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Living in a Network Centric World

Network Fundamentals – Chapter 1

Version 4.0

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Objectives
Describe how networks impact our daily lives. Describe the role of data networking in the human network. Identify the key Id tif th k components of any data network. t f d t t k Identify the opportunities and challenges posed by converged networks networks. Describe the characteristics of network architectures: fault tolerance, scalability, quality of service and , y, q y security.

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How Networks Impact Daily Life
The complex interconnection of electronic devices and media that comprise the network have improved the quality of life for people everywhere.

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Networks Supporting The Way We Live
New forms of communications:
– Instant messaging :: Real time communication between 2 or more people p p based on typed text – Weblogs (Blogs) :: Web pages created by an individual – Podcasting ::Website that contains audio files available for downloading – Wikis : : A collaboration tool. Gives people the opportunity to work together on shared documents.
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anytime © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.Networks Supporting the Way We Learn Using information networks to share and collaborate improves teaching and learning Courseware delivered over the data network Learn and share from anywhere. Cisco Public 5 . All rights reserved.

including e-mail. video. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6 .Networks Supporting The Way We Work Business networks evolved to enable the transmission of many different types of information services. messaging and telephony. messaging. Resources can be accessed and shared remotely © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc. Cisco Public 7 . All rights reserved.© 2007 Cisco Systems.

Networks Supporting The Way We Work : Reference/Notification © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 8 .

Cisco Public 9 .Networks Supporting The Way We Play We compete with friends and foes around the world in the same manner if they were in the same room © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

–Common language. –Confirmation that the message was received. Inc.Communications – What is it? Communications can take many forms and occurs in many different environments. –Speed and delivery of the message. or protocols. Cisco Public 10 . Confirmation Communications between individuals is successful if the meaning of the received message is the same as the meaning of the message that was sent. environments We establish rules. All rights reserved. –Agree on the method. for communicating with each other: –Identify the sender and receiver. © 2007 Cisco Systems.

–The number of other messages being transmitted simultaneously on the communication network. Cisco Public 11 .Quality For data networks. we use the same basic criteria to judge . However. Inc.Communications . © 2007 Cisco Systems. message –The quality of the pathway between the sender and the recipient. All rights reserved. j g successful communication. –The amount of time allotted for successful communication. –The number of times the message has to change form or be g g redirected or re-addressed. there are external factors that can affect the message.

Internal factors affecting the successful communication across the g network include: The size of the message Large messages may be interrupted or delayed at different p p y points within the network The complexity of the message The importance of the message A message with a low importance or priority could be dropped if the network becomes overloaded. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 12 . All rights reserved. Inc.Communications .Quality Internal factors that interfere with network communication are related to the nature of the message itself.

Quality There are also internal factors that can affect successful communication. Inc. Cisco Public 13 . All rights reserved.Communications . communication Message Complexity Message Size Message Importance © 2007 Cisco Systems.

bulky package successfully and without damage than it is to deliver several smaller packages. Cisco Public 14 .Communications . All rights reserved.Quality It is also more difficult to deliver a large. Inc. © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc.Network As A Platform The role of data networking in communications millions of messages being exchanged between people all over the world a web of interconnected networks Many d e e t a y different equipment/companies Standardization enables equipment to work together © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 15 . All rights reserved.

© 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.Network As A Platform All networks have 4 basic elements in common: Rules (protocols) to govern the handling of the message message. Medium th t is used t i t M di that i d to interconnect devices and can td i d transport the messages from one device to another. Cisco Public 16 . Devices on the network that exchange messages messages. Messages that travel from one device to another.

All rights reserved.Network As A Platform Messages take many forms. Cisco Public 17 . © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc.Media on a network can be varied. Cisco Public 18 . Network As A Platform © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 19 . All rights reserved. Inc.Devices on a network – Common Symbols Network As A Platform © 2007 Cisco Systems.

FTP • Some Other Protocols: • TCP/IP Protocol Suite. Ethernet. DHCP. Routing Protocols © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.Network As A Platform Rules on a network are many • Other Application Protocols: • DNS. Cisco Public 20 .

