You are on page 1of 23

Chapter 1 Introduction To Power Systems

An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. Electric power flows through several substations between generating plant and consumer changing the voltage level in several stages. A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage with decreasing current, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage with increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. At first substations were connected to only one power station where the generator was housed and were subsidiaries of that power station. Basically there are two systems by which the electrical energy can be transmitted. They are (a) High voltage A.C system (b) High voltage D.C system

1.1: A.C Transmission system
It is possible to generate high voltages as high as 33KV as compared to 11KV in D.C system. The alternating voltages can efficiently step up by a transformer which is not possible in D.C system. The lowering of the voltage at the substation is easier and cheaper as compared to D.C system using motor generator sets or rectifies.

1.2: D.C Transmission system
Only two conductors are used for transmission as compared to three conductors in A.C systems, and further it is also possible to use only one conductor for transmission using earth as return causing much saving in copper. The potential stress produced on the insulation by the D.C system is approximately 70% of the A.C effective voltage of same value. Inductance, capacitance, phase displacement and surge problems are eliminate In D.C transmission.


Chapter 2 Layout of 220/132/33KV substation
2.1: Introduction to substation layout
The step up in planning a substation layout is the preparation of a one-line diagram which shows in simplified form the switching and protection arrangement required, as well as he incoming supply lines and outgoing feeders or transmission lines. It is a usual practice by many electrical utilities to prepare single-line diagram with principle elements (lines, switches, circuit breakers, transformers) arranged on the page similarly to the way the apparatus would be laid out in the actual station. Incoming lines will almost always have a disconnect switch and a circuit breaker. In some cases, the lines will not have both; with either a switch or a circuit breaker being all that is considered necessary. A circuit breaker is used as a protection device to interrupt fault currents automatically, and may be used to switch loads on and off. Where a large fault current flows through the circuit breaker this may be detected through the use of current transformers. The magnitude of the current transformer outputs may be used to trip the circuit beakers resulting in a disconnection of the load supplied by the circuit breaker from the feeding point. This seeks to isolate the fault point from the rest of the system, and allow the rest of the system to continue operating with minimal impact. Both switches and circuit breakers may be operated locally or remotely from a supervisory control center. Once past the switching components, the lines of a given voltage connect to one or more buses. There are sets of bus bars, usually in multiples of three, since three-phase electrical power distribution is largely universal around the world. The arrangement of switches, circuit breakers and buses used affects the cost and reliability of the substation. For important substations a ring bus double bus, or socalled "breaker and a half" setup can be used, so that the failure of any one circuit breaker does not interrupt power to branch circuits for more than a brief time, and so that parts of the substation may be de-energized for maintenance and repairs. Substations feeding only a single industrial load may have minimal switching provisions, especially for small installations. Once having established buses for the various voltage levels, transformers may be connected between the voltage levels. These will again have a circuit breaker, much like transmission lines, in case a transformer has a fault (commonly called a 'short circuit'). Along with this, a substation always has control circuitry needed to command the various breakers to open in case of the failure of some component NRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 2


Chapter 3 Elements of substation 3.1: Introduction
Substations generally have switching, protection and control equipment and one or more transformers. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any shortcircuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use reclose circuit breakers or fuses for protection of distribution circuits. Substations do not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. Other devices such as power factor correction capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation. Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located in special-purpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have several indoor substations. Indoor substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, for reasons of appearance, or to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions. The present day electrical power system is AC i.e., electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current. The electric power is produced at the power stations which are located at favourable places, generally quite away from the consumers. It is delivered to the consumers through a large network of transmission and distribution. At many places in the line of the power, it may be desirable and necessary to change some characteristics of power supply. This is accomplished by suitable apparatus called Substation. Generating voltage at the power station is stepped upto high voltage for transmission of electric power. The assembly of apparatus used for this purpose is the substation. Similarly, near the consumer’s localities, the voltage may have to be stepped down to utilization level. This job is again accomplished by a suitable apparatus called substation. The type of equipment needed in the substation will depend upon the service requirement .


