You are on page 1of 26

`

In the Name of Allah

1

Thaqeb Monthly Electronic
Journal, Number 1, Nov 2010
Owner: The Union of Islamic World
Students
Head Editorial: Ihsan Khosrojerdi
Editorial Members: Sayyed Ali Reza
Ahanchi, Muhammad Baqaii, Mahdi Bahrami, Sayyed Muhammad Safavi,
Fatima Alishah, Mousa Arabi, Muhammad Muhammadi

`

In the name of Allah
Today, the world of Islam is facing a big challenge called disintegration which
has affected the culture and life of the Islamic nations in social, political,
economical, cultural and scientific aspects. What has caused this disintegration
and what are its effects.
Let’s elaborate these problems in detail;
1- Muslims are not much aware of each other’s situation.
2- Muslims are not much aware of the beliefs of the other sects.
3- Muslims does not feel responsible toward the problems of other Muslim
nations in the world
4- The cooperation between the Muslim countries in different aspects is not
sufficient at all.
5- Unfortunately, the Muslim states prefer the non Muslim states in their
social and foreign relations.
6- Theoretical disagreements result to excommunication and even killing the
Muslims.
7- Bilateral dialogue that is the primary clause for Muslim brotherhood is
not accepted in Muslim countries and sometimes non scientific unfair
conflicts occur.
8- The history of Islam, the factors of the rise of Islamic civilization and
what caused the progress of Islam are ignored.
9- Because of the absence and abandoning of moderate figures in the world
of Islam, some hardliners are introduced as the representatives of Islam.
10. No revision ever occurs in Islamic sciences and Muslims life style.
11- The scholars of the Islamic world are far from each other so they can’t
find any common ground and the main problem lies in some
misunderstandings.

¯

12- Distortion and personal interpretation of the Islamic sciences prevents
from fine conversation between sects.
13- Unwise Ijtihads, difference in tastes, and wrong historical
understandings has changed the chance of talks to useless arguments.
14- The general approach of the universities in the Islamic world is not in
accordance with the Islamic goals and values in many aspects.
According to what mentioned above, the necessity of the Islamic unity is
very serious. Our aim in this magazine is to follow the rout to unity and
identify the barriers and try to remove them together, God willing.

NATO, an Expanding Organization

The international environment since the development of nation-states has
always been influenced by the rise and fall of numerous actors which the
change in their power not only has effected other states, but also the
international environment.
Obviously, states are still influential actors in the international system, which by
developing norms and criteria try to order and shape their international arena.
Although the international conditions at the end of the cold war facilitated the
process for the nongovernmental actors, most traditional duties of the states
were transferred to these actors.
In the framework of this argument, NATO has emerged as the main military-
security structure through the cold war period and today, behaves as an
influential actor in international politics, so that its alternation with the United
Nations is sometimes discussed.
This means the NATOs influential role playing as the most active transnational
organization with a worldwide range and its military and security background.

¯

Through studying the history, we would find out that the main idea for the
NATOs formation was developed during Winston Churchill's famous lecture in
West Minister University, March, 5th, 1945. In this lecture, the term "Iron
Curtain" was first discussed. Churchill declared:" from Statin to tryst in
Adriatic, there is an iron curtain along the continent.
The iron curtain was the starting point for the NATOs formation. After the
World War II, the Europe was divided to two parts based on political and
ideological criteria and Eastern Europe was dominated by the Soviet Union.
The North Atlantic Treaty was founded in 1949 by 12 member countries to
conquer the pervasive threat of the Soviet Union from Eastern Europe to its
western part.
During this period, the Marshal plan was functioning as an economical
stabilizing tool in Western Europe. The purpose was to maintain collective
security and a safe place to develop democracy and Western Europe economic
growth.
Basically, their goal was to confront communism in Western Europe. Anyway,
the U.S. presence at this treaty was synonymous with the Soviets defeat in
Europe, for which they would use even violence and coercion to conquer the
West. It is considerable that the resulting security could provide the economical
convergence basis throughout the Europe.
Controlling the Soviets threat during the cold war period was NATO countries
strategic goal. NATO would utilize a combination of regular and atomic forces
to confront the Soviets.
Thus, NATO chose the reflexive response option which resulted to the
placement of the U.S nuclear arms in Europe and the solidarity of their nuclear
strategy. Therefore, this organization benefits both from its nuclear capability

