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1. a. Explain relevance of project Management in HRM.
A project manager is responsible for managing various tasks, activities and processes to ensure that the project is delivered in the defined time. He is responsible for defining the goals and objectives of the project and ensures that the resources that are required for the smooth working of the project are available. He also monitors and controls the project process to keep track of the status of the work. This ensures that the progress, schedule, procedures and the cost of the project are well monitored. Apart from monitoring and controlling the implementation and execution of the project, a project manager also plays a vital role in Human Resources and communications management such as: · Assists in effective communications among the team members, · Consistency in methodology, · Consistency in process, documentation, procedure, · Meet deadlines and commitments · Facilitate formal metrics and reporting to upper management/project sponsors. · Entrusted with the authority and accountability necessary to get the job done. · Able to cope with conflicting scope, quality, schedule, risk, and other requirements. · Single point of integration to meet customer’s needs. · Held accountable for project failure. · Maintain control over the project by measuring performance and correcting as necessary.
b. What are the five stages of team building?
Traditionally, a team goes through five stages of development. Each stage of team development presents its own special challenges to a group of people striving to work together successfully by forming a cohesive team. The team and the organization can take specific actions at each stage of team development to support the team’s success in accomplishing the team mission. At each stage, the behavior of the leader must be adapted to the changing and developing needs of the group. The model used was first developed by Dr. Bruce Tuckman who published his four stages of team development: the Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing model, in 1965. Dr. Tuckman seems to have added a fifth stage, Adjourning, during the 1970s.
Stages of Team Development Model
Forming: a group of people come together to accomplish a shared purpose. Storming: Disagreement about mission, vision, and approaches combined with the fact that team members are getting to know each other can cause strained relationships and conflict. Norming: The team has consciously or unconsciously formed working relationships that are enabling progress on the team’s objectives.
Competency Category Business Literacy Performance Criteria Ability to understand the line of business. corporate tools and technical Tools requirements to the project. Corporate Procedures and Ability to understand and apply established policies and procedures. team processes. make clients aware of all issues. Ability to manage and implement solutions related to corporate environment impacts. Organizational Structure Ability to understand and work within the corporate organization and team structure. List and explain a few Business related competencies of a Project Manager Competency Categories and Performance Criteria Business Environment These are competencies that a project manager needs to understand in order to operate in the environment effectively. but which are especially important for project managers dealing with a project team (superiors. These competencies should be considered in tandem with the management and technical competencies listed below. media outlets and regulators) Competency Category Communications Performance Criteria Ability to produce clear status reports (clear writing and verbal skills). 2. The length of time necessary for progressing through these stages depends on the experience of the members. Transforming: The team is performing so well that members believe it is the most successful team they have experienced. Performing: Relationships. Not every team moves through these stages in order and various activities such as adding a new team member can send the team back to earlier stages. other third parties. Corporate Environment and Ability to recognize and understand the corporate environment and cultural impacts on our Culture projects from both internal and external sources. These are the twelve specific factors that must be present for a team to succeed. the support the team receives and the knowledge and skill of the team members. simplify jargon. Corporate . and the team’s effectiveness in working on its objectives are synching to bring about a successfully functioning team. or Ending: The team has completed its mission or purpose and it is time for team members to pursue other goals or projects. staff and consultants) and external stakeholders (client. to take the business vision and translate it into the project vision. Management These are the "soft skills" or people-oriented competencies that would be required of any manager. communicate tactfully and candidly. and be an excellent listener.
and to be willing to give more than one will receive. coach members. Ability to find a place for everything so that needed tools. Ability to motivate project members. delegate responsibility. recognize and deal with other cultures. facilitate discussion and resolve conflict. maintain a positive outlook. find a solution. Strategic Thinking Team Building Time Management Technical Traditionally. and provide constructive feedback. to be resourceful and to use time as a resource. ensure effective training and development of team members. develop relationships with key project stakeholders. evaluate alternatives. resources and data are easily accessible. analyze and prioritize issues external to the project and develop mitigation plans. take responsibility. Ability to understand how decisions affect the bottom line. and understand how and Decision Making when to make a choice. credibility and respect. Relationship Management Ability to consult and provide advice. Ability to manage competing priorities effectively. real property projects require the following main technical competencies for which the project manager will be held accountable. Ability to assemble the team with the right mix of skills. set achievable objectives. establish trust. Ability to undertake continual adjustments with stakeholders in a persuasive manner. and promote support and interaction. A project charter is required for every project and should incorporate some or all of these competencies Competency Category Performance Criteria . and the ability to create and maintain a clear team structure. which is essential to create value for all the organization's stakeholders. know about general financial and accounting principles and practices that affect operations. Ability to keep abreast of technological change. make decisions. and know about the links between operations and the department's financial performance.and long-term objectives. and find the most expedient way to develop the new skills and knowledge required to undertake new projects.Environment External Issue Management Ability to identify. Ability to analyze the future impact of decisions by taking a big-picture approach. learn from and reflect on the past. Financial Acumen Leadership Learning and Knowledge Management Negotiation Organization Problem Solving and Ability to analyze and define a problem. and to strategically position the project within the business to relate to short. and to keep the project on course by using positive win/win negotiations. then 'create' the team. understand and know how to share information.
