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MN 1790
MN 1790
TECHCOM Consulting GmbH
www.techcom.de
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Contents: Introduction
Contents: Introduction
• GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning
• Planning Objectives & Principle Planning Steps
• Specifics influencing Radio Network Planning
• Site Survey & Site Investigation
• Antenna Types
• Antenna Parameters
• Antenna Patterns
• Antenna Tilt (Mechanical and/or Electrical)
• (Effective) Antenna Height
• Antenna Diversity
• Antenna Cables
• Antenna cables and Intermodulation
• Antenna Near Products
• Exercises
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Contents: Coverage Planning
Contents: Coverage Planning
• Definition of Terms
• Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation
• Radio Wave Propagation Models
• Suitable prediction models for Macro-, Micro- and Pico-cells
• Location Probability
• Link Budgets
• Fading
• Fast Fading
• Rice Fading
• Rayleigh Fading
• Slow Fading
• Jake's Formula
• Interference Margin
• Noise Figure calculations
• Amplifier Noise
• Path Loss Balance
• Cell Coverage Calculation
• Basics about Digital Map Data
• Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
• Measurement Tools supporting Cell Planning
• Cell Types
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Contents: Coverage Planning
Contents: Coverage Planning
• Omni versus Sector Cells
• Exercises
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Contents: Capacity Planning
Contents: Capacity Planning
• Fundamentals of Traffic Theory
• Definitions and Terms
• Erlang-B Formula
• Erlang-B Look-up Table
• Erlang-C Formula
• Trunking Gain
• Traffic Distribution
• Traffic Forecasting
• Traffic Measurements
• Dimensioning TRXs
• Dimensioning Control Channels
• Dimensioning Control and Traffic Channels
• Capacity and Cell Radius
• Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
• Exercises
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Contents: Frequency Planning
Contents: Frequency Planning
• Interference
• Frequency Reuse and Reuse Patterns
• Cluster
• Cluster: Exercise
• Spectrum Efficiency
• Optimization of Spectrum Efficiency
• Interference Reduction
• Frequency Hopping
• Power Control
• VAD/DTX
• Interference Matrix
• Frequency Allocation Strategies
• Tool supported Frequency Allocation
• Interference Analysis
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Contents:
Increase of Network Coverage
Contents:
Increase of Network Coverage
• Repeaters and repeater implementation
• Repeater Types
• Repeater Characteristics
• Advantages and disadvantages
• Problems: Decoupling
• Problems: Time Delay
• Influences of repeaters on BTS-capacity
• Influence of repeaters on neighbor cell relationships
• Influence of repeaters on interference situation
• Repeater and Link Budget
• Handling of repeaters in planning tools
• O&M Systems for repeaters
• Further methods and techniques to increase coverage
• Exercises
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Contents:
Increase of Network Capacity
Contents:
Increase of Network Capacity
• General Remarks
• Spectrum Increase
• Addition of TRXs
• Cell Sectorization
• Cell Splitting
• Decrease of frequency re-use distance
• Implementation of Half Rate
• Adaptive Multi Rate
• Micro Cell implementation
• Hierarchical Cell Structure planning
• Multiple Band Operation
• Multiple Mode Operation
• Handover Boundaries
• Cell load dependent handover boundaries
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Contents:
Radio Network Optimization
Contents:
Radio Network Optimization
• Reasons for the Need of Optimization
• Performance Data Measurements
• Drive Tests
• Optimization Strategies
• Optimization of Physical Parameters
• Optimization of Database Parameters
• Example Drive Tests
• Example Drive Tests: Exercises
MN 1790 1 - 1
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Introduction: Contents
Introduction: Contents
• GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio Network Planning
• Planning Objectives & Principle Planning Steps
• Specifics influencing Radio Network Planning
• Site Survey & Site Investigation
• Antenna Types
• Antenna Parameters
• Antenna Patterns
• Antenna Tilt (Mechanical and/or Electrical)
• (Effective) Antenna Height
• Antenna Diversity
• Antenna Cables
• Antenna cables and Intermodulation
• Antenna Near Products
• Exercises
MN 1790 1 - 2
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning
Implementation of additional hardware to improve QOS
Extension of coverage area
Implementation of new technologies (e.g. HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE)
Network extension
Fine tuning of the existing network without addition of new hardware
Reduction of interference on Air interface
Network optimization
Connecting the links between the different network elements Network integration
Download and activation of network element specific software and databases Commissioning of the network elements
BTS, BSC, TRAU, MSC Installation of the network elements
Number and location of BTSs, BSCs, and MSCs
Number and type of links between the network elements
Type of BTSs and antennas (sectorised, omni-directional)
Number of TRXs per cell
Frequencies of serving and neighbor cells
BSICs
LACs
(GSM) Network planning (design)
Remarks Steps
MN 1790 1 - 3
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Cellular network
• partial overlap of cells
• only a few frequencies per cell
• frequency re-use distance
1
1
2
2
4
4
5
5
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6
7
7
3
3
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Cellular Concept
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Cellular Concept
MN 1790 1 - 4
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: TDMA Concept
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: TDMA Concept
TDMA frame: 4.615 ms
Time
Time Slot
0.577 ms
TDMA frame No. 0180 TDMA frame No. 0181
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0
MN 1790 1 - 5
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
network Planning: FDMA Concept
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
network Planning: FDMA Concept
UPLINK
25 MHz
75 MHz
890 MHz
1710 MHz
915 MHz
1785 MHz
DOWNLINK
935 MHz
1805 MHz
960 MHz
1880 MHz
25 MHz
75 MHz
GSM900
GSM1800
1 2
200 kHz
124
374
guard band
1 2
124
374
MN 1790 1 - 6
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Cell Types
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Cell Types
360°
omni directional cell
180°
180°sector cell
120°
120°sector cell
MN 1790 1 - 7
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning
Radio Network Planning: Cell Types
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning
Radio Network Planning: Cell Types
8 km
35 km
100 km
GSM 900 Extended Cell
Standard Cell: GSM 900
Standard Cell: GSM 1800
MN 1790 1 - 8
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning
Radio Network Planning: Cell Types
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning
Radio Network Planning: Cell Types
Concentric cell
Inner area: TRX with low power for
capacity
Complete area: TRX with high
power for coverage
Hierarchical cells
Different layers of cells for
different coverage areas
MN 1790 1 - 9
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Logical Channels
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Logical Channels
logical channels
control channels traffic channels
BCH CCCH DCCH
FCCH
BCCH SCH
AGCH PCH FACCH
SACCH SDCCH
TCH/F
RACH
TCH/H
MN 1790 1 - 10
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BCCH Multiframe
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BCCH Multiframe
FS F S F S F S F S I B C C C D0 D1 D2 D3 A0 A1
F S FS FS FS FS I B C C C D0 D1 D2 D3 A2 A3
RR RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RR D3 A2 A3 D0 D1 D2
RR RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RR D3 A0 A1 D0 D1 D2
F - FCCH - Frequency Correction Ch.
S - SCH - Synchronization Channel
B - BCCH - Broadcast Control Channel
C - CCCH - Common Control Channel
D - SDCCH - Stand alone Dedicated Control Ch.
A - SACCH - Slow Associated Control Ch.
R - RACH - Random Access Channel
I - idle
uplink
downlink
51 TDMA multiframe
MN 1790 1 - 11
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: SDCCH Multiframe
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: SDCCH Multiframe
B0..B7 SDCCH subslots
A0..A7 SACCH subslots
51 TDMA multiframe
downlink
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7
A0 A1 A2 A3
A4 A5 A6 A7
uplink
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7
A0
A1 A2 A3
A5 A6 A7
A4
MN 1790 1 - 12
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: TCH Multiframe
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: TCH Multiframe
T T T T T T T T T T T T A T T T T T T T T T T T T -
T t T t T t T t T t T t A t T t T t T t T t T t T a
26 TDMA frame = 120 ms
uplink / downlink: Traffic Channel (TCH/F)
uplink / downlink: Traffic Channel (TCH/H)
T - TCH - Traffic Channel
t - TCH - Traffic Channel
A - SACCH - Slow Associated Control Channel
a - SACCH - Slow Associated Control Channel
MN 1790 1 - 13
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dummy burst
training sequence
26
encrypted bits
57
S
1
TB
3
encrypted bits
57
S
1
TB
3
fixed bit pattern
142
TB
3
TB
3
GP
8.25
GP
8.25
normal burst
frequency correction burst
fixed bits → always 0
TB
3
TB
3
GP
8.25
synchronization burst
training sequence
64
information
39
TB
3
information
39
TB
3
GP
8.25
access burst
training sequence
41
TB
8
information
36
TB
3
GP
68.25
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Burst Types
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Burst Types
MN 1790 1 - 14
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: RXQUAL
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: RXQUAL
Assumed value 18.1% 12.8 % < BER RXQUAL = 7
Assumed value 9.05% 6.4 % < BER < 12.8 % RXQUAL = 6
Assumed value 4.53% 3.2 % < BER < 6.4 % RXQUAL = 5
Assumed value 2.26% 1.6 % < BER < 3.2 % RXQUAL = 4
Assumed value 1.13% 0.8 % < BER < 1.6 % RXQUAL = 3
Assumed value 0.57% 0.4 % < BER < 0.8 % RXQUAL = 2
Assumed value 0.28% 0.2 % < BER < 0.4 % RXQUAL = 1
Assumed value 0.14% BER < 0.2 % RXQUAL = 0
RXQUAL (Received signal quality, see GSM 05.08)
MN 1790 1 - 15
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: RXLEV
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: RXLEV
RXLEV (Received signal level, see GSM 05.08)
greater than – 48 dBm RXLEV = 63
– 49 dBm to – 48 dBm RXLEV = 62
... ...
– 109 dBm to – 108 dBm RXLEV = 2
– 110 dBm to – 109 dBm RXLEV = 1
Less than – 110 dBm RXLEV = 0
MN 1790 1 - 16
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: SQI
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: SQI
SQI (Speech quality index, Ericsson defined (and patented) parameter, see Pat. No. WO-9853630)
Value ranges:
-20 dBQ to 30 dBQ for Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) speech coders
-20 dBQ to 21 dBQ for Full Rate (FR) speech coders
bad SQI ≤ 0
good 1 ≤ SQI ≤ 19
Very good for FR / EFR 20 ≤ SQI ≤ 21 / 30
Perceived speech quality SQI values
MN 1790 1 - 17
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BSIC / LAI
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BSIC / LAI
BSIC (Base Station Identity Code, see GSM 03.03 and GSM 05.08)
BSIC = NCC – BCC
NCC = Network colour code (range: 0 – 7)
BCC = Base station colour code (range: 0 – 7)
LAI (Location are Identification, see GSM 03.03)
LAI = MCC – MNC – LAC
MCC = Mobile country code
MNC = Mobile network code
LAC = Location area code (range: 0-65535)
MN 1790 1 - 18
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: ARFCN
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: ARFCN
RFC (Radio frequency carrier, see GSM 05.01 and GSM 05.05)
The carrier frequency is related to the absolute radio frequency channel number (ARFCN) as given in
the following table:
1805-1880 MHz
F(DL) = F(UL) + 95
512 ≤ n ≤ 885
1710 – 1785 MHz
F(UL) = 1710.2 + 0.2 x(n-512)
DCS 1800 band
925 - 960 MHz
F(DL) = F(UL) + 45
0 ≤ n ≤ 124
975 ≤ n ≤ 1023
880 – 915 MHz
F(UL) = 890 + 0.2 x n
F(UL) = 890 + 0.2 x (n-1024)
Extended GSM
900 band
(E-GSM band)
935 – 960 MHz
F(DL) = F(UL) + 45
1 ≤ n ≤ 124
890 – 915 MHz
F(UL) = 890 + 0.2 x n
Primary GSM
900 band
(P-GSM band)
DL-frequencies ARFCN value
range
UL-frequencies Frequency band
MN 1790 1 - 19
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438 = n = 511 Fl(n) = 747.2 +
0.2*(n-438)
30 777 - 792 747 - 762 GSM 750
921 - 925
488.8 – 496
460.4 – 467.6
869 – 894
1930-1990
1 805 - 1 880
925 – 935
935 - 960
Downlink freq.
(MHz)
45
10
10
45
80
95
45
45
Duplex dis-
tance (MHz)
Fl(n) = 890 +
0.2*(n-1024)
Fl(n) = 479 +
0.2*(n-306)
Fl(n) = 450.6 +
0.2*(n-259)
Fl(n) = 824.2 +
0.2*(n-128)
FI(n) = 1850.2 +
0.2*(n-512)
1710.2 +
0.2*(n-512)
Fl(n) = 890 +
0.2*(n-1024)
Fl(n) = 890 +
0.2*n
259 = n = 293 450.4 – 457.6 GSM 450
955 = n = 973 876 - 880 Railway GSM
306 = n = 340 478.8 – 486 GSM 480
128 = n = 251 824 – 849 GSM 850
512 = n = 810 1850-1910 GSM 1900
512 = n = 885 1 710 - 1785 GSM 1800
975 = n = 1023 880 – 890 GSM 900
Extended band
1 = n = 124 890 – 915 GSM 900
Primary band
Numbering of ARFC (Uplink freq.) Uplink freq.
(MHz)
Frequency band
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Frequency Bands
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Frequency Bands
MN 1790 1 - 20
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GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BA
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BA
Neighbour cell list (BA, BCCH Allocation, see GSM 04.08 and GSM 05.08)
The BA is a list of ARFCN which are used in the neighbour cells.
GSM distinguishes the BA (BCCH) and the BA (SACCH).
The carriers to be monitored by the MS in idle mode (for cell reselection) are given by the BA
(BCCH).
The carriers to be monitored by the MS while being in connected mode (TCH or SDCCH) are given
by the BA (SACCH).
The parameter BA-IND discriminates between measurement results related to different BA (BA
(BCCH) and BA (SACCH)).
The parameter BA-USED shows the value of the BA-IND used for BCCH allocation.
MN 1790 1 - 21
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BTSone BS20, BS21, BS22, BS60, BS61
BTSplus BS40, BS41, BS240, BS241
Special types BS82 E-Micro-BTS
BS242 Pico-BTS
Naming convention:
last digit: 0 = indoor
1 = outdoor
2 = special purpose
first digit(s) number of TRX supported
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning:
SIEMENS BASE STATION Types
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning:
SIEMENS BASE STATION Types
MN 1790 1 - 22
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BS-60 BS-61
BS-20 BS-21 BS-22
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BTSone
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BTSone
MN 1790 1 - 23
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BS241 BS240 BS40 BS41
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BTSplus
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BTSplus
MN 1790 1 - 24
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BS240 XL
More carriers per rack than ‚normal‘ BS240
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BTSplus
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BTSplus
MN 1790 1 - 25
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BS82
E-Micro-BTS
4 carriers per cabinet in Dual carrier units
Built-in antenna or external antenna
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Special BTS Types
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Special BTS Types
MN 1790 1 - 26
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Server rack
BS242 Pico-BTS
Up to 24 carrier agents at remote locations
Carrier Agent
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Special BTS Types
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Special BTS Types
MN 1790 1 - 27
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BS240 XS
Up to 6 carriers with small rack
and BTSplus Hardware
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BS240 XS
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BS240 XS
MN 1790 1 - 28
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Base
station
controller
BSC
Transcoding
and Rate
Adaptation
Unit
TRAU
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BSC and TRAU
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: BSC and TRAU
MN 1790 1 - 29
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3500
3200
1536
> 240
72
32
200
250
500
BR6.0
4000
3200
2880
> 240
120
36
200
400
900
BR7.0
2000 2000 1000 Switch.
Cap. (Erl)
3200 3200 1000 Process.
Cap. (Erl)
128 n. a. n. a. GPRS TS
48-112 112 112 LAPD
46 46 36 PCMx
20 20 12 TRAU
100 100 60 BTSE
150 150 120 Cells
250 250 120 TRX
BR5.5 BR5.0 BR4.0 Capacity
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Capacity Numbers
GSM and SBS fundamental aspects concerning Radio
Network Planning: Capacity Numbers
MN 1790 1 - 30
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Planning Objectives & Principle Planning Steps
Planning Objectives & Principle Planning Steps
General planning objectives:
To realize service(s) with
• maximum coverage
• maximum capacity
• maximum Quality of Service (QoS)
• minimal interference
at minimum costs
MN 1790 1 - 31
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Planning Objectives & Principle Planning Steps
Planning Objectives & Principle Planning Steps
Principle planning steps
1) Basic planning data acquisition (data about: expected traffic load and planned service area) ð
nominal cell plan
2) Terrain data acquisition & installation of a digital terrain database (including topographical and
morphological data) into a planning tool
3) Coarse coverage prediction and initial site determination for a first site selection process using
the digital terrain data and standard propagation models
4) Site survey and site selection
5) Survey measurements (to fine tune the propagation models)
6) Detailed network design (to determine “final” network structure: Number and configuration of
BTS, BSC, TRAU; needed antennas and transmission lines; frequency plan; future evolution
strategy)
7) Transmission planning
MN 1790 1 - 32
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Planning Objectives & Principle Planning Steps
Planning Objectives & Principle Planning Steps
Nominal Plan
Detailed Plan
Modification &
Optimization
MN 1790 1 - 33
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“External“ factors influencing radio network planning:
• Physics (propagation of electromagnetic waves, interaction of electromagnetic waves with
matter, ...)
• Government restrictions (concerning coverage, blocking, maximum output power
levels, ...)
• Topography
• Statistics (population distributions, population development, …)
•...
Specifics influencing Radio Network Planning
Specifics influencing Radio Network Planning
MN 1790 1 - 34
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Site Survey & Site Investigation
Site Survey & Site Investigation
Site survey and site investigation:
• Selection of the sites to be used from alternative locations (if available)
• Contract for site leasing exists?
• Adaption of the cell plan to the real locations that are used (nominal positions must be replaced
by the real ones)
• Antenna installation possible?
• Antenna separation possible?
• Predicted antenna height realistic?
• First Fresnel Zone free of obstacles (for the nearest 50 to 100 meters)?
• Enough place for the radio (BTS and microwave) equipment, the battery backups, ...?
• Find out from where the primary power can be taken
• Find antenna cable path and measure required cable length
• Find out how the transport network can be brought into the site
• Sketch the earthing and lightning protection system
•...
MN 1790 1 - 35
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Antenna Types
Antenna Types
Antenna types used in GSM:
• Omni-directional antennas (often used in rural areas)
• Directional antennas (preferable used in urban areas)
• Multi antenna systems
• Leaking cables (used e.g. in tunnels, buildings,…)
• Parabolic antennas (used for microwave and satellite links)
Antenna locations:
• Outdoor
• Indoor
MN 1790 1 - 36
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Antenna Patterns
Antenna Patterns
Antenna pattern:
The (real) distribution of the radiated power as function of the direction is usually displayed in
horizontal and/or vertical antenna radiation patterns. For these diagrams, usually polar
coordinates graduated in decibels (dB) are used. Since an antenna is a passive component, due
to the conservation of energy an increase of the radiated power in one direction will reduce the
radiated power in an other direction. For sector antennas, the main lobe in the front direction
should be maximised whereas the back lobe should be minimised.
The sector width (e.g. 120° sector) should not be confused with the half power beam width. For
example, often 60°– 65° half power beam width antennas are used to realise 120° sectors.
MN 1790 1 - 37
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Antenna Patterns
Antenna Patterns
Antenna patterns display the distribution of radiated energy in the horizontal and vertical direction:
horizontal pattern vertical pattern
electrical
down-tilted
antenna
MN 1790 1 - 38
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Antenna Parameters
Antenna Parameters
• Frequency range
• Polarization
• Gain
• Half-power beam width
• Electrical tilt
• Front to back ratio
• Impedance
• VSWR and return loss
• Maximum power per input
• Input connectors
• Connector position
• Dimensions (height, width, depth)
• Weight
• Wind load (frontal, lateral, rearward)
• Maximum wind velocity
MN 1790 1 - 39
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Antenna Parameters
Antenna Parameters
Example values for a sector antenna:
200 km/h Maximum wind velocity
460 N, 300 N, 1020 N at 150 km/h Wind load (frontal, lateral, rearward)
12 kg Weight
2574 / 258 / 103 mm Dimensions (height, width, depth)
Rearside Connector position
7/16“ female Input connectors
500 W (at 50
o
C ambient temperature) Maximum power per input
< 1.3 VSWR and return loss
50 Ohm Impedance
> 23 dB Front to back ratio
6
o
electrical downtilt Electrical tilt
H-plane: 90
o
/ E-plane: 6.5
o
Half-power beam width
17dBi Gain
Vertical Polarization
870 - 960 MHz Frequency range
MN 1790 1 - 40
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Antenna Parameters
Antenna Parameters
Half power beam width:
The opening angle between the points where the radiated power is 50 % (3 dB) lower than the
power transmitted in the main direction is called the half power beam width.
Antenna gain:
The gain of an antenna is given either in dBi (with respect to an ideal, isotropic antenna) or in dBd
(with respect to a dipole antenna):
Gain (dBi) = Gain (dBd) + 2.15 dB
Antenna tilt:
Two different tilt types can be distinguished: electrical tilt and mechanical tilt.
Mechanical tilt is achieved by corresponding mounting of the antennas using special mounting
devices.
Electrical tilt is a built-in function of an antenna. Either an antenna has or does not has this
function. Usually an electrical down-tilted antenna has just one (fixed) electrical (down)-tilt but
there also exist antennas where the electrical (down)-tilt is settable.
In addition to an electrical tilt also a mechanical tilt can be applied. The effective tilt is the sum of
both tilts.
MN 1790 1 - 41
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Antenna Parameters
Antenna Parameters
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR):
The VSWR-ratio is a measure for the reflected output power. If the impedance of the antenna
does not match to the impedance of the feeder, the output power is reflected to the transmitter. As
a consequence the transmitter performance and the radiated power will be reduced. The closer
the VSWR-ratio is to 1, the lower the reflected output power.
Polarisation:
The polarisation plane is given by the electrical field vector. Usually antennas are vertically or
cross polarised.
MN 1790 1 - 42
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Antenna Tilt (Mechanical and/or Electrical)
Antenna Tilt (Mechanical and/or Electrical)
Mechanical downtilt:
J Advantages:
Downtilt adjustable, simple method (requires only some mounting hardware: „downtilt kit“)
L Disadvantages:
Downtilt angle varies for different azimuth directions
ð Horizontal half-power beam width increases with downtilt angle
ðGain reduction depending on azimuth direction
Electrical downtilt:
J Advantages:
Downtilt angle is constant for all azimuth directions
ð Horizontal half-power beam width does not increase with downtilt angle
L Disadvantages:
Downtilt angle is fixed
MN 1790 1 - 43
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Antenna Tilt (Mechanical and/or Electrical)
Antenna Tilt (Mechanical and/or Electrical)
Adjustable electrical downtilt:
J Advantages:
Downtilt adjustable
Downtilt angle is constant for all azimuth directions
ð Horizontal half-power beam width does not increase with downtilt angle
Optimum downtilt angle:
• Must be calculated
• Depends on the surrounding
• Field strength reduction in the horizontal direction is maximum if minimum between main
and first upper side lobe is pointing towards horizon
MN 1790 1 - 44
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(Effective) Antenna Height
(Effective) Antenna Height
Several methods to calculate effective antenna height:
• Absolute calculation method:
Effective height = Base station antenna height above ground
H
eff
= H
BS
•Relative calculation method:
H
eff
= H
BS
+ H
THatBS
– H
THatMS
if H
THatBS
> H
THatMS
H
eff
= H
BS
if H
THatBS
≤ H
THatMS
H
BS
= Base station antenna height above ground at base station site
H
THatBS
= Terrain height above sea level at base station site
H
THatMS
= Terrain height above sea level at mobile station site
• Averaged calculation method:
Effective height = Base station antenna height above the averaged terrain height of the
prediction area
MN 1790 1 - 45
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Antenna Diversity
Antenna Diversity
Diversity techniques:
• Space diversity:
horizontal separation (effective separation depends on azimuth)
vertical separation
• Polarization diversity:
+/- 45°polarization
horizontal plus vertical polarization
Combining techniques:
• Switched combining
• Maximum ratio combining
Diversity gain:
• Depends on the combining technique
• Increases with the number of receive antennas
• Increases with decreasing correlation of the individual received signals
• …
MN 1790 1 - 46
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Antenna Cables
Antenna Cables
The radio planner has to know the exact loss of the system:
Jumper cable / Feeder cable / Connectors
which must be specified in the link budget.
Cables are characterized by:
• Cross-section and length
• Loss in [dB/m]
• Impedance
• Frequency range
• Reflection factor
• 3
rd
order inter-modulation product
• Minimum bending radius (for repeated bending)
Hints concerning the selection of antenna cables:
The power dissipation increases exponentially with the cable length. Thick cables have lower
losses, but larger bending radii and they are more expensive.
Avoid unnecessary long cables!
MN 1790 1 - 47
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Antenna cables and Intermodulation
Antenna cables and Intermodulation
What is intermodulation (IM)?
• Occurrence of frequencies different from the transmitted frequencies in the spectrum
Example: Two frequencies are used: f
1
= 942.6 MHz, f
2
= 945.6 MHz
Additionally frequency f
IM
= 936.6 MHz is measured
• Responsible for Intermodulation are non-linearities in the transmission path
Example: non-linear amplifier
dirty surfaces
oxidized contacts
treated surfaces, e.g. antennas on printed circuit boards
MN 1790 1 - 48
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Antenna cables and Intermodulation
Antenna cables and Intermodulation
Order of an Intermodulation Product (IMP)
•IM-Frequencies are related to the transmitted frequencies by sums and differences:
f
IM
= | n * f
1
± m * f
2
|
Order O of IM-Product is
O = n + m
Examples:
far away from f
1
or f
2
4 2 * f
1
± 2 * f
2
close to f
1
and f
2
5 3 * f
1
- 2 * f
2
close to f
1
and f
2
3 2 * f
1
- 1 * f
2
far away from f
1
or f
2
2 1 * f
1
- 1 * f
2
remark order n,m
Odd orders of IMP are close to the original frequencies!
MN 1790 1 - 49
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Antenna cables and Intermodulation
Antenna cables and Intermodulation
Why can Intermodulation Products be dangerous?
IMP can be located in a frequency band where they interfere!
Example 1 (Extended GSM, f
1
= 942.6 MHz, f
2
= 945.6 MHz):
948.6 1 * f
1
- 2 * f
2
951.6 2 * f
1
- 3 * f
2
954.6 3 * f
1
- 4 * f
2
957.6 4 * f
1
- 5 * f
2
930.6 5 * f
1
- 4 * f
2
4 * f
1
- 3 * f
2
3 * f
1
- 2 * f
2
2 * f
1
- 1 * f
2
n,m
933.6
936.6
939.6
f
IM
[MHz]
Frequency
960 MHz 925 MHz
MN 1790 1 - 50
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Antenna cables and Intermodulation
Antenna cables and Intermodulation
Why can Intermodulation Products be dangerous?
IMP can be located in a frequency band where they interfere!
Example 2 (Extended GSM, f
1
= 933 MHz, f
2
= 955.6 MHz):
978.2 1 * f
1
- 2 * f
2
4 * f
1
- 3 * f
2
3 * f
1
- 2 * f
2
2 * f
1
- 1 * f
2
n,m
865.2
887.8
910.4
f
IM
[MHz]
915 MHz 880 MHz Freq. 960 MHz 925 MHz
MN 1790 1 - 51
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Antenna Near Products: Overview
Antenna Near Products: Overview
Antenna near products:
Antenna combiners
Receiver modules
Additional equipment
Equipment depends on base station type:
BTSone BS20, BS21, BS22, BS60, BS61
BTSplus BS40, BS41, BS240, BS241, BS240XL
Specific solutions:
BS82
BS242
BS240XS
MN 1790 1 - 52
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BTSone:
BTSplus:
BS82:
BS242:
Antenna Near Products: Output Power
Antenna Near Products: Output Power
40 W 60 W High Power
25 W 25 W Low Power
GSM1800/1900 GSM900 PA version
50 W 63 W EDGE CU GMSK
32 W 40 W EDGE CU 8PSK
40 W 60 W „GSM“ CU
GSM1800/1900 GSM900 CU version
14 W 14 W CU without DUAMCO
8 W 8 W CU with DUAMCO
GSM1800/1900 GSM900 DCU version
200 mW 100 mW CA without Duplexer
GSM1800/1900 GSM900 CA version
MN 1790 1 - 53
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Antenna Near Products: Combiners
Antenna Near Products: Combiners
Tasks of combiners:
reducing amount of antenna for transmitting
combining concepts: combining on air
hybrid couplers
filter combiners
duplex function for using the antenna in RX path
MN 1790 1 - 54
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Antenna Near Products: HYCOM
Antenna Near Products: HYCOM
TX 0
TESTLOOP
ANT
VSWR
Isol ator
TX 0
TESTLOOP
ANT
TX 1
3 dB
Hybrid
VSWR
Isol ator
Isol ator
TX 0
TESTLOOP
ANT
TX 1
TX 2
TX 3
3 dB
Hybrid
3 dB
Hybrid
3 dB
Hybrid
VSWR
Isolator
Isolator
Isolator
Isolator
HYCOM 1:1
HYCOM 2:1
HYCOM 4:1
MN 1790 1 - 55
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Antenna Near Products: DUCOM
Antenna Near Products: DUCOM
DUCOM (DUKIT) 2:1
DUKIT 2*1:1
DUCOM 4:1
RX-FIL
TX-FIL
Isolator
VSWR
RX-FIL
TX-FIL
Isolator
VSWR
TESTOUT 0
RX 0
TX 0
RX 1
TX 1
TESTOUT 1
ANT 0
ANT1
RX-FIL
TX-FIL
VSWR
RX-FIL
TX-FIL
VSWR
TESTOUT 0
RX 0
TX 0
RX 1
TESTOUT 1
ANT 0
ANT1
TX 1
TX 2
TX 3
3 dB
Hybrid
3 dB
Hybrid
Is olat or
Is olat or
I s olat or
I s olat or
RX-FIL
TX-FIL
Isolator
VSWR
Isolator
VSWR
TESTOUT 0
RX 0
TX 0
RX 1
TX 1
TESTOUT 1
ANT 0
ANT 1
RX-FIL
RX-FIL
RXdiv 0 ANTdiv 0
RXdiv1 ANTdiv 1
RX-FIL
TX-FIL
MN 1790 1 - 56
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Antenna Near Products: FICOM
Antenna Near Products: FICOM
ANT OUT
FICOM Base 2:1
TX 2 TX 3 TX 0 TX 1
VSWR
TX 4
FICOM Expansion 2:1 FICOM Expansion 1:1
MN 1790 1 - 57
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Antenna Near Products: Combiner Losses BTS1
Antenna Near Products: Combiner Losses BTS1
1.8 2.0 HYCOM 1:1
3.9 3.7 HYCOM 2:1
7.6 6.5 HYCOM 4:1
2.8 2.8 DUKIT
2.5 2.5 DUCOM 2:1
4.9 3.3 FICOM 6:1
4.2 3.0 FICOM 4:1
3.5 2.4 FICOM 2:1
5.7 5.7 DUCOM 4:1
Loss for DCS/PCS (dB) Loss for GSM (dB) Combiner type
Combiner losses for BTS one:
MN 1790 1 - 58
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Antenna Near Products: DUAMCO 2:2
Antenna Near Products: DUAMCO 2:2
MN 1790 1 - 59
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Antenna Near Products: DUAMCO 4:2
Antenna Near Products: DUAMCO 4:2
MN 1790 1 - 60
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Antenna Near Products: DUAMCO 8:2
Antenna Near Products: DUAMCO 8:2
MN 1790 1 - 61
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Antenna Near Products: DUAMCO 2:1, 4:1
Antenna Near Products: DUAMCO 2:1, 4:1
MN 1790 1 - 62
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Antenna Near Products: FICOM
Antenna Near Products: FICOM
MN 1790 1 - 63
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Antenna Near Products: Combiner Losses BTSplus
Antenna Near Products: Combiner Losses BTSplus
5.3 5.3 DUAMCO 2:1
8.5 8.5 DUAMCO 4:1
2.5 2.5 DUAMCO 2:2
5.8 4.2 FICOM 8:1
4.6 3.7 FICOM 6:1
4.2 3.2 FICOM 4:1
3.7 2.7 FICOM 2:1
8.9 8.9 DUAMCO 8:2
5.7 5.7 DUAMCO 4:2
Loss for DCS/PCS (dB) Loss for GSM (dB) Combiner type
Combiner losses for BTS plus and BS82:
MN 1790 1 - 64
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Antenna Near Products: RX Sensitivity
Antenna Near Products: RX Sensitivity
BTSone: -109 dBm at rack input
BTSplus: - 116 dBm with TMA
BS82: = -110 dBm
BS242:-88 dBm (GSM900), -95 dBm (GSM1800/GSM1900)
MN 1790 1 - 65
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Antenna Near Products: Receiver Modules
Antenna Near Products: Receiver Modules
Tasks of receiver modules:
amplifying received signals
different concepts: receiver module in BTS rack
Tower mounted amplifiers
splitting of received signal for TRX equipment
comparison of different signals (RX diversity)
MN 1790 1 - 66
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Antenna Near Products: RXAMOD/RXMUCO,
RXAMCO
Antenna Near Products: RXAMOD/RXMUCO,
RXAMCO
RXMUCO within BTSE rack
Rx Antenna
R
x
C
A
B
L
E
LNA
TPU
RXAMOD at Rx antenna
LNA
Cascading Output
TPU
Cascading
Output
RXAMCO
DUCOM
TXFIL
RXFIL
LNA
MN 1790 1 - 67
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Antenna Near Products: Values
Antenna Near Products: Values
2.5 2.5 DUKIT
1.7 1.7 RXFIL
2.2 2.2 DUCOM
RX Loss for DCS/PCS (dB) RX Loss for GSM (dB) Equipment type
30 30 RXAMOD
2 2 RXMUCO
22.5 20 RXAMCO
RX Gain for DCS/PCS (dB) RX Gain for GSM (dB) Equipment type
Gain and loss of various BTS1 equipment:
MN 1790 1 - 68
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Antenna Near Products: DIAMCO
Antenna Near Products: DIAMCO
MN 1790 1 - 69
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Antenna
Rx Tx
LNA
TMA
Rx Tx
Triplexer Encoder
DUAMCO/DIAMCO
Antenna Near Products: TMA
Antenna Near Products: TMA
MN 1790 1 - 70
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19.5 (without TMA) 19.5 (without TMA) DIAMCO
19.5 (without TMA) 19.5 (without TMA) DUAMCO
25.5 25.0 TMA
RX Gain for DCS/PCS (dB) RX Gain for GSM (dB) Equipment type
Gain and loss of various BTS plus equipment:
0.6 0.4 TMA
TX Loss for DCS/PCS (dB) TX Loss for GSM (dB) Equipment type
Antenna Near Products: Values
Antenna Near Products: Values
MN 1790 1 - 71
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Antenna Near Products: Additional Equipment
Antenna Near Products: Additional Equipment
Additional equipment: DULAMO
D4EM
HPDU
DUBIAS
DIPLEXER
MN 1790 1 - 72
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Antenna Near Products: DULAMO
Antenna Near Products: DULAMO
DULAMO for BTSone:
• Allows to use TMA with BTSone
• Works with HYCOM, DUCOM and FICOM
MN 1790 1 - 73
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Antenna Near Products: D4EM
Antenna Near Products: D4EM
D4EM for BTSone:
•Allows to use 2 DUCOM 2:1 for one cell
with 4 TRX
•Reduced combiner loss
MN 1790 1 - 74
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Antenna Near Products: HPDU
Antenna Near Products: HPDU
High Power Duplexer: HPDU
Duplex filter for combining RX and TX path
HPDU technical data
<= 0.75 dB <= 0.6 dB TXLoss (dB)
<= 2.2 dB <= 2.2 dB RXLoss (dB)
DCS/PCS GSM
MN 1790 1 - 75
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Antenna Near Products: DUBIAS
Antenna Near Products: DUBIAS
FICOM
HPDU
DUBIAS
TMA
TX/RX antenna
DIAMCO
TMA
CU1 CU8 RX1 RX8
BIAS-TEE for HPDU: DUBIAS
Allows use of HPDU with TMA
DUBIAS technical data
<= 0.2 dB <= 0.2 dB TXLoss (dB)
<= 0.7 dB <= 0.7 dB RXLoss (dB)
DCS/PCS GSM
MN 1790 1 - 76
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Antenna Near Products: DIPLEXER
Antenna Near Products: DIPLEXER
DIPLEXER
Allows use of one feeder cable or even
one antenna for GSM900
and GSM 1800/1900
Antenna
Combiner
900
DIPLEXER
Antenna
Combiner
1800
DIPLEXER
TX/RX ant. TX/RX ant.
1700 - 2000 MHz
800 - 1000 MHz
800 - 1000 MHz
1700 - 2000 MHz
Dimensions:
274mm * 126mm * 51mm
Insertion loss:
0,15 dB (800 - 1000 MHz)
0,25 dB (1700 - 2000 MHz)
Base Station
Feeder cable
MN 1790 1 - 77
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Antenna Near Products: Specific Solutions
Antenna Near Products: Specific Solutions
BS82 – Enhanced Micro-BTS: Solution without DUAMCO
Output Power: 14 W
MN 1790 1 - 78
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Antenna Near Products: Specific Solutions
Antenna Near Products: Specific Solutions
BS82 – Enhanced Micro-BTS: Solution with DUAMCO
Output Power: 8 W
MN 1790 1 - 79
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Antenna Near Products: Specific Solutions
Antenna Near Products: Specific Solutions
BS242 – Pico-BTS: Losses of antenna near equipment
3.8 dB 3.8 dB EXTSPLIT
1.7 dB 1.7 dB DUPL
GSM1800/
GSM1900
GSM900 Equipment
type
MN 1790 1 - 80
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Antenna Near Products: Specific Solutions
Antenna Near Products: Specific Solutions
BS240XS – antenna near equipment
MN 1790 1 - 81
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Exercises
Exercises
1) What are the units for:
- the power?
- the level?
- the loss?
- the gain?
2) Write down the formula which expresses the level as function of the power.
3) Write down the formula which expresses the power as function of the level.
4) Consider a device with 10 mW output power and 1 W input power.
What is the amplification/attenuation in dB?
5) Consider a device with 100 W output power and 1 W input power.
What is the amplification/attenuation in dB?
MN 1790 1 - 82
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Exercises
Exercises
6) Fill in the following table:
“Factor of: “ “+/- 10 dB”
60 dBm
50 dBm
40 dBm
30 dBm
20 dBm
10 dBm
0 dBm
-10 dBm
...
-90 dBm
-100 dBm
-110 dBm
P [W] L
MN 1790 2 - 1
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Coverage Planning: Contents
Coverage Planning: Contents
• Definition of Terms
• Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation
• Radio Wave Propagation Models
• Suitable prediction models for Macro-, Micro- and Pico-cells
• Location Probability
• Link Budgets
• Fading
• Fast Fading
• Rice Fading
• Rayleigh Fading
• Slow Fading
• Jake's Formula
• Interference Margin
• Noise Figure calculations
• Amplifier Noise
MN 1790 2 - 2
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Coverage Planning: Contents
Coverage Planning: Contents
• Path Loss Balance
• Cell Coverage Calculation
• Basics about Digital Map Data
• Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
• Measurement Tools supporting Cell Planning
• Cell Types
• Omni versus Sector Cells
• Exercises
MN 1790 2 - 3
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Definition of Terms
Definition of Terms
To achieve coverage in an area, the received signal strength in UL and DL must be above the so
called receiver sensitivity level:
Coverage: RX_LEV > (actual) receiver sensitivity level
No Coverage: RX_LEV < (actual) receiver sensitivity level
The minimum receiver sensitivity levels in UL and DL are defined in GSM 05.05:
- for normal BTS : -104 dBm
- for GSM 900 micro BTS M1 : -97 dBm
- for GSM 900 micro BTS M2 : -92 dBm
- for GSM 900 micro BTS M3 : -87 dBm
- for DCS 1800 micro BTS M1 : -102 dBm
- for DCS 1800 micro BTS M2 : -97 dBm
- for DCS 1800 micro BTS M3 : -92 dBm
- for GSM 900 small MS (class 4, 5): -102 dBm
- for other GSM 900 MS: -104 dBm
- for DCS 1800 class 1 or class 2 MS : -100 dBm
- for DCS 1800 class 3 MS : -102 dBm
MN 1790 2 - 4
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Definition of Terms
Definition of Terms
Maximum output power for MS of different power classes:
+/- 2 dB 29 dBm 5
+/- 2 dB 33 dBm 4
+/- 2 dB 36 dBm 37 dBm 3
+/- 2 dB 24 dBm 39 dBm 2
+/- 2 dB 30 dBm - 1
Tolerance GSM 1800 MS GSM 900 MS Power Class
MN 1790 2 - 5
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Definition of Terms
Definition of Terms
Maximum output power (before combiner input) for normal BTS / TRX of different power classes:
2.5 – (<5) W 8
5 – (<10) W 7
10 – (<20) W 6
20 – (<40) W 5
2.5 – (<5) W 40 – (<80) W 4
5 – (<10) W 80 – (<160) W 3
10- (<20) W 160 – (<320) W 2
20 – (<40) W 320 – (<640) W 1
GSM 1800 BTS GSM 900 BTS TRX Power Class
MN 1790 2 - 6
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Definition of Terms
Definition of Terms
Maximum output power (per carrier, at antenna connector, after all stages of combining) for micro
BTS / TRX of different power classes:
>0.05 – 0.16 W >0.01 – 0.03 W M3
>0.16 – 0.5 W >0.03 – 0.08 W M2
>0.5 – 1.6 W >0.08 – 0.25 W M1
GSM 1800
micro-BTS
GSM 900
micro-BTS
TRX power class
MN 1790 2 - 7
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Definition of Terms
Definition of Terms
The reference sensitivity performance as defined in GSM 05.05 for the GSM 900 system for
different channel types and different propagation conditions:
MN 1790 2 - 8
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Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation
Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation
Physical Reasons
• Diffraction
• Reflection
• Scattering
• Absorption
• Doppler shift
Technical Problems
• Distance attenuation
(Path Loss)
• Fading
• Inter-symbol Interference
• Ducting
• Frequency shift /
broadening
MN 1790 2 - 9
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Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation
Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation
Exercise:
Which physical phenomena is sketched in the following pictures?
MN 1790 2 - 10
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Radio wave propagation:
The radio wave propagation is described by solutions of the Maxwell equations.
Exact solutions of the Maxwell equations are not accessible for real space environment with
obstacles which give rise to reflections and diffractions.
However, the full information provided by an exact solution (e.g. exact polarization and phase of
the field strength) is mostly not needed.
What is needed is the the received power level.
What a propagation model should provide is the attenuation of the power level due to the fact that
the signal propagates from the transmitter to the receiver.
Radio Wave Propagation Models
MN 1790 2 - 11
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Empirical models and deterministic models:
Empirical models are based on measurements. Some empirical models (like the ITU model) are
curves derived from measurements. Others summarize the measurements in formulas (like the
Okumura Hata model) which fit the measured data.
Such models are very simple to handle but also usually rather imprecise. They are limited to
environments similar to the one where the measurements were performed.
Deterministic models are based on simplifying assumption for the general problem. This can be a
mathematical approximation of the original problem (like the finite difference model). Or it can be a
simple model for a special situation of the general problem (like the knife edge model).
Deterministic model can reach a very high precision, but they suffer from a very high complexity.
Semi empirical models are a combination of empirical models with deterministic models for
special situations (like knife edge models).
Radio Wave Propagation Models
MN 1790 2 - 12
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Empirical models
Log distance path loss
ITU
Okumura Hata
COST Hata
Diffraction models
Epstein Peterson
Deygout
Giovanelli
Semi empirical models
Okumura Hata & knife edge
COST Hata & knife edge
COST Walfisch Ikegami
Deterministic models
Ray launching, ray tracing
Finite difference
MN 1790 2 - 13
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Received power:
P
T
: Transmitted power
P
R
: Reveived power
n
T R
d
c
P P ⋅ ·
) lg( ) lg( ) lg( lg d A d n c L
P
P
T
R
α − − · + − · ·