4. 4 Exit the local area (router) (router). NIC generates signals. Passed among LAN devices. Cisco Public 21 . © 2007 Cisco Systems. 3. 2.Putting It all Together 1. Inc. Converted to Binary. All rights reserved.

5. Cisco Public 22 . networks © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.Putting It all Together The many interconnected devices worldwide are often represented by a cloud. All rights reserved. Bits are transmitted to devices that interconnect the networks.

Cisco Public . 7. 23 © 2007 Cisco Systems. The destination device converts the bits into human readable form. All rights reserved. Passed among local devices at the destination.Putting It all Together 6. Inc.

Putting P tti It all Together ll T th At each of these steps. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24 . there are protocols that define the rules for device d i communication. i ti 5 1 2 3 4 6 7 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc. television. All rights reserved. radio. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 25 . and computer data networks each have their own individual versions of the four basic network elements.Converged Networks Traditionally telephone.

Cisco Public 26 . platform A platform defined as a converged network. All rights reserved. Inc. © 2007 Cisco Systems.Converged Networks Technology advances are enabling us to consolidate these disparate networks onto one platform.

Converged Networks © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27 . Inc.

Cisco Public 28 .Network Architecture Characteristics Four characteristics that are addressed by network architecture design – Fault tolerance – Scalability – Quality of service (QoS) – Sec rit Security Packet Switching © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc. Cisco Public 29 .Network Architecture – Fault Tolerance © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved.Network Architecture – Fault Tolerance Circuit Switched – Connection-Oriented Networks © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 30 .

Inc. Cisco Public 31 .Network Architecture – Fault Tolerance Packet Switched – Connectionless Networks © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

no redundancy Packet Switched Connectionless Shared Circuit Messages divided into packets Efficient use of Medium Fault Tolerant. Cisco Public 32 .Network Architecture – Fault Tolerance Circuit Switched Connection-oriented Dedicated Circuit Guaranteed level of service (Bandwidth. multiple possible paths © 2007 Cisco Systems. QoS) Inefficient use of Medium Single path. Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc.Network Architecture .Scalability © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33 .

All rights reserved.Network Architecture . Inc. Cisco Public 34 .Scalability Characteristics of the Internet that help it scale to meet user demand – Hierarchical – Common standards – Common protocols © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Sprint. Cisco Public 35 . connectivity and provide regional service. NTT. 2: Pay Tier 1 providers for ti it d id (Verizon. Backbone providers B kb © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.Scalability A good example of scalability is the Tier architecture of the Internet. Internet Tier 1: ISPs provide national Tier and international connections. cable systems. AT&T. etc. All rights reserved.Network Architecture .) Tier 3: Provide service to end users and are usually connected Internet through Tier 2 providers.

Network A hit t N t k Architecture . Inc. All rights reserved.Q S QoS © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 36 .

QoS © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.Network Architecture . All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37 .

Inc.Network Architecture . Cisco Public 38 .QoS © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Inc.The appropriate QoS strategy for a given type of traffic Network Architecture . All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39 .QoS © 2007 Cisco Systems.

S Security © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 40 . Inc.Network Architecture . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Security Networks must be secure © 2007 Cisco Systems.Network Architecture . Inc. Cisco Public 41 .

Network Architecture . Cisco Public 42 . Inc. All rights reserved.Security Basic measures to secure data networks – Ensure confidentiality through use of • User authentication • Data encryption – Maintain communication integrity through use of • Digital signatures – Ensure availability through use of • Firewalls • Redundant network architecture • Hardware without a single point of failure © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Ch k Al ith Checksum Ensuring Availability: Combating virus attacks. Hashing Algorithms.Network A hit t N t k Architecture . Cisco Public 43 . All rights reserved. Inc.S Security it Ensure Confidentiality: Strong authentication and appropriate encryption Communication Integrity: Digital Signatures. Firewalls. Redundant Architecture © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Summary © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 44 . All rights reserved. Inc.