test and deliver a project in order to produce an effective working system (or a successful product). implement. track and correct project performance. Client Focus Contract Management Understand and know how to comply with all regulations. Ability to establish a clear scope. and know how to make effective use of technical and management methodologies. Project Controls and Process Management Quality Management Cost Management Resource Management Scheduling Management Scope Definition . and how to administer contracts.and set up and understand approval procedures. Health and health and safety in the design and execution of the project. Ability to manage project documentation (technical and management) and data (or information) requirements. Risk Management Understand how to assess. implement a positive attitude toward Environmental. plan. and to manage the schedule. define the extent of the project. Understand how to obtain and ensure quality results (or products) for total client satisfaction.Budget Planning Understand and know how to perform cost/benefit analyses. be able to provide realistic expectations and to reach agreement with the client from the project's outset. Understand how to use standard project management tools and techniques related to cost planning and estimating. document and track issues. ensure safe deliverables and Safety Management incorporate sustainable development practices. maintain focus on budget. and consult with client and management if estimated final costs are close to or above budget. Ability to control and implement a process of change when needed. and develop contingencies and mitigation plans. document and manage internal and external project risks. Ability to organize the work in a logical way so that it is executed effectively.what's in. Understand and know how to use contract project tools. . Ability to identify and make optimal use of resources. proven Assumptions Management problem-solving techniques. Understand who the client is and what the client's needs are. how to create contract with clear and agreed-upon terms and conditions. what's out . understand and use sound. use sound rationale. Understand and know how to use standard project management tools and techniques to schedule. ensure that all factors are included. Commissioning Management Information Management Understand how to coordinate. Issues/Change/ monitor assumptions and make decisions in a timely manner. be able to take corrective actions and effectively perform verification of project standards.
4. and goals. Want to know more about strategic planning implementation now that you have created your strategic planning framework? Strategic planning implementation is at the heart of how to make change of any kind happen in your organization. Don’t forget to consider people outside of the immediate project management team.3. in which employees understand the mission and goals? They enjoy a 29 percent greater return than other firms. This seems like a good reason to start strategic planning implementation to me. What strategies would a leader employ in order to make his project successful? In an earlier. popular article. samples. roles and responsibilities is essential for good project control. What approvals can be given without the need to go to the next level of management? Identifying individual roles and responsibilities will help clarify duties and avoid any ambiguity. vision statement. Why is authority important for a Project Manager? What are the areas in which he can exercise authority? Identify the levels of authority Defining the levels of authority. How about you? Keys to Strategic Planning Implementation Success These are the keys to effective strategic planning implementation for your business. For example: Project management team Management committees: o Project Board (perhaps referred as a Steering Committee) o Programme management Budgetary approval (this is likely to be the Project Board) Consultants Within the Project Board there will be positions such as the Senior User [see PRINCE2® the folder 'Project Management Team Roles' for full descriptions in the product package] and the Senior Supplier [see PRINCE2 the folder 'Project Management Team Roles' for full descriptions in the product package]. for example. values. and examples for creating your organization’s mission statement. I gave you a strategic planning framework. Identify responsibilities For each role identified there must be clarity on the exact nature of their responsibilities and the level of such responsibilities. Want to be one of the organizations. This will apply to the key groups and individuals that influence the project. Start by answering why your organization might want to embark on a strategic planning process and implementation. . Full and active executive support. Identify individual roles For each of the major positions you will have to identify the personnel that will fill these. consultants.