,
_

¸
¸
− 10 10 10 Path loss:
d: distance
Radio Wave Propagation Models
n
T
R
d c
P
P

⋅ ·
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0
MN 1790 2 - 14
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0 . 0 0 0 1
0 . 0 0 1
0 . 0 1
0 . 1
1
1 2 5 1 0
n = 4
n = 3
n = 2
0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1 . 0
2 . 5 5 . 0 7 . 5 1 0 . 0
n = 4
n = 3
n = 2
Received power level
as function of distance d
on linear scale.
n
R
d
P
1

Received power level
as function of distance d
on log scale.
n R
d
P
1

Radio Wave Propagation Models
MN 1790 2 - 15
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
2
4

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ∝
d
P
R
π
λ
Example: Free space propagation
?: wavelength in vacuum; , speed of light in vacuum
f: frequency in MHz
d: distance in km
The influence of the surface is neglected completely
f
c
· λ
s
m
c
8
10 9979 2 ⋅ · .
( ) ( ) d f L lg lg . 20 20 44 32 + + ·
MN 1790 2 - 16
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Example: 2 ray model
d
1
d
2a
d
2b
d
h
BS
h
MS
( )
( )
( )
( )
d
h h
d d
d
h h
d h h d d
d d d
d
h h
d h h d d
MS BS
MS BS
MS BS
b a
MS BS
MS BS
2
2
2
1 2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
1
· −
+
+ ≈ + + ·
+ ·

+ ≈ − + ·
MN 1790 2 - 17
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Example: 2 ray model
,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
≈ −
,
_

¸
¸

− −
d
h h k
d d
e
d
e
P
MS BS
ikd ikd
R
2
2 2
2 1
2
4
4 4
2 1
sin
π
λ
π
λ
( ) ( )

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
− − + + ·
d
h h k
d f L
MS BS
sin lg . lg lg . 20 02 6 20 20 44 32
( ) d h h L
MS BS
lg ) lg( ) lg( 40 20 20 120 + − − ·
d c
h h f
d
h h k
d
h h k
h h k d
c
f
k
MS BS MS BS MS BS
MS BS
π
π
2
2
· ≈
,
_

¸
¸
⇒ >>
·
sin for large
f: frequency in MHz
d: distance in km
h
BS
: height base station in m
h
MS
: height mobile station in m
The ground is assumed to be flat and perfectly reflecting.
The model is valid for h
BS
> 50m and d in the range of km or for LOS microcell channels
in urban areas.
MN 1790 2 - 18
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80
100
120
140
160
1 10 100
900MHz
1800 MHz
path loss in dB
distance in km
Example: 2 ray model
h
BS
= 50 m
h
MS
= 1.5m
Radio Wave Propagation Models
MN 1790 2 - 19
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Log-distance path loss model:
n
R
d
d
P

,
_

¸
¸

0

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
0
10
0
d
d
n L L
d
lg
d
0
: reference distance ca. 1km for macro cells or in the range of 1m -100mfor micro cells;
should be always in the far field of the antenna
L
d0
: reference path loss; to be measured at the reference distance.
2-3 Obstructed in factories
4-6 Obstructed in building
1.6-1.8 In building LOS
3-5 Shadowed urban area
2.7-3.5 Urban area
2 Free space
Exponent n Environment
MN 1790 2 - 20
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Okumura Hata model:
Based on empirical data measured by Okumura in 60’s Hata developed a formula with
correction terms for different environments.
The Okumura Hata model assumes a quasi flat surface, i.e. obstacles like buildings are not
explicitly taken into account. Thus the Okumura Hata model is isotropic. The different types of
surfaces (big cities, small cities, suburban and rural) are distinguished by different correction
factors in this model.
Parameter range for this model:
Frequency f= 150… 1500MHz
Height base station h
BS
= 30… 200m
Height Mobile station h
MS
= 1… 10m
Distance d= 1… 20km
MN 1790 2 - 21
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[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− ⋅
− − −
·
− + − − − + ·
97 4 75 11 2 3
8 0 56 1 7 0 1 1
55 6 9 44 82 13 16 26 55 69
2
. ) . lg( .
. ) lg( . . ) lg( .
) (
) lg( ) lg( . . ) ( ) lg( . ) lg( . .
MS
MS
MS
BS MS BS urban
h
f h f
h d
d h c h d h f L
small cities
big cities (f>400MHz)
Radio Wave Propagation Models
Okumura Hata model:
f: frequency in MHz
d: distance in km
h
BS
: height base station in m
h
MS
: height mobile station in m
( ) [ ] 94 40 33 18 78 4
4 5
28
2
2
2
. ) lg( . lg .
. lg
+ − ⋅ ·
+
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ·
f f c
f
c suburban areas
rural areas
MN 1790 2 - 22
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¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≈ −
≈ +
·
⋅ + − − ·
0 001 0
0 02 0
22 35 42 126
.
.
) (
) lg( . ) ( .
MS
MS urban
h d
d c h d L
small cities
big cities
Radio Wave Propagation Models
Okumura Hata model:
For f= 900MHz, h
BS
= 30m, h
MS
= 1,5m the formula reads:
d: distance in km
51 28
94 9
.
.
·
·
c
c suburban areas
rural areas
MN 1790 2 - 23
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
COST Hata model:
The Okumura Hata model cannot be applied directly to systems like GSM 1800/1900 or DECT.
Therefore it was extended to higher frequencies in the framework of the European research
cooperation COST (European Cooperation in the field of scientific and technical research).
Parameter range for this model:
Frequency f= 1500… 2000MHz
Height base station h
BS
= 30… 200m
Height Mobile station h
MS
= 1… 10m
Distance d= 1… 20km
[ ]
[ ] [ ] 8 0 56 1 7 0 1 1
55 6 9 44 82 13 9 33 3 46
. ) lg( . . ) lg( . ) (
) lg( ) lg( . . ) ( ) lg( . ) lg( . .
− − − ·
− + − − − + ·
f h f h d
d h c h d h f L
MS MS
BS MS BS urban
MN 1790 2 - 24
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
COST Hata model:
suburban areas
rural areas
city center
The major difference between the Okumura Hata model is a modified dependence on
frequency and additional correction factor for inner city areas
For f= 1800MHz, h
BS
= 30m, h
MS
= 1,5m the correction term for the dependence on h
MS
can again be neglected. For the other terms of COST Hata model the insertion of the values
serves:
) lg( . . d c L
urban
⋅ + − · 22 35 24 136
( ) [ ] 94 40 33 18 78 4
4 5
28
2
3
2
2
. ) lg( . lg .
. lg
+ − ⋅ ·
+
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ·
− ·
f f c
f
c
c
MN 1790 2 - 25
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© Both models, the Okumura Hata model and the COST Hata model can lead locally
to substantial deviation from the measured attenuation since these models are
isotropic. Local properties of the surface (big buildings, hills etc.) are not taken into
account.
92 31
14 1
3
.
.
·
·
− ·
c
c
c
COST Hata model:
suburban areas
rural areas
city center
Radio Wave Propagation Models
MN 1790 2 - 26
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ITU model:
The ITU (or CCIR) model was originally developed for radio broadcasting. It is based on
measurements in the UHF and VHF range which are summarized in graphs
(ITU-R 370-7, ) for the field strength.
The different topographic situations are described by the parameters h
BSeff
and ∆h.
The ITU model describes the radio wave propagation for the ranges
f= 30... 250 MHz and 450... 1000MHz
d= 10... 1000km
Definition:
h
BSeff
is the antenna height above the mean elevation of the terrain measured in a range from 3km
to 15 km along the propagation path.
∆h is the mean irregularity of the terrain in the range from 10km to 50 km along the propagation
path, i.e. 90% of the terrain exceed the lower limit and 10% of the terrain exceed the upper limit of
the band defined by ∆h.
The curves for the field strength are given for different h
BSeff
and ∆h = 50m. The correction for
other values of ∆h is given in an additional graph.
Since local effects of the terrain are not taken into account the deviation between predicted and
actual median field strength may reach 20dB for rural areas. In urban areas this value may be well
exceeded.
Radio Wave Propagation Models
MN 1790 2 - 27
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ITU model:
Radio Wave Propagation Models
h
BSeff
∆h
3km 10km 15km 50km
90%
10%
0km
MN 1790 2 - 28
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Correction to the ITU model: clearance angle method
An improvement of the ITU model is obtained by considering the maximum of the angle (clearance
angle) between the horizontal line and the elevations in the range of 0 to 16km along the
propagation path. The correction to the field strength ITU model (with ∆h=50m ) is give as graphs
for the clearance angle. The clearance angle correction applies to both the receiving and the
transmitting side.
Radio Wave Propagation Models
16km
γ
MS, BS Position
MN 1790 2 - 29
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
COST Walfisch Ikegami model:
For a better accuracy in urban areas building height and street width have to be taken into
account, at least as statistical parameters. Based on the Walfisch Bertoni propagation model for
BS antennas place above the roof tops, the empirical COST Walfisch Ikegami model is a
generalisation including BS antennas placed below the roof tops.
Parameter range for this model:
Frequency f= 800… 2000MHz
Height base station h
BS
= 4… 50m
Height Mobile station h
MS
= 1… 3m
Distance d= 0.02… 5km
Further parameter:
Mean building height: ∆h in m
Mean street width: win m
Mean building spacing: b in m
Mean angle between propagation path and street: ϕ in °
MN 1790 2 - 30
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b w
d
BS
MS
∆h
h
BS
h
MS
COST Walfisch Ikegami model:
Radio Wave Propagation Models
ϕ
BS
MS
MN 1790 2 - 31
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COST Walfisch Ikegami model:
With LOS between BS and MS (base station antenna below roof top level):
Radio Wave Propagation Models
) lg( ) lg( . d f L
LOS
26 20 6 42 + + ·
With non LOS:
¹
¹
¹
'
¹ + +
·
,
,
0
0
L
L L L
L
msd rts
NLOS
0
0
≤ +
> +
msd rts
msd rts
L L
L L
free space propagation:
rts
L roof top to street diffraction and scatter loss:
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
⋅ −
⋅ +
⋅ + −
+ − ∆ + + − − ·
, . .
, . .
, .
) lg( ) lg( ) lg( .
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
114 0 0 4
075 0 5 2
354 0 10
20 10 10 9 16
MS rts
h h f w L
0 0
0 0
0
90 55
55 35
35 0
< ≤
< ≤
< ≤
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
O
L
) lg( ) lg( . d f L
O
20 20 44 32 + + ·
MN 1790 2 - 32
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COST Walfisch Ikegami model:
Radio Wave Propagation Models
msd
L multiscreen diffraction loss:
) lg( ) lg( ) lg( b f k d k k L L
f d a msd msd
9
1
− ⋅ + ⋅ + + ·
h h
BS
∆ >
( )
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
_

¸
¸
− + −

,
_

¸
¸
− + −
·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

∆ −
⋅ −
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
⋅ ∆ − ⋅ −
∆ − ⋅ − ·
¹
'
¹ ∆ − + −
·
, .
, .
,
,
,
.
) ( .
), ( .
,
,
), lg(
1
925
7 0 4
1
925
7 0 4
15 18
18
5 0
8 0 54
8 0 54
54
0
1 18
1
f
f
k
h
h h
k
d
h h
h h k
h h
L
f
BS
d
BS
BS a
BS
msd
h h
BS
∆ ≤
h h
BS
∆ >
h h
BS
∆ >
h h
BS
∆ ≤
h h
BS
∆ ≤
h h
BS
∆ ≤
5 0. > d
and
and
5 0. ≤ d
Medium sized cities and suburban centres
with moderate tree density
Metropolitan centres
MN 1790 2 - 33
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COST Walfisch Ikegami model:
Radio Wave Propagation Models
Although designed for BS antennas placed below the mean building height the COST Walfisch
Ikegami model show often considerable inaccuracies.
This is especially true in cities with an irregular building pattern like in historical grown cities. Also
the model was designed for cities on a flat ground. Thus for a hilly surface the model is not
applicable.
MN 1790 2 - 34
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Lee micro cell model:
Radio Wave Propagation Models
This model is based on the assumption that the path loss is correlated with the total depth B of
the building blocks along the propagation path. This results in an extra contribution to the LOS
attenuation
) ( ) ( B d L L
LOS
α + ·
) (d L
LOS
) (B α For both and can be read off graphs based on extensive measurements.
This model is not very precise and large errors occur in the following situation:
• When the prediction point is on the main street but there is no LOS path
• When the prediction point is in a side street on the same side of the main street as the BS.
MN 1790 2 - 35
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Diffraction knife edge model:
Diffraction models apply for configurations were a large obstacle is in the propagation path and the
obstacle is far away from the transmitter and the receiver, i.e.: and
2 1
d d h , << λ >> h
The obstacle is represented as an ideal conducting half plane (knife edge)
h
MS
h
BS
d
1
h
d
2
Huygens secondary source
MN 1790 2 - 36
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Diffraction knife edge model:
Huygens principle: all points of a wavefront can be considered as a source for a secondary wavelet
⇒sum up the contributions of all wavelets starting in the half plane above the obstacle
Phase differences have to be taken into account (constructive and destructive interferences)
Difference between the direct path and the diffracted path,
the excess path length
Phase difference: with Fresnel Kirchoff diffraction parameter.
Note: this derivation is also valid for
( )
2 1
2 1
2
2 d d
d d h +
≈ ∆
2
2
2
υ
π
λ
π
ϕ ·

·
( )
2 1
2 1
2
d d
d d
h
λ
υ
+
⋅ ·
0 < h
MN 1790 2 - 37
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Diffraction knife edge model:
Diffraction loss:

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸ − +
− ·

,
_

¸
¸
− ·


ν
π
ν du
u i i
E
E
L
D
D
2 2
1
20 20
2
0
exp lg lg ) (
0
E
D
E
field strength obtained by free field propagation without diffraction (and ground effects).
diffracted field strength
Shadow border region:
¹
'
¹
+ ≈

) lg( .
) (
υ
ν
20 5 13
0
D
L
,
,
0
0
>>
<<
ν
ν
LOS region,
shadowed region
0 < h
The following approximations exist:
6 0 0 · ⇒ · ) (
D
L ν
MN 1790 2 - 38
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Diffraction knife edge model:
Fresnel Zone:
Condition for the n
th
Fresnel Zone:
d
1
d
2
r
Fn
l
1
l
2
2
2 1 2 1
λ
⋅ · − − + n d d l l
Fn
r d d >>
2 1
,
Fn
Fn
r
h
n
n
d d
d d
r d d l l
2
2
2
1
2 1
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
· ⇒
⋅ ·

,
_

¸
¸ +
≈ − − +
ν
λ
The diffraction parameter ν can be rewritten with quantities describing the Fresnel zone
geometry.
For obstacles outside the 1
st
Fresnel zone:
For obstacles outside the 5
th
Fresnel zone:
dB L
D
1 1 2 . ) ( t · − < ν
dB L
D
6 0 10 . ) ( t · − < ν
MN 1790 2 - 39
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Diffraction multiple knife edge Epstein Petersen model:
The attenuation of several obstacles is computed obstacle by obstacle with the single knife edge
method, i.e. first diffraction path: l
1
l
2
, second diffraction path: l
2
l
3
.
The model is valid for .
j i
d h <<
d
1
h
1
d
2
h
2
d
2
d
3
l
1
l
2
l
3
O
1
O
2
MN 1790 2 - 40
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Diffraction multiple knife edge Epstein Petersen model:
.
( )
2 1
2 1
1 1
2
d d
d d
h
λ
υ
+
⋅ ·
) ( ) (
2 1
ν ν
D D Dtotal
L L L + ·
The Fresnel integral is replaced by an empirical approximation:
( ) [ ] ¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − + − + ≈

1 1 0 1 0 20 9 6
0
2
. . lg .
) (
υ υ
ν
D
L
. .
, .
78 0
78 0
− ≥
− <
ν
ν
This model is rather unprecise. The error grows with the number of obstacles.
( )
3 2
3 2
2 2
2
d d
d d
h
λ
υ
+
⋅ ·
MN 1790 2 - 41
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Diffraction multiple knife edge Deygout model:
This model is recursive. First the attenuation of the main obstacle is computed (in this example O
1
with the path l
1
s
1
). In the second step the possible (main) obstacles along the paths to and from the
main obstacle are computed (here O
2
with l
2
l
3
). This procedure is continued until all obstacles are
taken into account.
d
1
h
1
d
2
h
2
d
2
d
3
l
1
l
2
l
3
s
1
O
1
O
2
H
2
MN 1790 2 - 42
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Diffraction multiple knife edge Deygout model:
.
( )
) (
3 2 1
3 2 1
1 1
2
d d d
d d d
h
+
+ +
⋅ ·
λ
υ
) , ( ) ( ) (
2 1 2 1
O O C L L L
D D Dtotal
− + · ν ν
( )
3 2
3 2
2 2
2
d d
d d
h
λ
υ
+
⋅ ·
p
q
p
O O C
2
2 1
1
2
20 12

,
_

¸
¸

1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

− ·
π
α
lg ) , (
,
) (
arctan

,
_

¸
¸ + +
·
3 1
3 2 1 2
d d
d d d d
α
( )
,
) (
3 2 1
3 2 1
1
2
d d d
d d d
h p
+
+ +
⋅ ·
λ
( )
) (
1 2 3
3 2 1
2
2
d d d
d d d
H q
+
+ +
⋅ ·
λ
Correction term:
The correction term is chosen such that the result coincides in a good approximation with
an exact solution. After n steps this models may cover up to 2
n
-1 obstacles.
MN 1790 2 - 43
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Diffraction multiple knife edge Giovanelli model:
Also the Giovanelli model is recursive. The recursion procedure is the same as for the Deygout
model. Instead of taking a correction term in the attenuation the receiver is considered at an
effective position at an height h
eff
. .
d
1
h
1
d
2
h
eff
d
2
d
3
l
1
l
2
l
3
O
2
O
1
H
1
H
2
effective
receiver position
h
2
MN 1790 2 - 44
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Diffraction multiple knife edge Giovanelli model:
.
( )
) (
3 2 1
3 2 1
1 1
2
d d d
d d d
h
+
+ + ⋅
⋅ ·
λ
υ
) ( ) (
2 1
ν ν
D D Dtotal
L L L + ·
( )
3 2
3 2
2 2
2
d d
d d
h
λ
υ
+
⋅ ·
The attenuation predicted by this model is between the values obtained from the
Epstein Peterson model and the Deygout model without the correction term.
eff
h
d d d
d
h h
3 2 1
1
1 1
+ +
− · ) (
1 2
2
3
2
H H
d
d
h h
eff
− + ·
MN 1790 2 - 45
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Semi empirical models:
Semi empirical model combine deterministic models like knife edge models with empirical models
like Okumura Hata or COST Hata.
The mentioned empirical models are only valid for a quasi flat surface. In combination with knife
edge models they can be extended to hilly surface or a mountain area.
The combination of empirical and deterministic models requires usually additional correction terms.
For the specific combination of models and their correction terms most user develop their own
solution which they calibrate with their measurements. .
MN 1790 2 - 46
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Deterministic models:
Ray tracing and ray launching:
With the methods of geometrical optics all possible propagation paths from the transmitter to
the receiver are determined and summed up, i.e. there is a free space propagation from the
antenna to the first obstacle or from obstacle to obstacle and at the obstacle the ray is reflected or
diffracted until it reaches the antenna. The algorithm takes only rays with an adjustable maximum
number of reflections and diffractions.
With this method a very high precision for the prediction of the path loss can be obtained.
• For this method a digital map with high accuracy is required.
• For the reflection and diffraction attenuation factors have to be specified which depend on
the building surface (e.g. glass or brick wall).
• The algorithm is very complex and computer power consuming.
However, there are continuous improvements for hardware, software and algorithms.
MN 1790 2 - 47
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Radio Wave Propagation Models
Deterministic models:
Finite difference algorithm:
Since the solution to field equation are inaccessible the partial derivatives for the fields are
replaced by finite differences. This is obtained by introducing a grid and considering the the fields
only at the nodes of the grid. The derivatives become differences along the edges of the grid. The
partial differential equation becomes a linear equation system. However, the linear equation
system involves very large matrices for realistic problems to be treated with a sufficient precision.
With this method a very high precision for the prediction of the path loss can be obtained.
• For this method very precise surface data are required.
• The surface data have to be parameterised in an appropriate way for the grid.
However, as for the ray launching and ray tracing method, there are continuous improvements
for hardware, software and algorithms.
MN 1790 2 - 48
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Summary of the application areas of the different models:
+ 0 0 Finite difference
+ + + Ray launching ray tracing
- + - COST Walfisch Ikegami
- 0 + COST Hata & knife edge
- 0 + Okumura Hata & knife edge
- + + Giovanelli
- + + Deygout
- + + Epstein Peterson
- 0 + COST Hata
- 0 + Okumura Hata
- - + ITU
+ + + Log-distance path loss
inhouse urban rural Propagation model
Suitable prediction models for
Macro-, Micro-, and Pico- cells
Suitable prediction models for
Macro-, Micro-, and Pico- cells
MN 1790 2 - 49
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Location Probability
Location Probability
The propagation conditions of electromagnetic waves in real environments are not stable, but
location (and time) dependent fluctuations appear.
The radio network planner has to take this into account by working with probabilities, e.g. with the
following two coverage probabilities:
• Cell edge probability
• Cell area probability
Typical cell edge probabilities for:
Very good coverage: 95%
Good coverage: 90%
Acceptable coverage: 75%
As will be discussed later, these values correspond to the following cell area probabilities:
Very good coverage: 99%
Good coverage: 97%
Acceptable coverage: 91%
MN 1790 2 - 50
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Link Budgets
Link Budgets
Before dimensioning the radio network, the link budget for different environments (indoor, outdoor,
in-car) must be considered.
From the link budget, the maximum allowable path loss can be derived.
Body Loss
Building (indoor)
penetration loss
Path Loss
(Fading) Margins
Diversity Gain,
Antenna Gain
Cable Losses
BTS
MN 1790 2 - 51
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Link Budgets
Link Budgets
MS
Maximum output power [dBm]
Feeder loss [dB]
Antenna gain [dBi]
EIRP [dBm]
Receiver sensitivity [dBm]
BTS
Rx-diversity gain [dB]
Antenna gain [dB]
Head amplifier gain [dB]
Jumper, feeder, connector losses [dB]
Duplexer losses [dB]
Receiver sensitivity [dBm]
Environment
Body loss [dB]
Building (indoor) penetration loss [dB]
Path loss [dB]
Fading margin (lognormal and Rayleigh) [dB]
Interference margin [dB]
Frequency hopping gain [dB]
Terms which enter the link budget:
MN 1790 2 - 52
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Link Budgets
Link Budgets
Example of an UL link budget (GSM 900 MHz MS power class 4, BS with tower mounted amplifier,
frequency hopping on, receive diversity used):
UL
Link Budget
Outdoor MS
(Class 4)
Indoor MS
(Class 4)
Car mounted MS
(Class 2)
Units Remarks
MS Max. Output power 33 33 39 dBm
Feeder Loss 0 0 -2 dB
Antenna Gain 0 0 +2 dBi
Environment Body Loss
(900 / 1800) MHz
-5 / -3 -5 /-3 0 dB
Building (Indoor) penetration Loss 0 -18 0 dB
Path loss dB
Fading Margin: lognormal:
for 1sigma=10 and cell area probability=99%
-12 -12 -12 dB
Fading Margin: Rayleigh -3 -3 -3 dB
Interference Margin -2 -2 -2 dB
Frequency hopping gain +3 +3 +3 dB
BS Rx - diversity gain +3.5 +3.5 +3.5 dB
Antenna gain +17 +17 +17 dBi
Tower mounted amplifier gain +6 +6 +6 dB
Jumper + Feeder + Connector Losses -4 -4 -4 dB
Duplexer Losses -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 dB
Receiver Sensitivity -107 -107 -107 dB
MN 1790 2 - 53
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Fading occurs on different scales due to different causes.
Fading appears statistically but different fading types obey different probability distributions.
Propagation models predict only the average value of the receive level.
An extra margin has to be added due the fading effect.
The common question for all fading effects is: how big to chose the margin such that the receive
level drops not below a given limit with a specified probability?
Fading
MN 1790 2 - 54
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Fast Fading
Fast fading appears due to multi path propagation. The receive level is affected by interferences
due to different path lengths in the multi path propagation.
The field strength at the receiver is the vector sum of the fields corresponding to the different
propagation paths. Usually the fading is described by the probability function for the absolute value
of the field strength.
The generic situations:
Rice fading:
It exists a dominant path (usually the LOS path):
MN 1790 2 - 55
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Rice Fading
Rice fading:

,
_

¸
¸ +
− ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ·
N
R R
N
R R
N
R
R
P
V V
P
V V
I
P
V
V f
2
2 2
1 1
0
exp ) (
R
V
1 R
V
0
I
+ · ∑
·
N
i
R N
i
V P
1
2
: received signal strength
: received signal from the dominant signal
: modified Bessel-Function of the first kind and zero order.
other noise sources : received power of the non dominant signals including other
noise sources like man made noise.
For the Rice distribution can be approximated by a Gauß distribution: 1
2
1
>>
N
R
P
V
( )

,
_

¸
¸ −
− ⋅

·
N
R R
N
R
P
V V
P
V f
2 2
1
2
1
exp ) (
π
MN 1790 2 - 56
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Rice Fading
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0 2 4 6 8 10
Absolute value of signal amplitude in V
Probability
Eample: Gaußean distributed signal for: V V
R
5
1
·
MN 1790 2 - 57
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Rayleigh Fading
Rayleigh fading is the other important special case of the Ricean fading. Rayleigh fading
describes the situation were there is no dominant path, i.e. a non LOS situation.
All contribution to the received signal are comparable in strength and arrive statistically distributed.
with : averaged field strength, and :

,
_

¸
¸
− ·
2
2
2
2
R
R
R
R
R
V
V
V
V
V f exp ) (
R
V

,
_

¸
¸
− ·
0
0
0
0
1
P
P
P
P f exp ) (
2
0
2
1
R
V P · averaged receive power:
MN 1790 2 - 58
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0. 001
0. 01
0.1
1
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20
Power / averaged power in dB
Integrated probability for the power to be below a fading marging for
a Rayleigh distribution
Probability
Rayleigh Fading
MN 1790 2 - 59
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Fast Fading
All described types of fast fading have as characteristic length scale the wavelength of the signals.
To combat Fast Fading:
⇒Use frequency hopping
⇒Use antenna diversity
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Slow Fading
σ
X d L d L + · ) ( ) (
Slow fading denote the variation of the local mean signal strength on a longer time scale.
The most important reason for this effect is the shadowing when a mobile moves around (e.g. in a
city).
Measurements have shown that the variation of the the mean receive level is a normal distribution
on a log scale ⇒log normal fading.
The fading can be parameterized by adding a zero mean Gaussian distributed random variable .
σ
X
Let P
m
be a minimal receive level, what is the probability that the receive level is higher
than the minimal receive level, i.e. ? ) ) ( Pr( · >
m R
P d P
Pr
The σ has to be determined by measurements.
( )

,
_

¸
¸

− ⋅

·
2
2
2 2
1
σ σ π
σ
P P
P X exp ) (
MN 1790 2 - 61
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Slow Fading
To compute the probability that the receive level exceeds a certain margin the Gaussian
distribution has to be integrated. This leads to the Q function:
) ( 1 ) (
2
1
2
1
2
exp
2
1
) (
2
z Q z Q
z
erf dx
x
z Q
z
− − ·

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
− ·

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ·


π
MN 1790 2 - 62
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Slow Fading
0.00135 3.0 0.02275 2.0 0.15866 1.0 0.50000 0.0
0.00005 3.9 0.00187 2.9 0.02872 1.9 0.18406 0.9
0.00007 3.8 0.00256 2.8 0.03593 1.8 0.21186 0.8
0.00011 3.7 0.00347 2.7 0.04457 1.7 0.24196 0.7
0.00016 3.6 0.00466 2.6 0.05480 1.6 0.27425 0.6
0.00023 3.5 0.00621 2.5 0.06681 1.5 0.30854 0.5
0.00034 3.4 0.00820 2.4 0.08076 1.4 0.34458 0.4
0.00048 3.3 0.01072 2.3 0.09680 1.3 0.38209 0.3
0.00069 3.2 0.01390 2.2 0.11507 1.2 0.42074 0.2
0.00097 3.1 0.01786 2.1 0.13567 1.1 0.46017 0.1
Q(z) z Q(z) z Q(z) z Q(z) z
Tabulation of the Q function
MN 1790 2 - 63
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Jake’s Formula
Jake’s formula gives a relation for the probability that a certain value P
m
at the cell boundary at
radius R is exceeded and the corresponding probability for the whole cell. It is based on
the log distance path loss model:

,
_

¸
¸
+ − ·
0
0
lg 10 ) ( ) (
d
d
n d L P d P
T R

,
_

¸
¸
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸ −

,
_

¸
¸ −
+ − ·
2 2
1
1
2 1
exp ) ( 1
2
1
) ( Pr
b
ab
erf
b
ab
a erf P
m cell
) ( Pr
m cell
P
( )
σ 2
) (R P P
a
R m

