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Paper # :2005-01-1320

A Study of Loosening and Fatigue of Bolted Joints under Transverse Vibration


Shinji Hashimura (Kurume National College of Technology, JAPAN) Darrell. F. Socie (University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign)

Loosening and Fatigue of Bolted Joint


Self-Loosening and Fatigue Test
Typical Loading Types

Axial Vibration

Transverse Vibration

Twist Vibration

Self-loosening fatigue tests under small transverse vibrations have been performed to elucidate bolt behavior and loosening-fatigue mechanism for the long life region.
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Fig. Typical case of bolted joint subjected to transverse vibration

~ Outline ~
1. Loosening-Fatigue Tests under Transverse Vibration 2. Loosening-Fatigue Behavior and Fatigue Crack Nucleation 3. Influences of Initial Clamping Force on Loosening-Fatigue Life 4. Loosening-Fatigue Mechanism under Transverse Vibrations 5. Estimation Method of The Bending Nominal Stress at The Root of The First Thread by Transverse Vibration 6. Influences of Transverse Vibration Force on Loosening-Fatigue Life and Loosening-Fatigue Limit 7. Interrelation of Fatigue limit between Axial Loading and Transverse Loading
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1. Loosening Fatigue Tests


Test bolt : Commercial hexagon head bolt M10, Property class 8.8 Frequency of Transverse Vibration: 50~60 Hz Lubricant : MoS2 Grease
Table Experimental conditions Initial clamping force Fi [kN] 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 Amplitude of transverse vibration Pt/2 [kN] 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.3 1.0, 0.8, 0.6 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.3 1.0, 0.8, 0.6 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.3

min/2=0.032 mm max/2=0.152 mm
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2. Loosening-Fatigue Behaviors and Fatigue Cracks


Relaxation by strain ratcheting Fatigue cracks nucleation and propagation at the root of the thread

Pt/2=0.8 [kN]
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3. Influence of The Initial Clamping Force on Loosening Fatigue Life (Pt /2=0.6 kN)

All bolts loosened with crack nucleation and bolt rotation. There was no influence of the initial clamping force Fi on the looseningfatigue life Nf.

3. Influence of The Initial Clamping Force on Loosening Fatigue Life (Pt /2=0.8 kN)
Fi < 12.5 kN, bolts loosened due to just rotation without cracks. Threshold of Fi Fi > 15 kN, bolts loosened with fatigue crack nucleation. If Fi is higher than the threshold, there is no influence of the initial clamping force on the loosening-fatigue life. If Fi is lower than the threshold, there is influence of the initial clamping force on the loosening life.

3. Influence of The Initial Clamping Force on Loosening Fatigue Life (Pt /2=1.0 kN)
Fi < 12.5 kN, bolts loosened due to just rotation without cracks. Threshold of Fi Fi > 15 kN, bolts loosened with fatigue crack nucleation. If Fi is larger than the threshold , there is no influence of the initial clamping force on the loosening-fatigue life. The initial clamping force above the threshold does not have an obvious influence on the loosening-fatigue life.

4. Loosening-Fatigue Mechanism
Fr : Amount of clamping force reduction due to the strain ratcheting Fth-l: Threshold of clamping force to start self-loosening rotation Pt/2: Transverse vibration force Ptw/2: Fatigue limit under transverse vibration

If (Fi -Fr) < Fth-l, the bolt starts a selfloosening rotation in the low cycle region. If (Fi-Fr) > Fth-l, a bolt does not loosen in the low cycle region. If Pt/2 > Ptw/2, the bolt loosens with fatigue cracks and bolt rotation in the high cycle region. If Pt/2 > Ptw/2, a bolt does not loosen.
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5. A Method to Estimate a Nominal Stress at The Root of The First Thread under Transverse Vibration Force
If s-slip, w-slip << def ,

= h = def
s-slip : w-slip : def : : h : Slip between thread surfaces Slip between bearing surfaces Deformation of the bolt Displacement of the clamped part Displacement of the bolt head

Beam theory gives


ddef = Pt La 3 3 E Ia 2 E Ia 2 E Ia Pt La2 M L P L L + B a + t b a + o Lb 2 E Ia E Ia E Ia Pt Lb 3 MB Lb 2 + 3 E Ib 2 E Ib MB La 2 + Pt Lb La2 + o La

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5. A Method to Estimate a Nominal Stress at The Root of The First Thread under Transverse Vibration Force
ddef = Pt La
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MB La

Pt LbLa 2EIa

3EIa

2EIa

3 2 Pt La2 MB La Pt LbLa Pt Lb MB Lb + oLa + + + o Lb + 2EIa EIa EIa 3EIb 2EIb

M B = C Lg Pt

MB :Bending moment at the root of the first thread C : Constant of MB Lg : Grip length of the bolted joint