`

and military forces to confront the Soviets. These forces were useful for the first
strike following any attack by the Soviets.
Despite their increasing environmental dangers, NATO would keep an eye on
resolving the issues inside the treaty. Regarding this, the western Germany issue
was important.
First, because of the partnership of its forces and then because without
interacting with this country, utilizing regular forces was not possible for the
NATO members. To do this, despite the fact that for the European countries the
fear of the Germanys armament was as great as the Soviets, in 1955 the Western
Europe gained the right to have an army as an independent state under NATOs
observation.
Using solid military and political mechanism, transnational politics and
developing democratization processes were not much related to the Soviets
threat, but was a result of NATO members' smart goals to stop the destabilizing
cycles of insecurity among members which could end to war in Europe, as a
result of unilateral military policies or distrust.
Thus, the NATO presented a more comprehensive definition of the threat which
would result to its responsibility against internal security crisis and also
strengthen the member countries ties.
Certainly, it's notable that the article 5 of the Washington treaty is the NATOs
natural principle of collective defense, according to which attacking a NATO
member in Europe or northern America means attacking all NATO members.
Thus, each member separately or accompanied by others has the right to defend
the others by military power. According to this treaty, NATOs operational field
is limited to Europe and North America.
It is remarkable that the expansion of the member cooperation into military and
security areas and accumulation of experiences and activities is not equal to

°

passivity. During the cold war, and regarding the membership of powerful
western countries in this structure, this organization behaved as an influential
political player at this area.
During the cold war, NATO expanded the principles as political negotiation,
decision making and solid military planning regionally and declared the
Europe's security issues as controlling defensive policies, fear and uncertainty.
Up to the end of the cold war, the focus on the Soviets Threats and military
tasks were discussed as the main policies of the treaty and this organizations
task was to provide security for the Euro-Atlantic region.
By the collapse of the Soviet Union, NATO faced so many threats, regarding its
aims, duties and natures. The Soviet Union was divided to independent states.
On the other hand, the existence of NATO without its traditional enemy was
meaningless. Thus, the NATO suggested a new security order to manage the
changes following the end of cold war and considered the issues as the
remained nukes from the Soviet Union and the possibility of its transfer to other
states, distrust to the future of Russia, fearing from Islam and the expanding
power of china besides the Europe's disability in management of its internal
crisis.
This means continuing the presence of NATO in the world. In the post cold war
world, the collective defense principle did not change as the nature of this
organization and NATO coordinated itself with the new circumstances. Its new
tasks were cooperating in the security of the Europe, solving the destabilizations
following the Europe's regional conflicts and also threats coming beyond the
region as terrorism.
Thus, NATO along with expanding its tasks expanded its operational field from
Europe toward the outside world through a worldwide structural evolution.
Considering the wide range of the duties, and along with effective opposition

`

against the threats and to strengthen the security in the variable environment of
the 21
st
century, NATO regarded the cooperation with the Russia and other
European states.
The London manifest in1990 declared that the NATO does not consider the
Soviet Union and the Warsaw treaty as its enemy and invite them to create ties.
Thus, both sides signed a treaty in November 1990 on regular forces in Europe
along with a statement of non aggression.
The NATO in Rome meeting (1991) redefined the threats and declared that
there are new threats endangering the states, which is the result of problematic
social, economical and political structures.
In the post cold war world, despite the decrease in military dangers, the
instabilities increased and the NATO in the framework of collective defense
provided
collective
security for the
members
through
expansion of
political and
military
cooperation
with other
countries, of
many workgroups with their former enemies, the conformity of military
structures and defensive capabilities to fulfill their new tasks.

By: Fatima Alishah

^

References:
……………………………………………………………………………..
http://www.everything2.com/title/Winston%2520Churchill
NATO in 21st century
www.NATO.int/docu/21-net/21st-eng.pdf
Wallander, A. NATO after the Cold War, pp. 705-714.
www.cfr.org-content-poblications-attachment-wallander-NATO-Article.pdf
Aybet, G. NATO’s new mission.
www.sam.gov.tv/perceptions/volume4/march-may1999/aybet.pdf
Op. cit., NATO in 21st century .