·
σ 2
) lg( 10 e n
b ·
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Log-normal Fading
Log-normal Fading
In a shadowing environment, the probability of a certain level as function of the level value follows
a Gaussian distribution on a logarithmic scale.
In general, a Gaussian distribution is described by a mean value and the standard deviation.
Level [dBm]
Probability
Level [dBm]
Probability
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Log-normal Fading
Log-normal Fading
From measurements ðthe standard deviation 1 sigma (σ
LNF
) in a certain environment.
Typical measurement values (outdoor, indoor) are given in the following table:
9 dB
9 dB
8 dB
σ
LNF(i)
10 dB
8 dB
6 dB
Dense urban
Urban
Rural
σ
LNF(o)
Environment
MN 1790 2 - 66
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Log-normal Fading
Log-normal Fading
To achieve a certain cell edge probability σ
LNF
must be multiplied with a factor given in the
following table:
(Cell edge probability means the probability to have coverage at the border of the cell)
0.000
0.126
0.253
0.385
0.524
0.674
0.842
1.036
1.282
1.645
1.751
1.881
2.054
2.326
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
96
97
98
99
Factor for calculation of
lognormal fading margin
Cell edge probability in %
MN 1790 2 - 67
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Log-normal Fading
Log-normal Fading
Integrating the Gaussian distribution function over the whole cell area delivers cell area
probabilities. Some example results are given in the following table:
77
91
97
99
50
75
90
95
Cell area probability in % Cell edge probability in %
MN 1790 2 - 68
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Interference Margin
Interference Margin
An interference margin can be introduced in the link budget in order to achieve accurate coverage
prediction in case that the system is busy.
This margin in principle depends on the traffic load, the cell area probability and the frequency
reuse. The required margin will be small if interference level decreasing concepts like frequency
hopping, power control and DTX are used.
Typically, a margin of 2 dB is recommended.
MN 1790 2 - 69
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Noise Figure calculations
Noise Figure calculations
Thermal Noise:
Every object which is at a temperature T > 0°K emits electromagnetic waves
(thermal noise). Therefore, electromagnetic noise can be related to a temperature.
P = s * e* A * T
4
Noise Factor:
The Noise Factor can be calculated from the Noise Temperature as follows:
Noise Factor = Noise Temperature / 290°K + 1
Noise Figure:
The noise figure is the value of the Noise Factor given in dB:
Noise Figure = 10 * log (Noise Factor)
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Conversion table:
438 4.0 289 3.0 170 2.0 75 1.0
422 3.9 275 2.9 159 1.9 67 0.9
406 3.8 263 2.8 149 1.8 59 0.8
390 3.7 250 2.7 139 1.7 51 0.7
374 3.6 238 2.6 129 1.6 43 0.6
359 3.5 226 2.5 120 1.5 35 0.5
344 3.4 214 2.4 110 1.4 28 0.4
330 3.3 202 2.3 101 1.3 21 0.3
316 3.2 191 2.2 92 1.2 14 0.2
302 3.1 180 2.1 84 1.1 7 0.1
Noise
Temp.
Noise
Figure
Noise
Temp.
Noise
Figure
Noise
Temp.
Noise
Figure
Noise
Temp.
Noise
Figure
Noise figure in dB
Noise Temperature in °K
Noise Figure calculations
Noise Figure calculations
MN 1790 2 - 71
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Amplifier:
• An amplifier amplifies an input signal, as well as the noise of the input signal.
• It adds its own noise, which is also amplified.
G T
in
T
noise
G * T
in
+ G * T
noise
MN 1790 2 - 72
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Cascade of amplifiers:
G1 T
in
T
n1
G1* T
in
+ G1 * T
n1
G2
T
n2
G2 * (G1 * T
in
+ G1 * T
n1
) + G2 * T
n2
= G1*G2* (T
in
+ T
n1
+ T
n2
/G1)
= G * (T
in
+ T
noise
)
With T
noise
= T
n1
+ T
n2
/G1 and
G = G1 * G2
G T
in
T
noise
G * T
in
+ G * T
noise
Equivalent to cascade of amplifiers
MN 1790 2 - 73
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Friis formula:
T
noise
= T
n1
+ T
n2
/ G1 + T
n3
/ (G1*G2) + ...
G T
in
T
noise
G * T
in
+ G * T
noise
Equivalent to cascade of amplifiers
T
noise
= T
n1
+ T
n2
/G1
G = G1 * G2
MN 1790 2 - 74
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Example:
G1 T
in
T
n1
G1* T
in
+ G1 * T
n1
G2
T
n2
G1*G2* (T
in
+ T
noise
)
With
T
noise
= T
n1
+ T
n2
/G1
Assumptions:
G1 = 16 T
n1
= 28°K
G2 = 20 T
n2
= 200°K
Result:
Gain = 320
T
noise
= 40.5°K
Assumptions:
G1 = 20 T
n1
= 200°K
G2 = 16 T
n2
= 28°K
Result:
Gain = 320
T
noise
= 201.4°K
Consequence:
Position of amplifier in chain
is very important
MN 1790 2 - 75
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Exercise 1:
Calculate the noise temperature of the following system:
G T
noise
?
Antenna cable
Loss 10 dB
Amplifier in BTS
Gain 25 dB
Noise temperature 240°K
MN 1790 2 - 76
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Exercise 2:
Calculate the noise temperature of the following system:
T
noise
?
Cable to antenna mast
Loss 10 dB
G
Amplifier in BTS
Gain 2 dB
Noise temperature 290°K
G
Mast Head Amplifier
Gain 28 dB
Noise temperature 260°K
MN 1790 2 - 77
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Path Loss Balance
Path Loss Balance
Since the coverage range in UL should be the same as the coverage range in DL, the radio link
must be balanced:
Maximum allowable path loss in UL = Maximum allowable path loss in DL
Considering the link budget, usually the UL is the bottleneck, i.e. the maximum allowable path loss
is determined by the UL and not by the DL, although:
• The BS receiver sensitivity is usually better than the MS receiver sensitivity.
• Diversity is usually only used in the receive path.
In case of an unbalanced link with weak UL, the UL sensitivity and therefore also the UL coverage
range can be increased by using tower mounted amplifiers.
MN 1790 2 - 78
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Cell Coverage Calculation
Cell Coverage Calculation
From consideration of link budget ðMaximum allowable path loss
Using radio wave propagation formulas (e.g.Hata) ð Maximum cell size
Exercise:
Consider a class 4 MS of height = 1.5 m. The BTS height = 30 m. Assume Hata
propagation conditions and a cell area probability of 97%. What is the maximum outdoor,
indoor cell radius and in-car cell radius:
a) In a dense urban environment (σ
LNF,o
= 10 dB; σ
LNF,i
= 9 dB )?
b) In a suburban environment (σ
LNF,o
= 8 dB; σ
LNF,i
= 9 dB)?
c) In an open area (σ
LNF,o
= 6 dB; σ
LNF,i
= 8 dB)?
Assume an in-car penetration loss of 6dB.
MN 1790 2 - 79
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Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
The cell planning tools require as one input digital map data (which are often based on paper
maps, satellite photos,…). These digital map data should contain information about, the land
usage ( so called “Clutter” information), about the height of obstacles and they should also contain
so called vector data (like rivers, streets,…).
A digital map is an electronic database containing geographical information.
The smallest unit on such a map is called a pixel. The typical edge-length of such a pixel is
ranging from several meters to several hundred meters. A digital map is often subdivided into
several blocks consisting of many pixels. The different layers of information in one block always
use the same resolution, whereas different blocks can have different resolutions.
Each pixel should contain information about:
• Land usage (“Clutter” information)
• Height data
• Vector data (like rivers, streets,…)
•…
Before working with these digital data, some pre-processing of the data may be required. Some
ideas are sketched on the following pages.
MN 1790 2 - 80
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Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
Definition of terms
• Geoid
• Spheroid / Ellipsoid
• Geodetic Datum / Map Datum / Datum
Projections
• Are used to transfer the 3 dimensional earth to a 2 dimensional map
• “Nobody is perfect”
• No projection is at the same time exact in area, exact in angle and exact in distance.
MN 1790 2 - 81
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Geodetic datum —simplified mathematical representation of the size and shape of the earth
1. Local geodetic datum —best approximates the size and the shape of the particular part of
the earth
2. Geocentric datum —best approximates the size and shape of the earth as a whole
spheroid
geoid
The GPS uses a geocentric datum to express its position because of its global extent.
Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
MN 1790 2 - 82
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Two coordinates systems are implicitly associated with a geodetic datum:
a. Cartesian coordinate system
b. Geodetic (geographic) coordinate system
A third coordinate system is provided by a map projection.
Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
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1. reference surface
2. mapping surface
3. projecton plane
Map projections:
Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
MN 1790 2 - 84
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Cylindrical projection —true at the equator and distortion increases toward the poles
1. Regular cylindrical projections
a. Equirectangular projection
b. Mercator projection
c. Lambert‘s cylindrical equal area
d. Gall‘s sterographic cylindrical
e. Miller cylindrical projection
Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
MN 1790 2 - 85
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2. Transverse cylindrical projections
a. Cassini projection
b. Transverse Mercator
c. Transverse cylindrical equal area projection
Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
MN 1790 2 - 86
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3. Oblique cylindrical projections
Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
MN 1790 2 - 87
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Conic projections —true along some parallel somewhere between the equator and a pole and
distortion increases away from this standard
1. Lambert conformal conic
2. Bipolar oblique conic conformal
3. Albers equal-area conic
4. Lambert equal-area conic
5. Perspective conic
6. Polyconic
7. Rectangular polyconic

Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
MN 1790 2 - 88
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Azimuthal projections —true only at their centre point, but generally distortion is worst at the
edge of the map
1. The Gnomonic projection
2. The azimuthal equidistant projection
3. Lambert azimuthal equal-area
4. etc.
Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
MN 1790 2 - 89
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Compromise projection
1. Gall‘s projection
2. Miller projection
3. Robinson projection
4. Van der Grinten Projection
Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
MN 1790 2 - 90
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For transformation of parameters (Latitude and Longitude) from the 3 dimensional representation into
a 2 dimensional rectangular system often a combination of WGS-84 ellipsoid & UTM rectangular
coordinate system is used (like e.g. for GPS).
UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) system defines 2 dimensional positions using zone numbers
and zone characters for longitudinal and horizontal scaling:
UTM zone number (1-60):
longitudinal strips: range: 80°south latitude - 84°north latitude, width: 6 degree
UTM zone characters (using 20 characters, also called designators):
horizontal strips: range: 180°east - 180°west longitude, width: 8 degree
Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
MN 1790 2 - 91
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Hints concerning the usage of maps:
• Avoid in any case the referencing of geodetic co-ordinates to a wrong geodetic datum.
Referencing to a wrong datum can result in position errors of several hundred meters! (In
the meantime people agreed to use in the future the World Geodetic System 1984
[WGS-84] for all maps.)
• Remember that e.g. different nations may use different geodetic datum.
• If a datum conversion is necessary a careful transformation of seven parameters is necessary:
3 for translation, 3 for rotation, 1 for scaling
• For daily work, try to use the same geodetic datum: in your planning tool(s), for your
GPS systems, and for your paper maps.
• Prefer the following map scales:
1:50000 (for rural areas and 900 MHz cell planning)
1:20000 (for rural areas and 1800/1900 MHz cell planning)
1:10000- 1:5000 (for urban areas and for micro cell planning)
In the maps, height information should be included as contour lines.
Basics about Digital Map Data
Basics about Digital Map Data
MN 1790 2 - 92
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Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Main Task of radio network planning tools:
• Coverage planning
• Capacity planning
• Frequency planning
• Link Budget calculations
• Propagation predictions
• Propagation model fine tuning
• Co- and adjacent channel interference analysis
• Macro, micro cell planning
• Handling of multi-layer structures
• Repeater system handling
• Microwave planning
• …
MN 1790 2 - 93
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Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Remarks to radio network planning tools and required digital map data:
Tools using empirical propagation models require map data with less resolution compared to tools
working with deterministic propagation models.
In case empirical propagation models are used:
• Typical pixel size: 50m x 50m to 200m x 200m
• Using statistics, the signal variation around the mean value is taken into account
• In case that the BS antenna is higher then the surrounding, the clutter correction term of the
target pixel contain most propagation effects. For the clutter boundaries often several pixels
before the target pixel are taken into account.
In case deterministic propagation models are used:
• Digital data with high resolution are required (often very expensive)
• Typical pixel size: 2m x 2m to 10m x 10m
• Mostly used for big cities only
MN 1790 2 - 94
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Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Remarks to tools and required computational time:
Depending not only on the hardware used but also on the algorithms behind the software,
the computational time required by different tools varies significantly.
MN 1790 2 - 95
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Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Planning tools do not run fully automatically but always require some input and an
intelligent and creative usage.
Remember:
Garbage in ðGarbage out
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Measurement Tools supporting Cell Planning
Measurement Tools supporting Cell Planning
Fine tuning (calibration) of propagation models:
Why? When? How?
• Since propagation models does not necessarily describe exactly the real situation, a fine tuning
of the models is necessary (e.g. clutter data may vary from country to country).
• This tool tuning should be done in the start phase of the network planning (i.e. before a detailed
plan is performed).
• A test transmitter is located at typical site locations, a test receiver measures the RX_LEV
along predefined measurement routes. These measured values are taken as input for the tool fine
tuning.
MN 1790 2 - 97
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Cell Types
Cell Types
Omni-Cell
Sector-Cells
Exercise:
Compare the coverage of an omni-cell (antenna gain = 10 dBi) and the coverage of a three sector-
cell configuration (antenna gain 18 dBi).
MN 1790 2 - 98
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Omni versus Sector Cells
Omni versus Sector Cells
Omni sites:
J Advantages of omni sites:
• Trunking gain (especially interesting for those networks having only a few frequencies)
• Omni antennas are usually less bulky than sector antennas
• Suitable in those areas, where the surrounding terrain limits the coverage (before the
maximum omni cell radius is reached)
L Disadvantages of omni sites:
• In case of horizontal antenna diversity: Diversity gain depends on direction
• Greater reuse distance required
• Less flexibility in network optimization (concerning antenna tilt, power control
parameters, handover parameters)
• TX/RX antenna separation difficult (usually TX/RX antennas are mounted on different
vertical levels to achieve sufficient separation)
• Limited mounting positions: no wall mounting possible
MN 1790 2 - 99
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Exercises
Exercises
1) Consider:
an extended cell with 100 km cell radius covering a sea area (clutter term: 30 dB),
a 900 MHz mobile station of power class 4,
a BS with the GSM minimum receiver sensitivity,
an (BS) antenna gain of 15 dBi.
What should be the height of the BS antenna?
2) Consider:
a mobile station with 2 Watts output power maximum,
a BS receiver sensitivity of –104 dBm,
an (BS) antenna gain of 15 dBi.
For a satellite carrying the BS, what would be the maximum radius for the satellite orbit.
3) How many sites can be saved in principle if TMAs with 6 dB gain are used in the
network? Use typical values and Hata’s propagation formula for calculation.
MN 1790 3 - 1
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Capacity Planning: Contents
Capacity Planning: Contents
• Fundamentals of Traffic Theory
• Definitions and Terms
• Erlang-B Formula
• Erlang-B Look-up Table
• Erlang-C Formula
• Trunking Gain
• Traffic Distribution
• Traffic Forecasting
• Traffic Measurements
• Dimensioning TRXs
• Dimensioning Control Channels
• Dimensioning Control and Traffic Channels
• Capacity and Cell Radius
• Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
• Exercises
MN 1790 3 - 2
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Fundamentals of Traffic Theory
Fundamentals of Traffic Theory
General remarks to traffic theory:
The traffic theory in general uses mathematical models to describe and to optimise traffic systems.
In telecommunication traffic theory (also called teletraffic theory) it is a telecommunication system
which is considered with the help of appropriate mathematical models. Since real systems are quite
complex systems, simplifications and assumptions have to be performed to not deal with too
complicated and sophisticated mathematics. Later on these assumptions and simplifications have to
be justified.
Since a bad model can never lead to good results, the problem is to find a good and “easy” model
to get reliable results. Some mathematical ideas, models and formulas which are used in traffic
theory are presented now on the following pages.
MN 1790 3 - 3
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Definitions and Terms
Definitions and Terms
General:
Each telephone system must be dimensioned in such a way that even during periods of high traffic
(offered), the subscribers still have a good chance of success in making calls. Those subscribers
who do not succeed in making a call will either be lost (in a pure lost-call telephone system) or
the calls will be delayed (in a waiting-call telephone system). Usually, real telephone systems are
combined lost-/ waiting-call systems.
Even during the so called busy hour the percentage of non successful subscribers should not
exceed a predefined value. This means for the network operator that the dimensioning of his
telephone system must be driven on the one hand by guaranteeing some Quality of service (QOS)
and on the other hand by economical aspects.
• From economical point of view, the amount of necessary equipment (switches, base stations,
multiplexers, cross-connectors, ...) and also the number of links between this equipment should be
kept to a minimum.
• From QOS point of view, the more trunks are offered by the telephone system, the higher the
probability for the subscribers to succeed in making calls.
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Traffic offered, traffic carried, traffic lost:
The traffic offered is defined as the mean number of occupations (calls) offered to the system.
Both, accepted and not accepted occupations (calls) contribute to the traffic offered. In principle the
traffic offered cannot be exactly measured, however it can be estimated.
The traffic carried is defined as the mean number of simultaneous occupations of servers
(trunks).
In a pure loss systems, it can happen that the traffic offered is greater than the traffic carried. The
non carried traffic will be lost and is called traffic lost.
In a pure waiting system, the traffic offered is always equal to the traffic carried. All the calls which
cannot be served directly after request due to lack of servers (trunks) will wait for being served.
In a combined loss-/ waiting-system not queued calls which could not be served will be lost. In such
systems, the traffic carried will be probably again smaller than the traffic offered, however compared
to pure loss systems the amount of traffic carried is mostly greater.
Definitions and Terms
Definitions and Terms
MN 1790 3 - 5
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Definitions and Terms
Definitions and Terms
Traffic Offered Traffic Offered
Traffic Carried Traffic Carried
Traffic Traffic Lost Lost
Telephone Telephone system system: :
n = n = number of number of
devices devices ( (trunks trunks) )
K K
K K
K K
K K
K K
K K
K K
L L
J J
J J
J J
J J
J J
J J
N = N = number of number of
traffic sources traffic sources
K K K K
K K
J J
J J
J J
MN 1790 3 - 6
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Definitions and Terms
Definitions and Terms
Traffic flow units:
In honour of A. K. Erlang (1878-1929), a Danish mathematician who was the founder of traffic
theory, the unit of the traffic flow (or traffic intensity) is called Erlang (Erl).
The traffic flow is a measure of the size of the traffic. Although the traffic flow is a dimensionless
quantity, the Erlang was assigned as unit of the traffic flow in traffic theory.
By definition:
1 trunk occupied for a duration t of a considered period T carries t / T Erlang.
From this definition it follows already that the traffic carried in Erlang cannot exceed the number
of trunks.
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Definitions and Terms
Definitions and Terms
Several definitions can be given for the traffic flow:
Especially for traffic measurements it is useful to consider the traffic flow as averaged number of
trunks which are occupied (busy) during a specified time period:
Traffic intensity = Mean number of busy trunks in a time period
If this is a long time period, ongoing calls at the beginning and at the end of this period can be
neglected. The traffic flow then can be considered as call intensity (number of trunk occupations per
time unit) times the mean holding time (which is the average holding time per trunk occupation):
Traffic intensity = Call intensity x Mean holding time
MN 1790 3 - 8
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Erlang-B Formula
Erlang-B Formula
Assumptions:
• Pure loss system
• Infinite number of traffic sources
• Finite number of devices (trunks) n
• Full availability of all trunks
• Exponentially distributed holding times
• Constant call intensity, independent of the number of occupations
ð Time and call congestion are equal:
This formula is called Erlang`s formula of the first kind (or also Erlang loss formula or Erlang
B formula).

=
= = =
n
i
i
n
n
i
A
n
A
A E B E
0
, 1
!
!
) (
MN 1790 3 - 9
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Erlang-B Look-up Table
Erlang-B Look-up Table
The Erlang B formula describes the congestion as function of the Traffic Offered and the number
of available trunks.
In real life the situation is mostly different. People often want to calculate the number of needed
trunks for a certain amount of traffic offered and a maximum defined congestion.
That means the Erlang B formula must be rearranged:
n = function of (B and A)
This rearrangement cannot be done analytically but only numerically and will be performed most
easily with the help of a computer. Another possibility is the usage of special tables, namely so
called Erlang B look-up tables. On the following page an example of such an Erlang B look-up
table is presented.
MN 1790 3 - 10
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Erlang-B Look-up Table
Erlang-B Look-up Table
0.08
0.47
1.06
1.75
2.50
3.30
4.14
5.00
5.88
6.78
7.69
8.61
9.54
10.48
11.43
12.39
13.35
14.32
15.29
16.27
17.25
18.24
19.23
20.22
21.21
0.05
0.38
0.90
1.53
2.22
2.96
3.74
4.54
5.37
6.22
7.08
7.95
8.84
9.37
10.63
11.54
12.46
13.39
14.31
15.25
16.19
17.13
18.08
19.03
19.99
0.03
0.28
0.72
1.26
1.88
2.54
3.25
3.99
4.75
5.53
6.33
7.14
7.97
8.80
9.65
10.51
11.37
12.24
13.11
14.00
14.89
15.78
16.68
17.58
18.48
0.01
0.15
0.46
0.87
1.36
1.91
2.50
3.13
3.78
4.46
5.16
5.88
6.61
7.35
8.11
8.88
9.65
10.44
11.23
12.03
12.84
13.65
14.47
15.29
16.13
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Offered Traffic A
for
B=E=0.07
7 % blocking)
Offered Traffic A
for
B=E=0.05
5 % blocking)
Offered Traffic A
for
B=E=0.03
(3 % blocking)
Offered Traffic A
for
B=E=0.01
(1 % blocking)
Number of
trunks n
Erlang B look-up table for an infinite number of traffic sources and full availability:
MN 1790 3 - 11
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Erlang-B Look-up Table
Erlang-B Look-up Table
22.21
23.21
24.22
25.22
26.23
27.24
28.25
29.26
30.28
31.29
32.31
33.33
34.35
35.37
36.40
37.42
38.45
39.47
40.50
41.53
42.56
43.59
44.62
45.65
46.69
20.94
21.90
22.87
23.83
24.80
25.77
26.75
27.72
28.70
29.68
30.66
31.64
32.62
33.61
34.60
35.58
36.57
37.57
38.56
39.55
40.54
41.54
42.54
43.53
44.53
19.39
20.31
21.22
22.14
23.06
23.99
24.91
25.84
26.78
27.71
28.65
29.59
30.53
31.47
32.41
33.36
34.30
35.25
36.20
37.17
38.11
39.06
40.02
40.98
41.93
16.96
17.80
18.64
19.49
20.34
21.19
22.05
22.91
23.77
24.64
25.51
26.38
27.25
28.13
29.01
29.89
30.77
31.66
32.54
33.43
34.32
35.22
36.11
37.00
37.90
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
Offered Traffic A
for
B=E=0.07
7 % blocking)
Offered Traffic A
for
B=E=0.05
5 % blocking)
Offered Traffic A
for
B=E=0.03
(3 % blocking)
Offered Traffic A
for
B=E=0.01
(1 % blocking)
Number of
trunks n
MN 1790 3 - 12
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Erlang-C Formula
Erlang-C Formula
Assumptions:
• Pure delay system
• Infinite number of traffic sources N
• Finite number of devices (trunks) n
• Full availability of all trunks
• Exponentially distributed inter-arrival times between calls which corresponds to a
constant call intensity y, i.e. the probability of a new offered call is the same at all time
points, independent of the number of occupations
• Exponentially distributed holding times (s)
Time congestion is defined as the probability that all devices are used:
This formula is called Erlang`s formula of the second kind (or Erlang delay formula or Erlang
C formula).


=

∗ +


= =
1
0
, 2
! !
!
) (
n
i
n i
n
n
A n
n
n
A
i
A
A n
n
n
A
A E E
MN 1790 3 - 13
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Erlang-C Formula
Erlang-C Formula
Call congestion is defined as the probability that a call has to wait:
The traffic carried and traffic offered are:
The mean number of waiting calls is:
The mean waiting time for calls, which have to wait is:
The mean waiting time for all the calls is:
The waiting time distribution depends on the queue discipline, whereas the mean waiting time is in
general independent of the queue discipline.
E B =
A n
s
t
wait

=
A n
s
A n
n
n
A
i
A
A n
n
n
A
T
n
i
n i
n
wait



∗ +


=


=
1
0
! !
!
A n
A
A n
n
n
A
i
A
A n
n
n
A
N
n
i
n i
n
wait



∗ +


=


=
1
0
! !
!
s y A A A
offered carried
∗ = = =
MN 1790 3 - 14
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Trunking Gain
Trunking Gain
Exercise: Use the Erlang B look-up table to find out the meaning of “trunking gain”:
Which traffic offered can be handled by an Erlang B system assuming 32 trunks
and 1 % blocking?
Which traffic offered can be handled by 2 Erlang B systems for each assuming
16 trunks and 1 % blocking?
Which traffic offered can be handled by 4 Erlang B systems for each of them
assuming 8 trunks and 1 % blocking?
MN 1790 3 - 15
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Traffic Distribution
Traffic Distribution
Time Dependency:
The traffic in a telecommunication network as a function of time will not be constant but will show
significant fluctuations. Variations of the traffic during a single day, from day to day, for different
weekdays, or even for different seasons can be observed. Also on a long time scale the averaged
traffic will not remain constant but will increase in most telecommunication networks.
0 12 24 hours
0 %
100 %
50 %
MN 1790 3 - 16
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Traffic Distribution
Traffic Distribution
Location Dependency:
The traffic in a telecommunication network will not be location independent but will show
significant location dependencies. For example, in rural areas there will be less traffic compared to
city areas.
MN 1790 3 - 17
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Traffic Forecasting
Traffic Forecasting
An important aspect in dimensioning a telecommunication network is the expected traffic in the
future. Therefore, an analysis of the expected traffic is of great interest. Even in case that the
penetration (number of traffic sources) saturates, the amount of traffic does not necessarily
saturates too. Traffic forecasts are not easy and may be influenced by many aspects: e.g. price
politics, offered services,…
The more the important dependencies are realised and taken into account, the more precise the
forecasts will be.
For a detailed analysis it is useful to:
• Split the total PLMN into subareas
• Categorise the subscribers: e.g. into business, residential, …
• Analyse: e.g. the number of subscribers per area, the development of the penetration
depth, the expected penetration depth…
• Analyse also “economic dependencies” like e.g. any correlation between the demand of
telephone service and e.g. the economic activities in a special region, the economic
situation in general (measured e.g. by the economic growth), the income of the people,…
• …
MN 1790 3 - 18
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Traffic Measurements
Traffic Measurements
It is of great interest for the network operator to measure the real traffic situation in his network.
To perform such measurements, in former telecommunication systems special traffic
measurement equipment (e.g. the so called electromechanical meter) was needed. Since in the
meantime most telecommunication systems are digital, this kind of equipment is not needed any
more: The call and device concerning data are stored in the memory of the system processor. It is
only a question of software to read them out.
The traffic measurements are usually part of the so called Performance Data Measurements.
Performance Data Measurements can be run continuously, periodically or sporadically, for a long
time or a short time, observing smaller or greater parts of the network.
Concerning the traffic measurements, either special events are counted (e.g. the number of
successful calls, the number of lost calls, ...) or special time intervals are recorded (e.g. holding
times, waiting times,...).
The corresponding counters could in principle be actualised continuously during the observation
period, but mostly a scanning method is used. Scanning method means that the system counts
the number of events not continuously but only at particular times. This leads to some uncertainty
for the measurement results. Nevertheless, the error performed can be estimated using statistical
methods. In general, the smaller the scanning interval the higher the precision of the
measurement. Typical scanning intervals are 100 ms or 500 ms.
MN 1790 3 - 19
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Dimensioning TRXs
Dimensioning TRXs
The dimensioning of the number of TRXs per cell should be based on traffic estimations for this
area and should be performed for the busy hour.
Using:
• the number of subscribers in the corresponding area (for the busy hour)
• the expected averaged traffic per subscriber (for the busy hour)
the offered traffic A results from:
A = No of subscribers x traffic load per subscriber
Using the Erlang B look up table the number of TRXs can be derived.
Hint:
This number also depends on the amount of half rate being used in the cell
MN 1790 3 - 20
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Dimensioning Control Channels
Dimensioning Control Channels
Initial signaling sequence for MTC, MOC, LOCUPD, SMS,...
Paging Request (PCH)
Channel Request (RACH)
Immediate Assignment (AGCH)
SDCCH-Signaling
MN 1790 3 - 21
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Dimensioning Control Channels
Dimensioning Control Channels
combined BCCH: includes 4 SDCCH subchannels
uncombined BCCH: requires additional SDCCH timeslot
(each one containing 8 SDCCH subchannels)
SACCH multiframe (containing 2 BCCH multiframes)
S
11
S
1
F
10
F
0
BCCH
2 3 4 5
CCCH
6 7 8 9
CCCH
12 13 14 15
CCCH
16 17 18 19
S
21
S
31
F
30
F
20
SDCCH0
22 23 24 25
SDCCH1
26 27 28 29
SDCCH2
32 33 34 35
SDCCH3
36 37 38 39
S
41
I
50
F
40
SACCH0
42 43 44 45
SACCH1
46 47 48 49
1.
1.
S
11
S
1
F
10
F
0
BCCH
2 3 4 5
CCCH
6 7 8 9
CCCH
12 13 14 15
CCCH
16 17 18 19
S
21
S
31
F
30
F
20
SDCCH0
22 23 24 25
SDCCH1
26 27 28 29
SDCCH2
32 33 34 35
SDCCH3
36 37 38 39
S
41
I
50
F
40
SACCH2
42 43 44 45
SACCH3
46 47 48 49
2.
‘uplink’ R = RACH + SDCCH / 4
‘downlink’ BCCH + CCCH + 4 SDCCH / 4, F = FCCH, S = SCH
R
5
R
4
SDCCH3
0 1 2 3
SACCH2
6 7 8 9
SACCH3
10 11 1213
R
15
R
14
R
17
R
16
R
19
R
18
R
21
R
20
R
23
R
22
R
25
R
24
R
27
R
26
R
29
R
28
R
31
R
30
R
33
R
32
R
36
R
35
R
34
SDCCH0
37 38 39 40
SDCCH1
41 42 43 44
R
46
R
45
SDCCH2
47 48 49 50
2.
R
5
R
4
SDCCH3
0 1 2 3
SACCH0
6 7 8 9
SACCH1
10 11 1213
R
15
R
14
R
17
R
16
R
19
R
18
R
21
R
20
R
23
R
22
R
25
R
24
R
27
R
26
R
29
R
28
R
31
R
30
R
33
R
32
R
36
R
35
R
34
SDCCH0
37 38 39 40
SDCCH1
41 42 43 44
R
46
R
45
SDCCH2
47 48 49 50
MN 1790 3 - 22
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Dimensioning Control and Traffic Channels
Dimensioning Control and Traffic Channels
Exercise:
Consider 1 BTS with 2 TRXs and full rate channels. Assume 1% blocking.
Assume a typical TCH load of 25 mErl per subscriber per hour.
Furthermore, assume a typical SDCCH load of 10 mErl per subscriber per hour.
Compare configurations A and B: Which one offers the higher capacity?
BTS
Combined BCCH
15 TCH full
Configuration A
TRX-0
TRX-1
BTS
Uncombined BCCH
1 SDCCH/8
14 TCH full
Configuration B
TRX-0
TRX-1
MN 1790 3 - 23
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Dimensioning Control and Traffic Channels
Dimensioning Control and Traffic Channels
Total blocking probability:
SDCCH
TCH
A*
Y
B
1
(A*+A) B
2
(1-B
1
)A
Y=(1-B
1
)(1-B
2
)A
A
Y*=A*(1-B
1
)
B
1
(A*+A)+B
2
(1-B
1
)A
MN 1790 3 - 24
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Capacity and Cell Radius
Capacity and Cell Radius
In capacity limited areas of the network:
Cell radius is smaller than would be for coverage limited situation to satisfy the traffic demand.
Coverage limited area
Capacity limited area
MN 1790 3 - 25
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Um
Abis
Asub/Ater A
LAPD for O&M
LAPD for TRX
LAPD
for O&M
CCSS7
Base
Station
Controller
Transcoder MSC
SGSN
Gb
BSSGP
MS
Signalling links: overview
MN 1790 3 - 26
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
LAPD signalling links:
O&M signalling for BTSM: LPDLM
TRX signalling: LPDLR
Signalling for TRAU: LPDLS
Rules of thumb:
1. LPDLM and LPDLR are counted as ONE LAPD-link
2. In case of 1 or 2 TRX 16 kbit/s are sufficient for LPDLM+LPDLR
3. Otherwise 64 kbit/s are required
4. LPDLS always uses 64 kbit/s
MN 1790 3 - 27
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Processor capacity:
Traditional BSC: One PPLD processor handles up to 8 LAPD links
One PPCC processor handles up to 4 CCSS7 links
High cap. BSC: Two PPXX processors handle 248 signalling links
load sharing (LAPD and CCSS7)
MN 1790 3 - 28
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
BTSE
0
TRX-0-0
TRX-0-1
TRX-0-2
TRX-1-0
BTSE
1
TRX-2-0
TRX-2-1
BTSE
2
TRX-3-0
TRX-3-1
Um
Signaling channel on Um
Traffic channel
LAPD = LPDLM + LPDLR
empty
31
Abis
5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1
4 0 4 4 0 4 •
7 3 7 3 7 3 7 3
6 2 6 2 6 2 6 2
5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1
4 • 4 0 4 0 4 •
7 3 7 3 7 3 7 3
6 2 6 2 6 2 6 2
L
A
P
D
L
A
P
D
F
A
W
BSC
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
TRX-3-0 TRX-2-0 TRX-0-0
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
TRX-3-1 TRX-2-1 TRX-0-1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
TRX-0-1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
TRX-1-0

18
17
16 14
L
A
P
D
10 2 0
1
T
R
X
-
3
-
1
T
R
X
-
3
-
0
T
R
X
-
2
-
1
T
R
X
-
2
-
0
T
R
X
-
1
-
0
T
R
X
-
0
-
2
T
R
X
-
0
-
1
T
R
X
-
0
-
0
LAPD signalling on Abis
MN 1790 3 - 29
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
0 16 30
31
TRAU BSC

0 16 30
31
TRA
U
MSC
Asub
A









empty
C
C
S
S
7
L
P
D
L
S
O
M
A
L
C
C
S
S
7
F
A
W

F
A
W
O
M
A
L
L
P
D
L
S
LAPD signalling on Asub
MN 1790 3 - 30
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
CCSS7 dimensioning:
Traffic Model with following assumptions for busy hour (standard subscriber):
2% SMS
0.025 Erlang per subscr.
1 (65% MOC; 33% MTC; 2% MtMC) Busy Hour Call Attempts
0.7 Attach/Detach
1 Location registration/updates
0.6 Handovers
Assumption Parameter
MN 1790 3 - 31
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
CCSS7 dimensioning:
Traffic Model with following assumptions for busy hour (highly mobile subscriber):
2% SMS
0.025 Erlang per subscr.
1 (65% MOC; 33% MTC; 2% MtMC) Busy Hour Call Attempts
0.9 Attach/Detach
3.5 Location registration/updates
1.6 Handovers
Assumption Parameter
MN 1790 3 - 32
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
SS7 Signalling load per subscriber
600 byte Standard profile
1100 byte High mobility profile
Signalling Load Profile
Signalling load per BSC
Number of subscr. = Traffic capacity / Traffic per subscriber
Example: 2000 Erlang / (0.025 mErlang/subscriber) = 80 000 subscribers
Total Signalling load = Number of subscribers * Signalling load per subscriber
Example 1: 80 000 subscribers * 600 byte / 3600 sec = 13.3 kbyte/sec
Example 2: 80 000 subscribers * 1100 byte / 3600 sec = 24.5 kbyte/sec
MN 1790 3 - 33
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
CCSS7 links per BSC
Example 1:
Required CCSS7 link capacity: 13.4 kbyte/sec
CCSS7 link single capacity 64 kbit/s = 8 kbyte/sec
Consequence: 2 CCSS7 links required
Example 2:
Required CCSS7 link capacity: 24.5 kbyte/sec
CCSS7 link single capacity 64 kbit/s = 8 kbyte/sec
Consequence: 4 CCSS7 links required
MN 1790 3 - 34
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
CCSS7 dimensioning: Message transfer delay
Message transfer
delay
Load on link
(in Erlang)
0.4 0.8
MN 1790 3 - 35
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
0 16 30
31
TRAU BSC

0 16 30
31
TRA
U
MSC
Asub
A









empty
C
C
S
S
7
L
P
D
L
S
O
M
A
L
C
C
S
S
7
F
A
W

F
A
W
O
M
A
L
L
P
D
L
S
CCSS7 signalling on A
MN 1790 3 - 36
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Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Dimensioning terrestrial interfaces
Transcoder capacity: depends on cell sizes
13 1512 75.62 91 20 12 20 240
12 1336 33.43 45 40 6 40 240
3 250 2.50 7 100 1 100 100
Trans-
coders
Erlang /
BSC
Erlang / cell
(1% blocking)
TCH /
cell
Sites TRX /
cell
Cells /
BSC
TRX /
BSC
Assumption: 120 traffic channels per Transcoder
Blocking of A interface has to be taken into account
MN 1790 3 - 37
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Exercises
Exercises
1) Consider a call rate of 1000 calls per hour. The mean holding time is 90 sec. What is the
Traffic Offered in Erlang?
2) Consider a Traffic Offered of 30 Erlang and a mean holding time of 120 sec. How many calls
per hour do you expect?
3) Consider a telephone system with N=6 trunks and a time period of 10 time units (0,1,...,10).
Subscriber 1 makes a call from t1 to t3. Subscriber 2 makes a call from t2 to t4.
Subscriber 3 makes a call from t3 to t7. Subscriber 4 makes a call from t4 to t8.
Subscriber 5 makes a call from t4 to t9. Subscriber 6 makes a call from t5 to t9.
Subscriber 7 makes a call from t6 to t8. Subscriber 8 makes a call from t7 to t10.
a) Draw the number of used trunks as function of time.
b) Draw the number p of simultaneous occupations in the trunk group as function of
the total time with exactly p occupations.
c) What is the traffic offered in Erlang?
d) What is the traffic carried in Erlang?
e) What is the lost traffic in Erlang?
MN 1790 3 - 38
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Exercises
Exercises
4) Consider a pure delay system and a group of 10 trunks belonging to a trunk group. Assume
that all these trunks are available (full availability). Assume a traffic offered of 4 Erlangs and
a mean holding time of 100 seconds. The queue discipline shall be “first come, first served”
(ordered queue).
a) What is the probability to be queued?
b) What is the mean waiting time of queued calls?
c) What is the mean waiting time of offered calls?
d) What is the probability that call are queued for longer than 1 minute?
5) Consider a pure loss system and a group of 10 trunks belonging to a trunk group. Assume
full availability. What is the traffic in Erlangs which can be offered to this system if the
probability to be blocked should be maximum 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% ?
MN 1790 3 - 39
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Exercise
Exercise
“Nominal Cell Plan”
Consider a suburban area (clutter correction term = 5 dB) of 1000 km
2
with an expected traffic of
20 Erlang/km
2
. The standard deviation 1 sigma in building was measured as 9 dB. The planning
target was decided as 99% cell area probability.
Consider also an adjacent rural area (dense forest, clutter correction term = 9 dB) of 5000 km
2
with an expected traffic of 1 Erlang/km
2
. The standard deviation 1 sigma for outdoor coverage was
measured as 6 dB. The planning target was decided as 95% cell edge probability.
The blocking rate for both areas was defined as maximum 1%.
Assume that in total 60 RF channels are available. Assume also a typical antenna height of 30 m,
a C/I>21dB being required for the BCCH and a C/I>15 dB being required for the TCH. No tower
mounted amplifier is used. The antenna gain is 15 dBi / 17 dBi for 900 / 1800 MHz.
Assume 1 SDCCH is required for up to 2 TRX per cell, 2 SDCCH are required for up to 4 TRX per
cell, 3 SDCCH are required for up to 6 TRX per cell and 4 SDCCH in further cases.
How many sites are needed for a 900 / 1800 MHz system in case frequency hopping is used / not
used?
MN 1790 4 - 1
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Frequency Planning: Contents
Frequency Planning: Contents
• Interference
• Frequency Reuse and Reuse Patterns
• Cluster
• Cluster: Exercise
• Spectrum Efficiency
• Optimization of Spectrum Efficiency
• Interference Reduction
• Frequency Hopping
• Power Control
• VAD/DTX
• Interference Matrix
• Frequency Allocation Strategies
• Tool supported Frequency Allocation
• Interference Analysis
MN 1790 4 - 2
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Interference
Interference
Following GSM 05.05:
Reference interference ratio for all BTS and MS types:
• For co-channel interference: C/I
c
= 9 dB
• For (first) adjacent channel interference: C/I
a1
= - 9 dB
• For (second) adjacent channel interference: C/I
a2
= -41 dB
• For (third) adjacent channel interference: C/I
a3
= -49 dB
At these values, the so called reference interference performance in terms of (maximum) frame
erasure rate, bit error rate or residual bit error rate must be met for the different type of channels
(FACCH/H or F, SDCCH, BCCH, AGCH, PCH, SACCH, RACH, SCH, TCH/F9.6 or H4.8 or F4.8 or
F2.4 or H2.4 or FS or HS) in different specified propagation conditions (TU3 no FH, TU3 ideal FH,
TU50 no FH, TU50 ideal FH, RA250 no FH).
Inter system interference:
Interference from any other system
MN 1790 4 - 3
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Interference
Interference
The spectrum due to modulation for a GSM 900 MHz MS, taken from GSM05.05 Annex A:
MN 1790 4 - 4
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Interference
Interference
The spectrum due to modulation for a GSM 900 MHz BTS, taken from GSM05.05 Annex A:
MN 1790 4 - 5
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Frequency Reuse and Reuse Patterns
Frequency Reuse and Reuse Patterns
Frequency reuse:
With the help of the frequency reuse concept, high capacities can be achieved. However, care
must be taken that the interference caused by the reuse cells is in tolerable limits.
The following consideration allows an estimation of the minimum reuse distance D:
R
D
Co-channel
reuse cell
(Interferer I
1
)
Co-channel
reuse cell
(Interferer I
2
)
D
1
≈D
D
2
≈D
≈D
≈D
≈D
≈D
MN 1790 4 - 6
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Frequency Reuse and Reuse Patterns
Frequency Reuse and Reuse Patterns
Signal to interference ratio:
In general, for a mobile radio environment:
If the transmission power of all base stations has the same value and also the path loss exponent
is uniform in the coverage area, then the signal to interference ratio can be rewritten as:
D
i
is the distance of the ith interferer from the MS and is assumed to be ≈D (see picture).
(The cluster size K will be introduced and discussed below.)

=
=
m
i
i
I
S
I
S
1
n
d
d
r
P P

= ) (
0
0
) log( 10
0
0 d
d
r
n L L − =
m
K
m
R D
D
R
I
S
n
n
m
i
n
i
n
3
) / (
) (
1
= =

=
=


MN 1790 4 - 7
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Cluster
Cluster
Cluster
A group of cells, where each frequency is exactly used once.
Cluster size (K):
Assuming hexagonal shaped cells, due to the hexagon symmetry the number K of cells within a
cluster is given by:
K = i
2
+ ij + j
2
with i,j: integer (0,1,2,3,…..)
Exercise:
Calculate the 8 smallest values of K.
MN 1790 4 - 8
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Cluster: Exercise
Cluster: Exercise
Exercise:
Use regular hexagons to cover the two dimensional plane. Name the outer cell radius R.
• Express the inner cell radius r as function of R.
• Express the reuse distance D as function of R, i and j.
• Express the cluster size K as function of i and j.
• Express the co-channel reuse ratio Q=D/R as function of K.
j
i
D R
r
MN 1790 4 - 9
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Cluster
Cluster
Example:
The following example shows an omni-cell configuration with cluster size 7.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
4
5
6 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4 6
7
1
2
3 7
4
5
6 5
6
7
6
7
2
3 7 2
3
4
3
MN 1790 4 - 10
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Cluster: Exercise
Cluster: Exercise
R
D
Co-channel
reuse cell
Co-channel
reuse cell
D-R
D
D-R
D
D+R
D+R
Exercise:
Consider a cluster of size K=7. Express the S/I ratio as function of the co-channel reuse ratio Q for
the MS shown in the following picture which experiences worst case co-channel interference. Use
the approximations displayed in the figure for the calculation of the S/I.
MN 1790 4 - 11
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Cluster: Exercise
Cluster: Exercise
Exercise:
Assume a carrier to interference ratio of 15 dB being required for a satisfactory performance and a
path loss exponent of n=4 respectively n=3. Consider 6 co-channel cells and for simplicity assume
that all of them have the same distance form the MS.
Calculate the frequency reuse factor and the cluster size that should be used in both cases to
realize maximum capacity.
MN 1790 4 - 12
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Spectrum Efficiency
Spectrum Efficiency
Spectrum efficiency:
The spectrum efficiency is defined as the traffic which can be handled with a given frequency range
in a certain area and therefore measures how efficient a given frequency spectrum is used.
um UsedSpectr Area
Traffic
ficiency SpectrumEf

