Here is an exam question from last year’s BSA505 exam paper: Imagine you are a manager.

Your organisation has just been restructured and you have a new team to manage. What theoretical models of team development might you draw on to help you in making next year’s plan for your team? Give specific examples of what you might include in your plan. Below are two example essays in response to this question. Read each of them and: • Use the attached marking grid (on page 3) to mark each essay against each criterion • Decide what overall mark you would give each essay • Identify what is good about each essay (each of them has some good points) Neither of these are essays that you can learn by heart and repeat in the exam. You have to read the actual exam question, analyse it and write an answer that is relevant to that question.

Essay one: If I was a manager, I would be most interested in making sure that my team met the organisation’s objectives. Therefore, the theories I would use would be about motivation, rewards, attitudes and behaviour. In fact, anything about developing the team in order to achieve the goals. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs says quite clearly that you have to make sure to meet the physical and safety needs of people, before they get to issues like self-esteem and selfactualisation. So one of the first ways that I would develop my team would be by checking the health and safety aspects of the workplace. Herzberg said that it is important to differentiate between what has to be in place as ‘hygiene factors’ (money, safety) and what might then motivate a team. Motivation is about directing and sustaining energy for doing something. So the second thing I would do is make sure my team was being properly paid. I would take into consideration their differences, including personality, when thinking about what to pay them. And then I would look at what motivates each person in terms of the work situation. People learn by modelling their behaviour on others. So when thinking about how to develop the team, I would look for examples of teams that I want them to copy. We could then visit those teams. Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory showed that it was useful to have learners themselves identify their own rules, or codes, when working out how to achieve something. This means that on the visit, I would get the team to work together to observe, and identify, what helps the people they’re observing: what is that they do that achieves such good results. When we got back from the visit, I would get them to discuss what they had observed, and produce a plan for how they might copy this behaviour. Attitudes are also important. To make sure there is a proper team attitude developed within my team, I would do a number of things. For example, I might start by doing an attitude survey to check what the team’s attitude currently is. I could do this by using a team climate survey, or job satisfaction survey. And then we would discuss the results, and I would ask the team what they think about them. And then we would agree a way forward together. This would be me modelling collaboration and other behaviour that I want the team to adopt. The team will develop well using these ideas. And I would include in the plan an opportunity to review progress, as feedback is an important idea in goal-setting theory. 440 words

There are several practical applications that can be developed from these theories. I will get the team to complete the Belbin profile and discuss their different roles. this is one of the criticisms of the model. To conclude. Firstly. the individual and the team. producing a team contract about how we want to work together and what kinds of behaviour we don’t want and helping the team learn from other teams at different stages of development. Perhaps the most important aspect which makes a team different from a group is that a team has to cooperate in order to achieve its goals. Indeed. Forming: when a team first gets together 2. that is they agree how they will work together 4. Having outlined these three models.adjourning: when the team has come to the end of its natural life The third model I will draw on is Belbin’s Team Roles. and Action-oriented roles. in my opinion. I will then give examples of how I will translate these theories into practical actions on my year’s plan for the team. so that we can think about how to make best use of their different strengths. Then I will outline three models that I find helpful when thinking about team development: John Adair’s three circles. They meet to make plans and decide what to do. and how. Brill (1976) says that a team is a group of people who share a common purpose. Each person in the team is responsible for making individual decisions and they each have particular skills. Thinking-oriented roles. John Adair’s three circles is a reminder that a team leader needs to pay attention to each of three aspects of a team: the task. In answering this question. The four stages are: 1. According to Schein (1980). drawing on theoretical models of team development. It is drawn to the left. and that I need to produce a plan for next year that will help to develop my team. However. They also believe themselves to be aware of each other. I think there are many ways that the three theories outlined can help me and other managers of new teams. It is considered by some to be too simplistic. There are nine different roles. a group is made up of people who know that they are a group. Norming: when the team agrees their ‘norms’. I will think about what I have to do as a manager to help the team develop through each of Tuckman and Jensen’s (1977) stages of team development.Essay two This question asks me to imagine that I am a manager of a new team. 641 words . The second model I will draw on is Tuckman and Jensen’s (1977) Four Stages of Team Development. Performing: when the team has agreed what they will do. The first model I will draw on to answer this question is also the simplest. Tuckman and Jensen added a fifth stage . Thirdly. which can be grouped under the following headings: People-oriented. it is exactly this simplicity which makes it useful. In contrast. Therefore. a team is different from a group because a team does not just know about each other. Ways that I will use these theories within my year’s plan for my team’s development include the following three. Tuckman and Jensen’s (1977) Stages of Team Development and Meredith Belbin’s Team Roles. Secondly. Storming: when the team is past the first easy stages and starts to have disagreements 3. I will draw Adair’s three circles in a meeting and get the team to talk about what we might have to do to pay attention to all three focuses. This includes: making sure that we have common goals. and are now effective Later on. They are aware of each other and relate in some way with each other. I will start by differentiating between teams and groups.

minor There may be some major misconceptions 40-49 30-39 0-29 Knowledge of relevant key areas. relevant Basic. but little understanding Patchy and limited knowledge of relevant key areas Little or confused knowledge or relevant key areas Weak explanations and arguments Limited competence Partial competence Poor examples Poor examples May display misunderstanding of the knowledge May display misunderstanding of the knowledge Does not express or explain knowledge in own words Little competence Very few relevant applications Very few examples . relevant Limited. relevant Subject specific skills Competence Critique / criticism Willingness to criticise methods Able to criticise methods Relating theories to practice Able Examples Range of appropriate and interesting examples Range of relevant examples Some relevant examples May be confused or lack relevance Misconceptions. relevant Good. misunderstandings None 70-79 60-69 50-59 Some independent reading Text book reading Limited evidence of text book reading beyond lecture material Based only on lecture material Competence Competence Some limited competence Able Able Application to practice may be confused or lack relevance Little application Little application None Some.Marking grid for First Year Papers: Indicate the achievement level against each criterion Mark 80-100 Knowledge Extensive. convincing. relevant. good understanding Relevant knowledge and understanding Knowledge of core areas Reading Beyond the text book Explanations Clear. thorough Substantial relevant.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.