The arrival of Jews to Arab Island (Jaziratolarab) and
causes of their policies

As the Islam is the chosen religion by the almighty God and is along other
religions and is absolute, thus, all followers of other previous religions are
obliged to obey the holly prophet of Islam. Certainly, those who does not, will
be punished. Islam ends all other previous religions.
» -.. _,., _.: |.,. ,;..i ¸,. _.,, _. ¸ -
At the beginning, the whole Hijaz was filled by idolatry and just in parts of this
country there was a group named”Hanifs”.
The Jews were in Yasrib and Yemen and the Christians in Najran. On the exact
date of the Jews settling in Jaziratolarab, especially in Yasrib, there exist some
unproved suggestions by the historians.
Some have declared the reason in this way: “the first settlers of Hijaz were a
group named” Amaliq” which would rule the people through oppression. The
Moses sent them an army from Israelites to fight them and ordered to kill them
all.
Their army entered Hijaz and killed them all, but the son of their governor who
was so beautiful. As they reached the sham, the Moses was dead and the

°

Israelites objected that why they haven’t killed this guy and disobeyed the
Moses order.
So they didn’t let them enter their country. The army decided to return to Hijaz
and settle where they conquered that group.
Therefore, they went to some where nearby Yasrib and settled there. Although
this story is somehow famous, Soheil does not accept it and find it incompatible
with the Moses age. Also a contemporary author regarding this point notes that:
“the date that is suggested the first Jewish group entered Hijaz is combined with
myth”.
Of course there are controversial points in this report. The point that the prophet
insisted on killing everybody or the objection of the Israelites for not killing that
boy seems more to be a story.
Some sources consider their immigration reason as the oppression of the roman
government. It is obvious that the Jaziratolarab region was not suitable from the
viewpoint of economical resources and life was much hard there. Thus, there
must have been another reason for the Jews to immigrate.
The historic and Koranic evidence reveals that the Jews had travelled to Hijaz in
pursuit of another prophet and their own interests. Abu Basir cites from Imam
Sadiq that:”the Jews had read in their book s that the location of Muhammad’s
migration was somewhere between Eirwahid mountains. So they hit the road to
find this mountain and when they found them, they settled there.
By reading the holly Quran, we find out that the name of the holly prophet
(peace be upon him) had been in old books. Certainly, the Quran informs us
from the name and descriptions of the holly prophet. Some of these verses are
cited below:
1- » ¸.. |.,¸: ´_[¸ ¡-.|..ì _¸:¸., |.: -.¸:¸., ,|.:|i ¡-|.,.i _,.´|i _¸..., ¡- ¸ ´¿>|i _¸..:,| ¡ -
(Those to whom we have granted the holly book, knows him (the prophet) well,
as they know their children. only those who have lost their inner interest do not
believe)
2- » -.. _,.´|i ¸ «i _¸.¸ ..>. ¡¸.,. .|..¸ ¸|´.:|i _.. .i..ì ... _: ¡¸... ¸ :i¸¸´.|i _: ¡¸... .|.
_,>.,i -

Muhammad (PBUH), the messenger of God, and his followers are severe
against non-believers and kind with mercy among themselves. This is their
descriptions in Bible and Torah.
3- » :i¸¸.´.|i _.. _., _,. |.| |:... ¡:,|[ «i _¸.¸ _.[ _,.i¸.[ _.. |, ¡,¸. _.i _.,. _|: .[ ¸ ¸
...ì -..i _... _. _.', ¸_¸.¸. i¸.,. -
(and remember when the Jesus ,son of Mary said: Israelites, I’m the messenger
of God for you, and I admit the rightness of the previous book(Torah) and
inform you of a prophet coming after me, and his name is Ahmed. when
he(Ahmed) came to them with obvious signs and miracles, they said” this is an
obvious magic”.
4- » _,>.,i¸ :i¸¸´.|i _: ¡-... |.¸.:. -.¸.>, _.´|i _¯.´.i _,´.|i _¸.´¸|i _¸.,´., _,.´|i -
Those who obey the illiterate messenger of God, the prophet that they can find
his signs in Torah and Bible that they have.
Regarding these news, especially those in Torah, all religions including the
Jews were awaiting the appearance of a prophet. Because they wanted to renew
their power by this last prophet and they had no other goal. Little by little the
time bea that for the holly prophet came. Their news was informing them the
appearance of the prophet. Therefore, due to the signs of the holy book, they
looked for the location of the appearance.
The hints of Torah would also guide them toward this place. The alternation of
these holly places is worthy of notice. First, the mount of Sina. Second, Saeer in
Alkhalil and third the emergence of Muhammad from Faran mountain. A region
that is known to be the mountains around Mecca.
Denial after Waiting
The historians have a citation from Ibne-abbas that the Jews before Islam would
tell Ows and Khazraj tribes that “through the last prophet we will conquer you.
But they denied him after his emergence.”Maazebne-jabal” and “Bashar Ibn
Bara” told them: “be virtuous and believe to Islam, because when we were
atheist, you would describe Muhammad for us”.” Salame Ibn Moshkam” a
Jewish, said: The one, who we were speaking of, is not Muhammad. He has not
brought what is known for us.” Then, verse 89 of Baqare was sent to the
prophet:

``

(And when God sent them a book, compatible with their signs, while they
would encourage themselves of their victory against infidels, when the book and
the prophet they knew was sent, they denied. O may lord, damn the infidels.)
One of the measures taken by the Jews after appointing the holly prophet
(PBUH) was denial of their previous statements predicting the emergence of the
last prophet.
Undoubtedly, the tribe of Jews long before the emergence of Islam were waiting
for a prophet whose signs were compatible with the one appeared among
Ghoraish, but for some reasons they denied him as their prophet and they said
Muhammad is not the one we were looking for, Because Muhammad was from
the generation of Ismael, not Isaac.
In other words they believed the last prophet would be someone from Israelites,
while the holy prophet was Arab. The jealousy of the Jews which is pointed out
in some verses of Quran is based on this point and also their racism. This verse
of Koran also indicates their racism:
“Say: oh, Jews, if you think that you’re the only friends of Allah, so wish your
death if you tell the truth and reach your lover.”
Ibn Ishagh cites from Safie, the daughter of Hoye Ibn Akhtar who was captured
as the prisoner of the war and then married the holy prophet cites that when the
holy prophet migrated to Medina and settled in Qoba, my father and uncle went
to him in an early morning and came back the next day. I ran toward them as
usual but they didn’t accept me as every day.
They were in a deep sorrow. My uncle, Abu Yaser, told my father “was he (the
prophet) the one we were waiting for?”My father replied: “yes, I swear to God
yes! My uncle said “so what are you going to do now?” he said” up to my
lifetime, I will be his enemy”.
It is cited from Salamat Ibn Ansari that before Islam there was a Jew in our
neighborhood .once he stood in front of the people of my tribe and talked about
resurrection, the hell and paradise.
His addressees were atheists. They did not believe the life after death, hell or
paradise. They were all surprised and told him: what is your sign? The Jewish
said” a prophet will be chosen in this land (he pointed toward Mecca).
They asked “when? “ He pointed toward me as a child and said “if he stays
alive, he will see him”.

``

Salameh says when the holy prophet was chosen we believed him and that
Jewish guy did not because of his jealousy. We told him “weren’t you the one
speaking those words? He said “yes, but he is not the one I was talking about”.
When Islam reached Medina and the Jews saw themselves in danger, and
besides they did not want to obey the holy prophet, they took military measures.
They would annoy the Muslims, sometimes by their ridiculous poems about the
holy prophet and etc. they also once arranged to kill the prophet, but Gods will
was something else.
On the other hand, based on the prophet’s duty which is to invite the people to
the righteousness, he would use the slightest chances to inform the people and
save them from ignorance.
To be continued…

By: Muhammad Muhammadi

Political potentials

Today, what results to the importance and empowering of a state is other
countries attention and the away they seek their interests in that country. These
interests might be long or short term, national, religious, economical, political,
military and etc. based on this ground, the media may help proximity and also
the distance of the countries and nations and intensifying the effects of the
countries discourse.
Political interactions, task force meetings, disputes and their solutions,
intermediations and etc. might be the sign of states importance in the eyes of
other states and states which results into the nation’s intimacy. Turkey’s
mediation between Iran and 5+1 could be discussed in this context.
Accepting turkey’s mediation with china and Russia on the other side shows
their importance in each other’s eyes. By doing this, besides intensifying the
importance of regional subjects among their nations, it results to the intimacy of
the states and nations and also undermining the importance of the western

countries in the international stage which through holding such conferences in
their countries have always attracted the attentions toward themselves.
Maybe these meetings in turkey is the start point of revealing the potential of
Islamic countries with the aim of resolving the international conflicts and
decreasing the foreign powers intervention to their benefit.
Continuing this process in long term would even result to transferring
international organizations and institutes to the Islamic countries, Insha’Allah.