=
The unit of the spectrum efficiency is [ERL / km
2
x MHz] .
Taking also into account the site density, the spectrum efficiency can be used to compare the
network design of different operators.
MN 1790 4 - 13
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Optimization of Spectrum Efficiency
Optimization of Spectrum Efficiency
Omni- or sector cell configurations?
In general, sector cell configurations allow tighter frequency re-use but offer lower trunking gain.
Exercise:
• Consider a GSM network operator having 60 GSM carriers using 3 sector sites with a 21
reuse for the BCCH and a tighter reuse of 12 for the TCH.
What is the spectrum efficiency for this configuration (assume a regular configuration)?
• Consider an alternative configuration using omni sites with a 12 reuse for the BCCH and a
6 reuse for the TCH.
What is the spectrum efficiency for this alternative configuration?
• Perform the same calculations assuming the operator has only 20 carriers.
MN 1790 4 - 14
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Interference Reduction
Interference Reduction
1) Via implementation of selected procedures
• Frequency hopping
• (Dynamic) Power Control
• VAD / DTX
2) Via optimization of physical and database parameters
• Selection of suitable base station sites (already during planning phase)
• Antenna fine tuning (height, tilt and azimuth)
• Change of antenna type (beam width reduction)
• Optimization of parameters limiting output power
• Optimization of parameters controlling handover regions
• Optimization of frequency plan
MN 1790 4 - 15
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Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
Frequency hopping is not timeslot hopping!
A connection is not transmitted using only one frequency in a cell, but bursts of consecutive TDMA
frames of that connection are transmitted using certain frequencies of a specified frequency set
(defined by the parameter MA, the so called Mobile Allocation).
Without using frequency hopping, the speech quality of a connection may either be good or bad.
There are calls in a cell which will suffer under bad speech quality, other connections will have a
quite good speech quality.
The reason is that:
Rayleigh fading (short term fading) is different for different frequencies,
the interference level is different on different frequencies.
Frequency hopping will average the quality for all connections:
For a certain connection, the link quality may now change from burst to burst. Nevertheless, due to
interleaving, not only 1 but 8 consecutive bursts as a whole must be successfully decoded.
Therefore, even if there are some bad quality bursts in these 8 consecutive bursts a speech frame
may be still successfully decoded.
Frequency hopping is most effective in case of slow moving or static mobile stations.
MN 1790 4 - 16
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time
TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TRX-0, f0
TRX-1, f1
TRX-2, f2
TRX-3, f3
1 TDMA-frame
Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
MN 1790 4 - 17
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Without frequency hopping:
time
TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2
TRX-0, f0
TRX-1, f1
TRX-2, f2
TRX-3, f3
Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
MN 1790 4 - 18
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Example of baseband frequency hopping:
time
TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2
TRX-0, f0
TRX-1, f1
TRX-2, f2
TRX-3, f3
BCCH Channel,
FHSYID=0
TCH Channel, FHSYID=1
(HSN=0,MA=f0&f1&f2&f3),MAIO= 0
TCH Channel, FHSYID=1
(HSN=0,MA=f0&f1&f2&f3),MAIO= 1
TCH Channel, FHSYID=1
(HSN=0,MA=f0&f1&f2&f3),MAIO= 2
TCH Channel, FHSYID=1
(HSN=0,MA=f0&f1&f2&f3),MAIO= 3
SDCCH Channel, FHSYID=1
(HSN=0,MA=f0&f1&f2&f3),MAIO= 0
TCH Channel, FHSYID=2
(HSN=0,MA=f1&f2&f3),MAIO= 0
Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
MN 1790 4 - 19
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Example of synthesizer frequency hopping:
BCCH Channel,
FHSYID=0
TCH Channel, FHSYID=0
TCH Channel, FHSYID=1
(HSN=0,MA=f1&f2&f3&f4&f5&f6),
MAIO= 1
TCH Channel, FHSYID=1
(HSN=0,MA=f1&f2&f3&f4&f5&f6),
MAIO= 2
TCH Channel, FHSYID=1
(HSN=0,MA=f1&f2&f3&f4&f5&f6),
MAIO= 3
SDCCH Channel, FHSYID=0
TCH Channel, FHSYID=1
(HSN=0,MA=f1&f2&f3&f4&f5&f6),M
AIO= 0
time
TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2
f0
f1
f2
f3
TRX-0
TRX-1
TRX-2
TRX-3
f0 f0
f1 f2
f0 f0 f0
f3
f0 f0
f2
f3
f4
f0
f3
f4
f5
Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
MN 1790 4 - 20
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Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
There are different ways of hopping (hopping patterns) foreseen by GSM (see GSM 05.02): The
hopping pattern is defined by the parameter HSN (Hopping Sequence (Generator) number, value
range: 0 - 63).
HSN = 0: cyclic hopping: optimum averaging of Rayleigh fading.
HSN > 0: non cyclic (quasi random) hopping: optimum averaging of (co-channel) interference.
The frequency hopping used in GSM is so called Slow Frequency Hopping since the frequency is
not changed during a whole burst.
From MS point of view the frequency is changed from TDMA frame to TDMA frame (1 TDMA frame
having a duration of 8 x 577µs).
The Base station must be able to change the frequency from burst to burst. Two principle
possibilities are distinguished:
• Baseband hopping
• Synthesizer hopping
MN 1790 4 - 21
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Handling of bursts in BTS for baseband hopping:
Controller
TRX-0
Controller
TRX-1
Controller
TRX-2
Controller
TRX-3
Transmitter
f0
Transmitter
f1
Transmitter
f2
Transmitter
f3
Combiner
(e.g. filter
combiner)
bus system
Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
MN 1790 4 - 22
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Handling of bursts in BTS for synthesizer hopping:
Controller
TRX-0
Controller
TRX-1
Controller
TRX-2
Controller
TRX-3
Transmitter
f0...fn
Transmitter
f0...fn
Transmitter
f0...fn
Transmitter
f0...fn
Combiner
(e.g. duplex
combiner)
bus system
Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
MN 1790 4 - 23
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Frequency Hopping
Frequency Hopping
Parameters, mentioned in GSM (see GSM 05.02):
A value between 0 and 63 to control the hopping generator.
Sent in the information element Mobile Allocation in the Assignment Command or the Handover
Command message.
Hopping
Sequence
Number
HSN
Value range between 0 and 63.
Mobiles, using the same Mobile Allocation and the same timeslot in a TDMA-frame must have
different MAIOs.
As a result all these mobiles are distributed on the available frequencies.
Sent in the information element Channel Description contained for example in the Assignment
Command message.
Mobile
Allocation
Index Offset
MAIO
List of frequencies to be used in the mobiles hopping sequence
Max. 64 radio frequency channels
Sent in the information element Mobile Allocation in the Assignment Command or the Handover
Command message.
Mobile
Allocation
MA
Will be calculated from the reduced TDMA frame number T1, T2, T3’ which is broadcasted on the
Synchronisation Channel
FN = 51((T3 - T2) mod (26)) + T3 + 51x26xT1
T3 = (10xT3’)+1
Value range of FN: 0 to (26x51x2048)-1 = 2715647 (Compare: GSM 05.10)
(TDMA) Frame
Number
FN
List of ARFCNs (max. 64) used in the cell.
Broadcasted on BCCH, System Information Type 1
The MA must be a subset of the CA
Cell Allocation CA
Remarks Full name Abbre
viation
MN 1790 4 - 24
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Power Control
Power Control
1.) Dynamic MS Power Control (UL Power Control)
2.) Dynamic BS Power Control (DL Power Control)
Stepwise increase or decrease of the MS / BS transmission power based on evaluation of
RXQUAL and RXLEV measurements.
Ideas behind the usage of dynamic power control:
• to reduce the overall interference,
• to reduce MS battery consumption,
• and to reduce also the risk of a bad speech quality due to saturation of the BTS receiver.
Principle steps for the power control procedure:
• Measurements
• Pre-processing (averaging) of the measurements (a not mandatory averaging procedure
is described in GSM 05.08)
• Decision based on comparison of averaged values with thresholds (a not mandatory
procedure is described in GSM 05.08)
• Power Control execution (power increase, decrease, or no change of transmission power)
MN 1790 4 - 25
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Power Control
Power Control
AV_RXQUAL
AV_RXLEV
MS transmission
power
AV_RXQUAL
AV_RXLEV
MS transmission
power
MN 1790 4 - 26
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Power Control
Power Control
Path Loss
MS transmission power
Maximum allowed
MS transmission
power
Minimum
transmission
power
= min(MS_TXPWR_MAX,P)
POW_INCR_STEP_SIZE
POW_RED_STEP_SIZE
Power Regulation Area
MN 1790 4 - 27
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MS measures:
DL-level
DL-quality
DL-level
of neighbor cells
MS measures:
DL-level
DL-quality
DL-level
of neighbor cells
BTS measures:
UL-level
UL-quality
Timing Advance
Idle TCH
BTS measures:
UL-level
UL-quality
Timing Advance
Idle TCH
Measurement reports contain:
DL-level
DL-quality
DTX indicator
Max. 6 neighbor cell measurements
RXLEV_NCELL
BSIC_NCELL
BCCH_FREQ_NCELL
Measurement reports contain:
DL-level
DL-quality
DTX indicator
Max. 6 neighbor cell measurements
RXLEV_NCELL
BSIC_NCELL
BCCH_FREQ_NCELL
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Power Control
Power Control
MN 1790 4 - 28
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Power Control
Power Control
The following parameters are sent in the measurement reports:
Base Station Identification Code for neighbour BSIC_NCELL_(1-6)
Received level assessed on BCCH carrier in the
neighbour cell, as indicated in the BCCH allocation
RXLEV_NCELL_(1-6)
Value of BA_IND for BCCH allocation used BA_USED
The DTX indicator shows, whether or not the MS used
DTX during the previous measurement period
DTX_USED
Received quality in the current serving cell, assessed
over a subset of TDMA fames
RXQUAL_SUB_SERVING_CELL
Received quality in the current serving cell, assessed
over all TDMA fames
RXQUAL_FULL_SERVING_CELL
Received level in the current serving cell, assessed
over a subset of TDMA frames
RXLEV_SUB_SERVING_CELL
Received level in the current serving cell, assessed
over all TDMA fames
RXLEV_FULL_SERVING_CELL
Remarks Abbreviation
MN 1790 4 - 29
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Power Control
Power Control
The following parameters and thresholds for the MS power control are mentioned in GSM 05.08:
Range: 2, 4 dB POW_RED_STEP_SIZE
Range: 2, 4, 6 dB POW_INCR_STEP_SIZE
Power Control Interval: Minimum time interval between changes in the
transmission power level. Range: 0 – 30 s. Step size: 0.96 s (2 SACCH
multiframes).
P_CON_INTERVAL
Maximum Transmission Power a MS may use in the adjacent (neighbour) cell
number n. Range for a GSM 900 MS: 5 – 39 dBm. Range for a DCS 1800 MS:
0-30 dBm.
MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)
Maximum Transmission Power a MS may use in the serving cell. Range for a
GSM 900 MS: 5 – 39 dBm. Range for a DCS 1800 MS: 0-30 dBm.
MS_TXPWR_MAX
(Upper) RXQUAL threshold on the uplink for power reduction U_RXQAUL_UL_P
(Lower) RXQUAL threshold on the uplink for power increase L_RXQAUL_UL_P
(Upper) RXLEV threshold on the uplink for power reduction U_RXLEV_UL_P
(Lower) RXLEV threshold on the uplink for power increase L_RXLEV_UL_P
Remarks Abbreviation
MN 1790 4 - 30
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Power Control
Power Control
RXQUAL
RXLEV
L_RXQUAL_XX_P
U_RXQUAL_XX_P
L_RXLEV_XX_P U_RXLEV_XX_P
0
0
7
63
Power Decrease concerning Level
Power Increase concerning Level
Power Decrease concerning Quality
Power Increase concerning Quality
MN 1790 4 - 31
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Power Control
Power Control
Power Decrease concerning Level
Power Increase concerning Level
Power Decrease concerning Quality
Power Increase concerning Quality
RXQUAL
RXLEV
L_RXQUAL_XX_P
U_RXQUAL_XX_P
L_RXLEV_XX_P U_RXLEV_XX_P
0
0
7
63
POW_RED_STEP_SIZE
Example solution
MN 1790 4 - 32
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VAD / DTX
VAD / DTX
During a phone call, usually not both parties will speak simultaneously but only one side will speak.
Therefore, in the UL as well as in the DL only about half of the conversation time speech
information must really be transmitted over the air interface.
With the help of discontinuous transmission (DTX; GSM 05.08 and GSM 06.31) the radio
transmitter can now be switched off most of the time during speech pauses. To detect these
speech pauses, DTX requires a voice activity detector (VAD; GSM 06.32) in the transmit side.
DTX can be used in UL as well as in the DL direction.
Main reasons for the usage of DTX:
• To save power in the MS.
• To reduce the overall interference on the air interface in the network.
MN 1790 4 - 33
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VAD / DTX
VAD / DTX
Transmitting side:
The TX DTX handler passes the traffic frames to the radio subsystem. Each frame is marked
individually by a SP flag (Speech Indicator). SP flag = 1 indicates a speech frame, SP flag = 0
indicates a silence description (SID) frame which contains information on the acoustic background
noise which is needed for the comfort-noise-synthesiser located in the receive side.
Speech frames will be sent each 20 ms.
SID frames will be sent each 480 ms.
Receiving side:
The RX DTX handler handles the DTX on the receive side.
Good speech frames (SID flag = 0, BFI flag = 0) are directly passed to the speech decoder.
Valid SID frames (SID flag = 2, BFI flag = 0) result in comfort noise (see GSM 06.12) generation
until the next valid SID frame is detected or a good speech frame is detected.
(The SID flag is calculated from the SID frame detector (which is located in the receive side) based
on the number of bit deviations within the SID code word.)
With DTX, only the transmission on air interface is interrupted. The transmission between TRAU
and BTS is filled up with idle speech frames.
MN 1790 4 - 34
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VAD / DTX
VAD / DTX
Transmit Side
TX Radio Subsystem
Speech encoder
TX DTX handler
Voice activity
detection
Comfort Noise
computation
Channel encoding
SP flag monitoring
Information bits
260
SP flag
1
SP=1: speech
SP=0: SID frame
MN 1790 4 - 35
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VAD / DTX
VAD / DTX
Receive Side
RX Radio Subsystem
Speech decoder
RX DTX handler
Comfort Noise
Synthesizer
Error correction
&
Detection
SID frame
detection
260 information bits
BFI=0, SID=0
(good speech frame)
(BFI=0, SID=2)
(valid SID frame)
MN 1790 4 - 36
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VAD / DTX
VAD / DTX
DTX not applied:
4 out of 104 slots: idle
DTX applied:
12 = 8+4 out of 104 slots: not idle
Only 1 block of 456 bits (after channel decoding) is sent each 480 ms. Due to interleaving and
depending on channel type, this SID information is sent in different TDMA frames using different
numbers of bursts; see GSM 05.08)
Not idle slots: SACCH: 13, 39, 65, 91
SID: 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59
TDMA-frame number (FN) modulo 104
To assess quality and signal level during DTX
T T T T T T T T T T T T A T T T T T T T T T T T T -
26 TDMA frame = 120 ms
MN 1790 4 - 37
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Interference Matrix
Interference Matrix
The interference matrix c
ij
(1 ≤ i,,j ≤ N) is an NxN matrix which contains information about the
minimal frequency separation required between corresponding cells i and j.
If c
ij
= 0: co-channel reuse is allowed
If c
ij
= 1: adjacent channel reuse is allowed
If c
ij
= 2: neither co- nor adjacent channel reuse is allowed
MN 1790 4 - 38
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Frequency Allocation Strategies
Frequency Allocation Strategies
From mathematical point of view, frequency allocation is an optimization problem:
For a certain number of cells, frequencies have to be assigned in such a way that not only
interference is avoided but also the total number of frequencies needed is as low as possible.
The effectiveness of a particular assignment (frequency plan) can be expressed by a so called cost
value, a value which is tried to be minimized during allocation procedure.
Manual frequency allocation:
• In general, a manual frequency allocation is not easy.
• During manual allocation, often the available frequency band is grouped into so called
frequency groups.
• These different frequency groups are assigned to the different cells of a regular cluster.
Note: Real cell structures are mostly not regular.
J Advantages of the frequency group concept:
It allows an easy future addition of further TRX(s) i.e. a future capacity increase does not
require a complete re-planning of the area.
L Disadvantages of the frequency group concept:
It offers less flexibility concerning radio network optimization.
MN 1790 4 - 39
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Frequency Allocation Strategies - Examples
Frequency Allocation Strategies - Examples
1. example: 4/12 reuse pattern
ð per cluster: 4 sites (with 3 sectors each)
ð 12 frequency groups: A1, B1, C1, D1, A2, B2, C2, D2, A3, B3, C3, D3
using the frequencies: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 …..
A1
A2
A3
B1
B3
B2 C2
C3
D1
D2
D3
C1
MN 1790 4 - 40
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Frequency Allocation Strategies - Examples
Frequency Allocation Strategies - Examples
2. example: 1/3 reuse pattern
ð per cluster: 1 site (with 3 sectors)
ð 3 frequency groups: 1 2 3
using the frequencies: 1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
10 11 …
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
3
1
2
3
MN 1790 4 - 41
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Frequency Allocation Strategies - Examples
Frequency Allocation Strategies - Examples
3. example: 1/1 reuse pattern
ð per cluster: 1 site (with 3 sectors)
ð only 1 frequency group: 1
using the frequencies: 1 2 3 4 5 …
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
MN 1790 4 - 42
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Tool supported Frequency Allocation
Tool supported Frequency Allocation
Since real cell structures are mostly not regular, other approaches than assigning frequency
groups (manually) to regular clusters must be used:
Tool supported frequency allocation:
Required input data:
• Interference (frequency separation) matrix
• Number of Transceivers per cell (derived from a traffic analysis)
• Frequencies which shall not be used for assignment
Algorithms, used for frequency assignment:
• Graph colouring heuristics
• Randomized saturation degree heuristic and local search
• Neural network algorithm
• Two-phase algorithm
• (Intelligent) local search algorithm (based on combinatorial optimization theory)
• …
MN 1790 4 - 43
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The algorithms, used in the different frequency planning tools, often contain random processes which
lead to slightly different results (a few percent) in case that these algorithms will be run several times.
ðA criterion is needed, which shows how good a specific assignment is. The lower bound is such a
criterion. It can also be used to compare different assignment algorithms.
Tool supported Frequency Allocation
Tool supported Frequency Allocation
MN 1790 4 - 44
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Interference Analysis
Interference Analysis
Manual interference analysis:
Switching off base stations temporarily to find out interferer(s)
• Absolutely not easy
• In general very time consuming
• In difficult situations nearly impossible to find out the interferer(s)
Interference analysis using special measurement equipment:
The high performance measurement equipment allow a data capturing even during driving.
The analysis of the data can be done on- or off-line.
The measurement principle is based for example on the non-synchronicity of the 51 multiframes
coming from different BTS. The time-offset of the different 51 multiframes coming from the
different BTS is used as a fingerprint to find out the interferers.
MN 1790 4 - 45
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Interference Analysis
Interference Analysis
The 51 multiframe:
The following figure shows the 51 multiframe for a combined BCCH.
F S
B C
F S
C C
F S
D
0
D
1
F S
D
2
D
3
F S
A
0
A
1
I
51 TDMA fames = 235.4 ms
D
3
RR A2
A
3
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RR
D
0
D
1
D
2
D
3
RR A0
A
1
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RR
D
0
D
1
D
2
F S
B C
F S
C C
F S
D
0
D
1
F S
D
2
D
3
F S
A
2
A
3
I
UL
DL
MN 1790 4 - 46
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Interference Analysis
Interference Analysis
BTS-7
BTS-5
BTS-11
51 multiframe of BTS-5
51 multiframe of BTS-7
51 multiframe of BTS-11
T
51
start time
0 235400
T
5
1
,
B
T
S
-
5
T
5
1
,
B
T
S
-
1
1
T
5
1
,
B
T
S
-
7
MN 1790 5 - 1
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Increase of Network Coverage: Contents
Increase of Network Coverage: Contents
• Repeaters and repeater implementation
• Repeater Types
• Repeater Characteristics
• Advantages and disadvantages
• Problems: Decoupling
• Problems: Time Delay
• Influences of repeaters on BTS-capacity
• Influence of repeaters on neighbor cell relationships
• Influence of repeaters on interference situation
• Repeater and Link Budget
• Handling of repeaters in planning tools
• O&M Systems for repeaters
• Further methods and techniques to increase coverage
• Exercises
MN 1790 5 - 2
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Repeaters and repeater implementation
Repeaters and repeater implementation
Repeater: full duplex RF amplifier to extend the coverage area of a base station, only layer 1 of
OSI model (transparent for protocols).
Receiving, amplifying and retransmitting signals from donor base station (DL) and from mobile
stations (UL) with or without frequency conversion.
f
UL
f
UL
f
UL
f
UL
f
DL
f
DL
f
DL
f
DL
amplifier
service
antenna
pick-up
antenna
donor BTS
MN 1790 5 - 3
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Repeaters and repeater implementation
Repeaters and repeater implementation
GSM Protocols for BSS
BTS
OMC-B
MSC BSC
OMC-S
x
RSL O&M L2ML
LAPD
L1
DT
AP
BSS
MAP
BSSAP
SCCP
MTP
LAPDm
L1
RR MM CM
(CC,
SS,
SMS)
CCS7
MN 1790 5 - 4
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Repeaters and repeater implementation
Repeaters and repeater implementation
Application fields of repeaters
Closing coverage holes:
Shadowing
Tunnels
Indoor applications:
Railway stations
Airports, Shopping malls
Rural area and line coverage:
Small town,
Streets through rural area
Interim solution until new BTS is installed
MN 1790 5 - 5
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Repeaters and repeater implementation
Repeaters and repeater implementation
Closing coverage holes:
Shadowing due to mountains or
other obstacle
Line coverage:
Desert road or railway
⇒saving costs
Coverage limitation by surroundings
(winding road through forest)
MN 1790 5 - 6
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Repeaters and repeater implementation
Repeaters and repeater implementation
Indoor coverage:
Penetration loss results in
• Minimal additional interference
• Increase of decoupling
Rural area coverage:
e.g. small town
Penetration loss results in
• Minimal additional interference
• Increase of decoupling
MN 1790 5 - 7
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Repeater Types
Repeater Types
Wideband Repeaters (Boosters):
No frequency band or channels selectable,
broad bandwidth amplified
Band-selective Repeaters:
Frequency band selected (e.g. UL/ DL for GSM900 or GSM 1800)
No frequency changes, if frequencies at donor BTS are added or changed
Channel-selective Repeaters:
One or several frequency channels can be selected
Only wanted channels are amplified
MN 1790 5 - 8
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Repeater Types
Repeater Types
Principal bandpass filter curves for different repeater types:
Power
Frequency
Channel
selective
Band
selective
Wideband
UL Band (e.g.890-915 MHz)
Channel:200 kHz
DL Band (e.g.935-960 MHz)
Channel:200 kHz
40 dBm
MN 1790 5 - 9
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Repeater Types
Repeater Types
Other classification of repeater types:
• On frequency repeaters
• Frequency shifting repeaters
• Fiber optic repeaters
On frequency repeaters (RF Repeater, Booster, for cell enhances)
f
UL
f
UL
f
UL
f
UL
f
DL
f
DL
f
DL
f
DL
Decoupling has to be measured manually before gain can be set.
MN 1790 5 - 10
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Repeater Types
Repeater Types
Frequency shifting repeater
Antenna isolation problem avoided
(Gain up to 100 dB with much lower antenna isolation possible)
⇒Coverage extension in rural areas
f
L1(UL)
f
DL
/ f
UL
Remote unit
f
DL
/ f
UL
f
UL
f
DL
f
L2(DL)
Repeater
unit
at base station
MN 1790 5 - 11
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Repeater Types
Repeater Types
Fiber optic repeater (band or channel selective)
Star option: Remotes Master Unit
Daisy chain:
Remotes Master Unit
f
DL
/ f
UL
Remote unit
f
DL
/ f
UL
f
UL
f
DL
Master Unit
Service antenna
Donor BTS
Fiber optic cable
MN 1790 5 - 12
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Repeater Types
Repeater Types
Optical Systems:
• For many frequency bands and systems (GSM, CDMA, TETRA,...) available
• Multi-channel, multi-technology integrated units
• Multiple users share same system (e.g. pre-distorted linear amplifiers)
• Multi-carrier/-band system (high quality of optical transceivers/receivers)
• Output power from 10 mW to 30 W
• Remote control of all units through master unit
• Central O&M can be used
MN 1790 5 - 13
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Repeater Characteristics
Repeater Characteristics
Typical:
Output power: 20 – 40 dBm
Maximum input power: e.g. 10 dBm
Impedance: 50 Ohm
Return loss: ≥ 14 dB
Bandwidth: e.g. 4 – 35 MHz
Out of band gain: ≤ 50 dB / 0.4 MHz (from band edge)
≤ 40 dB / 0.6 MHz
≤ 35 dB / 1 MHz
≤ 25 dB / 5 MHz
Intermodulation products/ ≤ -36 dBm / < 1 GHz
spurious emissions: ≤ -30 dBm / > 1 GHz
Sensitivity: ≤ -107 dBm (S/N = 9 dB)
Gain: 60-90 dB
Gain adjustment range: e.g. 30 -50 dB / 2 dB steps
Propagation delay: < 6 µs
Type of connectors: e.g. N-female
Power supply: e.g. (230V/ 50-60Hz) or (+16.8..+60V DC) or (+77..+138V DC)
Power consumption: e.g. 30 –200 W
Temperature range: -20 °C to +60 °C
Dimension (h/w/d): e.g. 300 x 310 x 150 mm (band-selective)
e.g. 400 x 300 x 200 mm (channel selective)
Weight: e.g. 10-25 kg
MN 1790 5 - 14
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Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages:
• No new frequency allocation necessary
• No microwave or leased line connection necessary because donor link realized via Um
• Reduction of mobile transmit power
• Increasing cell size (less handovers)
• Cheaper than BTS (often more economical to fill coverage holes)
• Small, easy to find suitable site
• Easy implemented in existing network
• Often no site permission necessary
• Low power consumption (e.g. band selective filter: 15-50W, channel selective filter: 200
W (4 channels))
Disadvantages:
• No increase of capacity, decrease of capacity density
• Decrease in Link Budget (no RX diversity)
• Decoupling problems
• Time delay problems
• Complicates network planning
MN 1790 5 - 15
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Problems: Decoupling
Problems: Decoupling
Decoupling: Receive and transmit antenna of repeater must be separated.
No recommendable installation
Installation with good decoupling
Rule of thumb:
Separation S ~ passband gain G + 10 dB
(no oscillations)
Repeater antennas for BS- and MS-side
MN 1790 5 - 16
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Problems: Decoupling
Problems: Decoupling
P
0
´ – P
1
´ ≥ 15 dB
P
0
: Power at antenna
P
0
´: Power at repeater input
P
1
: Power at antenna
P
1
´: Power at repeater input
f 1
f 1
P
0
P
1
coupling
P
0
´ – P
1
´
Repeater
MN 1790 5 - 17
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Problems: Decoupling
Problems: Decoupling
Decoupling is influenced by
•Radio frequency (e.g. GSM 900, GSM 1800)
•Antenna distance
•Vertical distance of antennas
•Beam pattern of antenna
•Isolation material between antennas
•Reflections (building, wall, ground, surrounding)
These Influences cannot be calculated !
Decoupling has to be measured !
MN 1790 5 - 18
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Problems: Decoupling
Problems: Decoupling
Measurement with repeater
switched on and off
f 1
f 1
P
0
P
1
coupling
P
0
´ – P
1
´
Repeater
measurement
equipment
test port
extension
cable
Measurement:
MN 1790 5 - 19
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Problems: Decoupling
Problems: Decoupling
S: Separation between MS-side and BS-side antenna (> 10 dB)
L
MS
: Cable loss on MS-side of repeater
L
BS
: Cable loss on BS-side of repeater
G
BS/MS
: Gain of BS-side antenna in direction of MS-side antenna
G
MS/BS
: Gain of MS-side antenna in direction of BS-side antenna
P
0
´+G-L
MS
P
0
´+G-L
MS
+G
BS/MS
P
0
´+G-L
MS
+G
BS/MS
-S
P
0
´
P
0
´+G
Gain G
P
0
´+G-L
MS
+G
BS/MS
-S+G
MS/BS
P
0
´+G-L
MS
+G
BS/MS
-S+G
MS/BS
-L
BS
P
0
´-P
1
´ = -G+L
MS
-G
BS/MS
+S-G
MS/BS
+L
BS
Difference in power level
MN 1790 5 - 20
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Problems: Decoupling
Problems: Decoupling
To prevent oscillations:
Antenna decoupling A
d
Gain G
A
d
= L
MS
-G
BS/MS
+S-G
MS/BS
+L
BS
= P
0
´-P
1
´+G
Repeater gain G = A
d
– 15 dB
If A
d
– G < 15 dB,
repeater gain must be reduced,
Coverage area is reduced.
Repeater gain has also to be reduced
if signal from donor side is higher than
required signal (e.g. –60 dBm) for
maximum repeater transmit power.
MN 1790 5 - 21
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Problems: Decoupling
Problems: Decoupling
Calculation for a repeater installation:
P
0
´ = P
REC
+G
BS
-L
BS
G=A
d
– 15 dB
P
OUT
= P
0
´+G
⇒P
OUT
= P
REC
+G
BS
-L
BS
+A
d
– 15 dB
EIRP= P
OUT
-L
MS
+G
MS
⇒EIRP= P
REC
+G
BS
-L
BS
+A
d
– 15 dB -L
MS
+ G
Ms
P
0
´: Power at repeater input
P
REC
: Measured power level, which could be received from
donor BTS at point of repeater installation
A
d
: Antenna decoupling (measured between antennas including
connected cables)
P
OUT
: Output power DL at repeater output
G
BS
: Gain of BS-side antenna
G
MS
: Gain of MS-side antenna
EIRP: Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power
Example:
P
REC
=-65dBm
G
BS
= 15 dB
G
MS
= 15 dB
L
BS
= 3 dB
L
MS
= 2 dB
A
d
= 94 dB
⇒G =79 dB
⇒P
OUT
= 26 dBm (400mW)
⇒EIRP= 39 dBm (8 W)
MN 1790 5 - 22
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Problems: Decoupling
Problems: Decoupling
Example of Indoor installation
Repeater/
Coupler
Outdoor antenna
Indoor antennas
Floor 2
Floor 1
Ground Floor
MN 1790 5 - 23
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Problems: Time Delay
Problems: Time Delay
T
total
= T
BS-R
+T
G
+T
R-MS
Total time delay
Limitation for total time delay is given by GSM:
No interference between consecutive time slots allowed
⇒Timing advance (max. 63 for maximum cell sizes of 35 km)
⇒τ
total
max
= 116 µs (63 x 3.7 µs /2)
Especially important for cascading repeaters !
Repeater
group delay T
G
T
R-MS
T
BS-R
MS
MN 1790 5 - 24
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Problems: Time Delay
Problems: Time Delay
T
total
= T
BS-R1
+T
R1-R2
+T
R2-R3
+... + T
R(n-1)-Rn
+n⋅T
G
+T
Rn-MS
Cascading repeaters
Addition of repeater in cascading line:
⇒ Increase of total time delay
⇒ Increase of total noise figure
Rep.1
T
Rn-MS
T
BS-R1
Rep.2 Rep.3
T
R1-R2 T
G
T
G
T
G
Rep.n
T
G
T
R2-R3
MS
MN 1790 5 - 25
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Problems: Time Delay
Problems: Time Delay
Difference in time delay:
(T
BS-R
+T
G
+T
R-MS
) – T
BS-MS
< τ
max
MS receives signal from BTS and from repeater
⇒ Intersymbol Interference
⇒sufficient level difference necessary
⇒differential time delay difference < 16 µs
Repeater
group delay T
G
T
R-MS
T
BS-MS
T
BS-R
MS
MN 1790 5 - 26
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Problems: Time Delay
Problems: Time Delay
T
BS-R
+T
G
+T
R-MS
– T
BS-MS
< τ
max
Repeater
BTS
MS
T
BS-R
/2
⇒T
BS-MS
= T
R-MS
⇒T
BS-R
= τ
max
–T
G
⇒T
BS-R
= 16µs – 6µs
⇒T
BS-R
= 10µs
⇒BTS –Repeater distance: 3 km
T
BS-R
+T
G
+T
R-MS
– T
BS-MS
> τ
max
MN 1790 5 - 27
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Problems: Time Delay
Problems: Time Delay
T
R-MS
– T
BS-MS
< τ
max
-T
BS-R
-T
G
Repeater
BTS
MS
T
BS-R
/2
⇒T
R-MS
- T
BS-MS
< 0
T
BS-R
+T
G
+T
R-MS
– T
BS-MS
= τ
max
⇒T
BS-R
> τ
max
–T
G
⇒T
BS-R
> 10µs
⇒BTS –Repeater distance > 3 km

