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Programmable Logic Controllers

40.1

Programmable Logic Controllers ________________ of RLL


Relay Ladder Logic (RLL) is "hard-wired" by the interconnection of the relays, limit switches, timers, counters, etc. Changing the program requires _______________________________ the wires from the relays and limit switches.
not terribly easy or convenient!

Programmable Controllers
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) were developed in the early 60's to overcome the deficiencies of RLL
uses ________________________________

Programming can still be done in ladder logic, just like hard-wired RLL Electricians and technicians can readily adapt to this familiar type of programming.

PLC Station
Operator Interface Panel PLC Solenoid Valves X1 (NO)

PLC Direct DL205


DL 250 CPU Input Module (X0 to X7, X10 to X17)

Fan output Y11 Controlled by Y0

X0 (NO) Controlled by Y1

X7 (NC)

X6 (NC)

X3 (NO) Controlled by Y2

Controlled by Y3

X2 (NO)

Output Module (Y0 to Y7)

Simple Hydraulic System


120 VAC PB-1 CR-1

PLC physical wiring diagram


+24VDC PB-1 Inputs X1 Outputs Y2 Sol-A +24VDC

LS-1 Sol. A

CR-1A

LS-1

LS-1
SOL-A

CR-1B

X2

Hydraulic System

Relay Ladder Logic (RLL) Control System

Programmable Logic Controllers

40.2

Simple Pneumatic System


X1 C5 C5 Y2 LS-1 C5 Y2 Pneumatic System PLC Ladder Logic X2

Simple Pneumatic System


External pushbutton switch connected to bit X1 X1 C5 Reads internal coil (bit) C5 C5 C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic X2 Writes external (bit) Y2 Writes internal coil (bit) C5

Start-up StartConfiguration
LS-1

X1 C5 C5 X2
Opposite of X2

Press the PB-1 pushbutton Contacts X1 turn ON

X1 C5 C5 X2

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON Y2

Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

PLC Wiring Diagram

PLC Wiring Diagram

Output relay C5 turned ON Inputs C5 read as ON

X1 C5 C5 X2

Output relay Y2 turned ON Valve solenoid shifts spool

X1 C5 C5 X2

Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

PLC Wiring Diagram

PLC Wiring Diagram

Programmable Logic Controllers


X1 C5 C5 X2 X1

40.3

Pushbutton released Contact X1 turned OFF

LS-1 is activated Contact X2 turned ON

C5 C5 X2
Opposite of X2

Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

PLC Wiring Diagram

PLC Wiring Diagram

Hold is broken Output relay C5 turned OFF

X1 C5 C5 X2

Contacts C5 turned OFF

X1 C5 C5 X2

Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

PLC Wiring Diagram

PLC Wiring Diagram

Output Y2 turned OFF Solenoid Y2 turned OFF

X1 C5 C5 X2

Valve spool shifts to left Cylinder begins to retract

X1 C5 C5 X2

Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

PLC Wiring Diagram

PLC Wiring Diagram

Programmable Logic Controllers


X1 C5 C5 X2
Opposite of X2

40.4
X1 C5 C5 X2

Limit switch LS-1 released Input X2 goes OFF

Cylinder fully retracts to initial start configuration

Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON Y2

LS-1

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic +24VDC Sol-A OFF ON

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

Pneumatic System +24VDC PB-1 LS-1 X2 Inputs Outputs X1 Y2

PLC Wiring Diagram

PLC Wiring Diagram

PLC Memory
Digital memory consists of indvidual bits (either on or off, 1 or 0) Bits can be written to or read from Organized in groups of 8 bits = 1 byte
C17 C16 C15 C14 C13 C12 C11 C10 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1

PLC External Output - NPN


PLC Output (simplified) 0 = off 1 = on External VDC Typically +24V External Load (solenoid coil)

PLC Building Blocks


Internal N.O. Contacts (C0 - C1777) External N.O. Inputs (X0 - X17)

PLC Building Blocks


Internal Control Relays (C0 - C1777) External Outputs (Y0 - Y17)

Internal N.C. Contacts (C0 - C1777)

External N.C. Outputs (X0 - X17)

Programmable Logic Controllers

40.5

Control circuit for a one shot


X1

Simplified control circuit for a one shot


X1

X1 C5 C5 X2

X1 Y2 Y2
X2

X2

Sol-A (Y2)

X2 Wired N.O.

C5 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic

Sol-A (Y2)

Wired N.O. PLC Ladder Logic

Timers (T0 - T377)


When contacts C6 close, timer T1 will count for 2.5 seconds (K25 = 25 tenths) After 2.5 sec, contacts T1 will close (and stay closed until C6 opens and turns timer off)
C6 TMR T1 K25 T1 Y2

Simplified control circuit for a one shot


X1 Y2 PLC Ladder Logic Y2 X2

IF (X1 is true) OR { (Y2 is true) AND (not X2 is true) } THEN (Y2 will be set true) ELSE (Y2 will be set false)

Counters (CT0 - CT177)


Each time contacts X0 close, counter increments by 1 When counter reaches 6 (K6 = 6 counts), counter output CT2 closes
X0 C9 CT2 Y2 CNT CT2 K6

Counters (CT0 - CT177)


When contacts C9 close, counter will reset to zero (and the contacts CT2 will open)
X0 C9 CT2 Y2 CNT CT2 K6