Includes preliminary definition of: program/project plan content. Without the full commitment of the organization’s senior executives. learning to think strategically is part of the strategic planning implementation learning curve. strategies. So. A vision statement and a mission statement. along with this year’s goals. Effective communication. the implementation of strategic planning most frequently occurs as an organization moves from being traditionally reactionary to strategic. Or.3 – Acquisition Management . and live the results of the strategic planning implementation process. you start the strategic planning implementation with a huge plus. If you are implementing your strategic planning in an organizational environment that is already employee-oriented. the strategic planning implementation process will fail. Full and Active Executive Support for Successful Strategic Planning Successful strategic planning implementation requires a large commitment from executives and senior managers. 5. development of a realistic cost estimate and a sound rationale for consistency with the NASA vision.0: Project Conceptualization Development of a concept. don’t even start strategic planning. Establish a clear vision for the strategic planning implementation process. support. Senior leaders can do the following to create a successful strategic planning implementation process. with a high level of trust. Appoint an executive champion or leader who “owns” the strategic planning implementation process and makes certain other senior managers. acquisition strategy and plans. is a serious source of negativity and poor employee morale. Thorough organizational planning and competitive analysis. and Widespread perceived need for the strategic planning. follow-up. PM 1.2 – Requirements Development and Management PM 1. and objectives. Make certain the picture is one of reality and not what people “wish” would occur. Paint a picture of where the organization will end up and the anticipated outcomes. are involved. Unfortunately. risk management plan. Make sure key employees know “why” the organization is changing. filed. unimplemented in a cabinet or computer. An additional plus is an organization that already thinks strategically. as well as other appropriate people in the organization. Employee involvement. Executives must lead.1 – Project Proposal PM 1. whether the strategic planning is occurring in a department or in a complete organization. It’s as simple as that. overall plan. and proposal for a successful NASA project. Participants will feel fooled and misled. What are the important competencies required for managing contracts in projects? Project Management Competencies Competency Area PM 1. often.
1 – Budget and Full Cost Management PM 2. and management of program/project resources. allocation. and approval of contract award fees throughout the design. fabrication. and other involved entities. allocation of resources.0: Program Control and Evaluation Process for controlling the final outcome of the program / project including tracking the performance of all significant contractors. More so with its appropriate application and utility. Requires penetration/insight of contractors' status and performance.7 – Earned Value Management (EVM) Competency Area PM 2.4 – Project Planning PM 1. PM 4.0: Resource Management Overall planning. political and other pertinent factors and stakeholder agreements. selection. and operational phases of the project lifecycle. vendors.6 – Risk Management PM 1. including delegation of systems engineering responsibilities to the technical team (see SE competencies).2 – Technology Transfer and Commercialization) Competency Area PM 5.1 – Systems Engineering PM 3. allocation of financial.PM 1. PM 5. in the more than three decades since it became a buzzword. tracking and control of contractor performance using Earned Value Management or comparable approaches. assembly. and determination.2 – Project Control PM 5. Also includes management of the continuum of internal and external project reviews. still many are really unfamiliar with the details of the concept. evaluation of contractor performance. exercise of de-scope options when required and leading workaround options. management of mitigation efforts.1 – Tracking/Trending of Project Performance PM 5.5 – Cost Estimating PM 1. facility and other resources. budget and operating plan development and management. verification. validation. penetration and insight of all contractor activities. Yet. integration.0: Project Implementation The overall process of project initiation and implementation. Includes advocacy.1 – Stakeholder Management PM 4.2 – Capital Management Competency Area PM 3. PM 2. PM 3. .0: Project Closeout Overall planning and management of project closeout activities. How does training enhance the competencies of the project team members? The concept of competency as a factor in recruitment. hiring and employee performance evaluation has become very popular not only among HR practitioners but to the management echelons as well. based on assessment of project completion.2 – Contract Management Competency Area PM 4. transition. control of contract changes.3 – Project Review and Evaluation 6.
3. Management of Time and Priority Setting. Level of Physical and Aptitudinal Skills and Knowledge. 1. and. Listening and Organising. the level of physical and aptitudinal competencies form the larger part in consideration. Common to all jobs in the rank and file category are competencies that enhance inter-personal relationship. Cognitive Competencies which involve: 1. It should always be borne in mind that the competencies required of each job position differ from one another. The following factors should be considered in determining the appropriate competencies: 1.For managers. physical skills. Mentoring and Delegating. 3. and job knowledge. These competencies were found to be the most important or vital for managerial and supervisory effectiveness. 2. competencies should be identified and studied. In many cases. 3. Supervisory or Building Teams Competencies that encompasses: 1. competencies are vital if they want better performance in their employees. and they are one in categorising and lumping them into: 1. In the job analysis and writing of job descriptions. 3. 2. 2. Communication Competencies that comprise of: 1. quick guides can make the task easier. Administrative Competencies. Communication Competencies. This is due to the lack or absence of decision making tasks that involve significant physical and manpower resources of the company. 4. Work Planning and Scheduling. Getting Objective Information. Level of Customer Contact and Inter-Action. Responsibilities and Authorities. 2. 3. 2. And. 4. their jobs entail routines. Many studies have been undertaken on the subject of job competency for managerial and supervisory positions. For the rank and file employees. Evaluating Employees and Performance. Assessing Risks and Decision-Making. Administrative Competencies which involves "management of the job" and this includes more specifically: 1. Management of Time and Priority Setting . 3. Thinking Clearly and Analytically. 2. Goals and Standards Setting. Whether during recruitment and selection phases or while already on board. Level of Decision-Making. Level of Internal Personnel Inter-Action. Advising and Disciplining. Clarity of Communication. Supervisory Competencies. clerical and manual. Problem Identification and Solution. Training. Cognitive Competencies.