max
–T
G
)/2
T
R-MS
– T
BS-MS
> τ
max
-T
BS-R
-T
G
MN 1790 5 - 28
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⇒T
R-MS
- T
BS-MS
> 0
T
BS-R
+T
G
+T
R-MS
– T
BS-MS
= τ
max
⇒T
BS-R
< τ
max
–T
G
⇒T
BS-R
< 10µs
⇒BTS –Repeater distance < 3 km
T
R-MS
– T
BS-MS
< τ
max
-T
BS-R
-T
G
Repeater
BTS
MS
T
BS-R
/2

max
–T
G
)/2
T
R-MS
– T
BS-MS
> τ
max
-T
BS-R
-T
G
Problems: Time Delay
Problems: Time Delay
MN 1790 5 - 29
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Problems: Time Delay
Problems: Time Delay
Concerning time delay and level difference for cell planning:
Conclusion from time delay considerations:
Planning of the equal level boundary b must cross the virtual line
between BTS and repeater at b
0
b
0
≤ c (τ
max
–T
G
)/2
from the repeater side.
c = 3 x 10
8
m/s, τ
max
= 16 µs, T
G
= 6 µs
⇒ b
0
(max) = 1.5 km
On other points b of the equal level boundary the maximum allowed distance
increases with distance from b
0.
MN 1790 5 - 30
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Influences of repeaters on BTS-capacity
Influences of repeaters on BTS-capacity
Usage of Repeaters does not enhance the capacity
Density of capacity (Erlang/km) is decreased
BTS 1
BTS14
Rep
Rep
Rep
Coverage Area without Repeaters Additional coverage area due to Repeaters
Calculation of capacity for new coverage area necessary !
MN 1790 5 - 31
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Influences of repeaters on BTS-capacity
Influences of repeaters on BTS-capacity
Capacity for BTS including additional coverage area (road):
Subscriber in BTS coverage area: population x penetration rate = 2000 x 0.45 = 900
+
Subscribers on road (busy hour): Repeater coverage area along road: 4 km, every 20 m a car, 2
way street, 2 persons per car: 800 persons x penetration rate = 360 subscribers
= 1260 Subscribers
MN 1790 5 - 32
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Influences of repeaters on BTS-capacity
Influences of repeaters on BTS-capacity
Traffic Assumption: Load per subscriber 25 mErl TCH
5 mErl SDCCH
:
4.46 10
5.16 11
:
22.05 32
:
32.54 44
31.66 43
30.77 42
22.91 33
7.35 14
6.61 13
5.88 12
Erlang B for p= 1 % Number of trunks
For 1260 subscribers: (with repeater)
31.5 Erlang for TCH
+ 6.3 Erlang for SDCCH
⇒43 + 13 trunks (time Slots) necessary
⇒7 TRX
Erlang B table for Blocking probability: 1 %
For 900 subscribers: (without repeater)
22.5 Erlang for TCH
+ 4.5 Erlang for SDCCH
⇒33 + 10 trunks (time Slots) necessary
⇒6 TRX
MN 1790 5 - 33
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Influences of repeaters on neighbor cell relationships
Influences of repeaters on neighbor cell relationships
BTS 1
BTS14
Rep
Rep
Rep
Cells can become new neighbor due to the use of repeaters
⇒Checking of adjacent cell settings in BSC data base
MN 1790 5 - 34
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Influences of repeaters on interference situation
Influences of repeaters on interference situation
f1
f1
f1
f1
Repeater increases interference area of BTS
Interference between pick-up antenna and other BTS
⇒directional antennas needed
MN 1790 5 - 35
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Influences of repeaters on interference situation
Influences of repeaters on interference situation
f1
f1
f1
f1
EIRP
(dBm)
EIRP
(dBm)
without
Repeaters
with
Repeaters
Increase of C/I
⇒ Tighter frequency re-use possible
MN 1790 5 - 36
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Repeater and Link Budget
Repeater and Link Budget
Link budget on MS-side: Uplink
Repeater
16 dBi Antenna gain on MS-side of repeater
- 3 dB Attenuation of feeder cable
-107 dBm RX sensitivity of repeater
:
33 dBm Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power of [dBm]
- 3 dB Body Loss [dB]
⇒Allowed path loss+fading margin = 33-3+107-3+16 = 150 dB
MN 1790 5 - 37
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Repeater and Link Budget
Repeater and Link Budget
Link budget on MS-side: Downlink
43 dBm Maximum transmit power of repeater
- 3 dB Attenuation of feeder cable
16 dBi Antenna gain on MS-side of repeater
:
- 102 dBm MS RX sensitivity
- 3 dB Body Loss [dB]
Allowed path loss Uplink = Downlink = 150 dB
⇒Required transmit power of repeater = 3 –102-16+3+150 = 38 dBm
Repeater
MN 1790 5 - 38
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Repeater and Link Budget
Repeater and Link Budget
-150dBm Path loss+fading margin (MS-side)
-102dBm MS RX sensitivity
-3dB Cable loss (repeater BS-side)
18dBi Antenna gain (BS-side of repeater)
-107dBm Path loss of feeder link
16dBi Antenna gain of BS
-3dB Feeder cable loss
47 dBm Transmit power of BS
-3dB Cable loss (repeater MS-side)
90dB Repeater gain
16dBi antenna gain (MS-side of repeater)
-3dB Body loss
Complete Link Budget (MS-Rep.-BS): DL
-4dB Duplexer + Feeder cable loss
33dBm EIRP of MS
-104dBm BS RX sensitivity
-150dBm Path loss+fading margin (MS-side)
-3dB Cable loss (repeater BS-side)
18dBi Antenna gain (BS-side of repeater)
-107dBm Path loss of feeder link
16dBi Antenna gain of BS
-3dB Feeder cable loss
-3dB Cable loss (repeater MS-side)
90dB Repeater gain
16dBi antenna gain (MS-side of repeater)
-3dB Body loss
Complete Link Budget (MS-Rep.-BS): UL
MN 1790 5 - 39
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Handling of repeaters in planning tools
Handling of repeaters in planning tools
Special handling of repeaters in planning tools is necessary,
if planning tool does not support repeater planning
⇒Manual planning of
• frequency
• adjacent cells
• feeder link
⇒Manual an analysis of
• interference
• intersymbol interference
⇒Coverage planning for repeater same as for BTS
• site identifier of repeater and donor BTS,
• EIRP
• TRX requirement = 0
MN 1790 5 - 40
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Handling of repeaters in planning tools
Handling of repeaters in planning tools
Implementing a repeater in a planning tool:
• Calculation of coverage, adjacent cells, interference matrix for BTS and repeater
(like for BTS)
• Combine coverage areas, adjacent cell lists and interference matrices between
repeater an donor BTS
• Calculation of frequency plan and BSS parameters if n o repeaters were used
MN 1790 5 - 41
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Handling of repeaters in planning tools
Handling of repeaters in planning tools
For correct implementation of interference matrices:
• Increased coverage area of repeater has to be added to its donor BTS
• Interferers of repeater has to be added to interferer list of donor BTS
• Repeater in interferer lists of other BTSs have to be replaced by donor BTS
• All repeaters have to be deleted from interference matrix
donor BTS
donor BTS
=
+

MN 1790 5 - 42
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Handling of repeaters in planning tools
Handling of repeaters in planning tools
For correct adjacent cell relations:
• All adjacent cells between donor BTS and repeater have to be deleted
• All adjacent cells of repeater to donor BTS have to be added
• In adjacent cell lists of other BTSs the repeater has to be replaced by its donor BTS
• All repeaters have to be deleted from adjacent cell lists
BTS1
Rep
Donor BTS and repeater are treated as one cell
MN 1790 5 - 43
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O & M Systems for repeaters
O & M Systems for repeaters
O & M functions:
- Tuning all settings of the repeater (e.g. channel, power,...)
- Monitoring parameters and alarms of repeater (e.g. temperature,
power amplifier, power supply,...)
- Supervising actual coverage (quality, handover evaluation, ...)
- Configuration management (e.g. software updates)
O & M link establishment:
- locally with laptop e.g. via RS232 interface
- remote to central OMC
- via GSM air interface (SMS)
- via fixed telephone line
- via modem
MN 1790 5 - 44
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Further methods and techniques to increase coverage
Further methods and techniques to increase coverage
General aspects:
• Implementation of more sites (micro cell implementation)
• Increase of output power (keep in mind: link balanced!)
DL aspects:
• Increase of output power (“everywhere”, to not interfere the reuse cell)
• Usage of High Power Amplifiers (instead of normal amplifiers)
• Re-consider combiner types (filter combiner have lower losses than duplex or hybrid combiner)
• Check antenna types, tilts und azimuths (are the calculated values the real values?)
• Usage of transmit diversity
UL aspects:
• Usage of antenna diversity
• Implementation of TMAs
MN 1790 5 - 45
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Further methods and techniques to increase coverage
Further methods and techniques to increase coverage
Further aspects:
• Implementation of repeater solutions
• Implementation of extended cell concepts, but only in appropriate surroundings using appropriate
frequencies (900 MHz range)
• Check parameter settings for the idle as well as for the connected mode e.g.:
RX_Lev_Access_Minimum, RX_LEV_Minimum, MS_TXPWR_MAX
• Really use concepts increasing gain e.g. Power Control, Frequency Hopping, Discontinuous
Transmission
• Keep cable losses small
• Don’t limit cell size unnecessarily by wrong distance settings
MN 1790 5 - 46
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Exercise 1: (Decoupling Problem)
Calculate the vertical distance between
the repeater antennas on Ms and BS-side.
For GSM 900 and GSM 1800, if the repeater gain
is 70 dB, and the cable losses are 3 dB
for both repeater types.
Vertical Separation Sv (without G
BS/MS
/G
MS/BS
)
Approximations:
Sv ~ 47 + 40 log d (900 MHz)
Sv ~ 59 + 40 log d (1800 MHz)
G: 70 dB, L
MS
= L
BS
= 3 dB
Exercises
Exercises
Gain G
d
MN 1790 5 - 47
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Exercise 2: (Time Delay Problem)
How many cascading repeaters can be used, if following assumptions are made:
All repeaters shall have 3 km distance to each other. Distance between donor BTS and first
repeater is 5 km and distance between last repeater and MS is 7 km.
The group delay caused by the repeaters is 6 µs.
Exercises
Exercises
MN 1790 6 - 1
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Increase of Network Capacity: Contents
Increase of Network Capacity: Contents
• General Remarks
• Spectrum Increase
• Addition of TRXs
• Cell Sectorization
• Cell Splitting
• Decrease of frequency re-use distance
• Implementation of Half Rate
• Adaptive Multi Rate
• Micro Cell implementation
• Hierarchical Cell Structure planning
• Multiple Band Operation
• Multiple Mode Operation
• Handover Boundaries
• Cell load dependent handover boundaries
MN 1790 6 - 2
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General Remarks
General Remarks
Lack of capacity
⇒Congestion
Lack of capacity
⇒Congestion
Increase of capacity
⇒ Increase of noise /
interference
Increase of capacity
⇒ Increase of noise /
interference
Decrease of speech
quality and data
transmission
Increase of call drop rate
Decrease of speech
quality and data
transmission
Increase of call drop rate
Queuing (longer time for call
setup)
Due TCH blocking services
are not available
Increase of call drop rate
Queuing (longer time for call
setup)
Due TCH blocking services
are not available
Increase of call drop rate
Relation between capacity and quality:
MN 1790 6 - 3
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Spectrum Increase
Spectrum Increase
Capacity Increase: Increase of total number of frequency carriers
⇒Additional license for another part of frequency spectrum
960
MHz
Extended
GSM 900
Uplink Downlink
880
MHz
915
MHz
925
MHz
DCS
1800
1710
MHz
1785
MHz
1805
MHz
1880
MHz
Frequency spectrum licensed by one operator
Additional licensed frequency spectrum e.g. in second frequency band
J Advantages of spectrum increase
Total capacity increased
No new sites
L Disadvantages of spectrum increase:
Cost of new license
New equipment, especially if additional
spectrum in different frequency band
MN 1790 6 - 4
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Addition of TRXs
Addition of TRXs
TRX-0
TRX-1

TRX-0
TRX-1
TRX-2
TRX-3
Increasing capacity by adding of TRXs in cells
J Advantages of adding TRXs
Capacity increased
No new sites
Easy implementation in network
L Disadvantages of adding TRXs
Changes in frequency planning
Limitation due to available spectrum
Increase of interference/noise
New equipment for TRXs
MN 1790 6 - 5
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Cell Sectorization
Cell Sectorization
Sectorization: Increasing density of capacity
J Advantages of sectorization:
Capacity density increased
Usage of existing equipment,
infrastructure
No new sites
If high antenna gain is used ⇒
increase of coverage
L Disadvantages of sectorization:
Changes in frequency planning
Partly new equipment needed,
Rearrangement of equipment
Outage time during
installation/reconfiguration

MN 1790 6 - 6
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J Cell Splitting: Increasing density of capacity by increasing density of
cells (macro cells)
Cell Splitting
Cell Splitting

L Disadvantages of cell splitting:
Changes in frequency planning
New equipment needed
New sites necessary
Outage time during installation/reconfiguration
Only useful if traffic requirements are regular in this area
MN 1790 6 - 7
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Limitation of site density (macro cell):
Max. about 3 sites per km2 (frequency re-use, handover for fast moving mobiles)
Max. traffic about 50 Erlang per km2 (if frequency spectrum of 5-10 MHz is used)
Cell Splitting
Cell Splitting
Example: Cell split 1:3
Re-use of original sites (cells fed from corner)
Antenna directions on original sites must be changed by thirty degrees
⇒Capacity three higher per area unit, cell area three times smaller

