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MEIE-4262 Manufacturing Processes

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Chapter-1 Introduction

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Manufacturing Processes - Definition


A method of converting raw material into a finished products by using machines, tools and labour
Finished products may be used as such or for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

C with the production of various articles of wood. Pearson Education ISBN No.Evolution of Manufacturing • • • • • Began about 5000 to 4000 B. stone and metal Derived from Latin word manu factus – meaning “made by hand” The word manufacture first appeared in 1567 The word manufacturing appeared in 1683 Production is also used interchangeably . 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. ceramic. 5th ed.

showing the variety of materials and processes incorporated. with detailed illustration of its diesel engine. Source: Courtesy of John Deere Company.What is Manufacturing? Range of Materials & Processes in a Tractor FIGURE 1.1 Model 8430 tractor. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.History of Manufacturing Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.History of Manufacturing (cont. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed.History of Manufacturing (conc. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 .) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

2 Importance of manufacturing to national economies. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. World Bank. various years. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.A. Schey with data from the World Development Report.Manufacturing Importance FIGURE 1. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: After J. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. The trends shown are from 1982 until 2006.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Classification of Manufacturing Processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Manufacturing Process Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.

0-13-227271-7 Classification of Manufacturing Processes . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Processing operations . or appearance of the starting material 2. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.transform a work material from one state of completion to a more advanced state Operations that change the geometry. Assembly operations .Manufacturing Processes • • Two basic types: 1.join two or more components to create a new entity Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . properties.

Processing Operations • • • • • • • • • Shaping operations Solidification processes Particulate processing Deformation processes Material removal processes Property-enhancing operations (heat treatments) Surface processing operations Cleaning and surface treatments Coating and thin-film deposition Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

starting material is a ductile or brittle solid Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Shaping Processes – Four Categories • • • • Solidification processes . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.starting material is a ductile solid (commonly metal) Material removal processes . 0-13-227271-7 .starting material consists of powders Deformation processes . Pearson Education ISBN No.starting material is a heated liquid or semifluid Particulate processing .

Pearson Education ISBN No. plastic molding Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.Solidification Processes • • Starting material is heated sufficiently to transform it into a liquid or highly plastic state Examples: metal casting. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

Particulate Processing • • Starting materials are powders of metals or ceramics Usually involves pressing and sintering. in which powders are first compressed and then heated to bond the individual particles Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

0-13-227271-7 . (b) extrusion Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Deformation Processes • • Starting workpart is shaped by application of forces that exceed the yield strength of the material Examples: (a) forging.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Material Removal Processes • • Excess material removed from the starting piece so what remains is the desired geometry Examples: machining such as turning. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . drilling. and milling. also grinding and nontraditional processes Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Property-Enhancing Processes • • • • • Performed to improve mechanical or physical properties of work material Part shape is not altered. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. except unintentionally Examples: Heat treatment of metals and glasses Sintering of powdered metals and ceramics Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.coating exterior surface of the workpart Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.mechanical working such as sand blasting.chemical and mechanical processes to remove dirt. oil. and physical processes like diffusion Coating and thin film deposition . 0-13-227271-7 .Surface Processing Operations • • • Cleaning . and other contaminants from the surface Surface treatments . Pearson Education ISBN No.

screws) Rivets Interference fits (e.. press fitting.g.Assembly Operations • • • • • • • • • Joining processes Welding Brazing and soldering Adhesive bonding Mechanical assembly Threaded fasteners (e. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.. 0-13-227271-7 .g. 5th ed. bolts and nuts. shrink fits) Other Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Product Design and Concurrent Engineering Development Process Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: After S. from market analysis to selling the product. . 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 1. Depending on the complexity of the product and the type of materials used.3 (a) Chart showing various steps involved in designing and manufacturing a product. Pugh. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. the time span between the original concept and the marketing of a product may range from a few months to many years. 5th ed. (b) Chart showing general product flow. and depicting concurrent engineering.

Design for Manufacture. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. … Shapes & Manufacturing Process TABLE 1. Assembly. Service. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.2 Shapes and some common methods of production. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .

by courtesy of Marcel Dekker. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Boothroyd and P. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.4 Redesign of parts to facilitate automated assembly. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: Reprinted from G. 1989. Dewhurst. 5th ed.Design for Assembly FIGURE 1. Inc. Product Design for Assembly. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Design for Environment. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (b) The aluminum body structure. 0-13-227271-7 .5 (a) The Audi A8 automobile. sheet forming. Inc. showing various components made by extrusion. Product Life Cycle All-Aluminum Automobile FIGURE 1. an example of advanced materials construction. and casting processes. Source: Courtesy of ALCOA. Sustainable Manufacturing. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.Material Selection • • • • • Types of materials Material substitution Material properties Cost and availability Service life and recycling Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

(d) machining. (e) joining two pieces.6 Various methods of making a simple part: (a) casting or powder metallurgy. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Selection of Manufacturing Process Methods of Manufacture FIGURE 1. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) forging or upsetting. 5th ed. (c) extrusion. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.7 Illustration of the range of common sizes of parts and the capabilities of manufacturing processes in producing these parts.Scales in Manufacturing FIGURE 1. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Inc. 0-13-227271-7 . (c) Final product produced from the mold. (a) Computer model of the sunglasses as designed and viewed on the monitor.8 Machining a mold cavity for making sunglasses. Source: Courtesy Mastercam / CNC Software. 5th ed. (b) Machining the die cavity using a computer numerical control milling machine. Pearson Education ISBN No.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Machining a Mold Cavity FIGURE 1.

9 General view of a flexible manufacturing system. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. showing several machines (machining centers) and an automated guided vehicle (AGV) moving along the aisle. Inc. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron.Flexible Manufacturing FIGURE 1. 0-13-227271-7 .

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.Lean Production and Agile Manufacturing. Quality Assurance and TQM Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed.Manufacturing Cost Global Labor Rates Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .