9R8C01B048SP0 1 Page 36 of 42 . SQI. To check whether the onsite version is correct.

External 6 interruption should be used to locate the period of 20 ms.4k The uplink DTX is enabled and the speech quality under EFR and 5 HAMR obviously deteriorates. DPU(TC ) EFR/HARM6. the MOS is lower than the expected value and there are random bit errors. If a call is made repeatedly on the same channel. DPU(TC ) HAMR7. During the transition from non-speech to speech.4 V9R8C01B048SP0 1 The uplink DTX is enabled in the case of HAMR7. Random bit errors 3 when TFO established Permanent loss of one frame during handover to half 4 rate and permanent loss of one frame during activation under HAMR 7. audio discontinuity occurs. 7/HARM7. During the transition from non-speech to speech.4. DPU(TC ) All the speech channels V9R8C01B048SP0 1 The uplink DTX is enabled in the case of EFR and HAMR. the MOS is decreased by one frame. Damage is introduced on the TC side.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL signals over the EFR/HR channels does not take effect. The internal clock is slow. the MOS is decreased by one frame. DPU(TC ) EFR/FR/HR V9R8C01B048SP0 1 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 37 of 42 .4 V9R8C01B048SP0 1 When the TFO is established.

In the test speech sample. the uplink speech frames on Huawei Technologies Proprietary DSP (BTS) All the speech channels V100R008C02B2 01 or V100R001C07B4 Page 38 of 42 . the MOS decreases. Thus. two SP frames contain the 7 SID_FIRST frame for FAMR SID_FIRST frame. the adjustment is not caused by the C/I. two SP frames contain the SID_FIRST_INH frame. Thus. the MOS decreases. Reporting of 12 HO_DET ahead of time during synchronous 2012-12-12 DSP (BTS) V100R008C02B2 FAMR 01 or V100R001C07B4 15 DSP (BTS) V100R008C02B2 HARM 01 or V100R001C07B4 15 DSP (BTS) V100R008C02B2 HARM 01 or V100R001C07B4 15 During the synchronous handover. however. a fixed rate is always occupied. After the uplink DTX is enabled. the HO_DET is reported ahead of time. In this case. If the DTX is disabled. Therefore.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL In the test speech sample. In this case. the BTS misinterprets and discards the first speech frame after the SID frame. the BTS reports the 8 SID_FIRST_INH frame for HAMR SID_FIRST_INH frame as the NO_SP frame. As a result. the adjustment (adjustment is made when silent frames are Frequent adjustment to 11 downlink rate when uplink DTX enabled transmitted and adjustment is not made when speech frames are transmitted) is made on the downlink coding in the case of half-rate AMR multirate set. Thus. the TC misinterprets and discards the first speech frame after the NO_SP frame.

peak values. SQI (including the mean values. Test time and periods: The test must be conducted at 9:00-12:00 and 17:00-20:00 on workdays (Monday through Friday). and dotted output figure (the dotted contents should be provided on the basis of the previous three counters). one frame out of the uplink speech frames is lost. and mean square errors).GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL handover the old channel are lost and the handover disruption is long. and important public places in the original network must be tested. important branch roads. DSP (BTS) All the speech channels V100R008C02B2 01 or V100R001C07B4 15 6 Feedback on MOS or Speech Problems To better compare the network quality before and after the network replacement. 6. The occurrence possibility of this problem during the lab test is about 5%-10%. peak values. 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 39 of 42 . C/I (including the mean values.1 Test Requirements 1. This problem occurs on the three types of MSs. test route and speed. and mean square errors). and mean square errors). During the intra-BSC 15 One speech frame lost on old channel 13 during asynchronous handover asynchronous handover. peak values. A test report on the original network should be provided. The test report should include the following contents: RxQual (including the mean values. The occurrence possibility of this problem during the lab test is about 30%-50%. a comprehensive test should be conducted before the network replacement and the trunk roads.

Each call should last 180 seconds with a call interval of 20 seconds. The call interval is set according to the requirements of the mobile operator. another call attempt should be made after 20 seconds. 5. The round-the-city express ways. The GPS receiver should be connected to conduct the test. If call failure or call drop occurs. and onhook of the MSs should be automatic. The test routes must evenly cover the trunk roads in the urban areas without repeated coverage. At present. 7. the city with a population of more than 500 thousand should be tested for three days and the city with a population of more than 200 thousand should be tested for two days. and roads between the urban areas and the air port must be tested. 6. Normally.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 2. Dialing requirements:  The test MSs should be located inside the vehicle and both the calling MS and called MS should be connected to the test instruments.  The MSs should be dialed mutually. 4. The overseas mobile operators 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 40 of 42 . the test speed should equal the normal drive speed. The dialing. The test should last six hours for each test day. viaducts.  Both the GSM calling MS and called MS for the test should be of auto dualband. the test tools are selected according to the requirements of the mobile operators. Irrespective of the traffic. Daemon data analysis: All the tests must use the same test instruments and Daemon data processing software. answering. In the urban areas. 3. China Mobile accepts the PESQ as the evaluation standard of the existing network and Hua Xing as the test tool. No limitation is set on the test speed.

network density. peak values. the configurations of the existing network should be provided.2 Requirements for Configuration Data in Existing Network The QoS of the existing Huawei network varies according to the economic development degree.GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL use different evaluation standards and use such test tools as SwissQual. C/I. the speech problems should be reported. During each test. the test should be conducted according to the different requirements mentioned in this chapter. network user density. For different cities. The three counters should have the mean values. Networks with different QoSs have different configurations and different configurations have different impacts on the network. During the test. and SQI should be provided. The evaluation of the Um interface on the existing network should be complete and the statistics on RxQual. 6. frequency reuse degree. mean square errors in different periods. Dot statistics can be performed on the GPS. and external interference in the local area. the mean speed per hour should be recorded and archived. QVoice. The dot information about the local e-map should be provided for the future network optimization of the areas with poor quality. and distribution interval list of different values. For the R&D personnel to learn the existing network. The test reports should be archived. 8. and Cormarco. network planning. 9. the GPS should be dotted and the log files of the TEMS test should be archived. When the network of several cities is replaced. network coverage. Table 7 lists the network configuration parameters that should be provided. Table 7 Network configuration parameters to be provided Network Configuration Uplink/downlink DTX 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Test Result Page 41 of 42 .

GSM BSS Network KPI (MOS) Optimization Manual INTERNAL UL PC Allowed DL PC Allowed Radio frequency hopping Baseband frequency hopping Transmit diversity TFO EC Whether the core network uses IP bearing Transmission mode of each interface Frequency resources Configuration of main BTS models Setting of the handover threshold Setting of the power control threshold Setting of the coding rate and the use proportion RxQual in the drive test of the entire network SQI in the drive test of the entire network C/I in the drive test of the entire network 2012-12-12 Huawei Technologies Proprietary Page 42 of 42 .

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