3.2: Lightning arrestor
Lightning arrestors protects the equipment from lightning over voltages and switching over voltages. Switching over voltages is predominant in EHV systems. Lightning arrestor acts as a non linear resistor i.e. it allows high resistance for normal voltages and low resistance for high voltages. • Lightning arrestors will be provided on the support insulations to facilitate leakage current measurement and to count the number of surges discharged through the LA. • LA bottom flange will be earthed via leakage ammeter and surge counter. Leakage current is to be recorded periodically. If the leakage current enters into the red range from the green range, the LA is prone for failure. Hence, it is to be replaced. • Surge counter readings are to be recorded at least once in a fortnight. • There should be independent earth pit for LA each phase so as to fast discharge and to avoid the raise in earth potential. . Construction: The assembly consists of stack of Metal Oxide elements with contact plates between discs and held rigidly by a tie rod assembly. The striking aspect of this arrester is its simplicity of construction with no grading components, no gaps either in series or in parallel. A system of silicone bumpers on each contact plate provides dissipation of the heat generated in the elements for Temporary Over Voltages and Transmission Line Discharges In addition to rugged support to prevent damage in shipping. Doubling Gaskell seal and pressure relief vents are provide in convention design.

Installation of Lightning Arresters
Three simple rules to be followed in installing lightning arresters for the effective protection of the equipment i. The arrester should be connected to a ground of low resistance for effective discharge of the surge current. NRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 4

ii. The arrester should be mounted close to equipment to be protected and connected with shortest possible leads. On both the line and ground side to reduce the inductive effects of the leads while discharging large surge currents. iii. To protect the transformer windings. It is desirable to interconnect the ground lead of the arrester with the tank and also the neutral of the secondary. This interconnection reduces the stress imposed on the transformer winding by the surge currents to the extent of the drop across the ground.

3.3: Power line carrier communication (PLCC) 3.3.1 Coupling capacitor voltage transformers:
Coupling capacitor voltage transformers, commonly termed capacitor voltage transformers are devices used for coupling to a power line to provide low voltage for the operation of relays and metering instruments. Power line carrier accessories or provisions for future installation of carrier accessories may be included in the base. Coupling capacitor voltage transformers are commonly supplied without carrier accessories, especially at voltages above 11 kV, as a more economical alternative to inductive voltage transformers. Coupling capacitor voltage transformers can be provided with the same ratings and accuracy as inductive voltage transformers.

Fig3.2 coupling capacitor voltage transformers However, because of the energy-storage capability of capacitors, sudden reductions in the power line voltage may result in momentary distortion of the CCVT secondary voltage. The amount of distortion is related to CCVT capacitance and the burden (secondary load) value and configuration. Modern CCVT designs are available to minimize this problem.

3.3.2: Wave trap


It presents high impedance to currents of carrier frequencies of range for which it is tuned. The main coil of the trap is designed to withstand the maximum service current of the line. Various kinds of traps used in the grid are: 66KV...….250A 132KV…....400A, 500A 220KV……850A

This is relevant in Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) systems for communication among various substations without dependence on the telecom company network. The signals are primarily teleportation signals and in addition, voice and data communication signals. Line trap also is known as Wave trap. .

3.4: Isolators
Isolators are used to connect and disconnect high voltage power systems under no load conditions. These are essentially off load devices although they are capable of dealing with small charging currents of bus bars and connections. The design of isolators is closely related to the design of substations. Isolator design is considered in the following aspects:
i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Space Factor Insulation Security Standardization Ease of Maintenance Cost

Some types of isolators include: i. Horizontal Isolation types ii. Vertical Isolation types iii. Moving Bushing types

Fig of isolators


3.5: Instrument transformers
Instrument transformers are used for measurement of current and voltage at high levels safely for the purpose of protection and metering. For the purpose voltage, voltage transformers or potential transformers are used and for the purpose of current, current transforms are used.

3.5.1. Potential transformers
Principle of operation The standards define a voltage transformer as one in which the secondary voltage is substantially proportional to the primary voltage and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately equal to zero for an appropriate direction of the connections. This in essence means that the voltage transformer has to be as close as possible to the ideal transformer. In an ideal transformer, the secondary voltage vector is exactly opposite and equal to the primary voltage vector when multiplied by the turn’s ratio. In a practical transformer, errors are introduced because some current is drawn for the magnetization of the core and because of drops in the primary and secondary windings due to leakage reactance and winding resistance. One can thus talk of a voltage error which is the amount by which the voltage is less than the applied primary voltage and the phase error which is the phase angle by which the reversed secondary voltage vector is displaced from the primary voltage vector.

