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Math Studies SL Math Studies Yr1 (2009-10) Further Exercises of Unit 2: Linear Equations and Graphs 1) Find the lengths and mid-points of the line segments joining these pairs of points. (a) (2, 5) and (7, 17) (b) (6, 5) and (2, 2) 2) (c) (10, 9) and (4, 1) (d) (3, 2) and (1,1) (e) (4, 5) and (1, 0) (f) (3, 3) and (7, 3)

Show that the points (3, 1), (3, 7) and (11, 5) form an isosceles triangle. Find the midpoint of the side which is not one of the equal sides.

3)

Find the gradients of the lines joining the following pairs of points. (a) (3, 8), (5, 12) (b) (1, 3), (2,6) (c) (4, 3), (0, 1) (d) (5, 3), (3, 9)

4)

Find the gradients of the lines (AB) and (BC) where A is (3, 4), B is (7, 6) and C is (3, 1). What can you deduce about the points A, B and C?

5)

The points A, B, C and D have coordinates (2, 3), (3, 11), (4, 2) and (1, 8) respectively. Is (AB) parallel to (CD)?

6)

The vertices of a quadrilateral ABCD are A(1, 1), B(7, 3),C(9, 7) and D(3, 3). The points P, Q, R and S are the mid-points of [AB], [BC], [CD] and [DA] respectively. (a) Find the gradient of each side of PQRS. (b) Find the length of each side of PQRS. (c) Find the mid-points of [PR] and [QS]. Parts (a), (b) and (c) all lead to the same conclusion about PQRS. (d) What type of quadrilateral is PQRS?

7)

Test whether the given point lies on the straight line with the given equation. (a) (1, 2) on y = 5x 3 (b) (3, 2) on y = 3x 7

PSYCHICO COLLEGE Math Department I.B. Math Studies SL 8) Find the equations of the straight lines through the given points with the gradients shown. Your final answers should not contain any fractions. (a) (2, 3), gradient 5 (c) (0, 4), gradient

1 2 3 4

(b) (1, 2), gradient 3 (d) (2, 1), gradient ! (f) (3, 8), gradient 0 (h) (3, 0), gradient (j) (3, 4), gradient !

1 2 1 2 3 8

(e) (0, 0), gradient 3 (g) (5, 1), gradient ! (i) (3, 1), gradient

3 8

Find the equations of the lines joining the following pairs of points. (a) (1, 4) and (3, 10) (c) (3, 2) and (0, 4) (e) (10, 3) and (5, -12) (g) (2, 3) and (11, 3) (i) (4, 2) and (1, 3) (k) (3, 4) and (3, 9) (m) (2, 7) and (3, 10) (0) (0, 0) and (5, 3) (b) (4, 5) and (2, 7) (d) (3, 7) and (3, 12) (f) (3, 1) and (4, 20) (h) (2, 0) and (5, 1) (j) (2, 1) and (5, 3) (l) (1, 0) and (0, 1) (n) (5, 4) and (2, 1) (p) (0, 0) and (p, q)

1 x 3. 2

Ans. y = 11) Find the gradients, x-intercepts and y-intercepts of the following lines. (a) y = x 3 (d) y= 5 (g) 2x+y= 7 (b) y=3(x+4) (e) 2y=3x+4 (h) 4y = 3x 8 2 (c) 5x+2y+3=0 (f) 5x = 7 (i) 2y = 7 x

1 x +2 2

12) Find the equation of the line through (4, 3) parallel to y = 2x + 7. Ans. (a) y=2x+5 13) Find the equation of the line through (1, 6) which is perpendicular to y = 2x + 3. Ans. 2y = x + 13 14) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the points A(3, 6) and B( 1,4). Ans. y = 2x + 7 15) Find the equation of the line which is parallel to 2x+4y8=0 and which passes through (3, 5). Ans. x+2y13=0 16) Find the equation of the line which is perpendicular to 2x+4y8=0 and passes through (2, 7). Ans. 2xy+3=0 17) In each part find the equation of the line through the given point which is perpendicular to the given line. Write your final answer so that it doesn't contain fractions. (a) (2,3), y=4x+3 (b) (3,1), (d) (7, 4), (f) (4, 3), (h) (0,3),

1 y= ! x+3 2

y= 2 5y = 3x 8 y = 2x 1

18) Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points (1, 2) and (0, 1) Ans. y=x+1 19) A line through a vertex of a triangle which is perpendicular to the opposite side is called an altitude. Find the equation of the altitude through the vertex A of the triangle ABC where A is the point (2, 3), B is (1, 7) and C is (4, 1). Ans. (a) x+2y7=0 20) Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points (3, 1) and (2, 2). Hence find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the line and the x-axis. (OCR) Ans. 3x+5y+4=0, x = !