and semantic barriers in interactions with others. overcoming barriers to effective listening. employing the funnel technique of probing. 2. and being time-effective and timeefficient. selecting and managing resources appropriate to the tasks. and analyse what one is hearing in order to decide what to think and do in response to a message. 7. recognising latent and underlying meanings. This competency is about the ability to use questions. confirming understanding and attaining agreement. 3. c) using persuasion effectively. It includes self-discipline. and d) maintaining a climate of mutual benefit and trust. It considers such skills as: using directive. psychological. 4. These competencies are appropriate for employees who deal with customers and those who work as a team. getting objective information is a critical competency requirement in order to ensure fairness. Work Planning and Scheduling Like time management. using probing methods to elicit additional information. non-directive. Specifically. probes. Goals and Standards Setting Setting goals and standards are usually competencies that are required of managerial and supervisory positions. Training. the messages conveyed to audiences (whether internal staff or customers) should be clear and concise and should attain the objectives.Cutting across all position levels. 6. and setting checkpoints and controls for monitoring progress. It is about the ability to understand. This includes the following skills: analysing complex tasks and breaking them into manageable units. time management is considered to be a required competency that must be possessed by everybody. It is about the ability to determine activities and projects toward measurable goals and standards. 5. Listening and Organising Listening and organising are communication competencies that deal with relating to people in the organisation. Getting Objective Information For positions involving substantial people management. either as a leader or a member. projective and reflecting questions effectively. It is about controlling manpower assignments and processes by using the major tools and techniques of management. It is the ability to manage both one's time as well as others'. organise. and withholding judgment that can bias responses to a message. Mentoring and Delegating . setting these in collaboration with others so as to arrive at a clear understanding and elicit commitment. Clarity of Communication Giving clear information is a competency that should be required of managerial and supervisory employees. this competency must be possessed by managerial and supervisory employees and to those that are engaged in production. using systems and techniques to plan and schedule the work. b) keeping on target and avoiding digressions. and interviewing techniques to obtain unbiased information and to interpret it appropriately. they include skills like identifying and testing inferences and assumptions. Whether verbally or in written forms. summarising and reorganising a message for recall. The skills would consist of a) overcoming physical. controlling interruptions by moulding the behaviour of others who have varying priorities.
The competencies include skills as determining valid premises arriving at logical conclusions from them. The degree and level of competencies that will be required will vary according to scope of responsibilities. culling of logical fallacies. and risks to be considered. and plotting a decision matrix and eventually choosing and recommending the best options. gathering and assessing evidence relating to causes. Problem Identification and Solution Problem identification and arriving at solutions cut across organisational functions and job positions. Assessing Risks and Decision-Making Assessing risks and decision-making are competencies required of higher managerial positions where decision-making can involve commitment of company resources and processes that could have company-wide implications. symptoms and indicators. It is about the ability to identify barriers that prevent achieving goals and standards. . writing of job specifications and developing performance assessment instruments. within the acceptable range of standards. As a basic process in determining competencies during job analysis. 11. Advising and Disciplining The ability to advise and counsel as well impose discipline in a positive manner are competencies required of managerial and supervisory positions that handle large number of employees. Choosing which competencies and the mix should follow. It requires skills like distinguishing between problems. and decision-making powers. It also involves the application of systematic sets of procedures to eliminate and reduce the problem origins and causes. Like problem identification and solution competencies. It also involves the ability to impose penalties and sanctions with firmness and resolve in appropriate cases. transferring of knowledge and skills. The skills could consist of coaching. 8. invalid premises and conclusions based on insufficient information. one can easily be guided by plotting jobs against the 12 major competencies previously mentioned. This competency should be required to positions that engage in evaluation. Evaluating Employees and Performance The ability to undertake a constructive performance evaluation involving joint assessment of past performance.These competencies should be required of supervisors and managers as well. Putting them in a matrix could provide a visual guide that would make the tasks easier and convenient. desirables. with the most important competency taking precedence over the others. inputs and outcomes. unwarranted assumption and false inferences. Thinking Clearly and Analytically The ability to apply clear and logical thinking is a competency required for both supervisory and managerial positions. supervisory. identify limits. This is to restore. advising. the employees' performance while maintaining respect and trust. agreement on future expectations are managerial and supervisory competencies. assessing risks and decision-making involve the ability to construct a decision matrix that aids to identify and evaluate alternatives and options. and teaching and pinpointing employees where tasks can be transferred with trust and confidence. or technical job levels. They involve the ability to develop people under them to attain higher levels of excellence. 10. 9. whether in managerial. applying inductive and deductive logic appropriately. The skills would consist of ability to develop parameters of evaluation. authorities. 12. separating fact from hearsay. benchmarking and face to face confrontation with the employees being evaluated without any bias and hesitation. assign weights to each option and choose the best option to achieve the desired goals and standards. people involvement.