Fig potential t/f


3.5.2. Current transformers
A current transformer is defined as an instrument transformer in which the secondary current is substantially proportional to the primary current (under normal conditions of operation) and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections. This highlights the accuracy requirement of the current transformer but also important is the isolating function, which means no matter what the system voltage the secondary circuit needs to be insulated only for a low voltage. The current transformer works on the principle of variable flux. In the ideal current transformer, secondary current would be exactly equal (when multiplied by the turns ratio) and opposite to the primary current. But, as in the voltage transformer, some of the primary current or the primary ampere-turns are utilized for magnetizing the core, thus leaving less than the actual primary ampere turns to be transformed into the secondary ampere-turns. This naturally introduces an error in the transformation. The error is classified into current ratio error and the phase error.

FIG 3.5 current t/f


3.6: Circuit breakers
3.6.1: Introduction A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and these by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow.
For successful operation of the circuit breaker, two functions are to be performed. a) Operating mechanism function b) Arc quenching function

3.6.2: Various types of mechanisms • • Spring change mechanism • Pneumatic mechanism Hydraulic mechanism 3.6.3: Arc Quenching Medium • Bulk oil (called bulk oil circuit breakers –BOCB) • Minimum oil (called minimum oil circuit breaker-MOCB) • Natural air (called air circuit breaker-ACB) • Forced air (called air blast circuit breaker-ABCB) • Vacuum (called vacuum circuit breaker-VCB) • SF6 gas (called sulphur hexa fluoride SF6 gas CB) NRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 9

3.7: Transformers a) Definition
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors through the transformer's coils or windings. Except for air-core transformers, the conductors are commonly wound around a single iron-rich core, or around separate but magnetically-coupled cores. A varying current in the primary winding creates a varying magnetic field in the core (or cores) of the transformer. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or voltage in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction.

b) Basic Principle
The transformer is based on two principles. Firstly, an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and secondly that a changing magnetic field within the a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnitude of the magnetic field. The changing magnetic flux link with the secondary coil where a voltage is induced across its ends.


Fig step down t/f A current passing through the primary coil creates a varying magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron, This ensures that most of the magnetic field lines produced by the primary current are within the iron core and pass through the secondary coil as well as the primary coil. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical.

3.7.1 Transformer universal EMF equation
If the flux in the core is sinusoidal, the relationship for either winding between its Voltage of the winding E, and the supply frequency f, number of turns N, core crosssectional area a and peak magnetic flux density B is given by the universal EMF equation:

The EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. By operating at higher frequencies, transformers can be physically more compact because a given core is able to transfer more power without reaching saturation and fewer turns are needed to achieve the same impedance. Transformer losses are divided into losses in the windings, termed copper loss, and those in the magnetic circuit, termed iron loss. Losses in the transformer arise from: i. Winding resistance ii. Hysteresis losses iii. Eddy currents iv. Magnetostriction v. Mechanical losses vi. Stray losses

3.7.2 Types and Classification Factors
A wide variety of transformer designs are used for different applications though they share several common features. Important common transformer types include: A Auto transformers B Poly Phase transformers NRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 11

C Leakage transformer D Resonant transformers E. Instrument transformers Classification of Transformers is based on following factors. i. By power capacity: from a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA. ii. By frequency range: power, audio, or radio frequency. iii. By voltage class: from a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts. iv. By cooling type: air cooled, oil filled, fan cooled, or water cooled. v. By application: such as power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and current stabilizer, or circuit isolation. vi. By end purpose: distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output. vii. By winding turns ratio: step-up, step-down, isolating (equal or near-equal ratio), and variable. Among the above mentioned transformers only instrument transformers are widely used in the sub station. Hence only instrument transformers are discussed in this section.

Fig power t/f 3.8. Battery and charge configurations
Capital cost and reliability objectives must first be considered before defining the battery and battery charger combination to be used for a specific installation. The comparison given in Table 3.1 describes the advantages and disadvantages of three such combinations.


Type 1. Single 100% battery and 100% charger 2. Semi duplicate 50% batteries and 100% chargers

Advantages Low capital cost

Disadvantages System outage for No standby DC maintenance Need to isolate battery/charger combination from load under boost charge conditions in order to prevent high boost voltages appearing on DC distribution system

Medium capital cost Standby DC provided which is 100% capacity on loss of one charger Each battery or charger can be maintained in turn. Each battery can be isolated and...



