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Unlike the architectural and sculptural records, that of Hindu painting from Central India and the Deccan

is slightly different. Undoubtedly here, as throughout India, temples were enlivened from the earliest times with murals as well as paintings on cloth; few have survived from the remote past. At Ellora, in the Kailasanatha temple, a few slight fragments of mural painting have survived, illustrating Shiva in his Nataraja and lingodbhava forms (dancing and emerging from the linga). However, it is not until the Vijayanagara period (fourteenth to sixteenth century) that murals survive in anything like appreciable units. At the Virupaksha temple at Vijayanagara itself, the painted ceiling of the main mandapa has been repainted, yet gives some idea of the effect such murals would have produced in the fifteenth century. More remarkable, though, are the, murals in the

ceiling of the mandapa at the mid-sixteenth century temple, at Lepakshi dedicated to Shiva as Virabhadra, in southern Andhra Pradesh . A large Virabhadra image dominates the scheme, though it is today difficult to see it. More clearly visible are rows of male and female devotees and an anthology of Shaiva scenes, including the kiratarjuniyam (Arjuna fighting with Shiva disguised as a hunter).The style is essentially flat and without any concept of three-dimensional space. Colours are muted, but the great variety seen in the clothing of the figures emphasis again the interest in pattern and design in traditional Indian painting. This textile variety again brings to mind the importance in Indian artistic traditions of textile manufacture. Indeed, other types of painting which survive from the Deccan are paintings on cloth which were either hung from the ceilings of shrines and mandapas, or from the similar architectural interiors of processional chariots, rathas . These are generically known as kalamkari (pen-drawn).Although this painting tradition was originally practised in many parts of India, the town of Kalahasti in the south eastern Deccan has, in recent centuries, become associated with it above all others. Usually the cloths show the deity centrally with, all around, registers where the legends of the god or extracts from the epics are depicted. Faces, with the exception of the main deity, are usually in profile, bodies are hieratically drawn, and patterning with abstract designs is common. The cloths inherit all of these features from the mural-painting

Other subjects illustrated include deities popular in the region: Krishna subduing the snake demon Kaliya. Examples from Bengal are now housed in London (British Museum. The subject of these manuscripts are.within their temple at Puri. who is now looked on as a form of Krishna. The temple souvenirs showing the Gods in the Puri temple again illustrate the important traditional aesthetics of Hindu India which disregards perspevtive. however. Scenes from the Krishna-lila or of the ten avataras of Vishnu are the preferred subjects.tradition. for a long time. Narasimha. its subject is secular. makes the painting successful as the powerful icon of the deity. especially that associated with the cult of Jagannatha at Puri. with the Gods in their rightful place at the centre. made of wood. five. including a spectacular hanging of the earlier 17th century. the eastern zone has produced examples illustration and painted book covers dating back to the earliest period of any surviving in India. The tradition of painting on cloth. However. in elevation.Balabhadra and Subhadra . are produced as holy souvenirs for pilgrims to carry home with them. and the lion-headed avatara of Vishnu. rather than one of the realism. had its own tradition of painting. Further. Like western India. 2. are also produced. A common type shows the god flanked by his brother and sister . Small painted images of the god(s). displays a use of bright colours combined with a minute and detailed technique. Paintings of this popular god. invariably Buddhist. as exemplified by Lepakshi. The coastal strip of Orissa has. The sacred pattern which all these conventions produce. at its best. and orders the painting subject according to an hierarchy of importance. section and plan. Other paintings on cloth have survived from the South Andhra coast. Surviving from a couple of centuries later (sixteenth century) are a group of Hindu manuscripts with decorated cover boards.headed Ganesha. .a king receiving tribute. Victoria and Albert Museum) and Calcutta (Asutosh Museum). now in the Brooklyn museum. architecture is shown in the same painting.

during the 19th century. was the gateway for trade into much of Northern India during the British period. They set up at the temple. Often brightly coloured and painted on ephemeral bazaar paper. Indeed. way in which the artists pared down all details to minimum number of lines. located on the banks of the Hooghly. the capital city of Bengal. Here. . They thus speedily produced bright and fair images at a very low price. This was centred on the temple of Kali. accompanied by the showing of the scroll with its many registers. though unselfconscious. The Kalighat artists almost certainly belonged to the rural caste who had traditionally been the painters of scrolls used by travelling story-tellers. texts records that this was once a pan-Indian tradition which has now dwindled to rural Bengal and only a few other locations. specially with those popular with the local Bengali population. and also the location of a school of Hindu painting.Calcutta. and is known to scholars as Kalighat painting from the district around the temple and its riverbank steps (ghats). attracted by the wealth of the thriving new city. but the recitation of the traditional and local story. The function of these story-telling painters has today been taken over by Cinema and television. artists prepared paintings of the Gods. has had a long history in eastern India. because of the discriminating. they fulfilled the same function as today's photomechanical prints. non-Hindu audience in this century. They proved especially popular with a wider.