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Organisational behaviour essay You have just been told that you are to manage a major fundraising event

, and you have been given a team of 10 students to assist you. Drawing on job design theory, describe ways that you might design their work to be more motivating. Plan Introduction – give a clear introduction of what you are going to talk about


Give a definition of the keywords within the essay title Outline the theories you are going the talk about ( F.W.Taylor(1910) principles of scientific management, Hackman and Oldham(1980) job characteristics and motivating potential score (also Maslow – five characteristics) and Tuckman and Jensen (1977) five stages of team development.

Middle ( main body) A paragraph should be written for each point made

In this essay links can be made between, working in groups and team and motivation (what motivates the team, how this can be identified). Job design and motivation ( what motivates you at work) Conclusion Outline the most effective ways in which to make a job more motivating.

It is crucial when working in a group or team that each member has a clear specification of their role, it is vital when working as a team that each member is motivated in the right way to meet the collective goals of the team. Job design can be defined as “the process of assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependencies of those tasks with other jobs” Bratton( 2010:498). To answer this question with the support of job design theories I will explain the importance of identifying the characteristics of a job, and explain how a job can be made to be more motivating. For this question I will use the following theories to support my answer: F.W.Taylor (1910) Principles of scientific management (which I will use to explain an ineffective way of motivating a team) ; Hackman and Oldham (1980) Job Characteristics Model (which I will draw on to describe those characteristics that a manager might focus on, in order to increase worker motivation); and Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of needs (which I will use to argue the motivational aspects for an individual in achieving self-fulfilment). Also, within a job it is also important to identify the motivating factors, which encourages the worker to carry out the job in way that is beneficial to the worker as well as the team. For this particular scenario I am managing a group of ten individuals, whereby each individual might be motivated in their own way. For this reason I would need to take into consideration, the strength and weaknesses of each work and to also identify their motivators. Firstly, within the group I am working with the specific roles that are needed must be identified, by identifying each individual’s strengths and weaknesses this would indicate which would be the most suitable job. F.W.Taylor (1910) approach to job design was “The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance, and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions, describing in detail the task which he is to accomplish” ‘The principles of scientific management’. The job characteristics model (Hackman and Oldman, 1980) takes into account the individual differences in Growth Need Strength (GNS). The job characteristic model can be defined as “job design model that relates the motivational properties of jobs to specific personal and organizational consequences of those properties” Bratton (2010: 498). Whereby if the individuals GNS is low, job enrichment is unlikely to improve their job performance. Job enrichment explains when “employees are given more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating and planning

they must have already met the lower basic needs. either inside or outside the organization 4. At this stage it can become difficult for managers to identify how employees can be motivated. it is arguable as to whether this will have a positive outcome for the employee. 262). once the pinnacle of self satisfaction has been achieved it then becomes hard to design the job to be motivating. Task identity: the extent to which the job produces a whole. which a job possesses. identifiable outcome 3. the person within the secretarial role may feel as if they are not being fulfilled to their highest capabilities and therefore become bored within the position. However. The identification of their self development may not appear to be obvious as it is not expressed through their behaviour. if they are unaware of the stage they are currently at. However. whereby the pinnacle of self-growth would be ‘self actualisation’. this will be dependent on the employee’s current position. Bratton (2010:263) “an employee with a low ‘growth need’ is less likely to experience a positive outcome when her or his work is ‘enriched”. Task significance: the extent to which the job has an impact on other people. In this respect workers are made to feel more independent within their jobs. and have more control over how their jobs are carried out. Feedback from the job: the extent to which the job itself (as opposed to other people) provides information on how well the job holder is performing Identifying the characteristics. For example.their own work” Bratton (2010. In order to reach to this level. this would not always be the case. This can be further explained my Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of needs. An . Within an organisation it is the responsibility of the managers to identify how a job can be more motivating by. it is hard to identify when a particular need has become important. Job enrichment is a way in which a job can be designed to be more motivating however. The job characteristic model breaks down and describes a job in five basic characteristics: 1. will improve the motivating potential for the job. Autonomy: the extent to which the job allows the job holder to exercise choice and discretion in their work 5. Skill variety: the extent to which the job requires a range of skills 2. indentifying the characteristics of the job and designing the job to be more motivating. However.