3.9. Bus Bar
A bus bar in electrical power distribution refers to thick strips of copper or aluminum that conduct electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation, or other electrical apparatus. The size of the bus bar is important in determining the maximum amount of current that can be safely carried. Bus bars are typically either flat strips or hollow tubes as these shapes allow heat to dissipate more efficiently due to their high surface area to cross-sectional area ratio. The skin effect makes 50-60 Hz AC bus bars more than about 8 mm (1/3 in) thick inefficient, so hollow or flat shapes are prevalent in higher current applications. A hollow section has higher stiffness than a solid rod of equivalent current-carrying capacity, which allows a greater span between bus bar supports in outdoor switchyards. A bus bar may either be supported on insulators or else insulation may completely surround it. Bus bars are protected from accidental contact either by a metal enclosure or by elevation out of normal reach. NRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 13

Neutral bus bars may also be insulated. Earth bus bars are typically bolted directly onto any metal chassis of their enclosure. Bus bars may be enclosed in a metal housing, in the form of bus duct or bus way, segregated-phase bus, or isolated-phase bus.

3.10. Protective Relaying
Protective relays are used to detect defective lines or apparatus and to initiate the operation of circuit interrupting devices to isolate the defective equipment. Relays are also used to detect abnormal or undesirable operating conditions other than those caused by defective equipment and either operate an alarm or initiate operation of circuitinterrupting devices. Protective relays protect the electrical system by causing the defective apparatus or lines to be disconnected to minimize damage and maintain service continuity to the rest of the system There are different types of relays. i. Over current relay ii. Distance relay iii. Differential relay iv. Directional over current relay

Fig relay

3.11. Grounding
A properly designed and installed grounding system ensures reliable performance of electrical substations . Just how important is substation reliability? Fast clearing of faults, made possible by good grounding, improves the overall safety and reliability of an electrical system Therefore, substation reliability must be as "built-in" as possible because of the high available fault current levels present and unlikely occurrence of follow-up grounding inspections.


FIG grounding

Types of grounding:
Grounding of earth may be classified as equipment grounding System grounding and Neutral grounding.

) ) i)

Methods of Grounding
The methods commonly used for grounding the neutral point of a 3-phase system are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Solid or effective grounding Resistance grounding Reactance grounding Resonant grounding

Chapter 4

Protection of various equipment
4.1: Transformers protection
 Station transformers: HG fuse protection on HV side and fuse protection on LV side and vent pipe. Power transformer up to 7.5 MVA: HV side: non directional O/L relays with high(50/51R,Y,B)&Directional E/L relay(67N).  LV side: non directional O/L & E/L relays (51 R,Y,B&N), Buchholz relay, OLTC Buchholz relay, OTI and WTI. Power transformers from 8.0 MVA and above: HV side: non directional O/L relays with highest (50/51 R,Y,B) & Directional E/L relay (67B). LV side: non directional O/L & E/L relays (51R.Y,B & N), differential protection (87), Buchholz relay, OLTC Buchholz relay, OTI,WTI and PR.  Power transformers above 16 MVA capacities: Over flux protection (99) & LV WTI in addition to protection shown in item 10.c.  220/132KV power transformer: Over flux protection(99) on both HV and LV sides, directional E/F protection (67N) both on HV & LV sides, LBB protection (50HZ) on HV side OLTC Buchholz phase wise in addition to protection shown in item 10.c.

4.2: Feeder protection
 33 KV feeders: Non directional O/L & E/L protection with highest and IDMT characteristics (50/51 R,Y,B & N). 132 KV feeders: Main protection: distance protection(21). Back up protection: directional & O/L & E/L protection . 220 KV feeder: Main-1 protection: distance protection (21M1) Main-2 protection: distance protection (21M2) LBB protection (50Z) Pole discrepancy relay (62)

 

4.3: Capacitor protection
   Over voltage protection (59) Under voltage protection (27) O/L & E/L protection (51 R,Y,B &N)


Unbalanced current protection (61) for double star connected banks with NTC and neutral displacement protection for single star banks with RVT.

4.4: Bus bar protection
Main differential protection (87A/87B) & check differential protection (87 CHECK)

4.5: Bus coupler protection
   Non directional O/L & E/L protection (51 R,Y,B & N) LBB protection (50 Z). Railway feeders. Non directional O/L & E/L relays (51) with inverse characteristics.