They are forgotten

He says “I’m not much involved in politics!” but by a glance at his works we
would conceive that it’s not so and his writings are not away from Afghanistan's
current situation.
Muhammad Husain Muhammady, a 38 year old writer, has been successful in
attracting others attentions by his works in the field of literature. A young man
that is conceived by the Afghans as one of their best authors who could gain so
many literary awards in Iran, beside famous Afghani authors as: Akram
Othman, Muhammad Asef Soltanzade,
Atiq Rahimy, Khalid Husseiny and etc.
“Being forgotten” is the tempting title of his
second story which could win the second prize
for The Press Critics and revealed that the
owner of Afghanistan Peace Prize is not
free minded after writing down “The Red Figs
of Mazar”.
The hero in this story is a Mazari old man
named” Sayed Mirak Shah Agha” which likes his radio that has been out of
battery for two days by now which has deprived Agha Sayed from listening to
VOA and BBC news!
The whole story happens in a13 hour’s period when the old forgetful man start a
journey to Mazarsharif to buy battery, or “Balty” as he himself pronounces!
And during his journey, despite his anxiety for his young daughter who has hide

her in the basement, fearing from losing his face, is mainly concerned about his
radio not being captured by the Taliban forces.
It seems that the author aims to show the view of the normal people of
Afghanistan about the most important political events of the time and show that
these people, tired from years of war are not much concerned about the media
and even after the September 11
th
that the West came to notice them as a threat,
they are living their normal life and those Afghanis who are concerned with the
world news, when are informed of what have happened several days before (the
collapse of those towers in the U.S. and the conviction of Bin laden) is late and
today the VOA narrator says:
“Today, Thursday, 22th September of 2001, first briefing the news…”
In fact, he wants to say that Afghanistan is forgotten, as the old man in the story
is forgotten and is forgotten everything.
Small sentences, great descriptions of the details, pleasant environment, and
unique personification can be mentioned as the main characters of this 90 pages
story.

By: Mahdi Bahrami

Hollywood and "Sacredness"

1- The first concept that springs to the mind from the word "sacredness"
includes religious sanctities and values which in all religions and faiths
have their own definition and importance.

Examples are the sacredness of a cross for the Christians or that of a cow
or its figure in India. Regardless of their origin and genuineness, the
religious symbols and sanctities have their own message and meaning for
the followers of that specific religion and also have a high spiritual value

``

for them. What is Hollywood's approach, as influential global media,
toward the sanctities of the world's faiths and religions?

How does it deal, face and interact with Christianity in particular? It seems
that its approach changes based on the general policies of Holly wood's
share holders, influential Zionists and owners of movie making companies.

That’s why whenever the US officials need to exploit the religious beliefs
of their people and require active presence of religion for their own
benefit, Christianity receives attention and gets glamorized; and whenever
their interests necessitates Christianity to be dissolved in the US and
Zionists policies, a secular, passive, meek and fruitless image of this
religion is portrayed and disseminated. Unfortunately the existing
weaknesses and distortions in the present day Christianity, has also
contributed to the creation of such the image.
Hollywood's efforts in this regard and how it pictures Christianity, for
example the way it highlights specific parts of this religion, are all
calculated plans which are oriented towards the interests of the US
officials.
2- It should be admitted that the beliefs of the Christians, are a play toy in the
hands of Hollywood's share holders. This is sometimes reflected in their
political ambitions, sometimes in their economic ambitions and even a
combination of both. In any case, they don't esteem and value the
Christianity itself. A religion which is modified in the hands of Hollywood
owners added to or subtracted from it, compressed or elongated, is actually
a tool for other purposes.
3- Concepts like freedom of speech, religious pluralism, and ideological
relativism in addition to the lack of any artistic commitment are used as

conceptual and philosophical pretexts by the capitalist system of the west
to justify any of their actions and ridicule and destroy any sacred concept.
4- Movies like "The Last Temptation of Christ", "Da Vinci Code", "Bruce
Almighty" and "City of Angels" can be seen and interpreted accordingly.
5- There is no genuine religious holiness in Hollywood and they don't dread
insulting the Christ or desecrating other
religions. As recent examples one can
name the anti Islamic wave in the movies
produced by Hollywood in the last two
decades.

6- The question is "Isn't there any holiness or
red line for Holly wood?". That is, the freedom of speech, relativism and
respecting all ideologies are really kept as a unified policy by Hollywood?
7- I can name two cases as contradictions to what was just mentioned. In the
past years I have seen no movie in which these two ideological holly red
lines of Hollywood were breached.

8- A: Zionism and its main policies.
For several decades Hollywood has been continuously making movies to
justify the existence of the Jewish state, create an oppressed image of the
Zionists and to propagate ideas like the eternal legacy of the promised
land, the villainy of Muslims, the divine origins of the Zionists' rights, the
promise for a savior in Zion, the salvation and delivery of the human being
of the Apocalyptic era provided that the Zionist plans are implemented. It
is never seen that for several past decades and during the rule of different
administrations and policies, Hollywood has made a movie which has not
followed such a general strategy.