MN 1790 6 - 8
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Decrease of frequency re-use distance
Decrease of frequency re-use distance
Capacity increase due to decrease of frequency re-use distance
(decreasing cluster size)
Decrease of frequency re-use distance ⇒ Interference reduction necessary
GSM features:
• DTX: Discontinuous transmission
• FH: Frequency hopping
• PC: Power Control
J Advantages decreasing frequency re-
use distance
Capacity increased
Easy implementation
No new frequencies
No new sites
L Disadvantage decreasing frequency re-
use distance
Not much increase possible, if BCCH
frequency re-use is limitation (for very
small spectrum)
MN 1790 6 - 9
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Implementation of Half Rate
Implementation of Half Rate
T T T T T T T T T T T T SA T T T T T T T T T T T T -
T t T t T t T t T t T t SA t T t T t T t T t T t T sa
26 TDMA Multiframe = 120 ms
UL / DL: Traffic Channel (TCH/F)
UL / DL: Traffic Channel (TCH/H)
T - TCH - Traffic Channel
t - TCH - Traffic Channel
SA - SACCH - Slow Associated Control Channel
sa - SACCH - Slow Associated Control Channel
TCH Multiframe for Full rate and Half rate
MN 1790 6 - 10
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U 1 U 2 U 3 U 4 U 5 U 6 U 7 U 8 U 9 U10 U11 U12 U13 U14 U15 U16
Implementation of Half Rate
Implementation of Half Rate
Capacity gain using cell load dependent activation of half rate
User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5 User 6 User 7 User 8
TRX
using
FR
TRX
using
HR
Assignment of Half rate channels dependent on load in cell:
Low load ⇒Full Rate TCH assigned (high quality)
High load ⇒Half Rate TCH assigned (capacity gain)
HR assigned, if threshold for activation of HR
depending on percentage of busy TCH in cell exceeds
J Advantages of using Half rate
Capacity increased
Easy implementation
No new frequencies
No new sites
L Disadvantage of using Half rate
Possible decrease of speech quality
MN 1790 6 - 11
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Implementation of Half rate
Implementation of Half rate
Capacity gain using reallocation of Half rate channels
FR channel requested: no free capacity
FR channel requested: HR channel rearrangement
HR HR HR HR FR FR FR FR HR HR
HR HR HR HR FR FR FR FR HR HR
HR HR HR HR FR FR FR FR HR HR
FR
FR
MN 1790 6 - 12
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Adaptive Multi Rate: Introduction
Adaptive Multi Rate: Introduction
Voice conversion in MS (BTS)
(A/D conversion)
segmentation
speech coding
interleaving
channel coding
ciphering
burst formation
modulation
transmission
(microphone)
Channel coding:
air interface is not reliable, therefore:
adding redundant information to TRAU frame
importance of bits: class 1a
class 1b
class 2
different protection of different classes
MN 1790 6 - 13
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Adaptive Multi Rate: Conventional channel coding
Adaptive Multi Rate: Conventional channel coding
Channel coding for full rate speech:
53 bits 50 bits class 1a
132 bits class 1b
block
coder
+ 3 parity bits
4 tail bits
convolutional
coder
1:2
78 bits class 2
378 bits
456
bits
50 class 1a very important bits
132 class 1b important bits
78 class 2 less important bits
input output
260 bit in 20 ms 456 bit in 20 ms
MN 1790 6 - 14
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Adaptive Multi Rate: Channel coding
Adaptive Multi Rate: Channel coding
Net and gross rate for traffic channels:
Gross rate: 22.8 kbit/s (11.4 kbit/s)
Net rate: depends on channel coding!
Net rate for full rate speech Channel coding for full rate speech
Net rate for enhanced full rate (EFR) speech Channel coding for EFR speech
Net rate for half rate speech
Channel coding for half rate speech
MN 1790 6 - 15
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Adaptive Multi Rate: Channel coding
Adaptive Multi Rate: Channel coding
Influence of channel coding:
Net rate
Link
quality
MN 1790 6 - 16
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Adaptive Multi Rate: Codecs Overview
Adaptive Multi Rate: Codecs Overview
AMR offers flexible speech codecs:
4.75 kbit/s 4.75 kbit/s
5.15 kbit/s 5.15 kbit/s
5.90 kbit/s 5.90 kbit/s
6.70 kbit/s 6.70 kbit/s
7.40 kbit/s (IS-136 EFR) 7.40 kbit/s (IS-136 EFR)
7.95 kbit/s 7.95 kbit/s
----------- 10.2 kbit/s
----------- 12.2 kbit/s (GSM EFR)
AMR half rate codec (TCH/AHS) AMR full rate codec (TCH/AFS)
In-band signalling used for codec mode adaptation during call
Channel mode can be changed during call
MN 1790 6 - 17
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Adaptive Multi Rate: Codecs Overview
Adaptive Multi Rate: Codecs Overview
12.2 10.2 7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75 kbit/s
AMR Full Rate Codecs
AMR Half Rate Codecs
7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75
MN 1790 6 - 18
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Adaptive Multi Rate: Performance
Adaptive Multi Rate: Performance
AMR Full Rate Codec
Performance
MOS = Mean Opinion Score
Clean speech
12.2 10.2 7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75 kbit/s
Experiment 1a - Test Results
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Conditions
MOS
EFR
12.2
10.2
7.95
7.4
6.7
5.9
5.15
4.75
EFR 4.01 4.01 3.65 3.05 1.53
12.2 4.01 4.06 4.13 3.93 3.44 1.46
10.2 4.06 3.96 4.05 3.80 2.04
7.95 3.91 4.01 4.08 3.96 3.26 1.43
7.4 3.83 3.94 3.98 3.84 3.11 1.39
6.7 3.77 3.80 3.86 3.29 1.87
5.9 3.72 3.69 3.59 2.20
5.15 3.50 3.58 3.44 2.43
4.75 3.50 3.52 3.43 2.66
No Errors C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB C/I= 4 dB C/I= 1 dB
MN 1790 6 - 19
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Adaptive Multi Rate: Performance
Adaptive Multi Rate: Performance
AMR Half Rate Codec
Performance
MOS = Mean Opinion Score
Clean speech
7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75 kbit/s
Experiment 1b - Test Results
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Conditions
MOS
EFR
7.95
7.4
6.7
5.9
5.15
4.75
FR
HR
EFR 4.21 4.21 3.74 3.34 1.58
7.95 4.11 4.04 3.96 3.37 2.53 1.60
7.4 3.93 3.93 3.95 3.52 2.74 1.78
6.7 3.94 3.90 3.53 3.10 2.22 1.21
5.9 3.68 3.82 3.72 3.19 2.57 1.33
5.15 3.70 3.60 3.60 3.38 2.85 1.84
4.75 3.59 3.46 3.42 3.30 3.10 2.00
FR 3.50 3.50 3.14 2.74 1.50
HR 3.35 3.24 2.80 1.92
No Errors C/I=19 dB C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB C/I= 4 dB
MN 1790 6 - 20
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Adaptive Multi Rate: Performance
Adaptive Multi Rate: Performance
AMR Full Rate Codec
Performance under error condition
Delta MOS = Difference to Mean Opinion Score
Clean speech
12.2 10.2 7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75 kbit/s
Perceived quality (MOS) degradation as a function of the FER
(FR Tests in Clean Speech)
-3.00
-2.50
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
0.001% 0.010% 0.100% 1.000% 10.000% 100.000%
FER
∆ MOS
12.2
10.2
7.95 FR
7.4 FR
6.7 FR
5.9 FR
5.15 FR
4.75 FR
MN 1790 6 - 21
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Adaptive Multi Rate: Performance
Adaptive Multi Rate: Performance
AMR Half Rate Codec
Performance under error condition
Delta MOS = Difference to Mean Opinion Score
Clean speech
7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75 kbit/s
Perceived quality (MOS) degradation as a function of the FER
(HR Tests in Clean Speech)
-3.00
-2.50
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
0.001% 0.010% 0.100% 1.000% 10.000% 100.000%
FER
∆ MOS
7.95 HR
7.4 HR
6.7 HR
5.9 HR
5.15 HR
4.75 HR
MN 1790 6 - 22
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Micro Cell implementation
Micro Cell implementation
Implementation of big cells (Umbrella cells) in network:
Provide coverage at coverage gaps
Implementation of small cells (Micro cells) in network:
Additional capacity at hot spots
Load reduction for Macro/Umbrella cells
⇒Special cell reselection and handover
procedures necessary to direct traffic into micro
cell (dependent on speed of MS)
Umbrella
cell/Macro cell
Micro cell
⇒Handover to umbrella/macro cell if signal
strength or quality below threshold
MN 1790 6 - 23
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Hierachical Cell Structure planning
Hierachical Cell Structure planning
Radio Coverage layer 4 :Umbrella cell
Radio coverage layer 3: Macro cell
Radio coverage layer 2: Micro cell
Radio coverage layer 1: Pico cell
Increasing capacity by using hierachical cell structure
Different priority layers assigned to cells
⇒ Influence on handover (target cells, and ranking of target cells)
MN 1790 6 - 24
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Hierachical Cell Structure planning
Hierachical Cell Structure planning
Umbrella cell: support of fast moving mobiles
Macro cell: support of moving mobiles, typical size: some kilometers, antenna below roof top
level
Micro cell: support of slow moving mobiles, typical size: several 100 m, covering some buildings,
streets, antenna below roof top level
Pico cell: support of slow moving or not moving mobiles, typical size: some 10 m, covering part of
building
⇒Micro + Pico cells carrying typical 75 % of traffic
J Advantages of using HCS
Capacity increased (hot spots)
Interference reduction (traffic pushed in lower
layers)
Decrease of frequency re-use distance between
smaller cells (priority layers 1-2)
(No new sites if concentric cells)
L Disadvantage of using HCS
Special handover mechanism required
New sites
Additional frequency planning (Cells of different
priority layers should get different part of
available frequency spectrum due to close
proximity problem)
MN 1790 6 - 25
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Hierachical Cell Structure planning
Hierachical Cell Structure planning
Speed sensitive handover:
Pushing MS depending on its speed in corresponding priority layer
By using Timers: Handover to new available microcell delayed
Timer started Timer expired Timer expired
(1)
(2)
MN 1790 6 - 26
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Hierachical Cell Structure planning
Hierachical Cell Structure planning
Speed sensitive handover:
Pushing MS depending on its speed in corresponding priority layer
By using time dependent Handover Margin HOM(t):
time
HOM(t)
Timer started Timer expired
HOM static
Static HOM offset
dynamic HOM offset
`not attractive
target cell`
`attractive target
cell´
MN 1790 6 - 27
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Multiple Band Operation
Multiple Band Operation
Multiple band operation
J Advantages of multiple band operation
Capacity increased
Little or no outage time of existing network
DCS1800+new GSM900 ⇒cost efficient
coverage
GSM 900
DCS 1800
Multiband MS
L Disadvantage of multiple band operation
New licensed spectrum
MS must be capable of Dual band operation
MN 1790 6 - 28
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Multiple Mode Operation
Multiple Mode Operation
Multiple mode operation
Multimode MS
GSM
DECT
J Advantages of multiple mode
operation (DECT)
Good speech quality
Low cost
L Disadvantage of multiple mode
operation (DECT)
New licensed spectrum (DECT)
Small operational distance
MS must be capable of Dual mode
operation
MN 1790 6 - 29
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Handover Boundaries
Handover Boundaries
HOM = 0
HOM = 0
HOM = + 6 dB HOM = +6 dB
HOM: Handover margin for
adjacent cell
MN 1790 6 - 30
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Handover Boundaries
Handover Boundaries
HOM = +6 dB HOM = 0
HOM = 0 dB HOM = +6 dB
HOM = -6 dB HOM = 0 dB
MN 1790 6 - 31
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Cell load dependent handover boundaries
Cell load dependent handover boundaries
Directed Retry Cell load dependent HOV based on RR
SDCCH (MBCCHC)
free TCH
occupied TCH
TCH from second best cell is used in case of high TCH load / blocking of serving cell
HOV only from SDCCH to TCH
starts if all TCH are occupied
moved connection can be far away
from ideal cell border
HOV from TCH to TCH
Load threshold can be set
moved connection near to ideal cell
border
MN 1790 7 - 1
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Radio Network Optimization: Contents
Radio Network Optimization: Contents
• Reasons for the Need of Optimization
• Performance Data Measurements
• Drive Tests
• Optimization Strategies
• Optimization of Physical Parameters
• Optimization of Database Parameters
• Example Drive Tests
• Example Drive Tests: Exercises
MN 1790 7 - 2
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Reasons for the Need of Optimization
Reasons for the Need of Optimization
Network optimization is an iterative process which should improve the quality and performance of a
network and also run the network more efficiently. As in any optimization problem, also in network
optimization, the network will mostly not run optimal from the very beginning. There can be
mentioned several reasons:
• Systematic inaccuracies
• Statistical nature of the involved processes like e.g. traffic and RF propagation
• Dynamical nature of the involved processes like e.g. change of the subscriber’s telephone
behavior (e.g. SMS)
• Wrong (or only too rough) planning assumptions, input data and/or planning models
• Increasing number of subscribers
• Installation errors (for example a wrong cabling: transmitting into cell A, but receiving from
cell B)
• Hardware / software trouble
• ...
MN 1790 7 - 3
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Performance Data Measurements
Performance Data Measurements
Performance data measurements can help the network operator for example to localise problem
areas as early as possible and also to verify improvements of the network optimisation.
Concerning radio network optimisation there are related performance data measurements foreseen
by GSM (see: GSM 12.04) and in addition also vendor specific ones.
In general performance data measurements can be run continuously, periodically or sporadically, for
a long time or a short time, observing smaller or greater parts of the network.
The related counters could in principle be actualised continuously during the observation period, but
mostly a scanning method is used. Scanning method means that the system counts the number of
events not continuously but only at particular times. This leads to some uncertainty for the
measurement results. Nevertheless, the error performed can be estimated using statistical methods.
In general, the smaller the scanning interval the higher the precision of the measurement (for
constant observation periods). Typical scanning intervals are 100 ms or 500 ms.
MN 1790 7 - 4
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Performance Data Measurements
Performance Data Measurements
Condition(s) for the updating of
the counter value(s)
Counter(s)
Performance data measurement(s)
Scanner
MN 1790 7 - 5
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Drive Tests
Drive Tests
Drive tests are performed by the network operator for various reasons:
• To check the coverage in a certain area
• To check the quality of service in a certain area
• To find the answer for customer complaints
• To realise that the network is not properly running
• To verify that the network is properly running
• To verify that certain optimisation steps have been successful
• ...
Drive tests must be well prepared. Before, during and after the drive test the following steps should
be performed:
MN 1790 7 - 6
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Drive Tests
Drive Tests
• Make back-up files of the captured data
• Replay the captured data and analyse them
• Find out problem areas and problem events
• Use further post-processing tools to display the captured data more
clearly and to graphically display further values
• Perform statistics and summarise the results
After drive test
• Monitor the test equipment
• Reconnect dropped calls
• Insert notes in the recording file
• Note interesting events separately (e.g. on a piece of paper)
During drive test
• Plan the route where to drive
• Plan the time when to drive
• Determine the MS mode (idle mode/ connected mode) and also the
call strategy (long / short calls)
• Decide which values to focus on (for example: RXQUAL, RXLEV,SQI, ...)
• Select an appropriate test equipment and check the test equipment
• Think of notes which should be inserted later on in the recording file
Before drive test
MN 1790 7 - 7
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Optimization Strategies
Optimization Strategies
Before Optimization:
Clean the hardware
• Performance Data Measurements
• Customer Complaints
• Drive tests
Optimization:
1) Physical parameters
2) Database Parameters
MN 1790 7 - 8
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Optimization of Physical Parameters
Optimization of Physical Parameters
Altering antenna tilt:
• to reduce interference
• to limit coverage area
• to improve coverage (e.g. coverage weakness below main lobe)
• to improve in-building penetration
Altering the Antenna tilt must be done very carefully to really improve the situation.
Typical down-tilts are between 0° and 10°, however even higher values (up to 25°) have already
been used.
Altering antenna azimuth:
• to overcome coverage weakness between different sectors
• to reduce interference in certain directions
Increasing or decreasing antenna height:
• to reduce or improve coverage
• to reduce interference
Change of antenna type
• to achieve desired ration characteristics
MN 1790 7 - 9
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Optimization of Physical Parameters
Optimization of Physical Parameters
Addition / re-movement of TRXs:
• Depending on the real measured traffic load either TRXs can be removed (switched off or
blocked) or must be added. Not really needed TRXs may interfere other cells.
• The number of needed TRXs and also the configuration of the different channels depend on the
offered traffic, and the subscriber behaviour.
MN 1790 7 - 10
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Optimization of Physical Parameters
Optimization of Physical Parameters
Cell sectorization / cell splitting:
Can be used for:
• Coverage enhancements (since the antenna gain of sectorised antennas is higher than that of
omni directional antennas)
• Interference reduction
• Capacity enhancements, but only if together with the sectorisation also the number of TRXs is
increased (compare Erlang-B loss formula)
Depending on how the splitting is performed:
• it may be a more or less expensive and difficult (time consuming) solution
• coverage weakness between the main lobes may appear
• the capacity will be reduced if the total number of TRXs remains constant
MN 1790 7 - 11
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Optimization of Physical Parameters
Optimization of Physical Parameters
Implementation of Antenna near Pre-Amplifiers:
Link imbalances are one reason for poor quality, increased call drop rate and increased
handover failure rate. In case of an unbalanced link, the uplink and downlink coverage ranges
differ. Often the downlink range is bigger than the uplink range. This problem can be overcome
by using antenna near preamplifiers which improve the sensitivity and the noise figure of a base
station system. Looking to the link budget: The better the sensitivity of the base station, the
more fare the possible uplink range. In any case, a proper running network requires a balanced
link.
Implementation of Repeaters:
A repeater (see GSM 11.26 (ETS 300 609-4) and GSM 05.05) is a bi-directional (full duplex) RF
amplifier and is used to overcome coverage holes in a base station area. Typical applications of
repeaters are the coverage of problem zones like tunnels, valleys, in buildings, ...
A repeater receives, amplifies and retransmits the downlink signal from a donor base station
into an area with weak or no coverage, and the uplink signal from mobile stations which are
located in such an area. Repeaters extend but do not replace base stations.
MN 1790 7 - 12
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Frequency Changes:
• To overcome e.g. sever cases of downlink interference (therefore it is advisable to have some
spare frequencies).
• May influence other areas.
• Re-planning may become necessary.
• In high-density areas often difficult.
Strategies:
• Using spare frequencies in severely interfered regions.
• TCH – BCCH change as temporary solutions in low TCH traffic load areas.
• Re-planning of TCH and BCCH frequencies.
MN 1790 7 - 13
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Frequency Hopping: Cyclic or pseudo random hopping?
Time in TDMA frames
f0
f1
f2
f3
f4
f5
Optimum frequency diversity
due to averaging of Rayleigh fading
⇒ rural, coverage limited areas
Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Example of cyclic hopping:
HSN = 0
MN 1790 7 - 14
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Frequency Hopping: Example of pseudo random hopping: HSN = 1-63
Co-channel interference averaging
Collision probability: 1/number of hopping frequencies
⇒ interference limited areas (hot spots)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TDMA Nr.
f0
f1
f2
f3
f4
f5
time
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
f0
f1
f2
f3
f4
f5
Cell1 (e.g. HSN =14) Re-use cell 15 (e.g. HSN =23)
Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
MN 1790 7 - 15
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Radio Link Failure (RLF) / Radio Link Timeout (RLT):
(see also GSM 04.08 and GSM 05.08)
Calls which fail due to radio coverage problems or which suffer under unacceptable voice or data
quality (due to e.g. interference) which cannot be improved by power control or handover are either
released or re-established in a defined way.
The criterion for the detection of a radio link failure by the MS is the success rate of decoding DL-
SACCH messages.
The criterion for the determination of a radio link failure by the BS is either the success rate of
decoding UL-SACCH messages or it is based on RXLEV / RXQUAL measurements.
The MS checks the DL with the help of a radio link (failure) counter running in the MS.
The BS checks the UL with the help of a radio link (failure) counter running in the BS.
MN 1790 7 - 16
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Radio Link Failure (RLF) / Radio Link Timeout (RLT):
The algorithm for the modification of the radio link failure counter S is the following:
Starting value for the Radio Link Failure Counter: Radio_Link_Timeout
In case of successful decoding of SACCH messages: S
new
=S
old
+2
In case of non-successful decoding of SACCH messages: S
new
=S
old
-1
value range for S: 0≤ S≤ Radio_Link_Timeout
Radio link failure is detected if: S=0
This algorithm is only running after assignment of a dedicated channel (i.e. in connected mode).
The starting value Radio_Link_Timeout for the MS counter is sent on the BCCH system information
type 3 or on the SACCH system information type 6 in the information element ‘Cell Options’.
MN 1790 7 - 17
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Handover and Power Control:
Reasons for the optimisation of handover parameters:
• To reduce the number of call drops
• To reduce the number of handovers
• To maximise the time duration the MS spends in the best cell
• To improve the speech quality
Handover types: intra- / inter- cell, BTS, BSC, MSC handovers
Handover causes:
• (Bad) RXQUAL
• (Low) RXLEV
• (far) DISTANCE
• (Power Budget) PBGT
MN 1790 7 - 18
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Thresholds needed for handover evaluation:
Maximum transmission power the BTS may use BS_TXPWR_MAX
Maximum transmission power a MS may use in the adjacent cell (n) MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)
Maximum transmission power a MS may use in the serving cell MS_TXPWR_MAX
Threshold for power budget process HO_MARGIN(n)
Minimum RXLEV required for a MS to be allowed to be handovered to neighbour cell
(n) (incoming HO)
RXLEV_MIN(n)
RXLEV threshold on the downlink for intracell (interference) handover RXLEV_DL_IH
RXLEV threshold on the uplink for intracell (interference) handover RXLEV_UL_IH
Threshold for the maximum allowed distance between MS and current BTS (outgoing
HO)
MS_RANGE_MAX
RXQUAL threshold on the downlink for handover process to commence (outgoing HO) L_RXQUAL_DL_H
RXLEV threshold on the downlink for handover process to commence (outgoing HO) L_RXLEV_DL_H
RXQUAL threshold on the uplink for handover process to commence (outgoing HO) L_RXQUAL_UL_H
RXLEV threshold on the uplink for handover process to commence (outgoing HO) L_RXLEV_UL_H
Remarks Abbreviation
MN 1790 7 - 19
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Level triggered handover:
Depending on the measured and averaged RXQUAL_XX and RXLEV_XX values the system (MS
and / or BS) may increase or decrease the output power or may handover the call.
Remarks to the corresponding handover threshold settings:
L_RXLEV_UL_H and L_RXLEV_DL_H should be set some dB (e.g. 5 dB) above the effective (+
diversity gain, + preamplifier) receiver sensitivity limit:
Receiver sensitivity levels due to GSM 05.05:
For DCS 1800 class 1 or class 2MS: -100 dBm
For DCS 1800 class 3 MS: -102 dBm
For GSM 900 small MS: -102dBm
For other GSM 900 MS: -104 dBm
For normal BTS: -104 dBm
Example settings: L_RXLEV_DL_H = –95 dBm
L_RXLEV_UL_H = –102 dBm
MN 1790 7 - 20
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Level triggered handover:
There should be a level hysteresis between the threshold RXLEV_MIN(n) for incoming handover
and the threshold L_RXLEV_XX_H for outgoing handover:
RXLEV_MIN > L_RXLEV_XX_H + 4....10 dB
The size of this hysteresis should be related to the standard deviation of the long term fading
(typically 4...10 dB) and should be large enough to avoid ping-pong handovers and small enough to
allow fast handovers.
Example setting: RXLEV_MIN = -90 dB
MN 1790 7 - 21
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Level triggered Power Control:
Depending on the measured and averaged RX_QUAL and RX_LEV values the system (MS and /
or BS) may increase or decrease the output power or may handover the call.
For the power control and handover threshold settings the following considerations should be taken
into account:
(Upper) RXLEV threshold on the downlink for power reduction U_RXLEV_DL_P
(Lower) RXLEV threshold on the downlink for power increase L_RXLEV_DL_P
(Upper) RXLEV threshold on the uplink for power reduction U_RXLEV_UL_P
(Lower) RXLEV threshold on the uplink for power increase L_RXLEV_UL_P
MN 1790 7 - 22
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Level triggered Power Control:
To avoid consecutive power increase or decreases directly after each other the difference between
upper and lower power control thresholds should be large enough (e.g. 10 dB).
To allow the system to perform power control before handover is executed, the lower power control
level thresholds should be about 10 dB above the lower handover level thresholds.
Example settings:
L_RXLEV_DL_H = –95 dBm, L_RXLEV_DL_P = -85 dBm, U_RXLEV_DL_P = -75 dBm
L_RXLEV_UL_H = –102 dBm, L_RXLEV_UL_P = -92 dBm, U_RXLEV_UL_P = -82 dBm
MN 1790 7 - 23
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Power Control Execution:
For the power control execution parameter settings the following considerations should be taken
into account:
Since typically a power increase command is more urgent than a power reduction command, the
power increase step size should be greater than the power reduction step size.
The power increase and power reduction step sizes should be on the one hand small enough to
enable an accurate power control, on the other hand large enough to reduce the number of
necessary power control commands and therefore the signalling load.
Example settings:
POW_INCR_STEP_SIZE = 4 dB
POW_RED_STEP_SIZE = 2 dB
MN 1790 7 - 24
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Quality triggered handover:
Depending on the measured and averaged RXQUAL_XX and RXLEV_XX values the system (MS
and/or BS) may increase or decrease the output power or may handover the call.
Remarks to the corresponding handover threshold settings:
L_RXQUAL_UL_H, L_RXQUAL_DL_H
RXLEV_UL_IH, RXLEV_DL_IH
In case of bad quality (RXQUAL_XX > L_RXQUAL_XX_H) and high signal strength (RXLEV_XX >
RXLEV_XX_IH) at the same time, there is a high probability of the presence of:
cochannel interference, adjacent channel interference, intermodulation problems, intersystem
interference.
Temporary solution: intracell handover
Intracell handover doesn’t help: if frequency hopping is switched on, or if there is only 1 TRX in the
serving cell and the interference is continuous and not bursty.
Examples settings: L_RXQUAL_UL_H = 5, L_RXQUAL_DL_H = 5
RXLEV_UL_IH = -85 dBm , RXLEV_DL_IH = -78 dBm
MN 1790 7 - 25
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Quality triggered Power Control:
Depending on the measured and averaged RXQUAL_XX and RXLEV_XX values the system (MS
and/or BS) may increase or decrease the output power or may handover the call.
Power is increased if the received quality is bad:
RXQUAL_XX > L_RXQAUL_XX_P
Power can be decreased if the received quality is very good:
RXQUAL_XX < U_RXQAUL_XX_P
However, often it is more suitable to control the power decrease by the level criteria and to set
U_RXQAUL_XX_P = 0 or a small value, i.e. to ‘disable’ the power decrease due to good quality.
To make ‘power up before handover’ possible, the following relation between power control and
handover thresholds should be taken into account:
U_RXQUAL_XX_P < L_RXQUAL_XX_P < L_RXQUAL_XX_H
Example settings: U_RXQUAL_XX_P = 0 (or 1)
L_RXQUAL_XX_P = 4
L_RXQUAL_XX_H = 5
MN 1790 7 - 26
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RXQUAL
RXLEV
L_RXQUAL_XX_H
L_RXLEV_XX_H
L_RXLEV_XX_IH
0
0
7
63
Intercell
handover
due to level
No handover action
due to quality or level,
e.g. power budget handover
Intercell handover
due to quality
Intracell handover
due to quality
Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Handover Thresholds:
MN 1790 7 - 27
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Example settings
L_RXLEV_DL_P = 25
U_RXLEV_DL_P = 35
L_RXQUAL_DL_P = 4
U_RXQUAL_DL_P = 1
RXQUAL
RXLEV
L_RXQUAL_XX_P
U_RXQUAL_XX_P
L_RXLEV_XX_P U_RXLEV_XX_P
0
0
7
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Power
Decrease
Power
Increase
Power Decrease
Power Increase
No action due
to power control
POW_RED_STEP_SIZE
Power Increase
L_RXLEV_UL_P = 10
U_RXLEV_UL_P = 15
L_RXQUAL_UL_P = 5
U_RXQUAL_UL_P = 4
POW_RED_STEP_SIZE = 2 dB
POW_INCR_STEP_SIZE = 4 dB
Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Power Control Thresholds:
MN 1790 7 - 28
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Handover triggered by power budget:
In an interference limited area (e.g. small cells in cities) most of the handovers should be power
budget handovers:
For this type of handover not the level, quality, or distance is the handover cause, since all the
corresponding thresholds are not exceeded in the serving cell, but a neighbour cell offers a better
service (a smaller path loss, see link budget).
Since the power budget hanodver looks for the serving cell with the smallest path loss, this kind of
handover will:
Reduce interference
Prolong MS battery time
The power budget is defined as the difference between the path loss in the serving cell and the
path loss in the neighbour cell:
PBGT(n) = (BS_TXPWR – RXLEV_DL) – ( BS_TXPWR_MAX(n) – RXLEV_DL_NCELL(n))
MN 1790 7 - 29
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Handover triggered by power budget:
Assumption:
BS_TXPWR_MAX – BS_TXPWR_MAX(n) = MS_TXPWR_MAX – MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)
PBGT(n) = RXLEV_DL_NCELL(n) – RXLEV_DL – PWR_C_D + min (MS_TXPWR_MAX,P) – min
(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n),P)
Where PWR_C_D is defined as: BS_TXPWR_MAX – BS_TXPWR
If PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(n) the path loss in the serving cell is greater than the path loss in the
neighbour cell + HO_MARGIN so that the neighbour cell is considered as the much better cell.
MN 1790 7 - 30
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Remarks to the setting of the Handover Margin:
• The HO_MARGIN setting should be a compromise between ideal power budget handover (which
requires a small HO_MARGIN value) and a setting to reduce the risk of ping-pong handovers
(which requires a greater HO_MARGIN value).
• A small handover zone increases the risk of ping-pong handovers.
• Usually HO_MARGIN is set symmetrically.
• Asymmetrical HO_MARGIN can be used to influence the size of the handover area and/or to
move the handover area, i.e. to move the cell boundaries.
• Adjusting HO_MARGIN values can therefore also be used to adapt the cell area to the traffic load
or to avoid local interference.
• RXLEV_MIN(n) should be set to such a value that RXLEV_DL_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) in
those areas where PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(n) to really allow the power budget handover as soon
as the power budget condition is fulfilled.
MN 1790 7 - 31
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HOM = 0
HOM = 0
HOM = + 6 dB HOM = +6 dB
HOM: Handover margin for
adjacent cell
Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
MN 1790 7 - 32
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HOM = +6 dB HOM = 0
HOM = 0 dB HOM = +6 dB
HOM = -6 dB HOM = 0 dB
Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
MN 1790 7 - 33
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Remarks to the pre-processing (averaging) of the measurements needed for power control
and handover decisions:
In general:
• Many measurements should be averaged in case that reliable decisions are necessary (better
statistics).
• Only a few measurements should be averaged in case that fast decisions are necessary.
For level / quality triggered handover / power control decisions:
• To allow the system to ‘power up before handover’ usually the averaging process for the handover
decisions should include more measurements than for power control decisions.
• Usually for level triggered handover decisions more measurement values should be averaged
than for quality triggered handover decisions since quality handovers must be executed quickly if
sudden interference appears.
MN 1790 7 - 34
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
BCCH allocation:
Also neighbor cell list is target of optimization process:
Missing neighbor cell ⇒ perhaps call drop
Too many neighbors ⇒bad statistics, unprecise measurement values, perhaps wrong decisions
In practice: ≈ 6-8 neighbors
12-13 8
10-11 10
6-7 16
3-4 32
Number of samples per carrier and
SACCH multiframe
Number of BCCH carriers in BA
MN 1790 7 - 35
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Street corner effect: e.g. 20 dB loss
Fast handover mechanism necessary:
- trigger: uplink measurement receive level below threshold
- short averaging period of measurements
- predefined target cell lists
- small handover margins
- short timer settings
- allow back handover
Fast handover:
Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
MN 1790 7 - 36
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Optimization of Database Parameters
Optimization of Database Parameters
Location Area:
The size of the location area must always be a compromise:
Too big ⇒perhaps paging overload (PCH overload)
(MS is paged in the whole location area)
Too small ⇒perhaps too many location updates (AGCH overload)
(MS has to perform location update if location
area is changed)
MN 1790 7 - 37
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Example Drive Test
Example Drive Test
MN 1790 7 - 38
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Example Drive Test: Exercise
Example Drive Test: Exercise
Exercise:
Discuss the drive test given above:
a) Localize the problem area(s)
b) Suggest counter measures to solve the problem(s)
MN 1790 7 - 39
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Example Drive Test
Example Drive Test
MN 1790 7 - 40
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Example Drive Test
Example Drive Test
MN 1790 7 - 41
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Example Drive Test
Example Drive Test
MN 1790 7 - 42
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Example Drive Test: Exercise
Example Drive Test: Exercise
Exercise:
Discuss the drive test given above:
a) Localize the problem area(s)
b) Suggest counter measures to solve the problem(s)