4.6: Other protections used
Following protection operates HV tripping relay/me=aster tripping relay (86 HV).    HV O/L & E/L relays (50/51 R,Y,B & 67 N) Differential relay (87) HV over flux relay (99)  Transformer trouble trip like main buchholz, OTI, WTI and PRV.  The above tripping relays sends trip pulse to HV circuit breaker trip coil-1, trip coil2, LV circuit breaker trip coil-1, and trip coil-2. It extends DC positive supply to LBB relay (50 Z) provided on HV side of the PTR.  86 HV trip relay N/C contacts are used in HV C.B and LV C.B closing circuit as inter locks and 86 LV trip relay N/C contact is used in the LV C.B closing circuit as interlock.  LV tripping relay (86LV) is operated by LV O/L & E/L (51 R,Y,B and N) relays only. LV tripping relay sends trip pulse to LV circuit breaker trip coils 1&2 only.


Chapter 5 Procedure for taking line clears
 The person who is required line clear(LC) on the equipment has to give requisition on the LC book duly mentioning the work to be attended.  If the person is taking LC over phone/cell, person name, his designation and his phone/cell number shall be taken and noted in the LC book.  If LC is on 132KV feeder or 220/132 KV power transformer, it should be informed to divisional engineer/load dispatch ,Hyderabad and operations are to be doe after their approval only.  The equipment is to deenergised first from both the sides by hand tripping the circuit breakers. Then the isolators are to be opened. Isolators are to be operated on no load only. Hence, it is to be ensured that the circuit breaker is in tripped condition before opening the isolator.  Later earth roads are to be provided on the equipment. Before providing earth roads, it is to be ensured that the isolators were in open transformer or a transmission line or CT or circuit breaker.  If the LC is on the line, NBF LC is to be obtained from other end also. If the line is going to more than one substation, NBF LC is to be taken from all the substation.  For issuing LC on bus PT, PT isolator is to be kept open and fuses in the PT junction box are to be removed.  Then LC No. should be given to the person who has requested the LC.  While returning the LC, it is to be ensured that the same person is returning the LC and LC No. is to be tallied and the work carried is to be recorded.


 For restoring the normalcy, NBF LC is to be returned. Earth roads are to be removed. Before closing the isolator, it is to confirm that the earths were removed at the other end also. As mentioned earlier, it is 132/220 KV feeder or 220/132 KV power transformer, Permission is to be taken from the divisional engineer/load dispatch for restoring the normalcy. Charging instructions of the DE/LD/VS/Hyderabad are to be followed for restoration.

Chapter 6 Inputs to relays and meters
 11 KV &33 KV feeders & capacitor bank O/L & E/L relays: from feeder CT protection core.  Capacitor bank O/V,U,V relays: from the respective bus PT.  Capacitor bank neutral unbalance current relay: from NCT of the capacitor bank.  132 KV feeder directional O/L relays: from feeder XT protection core and PT supply for directionality from the 132KV bus PT.  Directional E/F relays of feeders and PTR’s: from CT protection core  And open delta voltage to directional element from the respective bus PT protection core.  Differential relays: from HV & LV CTs PS class core.  Distance relay: from feeder CTs PS class core and PT supply from the respective bus PT metering and protection core based on the availability of no. of cores in the bus PT. NRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 19

 Over flux relay : from the respective PT metering or protection core.  LBB relay: it is in series with the distance protection main-2 CT circuits in case of 220KV feeders and O/L & E/L relay CT circuits in case of PTRs.  Under frequency relay and df/dt: any bus PT supply can be extended.  Ammeter: in the CT metering core through the ammeter selector switch.

The project is successfully documented by acquired knowledge from the substation. The goals that have been achieved are:  Study voltage transformations in a substation i.e. step up or step down of high voltage.  Study of SF6 circuit breaker.  Providing continuous and reliable operation to the consumer.  Providing reliable transmission of high voltages with control over losses.  A thorough analysis done on the various equipments and protective devices used in the substation.

1. Electric Power Substations Engineering By James C. Burke and Anne-Marie Sahazizian. NRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Page 20

Publisher CRC. 2. Electric Power Systems: A Conceptual Introduction By Alexandra von Meier Publisher: Wiley-IEEE. 3. Handbook of Transformer Design and Applications ,By, William M. Flanagan Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional. 4. Power System Engineering, By A.Chakrabarti, M.L.Soni , P.V.Gupta,U.S Bhatnagar. Publisher: Dhanpat Rai & Co 5. Transmission, Distribution and Utilization Volume III, By B.L.THERAJA & A.K.THERAJA Publisher: S.CHAND & COMPANY LTD. 2004