``

9- B: The main border lines of the liberal capitalist system.
This may require more explanation and details. Our aim in here is to object
the strategies of the liberal capitalism not its tactics. One may see many
objections directed toward the tactics and branches of this system, which
can be seen as a positive point, whereas the whole system in its entirety is
never questioned. Have you ever seen a movie which questions the
wholeness of this system and tries to substitute another ideology, system
or comprehensive regime?

10- The spirituality seeking movements in the west, feminists, and the
movement called "the producers of innovative movies" criticize the liberal
capitalism from within its borders and their occasional critical movies
have these characteristic. For Example movies such as: Thelma & Louise
(1991) include criticisms which object the western capitalist system from
inside but not from outside and no one protests the whole ideology.
11- The post modern movement, which has been formed in the west, has its
own supporters and opponents but is currently active in the production of
thoughts in different areas and as a critique. A good and genuine way of
knowing the west is through studying the ideas, artistic works and
literature of these post moderns. If such a movement continues to exist and
continues making criticism of the foundations of the western civilization,
there will be possibility for the creation of a new ideological atmosphere
and some of the red lines and taboos of this system may be removed.

By: Ihsan Khosrojerdi

`^

Islamic Iraq versus American Iraq
The cases of Palestine and Iran have always been two disagreement points
between United States and the world of Islam.
Palestine has known as the beating heart of the Islamic world and Iran as the
think-tank and the regenerative of counter hegemony movements throughout the
world, especially in the world of Islam.
The United States has always tried to push Iran toward its pre-revolution
condition with a government having an Islamic appearance but a secular entity
in nature and also the U.S. regional ally.
It has used all its potentials
including sanctions and soft
threats. But among these has
benefited mainly from direct
military threats along with
economical and diplomatic
sanctions.
Thus, they prepared the basis of
blockading Iran through military
occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan and by their military forces in occupied
countries and their allied countries, following the September 11
th
events.
In this process, Afghanistan was attacked first, because the world community
acceptance about using the 7
th
chapter of the U.N charter was much easier.
Therefore, the U.S along with several other countries, including the European
countries attacked Afghanistan and settled a pro –American sate there through
several steps.
By strengthening and landing the forces, Iran was confronted directly by
Western forces, especially the Americans.
In next step Iraq was attacked with the allegation of having WMDs (weapons of
mass destruction) by the U.S and U.K, thus, Baghdad was occupied in 19
th
of
Farwardin.
In this process the U.S focused especially on these points:

A) Saddam's collapse results in the satisfaction of Shias and Iran and the
displeasure of Sunnis and some Arab countries.
B) In order to attack Baghdad, the best way is to enter from the south and
proceed through Shia settling regions.
It was certain for the Americans that they were even expecting Shias
celebration at the time of their arrival.
After occupying Baghdad and gaining control over the country and also
widespread presence of the western forces in Iraq, the U.S desired blockade
was seemingly completed.
The first signs were Sadaabad meeting and Tehran’s agreement to halt the
nuclear program.
Its evidence was Tony Blair’s statement that “We picked the Iraq fruit in
Sadabaad”.
But this process stopped for some reasons that we are not going to explain. It
is just considerable that Iran’s 2009 election was important.
The U.S planned a program for the formation of pro-American government.
This process is elaborated in 4 stages a below:
1- The development of an American military government during a 6 month
period with the aim of security and repression of those opposing.

2- Forming a consultation group along with an American military
government in a 6 to 12 month period with the aim of continued
repression and preparing the constitution.

3- Forming the interim Iraqi government in a 6 month period for writing
down the constitution for holding the election in order to confirm the
constitution and thus, the establishment of a dependent government.

4- The establishment of an official government.
During Iran - Iraq war and eve before the war, Saddam deported old and
powerful Muslim tribes and even Iraqi Kurd groups while they mostly
immigrated to Iran and settled there.