2010). See the group feedback on Learn for the 2010-2011 exam paper. Lastly. Nice wording: “To answer this question …” Interesting to link each theory in the introduction to an explanation of how that theory will be used. Note: the author and the year both appear within the brackets.e. I will explain three main theories to contrast different working methods that might be drawn on by someone leading a team of ten students to organise a fundraising event. leave out the quote marks (which signal that the quote is verbatim – which means that it is written with exactly the same words as appear in the text you are quoting). • Avoid such words as ‘crucial’ or ‘vital’. . but which I have seen some students use when they are leading a team.2 Introduction • Good to include a definition – good that the writer and year is included – in the exam. I do not expect you to give definitions accurately word for word. I will show how Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs provides some pointers to how a job might be designed to be more motivating. I will describe a method which seems to me to be ineffective as far as job design is concerned. Instead. Better might be: “Central to effective teamwork is that each individual has a clear understanding of their role” • • Paragraph One • The first two sentences are really still the introduction. as a very useful theory that a manager might drawn on to design more motivating jobs. paying attention to the way that the tasks are interdependent with tasks contained in other jobs (Bratton. Give the author. (867 words) My commentary on this essay follows. and year – but I don’t expect you to remember the page number! … something like this: Job design can be defined as the process of assigning tasks to a job. a 2. I will describe Hackman and Oldham’s (1980) Job Characteristics Model. it would be more relevant to write: For this question. here there is a missed opportunity: It is better to link your introduction much more closely to the question. namely Taylor’s (1910) Principles of Scientific Management. i. and paraphrase. Needs to have more linking to the exam question – it does not sufficiently discuss what the team leader might do to design the jobs of the fundraising team.employee who is intrinsically motivated will express their positivity towards job enrichment. that is – use your own words. Secondly. without giving any financial rewards. but including the main points. as job enrichment give more autonomy and responsibility to an employee. and after that is a possible re-write of the essay. rather than writing in this general way. Firstly. Therefore. However. Good that there are definitions Good that there is some critique. These can be over-used and are just a bit too dramatic. Probably would get somewhere in the high 50’s. Overall comments • • • • • Good to see that three theories are drawn on – and that there is an explanation of each.

. Do focus on the exact wording. 1910) Paragraph Two • • Good to include a definition of the model.• • There is the start of a reasonable argument here – about identifying everyone’s strengths. It is a continuation of the same idea. Good to include GNS – better would be to explain this a bit more. rather than about GNS … Paragraph Five • I agree that the example of the secretary can be better explained by Maslow … however.W. An example is given here of a secretary. Better would be to relate this to the team in the question. e.” It is a shame to include such general wording as “Within an organisation …” … the question is worded in a much more specific way. not a new one. This paragraph would have been more focused if Taylor were mentioned earlier … so that the whole paragraph is focused on this one theory (see a suggested rewrite of this essay further down) You don’t need to reference the title of the work you are referring to in the text. Taylor. Paragraph Three • • • I am not sure why a new paragraph is started here – remember: one paragraph for each main idea. Better would be to continue with a full explanation – rather than leaving this til later in the essay.g. This does not relate at all to the question. Good to highlight that workers become more independent with job enrichment. again. it is better to write “To conclude…” or “In conclusion …. Keep one paragraph for each main idea. Better would be to write something about organising the fund-raising event. Good to define job enrichment. It sounds like an example about the Hierarch of Needs. This paragraph. and have more control. Paragraph ? • • This explanation of Hackman and Oldham should appear earlier Good explanation though Next paragraph • • • Good to mention the Motivating Potential – and this needs then to be explained. This means. Final paragraph • • To signal a conclusion. leave out ‘The principles of scientific management’ – the name of the writer and date is mentioned earlier in the same sentences (F. Paragraph Four • • • This starts with ‘for example’ – this should be included in the previous paragraph. and the example. are a little unclear to me. include the formula. This point about GNS (growth need strength) has been made before – watch out for repetition as this uses up valuable word count and time… Not sure of the point that is made in the last sentence. valuable words are wasted here by explaining a practical example which has absolutely nothing to do with the exam question.