C=

2Pt

{( La3 + 3 La 2Lb + 3 LaLb2 )Ib + Lb3Ia + 3 EIa Ibkw Lg } 6E Ia Ib ddef 3 Lg {( La2 + 2 LaLb ) Ib + Lb2 Ia }Pt
(Static Experiment)

MB d3 C Lg Pt d3 = Nominal stress : s t = Lb 2 Lb 2
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5. Hysteresis Loop of Displacement of Bolt Head versus Transverse Vibration Force


B C A D F E O
O-A : Non-slip region A-B : Slip region at the thread surfaces B-C : Non-slip region C-D : Non-slip region D-E : Slip region at the thread surfaces E-F : Non-slip region

Coefficient of MB : C =

2Pt

{( La3 + 3 La 2Lb + 3 LaLb2 )Ib + Lb3Ia + 3 EIa Ibkw Lg } 6E Ia Ib ddef 3 Lg {( La2 + 2 LaLb ) Ib + Lb2 Ia }Pt
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5. Results of Estimation of The Nominal Stress at The Root of The First Thread

Nominal stress t

MB d 3 C Lg Pt d3 st = = Lb 2 Lb 2
C : Coefficient of bending moment at the first engaged thread :MB Table 2 Nominal stress at point B Pt /2 [kN] 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 13 0.3 t /2 [MPa] 232 186 139 93 70

6. Influence of Transverse Vibration Force on Loosening-Fatigue Life (Fi =10 kN)

If Pt/2 = 0.8 kN, bolts loosened in the low cycle region. If Pt/2 < 0.6 kN, bolts loosened in the high cycle region depending on Pt/2. The loosening fatigue limit ? tw/2 = 70 MPa

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6. Influence of Transverse Vibration Force on Loosening-Fatigue Life (F i =15 kN)

The loosening-fatigue life Nf significantly depends on the transverse vibration force Pt/2. The loosening fatigue limit ? tw/2 = 70 MPa

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6. Influence of Transverse Vibration Force on Loosening-Fatigue Life (F i =20 kN)

The loosening-fatigue life Nf significantly depends on the transverse vibration force Pt/2. The loosening fatigue limit ? tw/2 = 70 MPa

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7. Comparison with The Axial Fatigue Limit


From this diagram, Fatigue limit of M10, property class 8.8 aw=58 MPa (Axial loading) KL=0.92 Fatigue limit in bending s 58 s atw = aw = = 63.4 K L 0.92 atw=63.4 MPa tw=70 MPa (Experimental result)

Goodman Diagram for Bolted Joints under Axial Vibration


( Yoshimoto et al. )

M10, property class 8.8

w0=290 MPa T=1425 MPa 0.2=640 MPa =3.44


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atw tw

Conclusion
The main conclusions obtained in this study are summarized as follows. 1) If a bolt has loosened in the low cycle region, damage such as crack nucleation at the root of the first thread of the bolt does not occur, and self-loosening is due to bolt rotation. 2) In the high cycle region, fatigue cracks nucleate at the root of the first thread in the all experiments. Loosening occurs due to loss of bolt stiffness caused by crack propagation which then leads to bolt rotation. 3) Although the initial clamping force above a threshold does not have an influence on the loosening-fatigue life, the loosening-fatigue life significantly depends on the transverse vibration force. 4) A method to estimate a nominal stress caused by transverse vibration at the root of the first bolt thread has been proposed. The estimated loosening-fatigue limit by the proposed method was in agreement with the value estimated from the axial fatigue limit of a bolt.
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Loosening Fatigue Tests


Table 1 Experimental conditions Initial clamping force Fi [kN] 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 Amplitude of transverse vibration Pt/2 [kN] 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.3 1.0, 0.8, 0.6 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.3 1.0, 0.8, 0.6 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.3
min=0.032 mm

min=0.152 mm

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The Relationship between F and of Bolt at Tightening and Self-loosening


Fi =10 kN Fi =20 kN
N=1.0X105 (5% down of Fi ) N=1.14X105 (10% down of Fi) Self-loosening by a crack propagation
(99% of Fi)

Self-loosening by a bolt rotation and a crack propagation

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Usefulness of Re-tightening of a Loosened Bolt in the High Cycle Region

A bolt that once has loosened in the high cycle region is not a reliable bolt. Re-tightening is not useful.

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Hysteresis Loop of Displacement of Bolt Head versus Transverse Vibration Force


B C D E F A

Coefficient of MB : C =

2Pt

{( La3 + 3 La 2Lb + 3 LaLb2 )Ib + Lb3Ia + 3 EIa Ibkw Lg } 6E Ia Ib ddef 3 Lg {( La2 + 2 LaLb ) Ib + Lb2 Ia }Pt
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