Meanwhile Iranian government welcomed those immigrants, so that in some
cases they even took part in Iran – Iraq war in favor of Iran.
Living, educating and deepening their Islamic beliefs in Iran created a very
powerful resource for the Islamic community through their return to their
country.
After forming American military government in Iraq by Paul Bremers and
through proceeding to the second stage of their plan, these individuals were
considered, so that 24 out 32 Iraqi constitutions group members with the task
of consultation and preparing the arrangements for writing down the
constitution were considered among the Muslim community.
These individuals could prepare the arrangements for writing down the
constitution according to Islamic principles.
In the next stage Iraqis could arrange and approve the constitution through a
referendum in accordance with the Islamic principles and against the U.S
will.
In this constitution there were several articles in contrary to the U.S which
were explicitly in accordance with the Islamic world and Iraqi nation
interests:
1- The consistency of the approved laws of the parliament with the holy
religion of Islam.
2- Choosing the president, the vice president, the ministers and the military
commanders by the peoples vote.
3- Not using the Iraq soil for the purpose of attacking Iraq neighbors by a
third country which in fact weakens the U.S threat and danger against
Iran.
Creative and thoughtful Iraqi individuals in different steps of the U.S plan in
Iraq could change the results of the previous stages as the 4
th
stage was
completely different with what the U.S expected and thus, the very first Iraqi
official government had an Islamic awakening attitude.
Maliki's government focused on three main points in its first period
including:
- Disengaging Iraq from the 7
th
chapter of the U.N charter in which the
U.N permits the use of force by other countries against any country who

``

threatens the international security. (After attacking Kuwait in 1990, Iraq
was entitled under this chapter)
- U.S and western forces disengagement from Iraq and controlling the
security by the Iraqis in the whole country.
- The development of the Iraqis economy and also its relations with the
international community, especially the Muslim countries of the region
and their investment in this country.
Generally in the case of Iraq, its political future and its interactions with its
neighbors, we must first consider the goal of Islamic interests.
Thus, all the potentials of Muslim neighboring countries must be first used
for the purpose of Islamic interests’ promotion.
Iran and Syria as two counter- hegemony Muslim countries at its neighbors,
along with its other neighbors must try
to become united with Iraq and also develop
unity among Iraqi coalitions.
Therefore, in order to form a powerful
coalitional government we must try to
coordinate all groups’ views in Iraq.
Those countries who love Islamic Iraq and the
anti-hegemony campaign must never devote
themselves to their short term interests in
Iraq. They must remember that Islam would win through the conquer of
hearts.
Considering these points result in the stability and victory of Iraq and also
strengthening the anti- hegemony strategy. It is remarkable that Iran, Iraq
and all Muslim countries should be unified over key points and avoid from
insisting on disagreement points.

By: Sayyed Muhammad Safavi

``

Book introduction;
Solidarity of Islamic sects
This is one of the first books published by Islamic Sects University publication.
Its translator is Dr. Biazar Shirazi a scholar in the discussions regarding the
proximity of the Islamic sects.
This book includes discussions, essays and theories by 20 figures of the Islam
world, no matter Shia or Sunni. In the introduction part the author discusses the
disagreement among the sects and the development of the unity discussions.
Then he elaborates in detail the Darotaqrib, its
foundation and activities.
Generally, what we can see in this book is the proximity
discussion, its aim, the way to develop it, today’s
approach and the problems by citations from 20 Islamic
figures as Ayatollah Broujerdi, Ayatollah khoyi, Shikh
Shaltoot, Muhammad Jawad Moghnieh and other Islamic
figures.
In addition, some disagreement points are elaborated
there. What is common among these scholars is their attitude toward the
proximity that they regard as the formation of unified Ummah against the
enemies of Islam and insisting on the common grounds between the sects.
This book is the one that could be useful for those who pay attention to the
discussions regarding unity and proximity.

Ayatollah Javadi Amoli;
There is no disagreement between Shias and Sunnis in
principles

Ayatollah Javadi Amoli in a recent meeting with a group of students said:
“Shias and Sunnis regarding their common grounds as the holly Prophet (Pbuh)
and the religion are brothers.”

He continued: “Sunnis and Shias have the same enemy, so they shall be united.
The enemy attacks the poor Shias in south Lebanon or blockades the poor
Sunnis in Gaza Strip and performs those crimes.
Ayatollah Amoli added “the most interpretations of
Nahjolbalaghe are written by Sunni scholars and the
main aim of Seyyed Razi from gathering
Nhjolbalaghe was to unite the Muslims and the Islamic
Ummah.
There is no disagreement between Shias and Sunnis
in the main principles of Islam and the difference
that is intensified by Islam enemies’ lies in Kalami
discussions which could be minimized through
logical and scientific discussions.
At the end with regard to the virtue of Ahlulbait he said
“the Tsbih that is left by Hazrat Zahra (PBUH)
was a gift from the above. She gave us this valuable
gift and we must remember that.