4 3

21) A straight line passes through the points (4, 3) and is perpendicular to the line joining the points (1, 3) and (1, 1). Find the equation of this line, giving the answer in the form 3

PSYCHICO COLLEGE Math Department I.B. Math Studies SL ax+by+c=0. Ans. x2y+2=0 22) A triangle is made from the coordinate axes and the line 3x+4y+p=0. The area of the triangle is 6 square units. What is the value of p? Ans. p = 12 23) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line segment [AB] with A(2, 1) and B(4, 3). Ans. x2y5=0 24) The points O, P and Q have coordinates (0, 0), (4, 3) and (a, b) respectively. Given that OQ is perpendicular to PQ . (a) show that a 2 + b 2 = 4a + 3b . (b) Given also that a = 1, find, to 2 decimal places, the possible values of b. Ans. (b) b=3.79 or b=0.79 25) The vertices of ABC are the points A( 1, 5), B( 5, 2) and C(8, 7). (a) Find in the form px + qy+ r = 0, where p, q and r are integers, an equation of the line passing through B and C. (b) Show, by calculation, that AB and AC are perpendicular. The point D lies on the line BA produced and is such that 3BA =BD. (c) Determine the coordinates of D. Ans. (a) 9x+13y+19=0, mAB =

3 4 , mAC = ! (c) D(7,11) 4 3

26) The line l has equation 2x y 1 = 0. The line m passes through the point A(0, 4) and is perpendicular to the line l. (a) Find an equation of m and show that the lines l and m intersect at the point P(2, 3). The line n passes through the point B(3,0) and is parallel to the line m. (b) Find an equation of n and hence find the coordinates of the point Q where the lines I and n intersect. (c) Show that AP = BQ =PQ. Ans. (a) x+2y8=0, (b) x+2y3=0, Q(1,1), (c) AP = BQ =PQ= 5 27) The points A und B have coordinates ( 4, 6) and (2, 8) respectively. A line p is drawn through B perpendicular to AB to meet the y-axis at the point C. 4

PSYCHICO COLLEGE Math Department I.B. Math Studies SL (a) Find an equation of the line p. (b) Determine the coordinates of C. (c) Show, by calculation, that AB = BC. Given that ABCD is a square whose diagonals intersect at the point M, calculate the coordinates of (d) the point M, (e) the point D. Ans. (a) y+x14=0, (b) C(0, 14), (c) AB = BC= 40 , (d) M(2, 10), (e) D(6, 12) 28) The line L1 has gradient

1 and passes through the point A(2, 2). The line L2 has gradient 1 7

and passes through the point B(4, 8). The lines L1 and L2 intersect at the point C. (a) Find an equation for L1 and an equation for L2. (b) Determine the coordinates of C. (c) Verify, by calculation, that AC and BC arc equal in length. Ans. (a) L1 : x7y+12=0, L2 : x+y12=0, (b) C(9, 3), (c) AC = BC= 50 29) Points A, B and C have coordinates (1, 1), (2, 6) and (4, 2) respectively. (a) Find an equation of the line through A and the mid-point M of BC. (b) Find an equation of the line through which is perpendicular to BC. (c) Solve these two equations to find the coordinates of the point P where these two lines meet. (d) Find the ratio PA :AM. giving your answer in the form l: k. where k is an integer.

! 1 1$ Ans. (a) 3x2y1=0, (b) x2y=0, (c) P # , & , (d) PA :AM=1:4, i.e. k=4 " 2 4%

30) The line L has equation 3x + 4y 12= 0. The line M is perpendicular to L and passes through the point C(6, 6). (a) Find an equation of the line M. (b) Calculate the perpendicular distance of C from L. Ans. (a) 4x3y6=0, (b) d=6 31) Consider the line L with equation y + 2x = 3. The line L1 is parallel to L and passes through the point (6, 4). 5

PSYCHICO COLLEGE Math Department I.B. Math Studies SL (a) Find the gradient of L1. (b) Find the equation of L1 in the form y = mx + b. (c) Find the x-coordinate of the point where line L1 crosses the x-axis. (IBO 2005) Ans. (a) m=2, (b) y=2x+8, (c) 4 32) Find where the following lines meet. i.

x + 2y = 8 y = 2x ! 6 2x ! 3y = 8 3 x + 2 y = 12

ii. v.

3 x ! 2 y = !12 y = 3x ! 3 x + 3 y = 10 2 x + 6 y = 11

iii. vi.

3 x + y = !3 2 x ! 3 y = !24 5 x + 3 y = 10 10 x + 6 y = 20

iv.

Ans: i. (4, 2), ii. (2, 3), iii. (3, 6), iv. (4, 0), v. parallel, vi. coincident

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