This is the idea of efficiency. Instead of deciding myself how to make the work efficient. However. giving them full written instructions and full details of how to accomplish their tasks most efficiently. 2010). and of the team as a whole. so I would design in sufficient time for us to meet and update each other. no coercion can be used. 1979). in order to design the team’s work to be more motivating. working out the budget. Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs. I have observed some team leaders adopt such approaches with groups of students. directs and sustains behaviour (Steers and Porter. Each role requires specific expertise. The three roles are: promoting and marketing the event. as well as ensuring that . and how the design of those jobs might energise. and Hackman and Oldham’s (1980) Job Characteristics Model and Motivating Potential Score. Instead. rather than adopt a fully collective style. Instead. I will use three different roles in order to provide some examples. The team will need to have a sense of working together to meet the ‘belongingness and love needs’. However. Therefore. I will draw on three theories as I consider how best to design the team’s jobs: Taylor’s (1910) Scientific Management. and finding the best performers out budget can afford. I will describe potential jobs for the ten students before referring to theory.Here is a possible rewrite of this essay To head up a team of ten students to organise a major fundraising event requires some careful job design. if so. controlling expenditure and keeping accounts. as well as the ability to work with others across roles. it will be important that the work of each individual student. For example. Motivation can be defined as that which energises. paying attention to the way that the tasks are interdependent with tasks contained in other jobs (Bratton. Job design can be defined as the process of assigning tasks to a job. Therefore. is motivating. it is important to define both job design and motivation. direct and sustain the team’s efforts to delivering a fundraising event that meets targets. I would engage with the team so that we would agree all together as to the best way of completing each task. then the travel methods would need to be safe. before detailing these theories. In this essay. not in detail. as well as failing to make best use of the capabilities within the team. but overall. I will not attempt to describe all the different jobs needed to organise a fundraising event. access to food and health and safety when designing the roles. I would seek their agreement that I as the overall manager would have the final say. I assume here that Iand the students are all working voluntarily. one aspect of Taylor’s theory is worth incorporating. I would not choose this approach as it would rely on me knowing the detail of all the tasks. For the sake of describing my proposed methods. the person finding the performers might need to travel to vet potential acts. Taylor’s (1910) approach to job design was to have the management plan out the work of every individual. in order to meet both individual needs as well as achieving the collective goals of the team. it is important to pay attention to how the different tasks fit together within and across jobs. I would therefore use the diagram given here to ensure that I took account of such issues as rest time. Maslow’s (1943) Hierarch of Needs emphasises that lower level needs have to be satisfied before higher level needs become relevant. While I think that volunteer student workers would just leave if I adopted a full Taylorist approach.

the job is not motivating. I think all three theories make a potentially useful contribution to designing the jobs for the fundraising event.g. I would make sure that every job had clear accountability for certain outcomes. . that more empirical work is required to test this theory. Task identity: the extent to which the job produces a whole. Knowing this should make the work more motivating. It should be noted. This model relates the motivational properties of jobs to specific personal and organisational consequences of those properties (Bratton. Task significance: the extent to which the job has an impact on other people. (1. e. that their role was clearly identifiable. Feedback from the job: the extent to which the job itself (as opposed to other people) provides information on how well the job holder is performing Hackman and Oldham elaborated on this by providing a Motivational Potential Score. With this in mind. 2010). as well as making sure that team members give each other feedback throughout the project and that we gather in feedback after the event. In doing so. the most detailed and relevant seems to me to be Hackman and Oldham’s (1980) Job Characteristics Model. To conclude. to source performers that student will enjoy and pay to see within a specific budget. that they knew the significance of their role. I would choose to ensure that every team member’s job had variety. For this reason.1 … to get a higher score. that they had decision making power and autonomy and that they all had feedback. Skill variety: the extent to which the job requires a range of skills 2. more examples would be needed and more critique. identifiable outcome 3. so that the budget was paid sufficient attention. either inside or outside the organization 4. however.000 words) This would probably get a 2. Autonomy: the extent to which the job allows the job holder to exercise choice and discretion in their work 5. However. the formula for which is as follows: MPS = (SV + TI + TS) x A x F 3 SV: Skill variety TI: Task identity TS: Task significance A: Autonomy F: Feedback This means that if there is no autonomy or no feedback. it identifies five job characteristics: 1.the finance officer worked closely with the person finding the acts. Hackman and Oldham’s (1980) Job Characteristics Model is perhaps more relevant and useful than Taylor and Maslow. as the most powerful aspect of it is actually its common sense.