Middle East developments after the Islamic Revolution

Dr. Majid Safataj is an active author in the field of Palestine and the world of
Islam. He was born in 1961 and has been an active member of holy Qods
Freedom Society.
One of his most important publications is “the
general lexicon of Palestine”. Among many
publications focused on the influence of the Islamic
revolution on contemporary world, “middle east
developments after the Islamic revolution“ is worthy
of notice.
Beside a survey on recent 30 years developments of
the Middle East, he mentions the influence of the
Islamic revolution on these developments based on
several documents. Thus, even by merely reading
the citations, the author’s means becomes clear.

This book is written down in 14 chapters. In the very first chapter, the military
occupation of Iran by Iraq and the logics of the western and eastern powers
agreement with Iraq on Iran’s occupation and imposing the war is elaborated in
details which reveals the superpowers fear from the forward approach of the
revolution and its influence on the people of the region and their support for
attacking Iran.
In this chapter the author would elaborate the situation in a way that in spite of
little remarks to the effects of the Islamic revolution on Middle East
developments, the audience would indirectly conceive the point.
Thus, it should be mentioned that the author has provided its main theoretical
discussion in the very first chapter.
The chapters are as below:
1- Military occupation of Iraq by Iraqi Baath party
2- Pervasive assault of Israel to Lebanon
3- Formation of Lebanon Islamic Resistance (Hezbollah)
4- Palestinian first Intifada
5- Occupation and liberation of Kuwait
6- Middle east peace talks and Israeli ad Arabian peace talks
7- 16 days assault of Israel against Lebanon in 1996
8- Formation of Palestine Autonomous State
9- Israelis’ retreat from southern Lebanon in 2000
10- Alaqsa Intifada
11- Occupation of Iraq
12- Israel’s retreat from Gaza strip
13- 33 days war between Israel and Hezbollah
14- Israeli – Lebanese prisoner exchange in 2008

At the end of the book besides coming to know the effects of the Islamic
revolution on the Middle East developments, you would also get
acquaintance with the Islamic awakening process in the Middle East.

Religion and politics in the early centuries of Islam

``

Dr. Ali Muhammad Volvi was born in 1335 in Birjand. He entered Oxford
University and got his M.A degree in social sciences. Following that, he got
another M.A in religions history and then achieved his PhD in the field of
Islamic history from Tarbiat Modares University.
He has published many articles including:
1- A glance at the development and research management in Japan.
2- Tribal monotheism and atheism in ignorance age.
3- Social backgrounds of Karbala phenomenon.
4- Religious policies of Kholafaye Rashidin.

Abstract of his book:

The survey on the relation of religion and politics has always been considered
by the researchers.
The obvious symbol of religion has been Kalami
thoughts and its most evident political signs, the ruling
power and its related issues.

In Islam, the integration of politics and religion is so that
it's not easy to divide them and our holy prophet
Muhammad (Pbuh) was both a Prophet and a politician.

Regarding this combination, none of the Islamic issues in
the Islamic world is not far from politics and most political leaders had
considered themselves as religious figures.

The discussion in this book includes the counteraction of religion and politics
from the beginning of Islam up to the 4
th
Hijri century and the evolution of the
religious sects in Islam world and political changes and their counter effects.

This book includes 6 chapters of theoretical framework of political and
theoretical evolution in Islam, references, the basic concepts, the origin of
Islam, the influence of Kalami discussions on political ones, political issues
and Kalami beliefs.

Ayatollah Bahjat in the words of Ayatollah Taskhiry

Ayatollah Bahjat was a supporter of unity and proximity of Islamic sects.
Secretary-General of World Assembly of Islamic Religious Approximation
said: Ayatollah Bahjat would always follow the way toward unity and
approximation of Islamic sects.

Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Taskhiry said:
Many features of Ayatollah Bahjat, like
mysticism, piety and sincere prayer is famous
among people, but his other personal
characters such as his scientific aspects
should be discussed more.
He continued: Ayatollah Bahjat as a student
In Najaf Seminary with great teachers,
especially the late Mirza Naeeni, Gharavi
Isfahani , the Iraqi an the late Haeri and other
masters became a great Jurisprudence scholar
.
Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Taskhiry added:
supporting and confirming the Islamic revolution is his characteristics that still
remain unknown, while he was a great supporter of Imam Khomeini and
Ayatollah Khamenei.
Secretary General of World Assembly of approximity of Islamic sect at the end
pointed out: we wish success for the Howze and we hope that it could train
those who can follow this road.