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As published in the February and March 2007 issues of Chemical Engineering Magazine

Piping Design Part 1: The Basics
With regard to material of construction, the ongoing evolution of technology has raised expectations throughout industry…
William M. (Bill) Huitt W. M. Huitt Co. This is the first in a series of three articles that will cover a wide range of piping topics. Topics that will cross industry lines to include chemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceutical, and other industries as well. It will be the intent of these articles to address questions and misunderstandings as they relate to industry on a general basis. “Pipe is pipe”. This is a euphemism (jargon if you will) quite often used among piping designers and engineers. Taken at face value, this is a true statement…pipe is certainly pipe. However, taken in context, it means that no matter which industry you work in when designing piping systems it‟s all the same. And in that context it could not be further from the truth. The pharmaceutical industry, in its current state of growth, is a relative new comer to design, engineering and construction compared to the oil refining, bulk chemical, pulp & paper and nuclear industries. As a frame of reference the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was established in 1880; the American Petroleum Institute (API) was established in 1919; 3-A Standards (for food & dairy) were first developed in the 1920‟s; the ASME committee for BPVC (Boiler Pressure Vessel Code) Section III for nuclear power was proposed in 1963; Semiconductor Equipment and Materials Institute (SEMI) was established in 1973; the International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers (ISPE) was established in 1980; and ASME Biopharmaceutical Equipment (BPE) issued its first Standard in 1997. Prior to ASME-BPE much of the 3-A piping Standards were plagiarized to facilitate design of pharmaceutical facilities. While some of the above Standards Committees, and their resulting Codes and Standards, are specific to a particular industry others are more generalized in their use and are utilized across the various industries. As an example, Not only does the design and construction of a large pharmaceutical facility require the need for pharmaceutical based Standards, Codes, Guidelines and Industry Practices such as those generated by ISPE and ASME-BPE, it also requires those Standards created for other industries as well. Meaning that, when designing and constructing a bulk pharmaceutical finishing facility, or a bulk Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) facility the engineers and constructors will also be working under some of the same standards and guidelines as they would when designing and building in other industries such as a petroleum refinery or bulk chemical facility. It is not that the pharmaceutical industry itself is young, but the necessary engineering standards and practices are. Within the past fifteen or so years, industry practice, including dimensional standards for high purity fittings, were left to the resources of the pharmaceutical Owner or their engineering firm (engineer of record). The same applies to construction methods and procedures, including materials of construction. These requirements were basically established for each project and were very dependent upon

what the Owner‟s personnel and the engineering firm brought to the table. Industry standards did not exist. With regard to material of construction, the ongoing evolution of technology has raised expectations throughout industry, but even more so in the pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and semiconductor industries. For instance, out of the research and development that went into the Hubble Space Telescope came new methodology and technology to better measure and define the all too tangible limits of surface roughness required in material used in hygienic fluid service contact piping. This is of particular interest to the pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and semiconductor industries, where cross-contamination at the molecular level cannot be tolerated in many cases. This requires surfaces to be very cleanable. Surface roughness used to be expressed as polish numbers (ie, #4 or #7) then grit numbers such as 150, 180 or 240). The problem with either of these two methods lay in their subjectivity and their generality. These indicators were not specific enough and the accept/reject result relied too much on a subjective visual verification. There will be more on surface finish requirements in Part II. With acute awareness of the ongoing problems currently faced in the pharmaceutical industry and, for altogether different reasons, the semiconductor industry, various Standards organizations have taken steps to alleviate the consistent problems that have plagued the industry in the past with high purity welding issues, standardization of fittings, and guidelines for industry practice. We will discuss some of the finer points of these issues and in some cases what these Standards organizations, are doing to promote and consolidate some of the better thinking in this industry and in this field. In these early paragraphs it seems as though I am singling out the pharmaceutical industry as the focal point of these discussions. As you will see this is not true. And in saying pharmaceutical I do mean to include biopharmaceutical (biopharm) as well. In making an example of the pharmaceutical industry it is simply an attempt on my part to utilize its relative newness in the development of its own particular brand of standards to give the reader a sense of standards development and how these standards evolve. This article and the two that follow will address metallic piping topics including a discussion on hygienic piping. While non-metallic piping is worthy of discussion it is too broad a topic to try and capture here and will not be a part of these articles. Some of the points that will be covered in this and the following articles are topics such as:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

ASME flange ratings, is it 150 and 300 pound flange or is it Class 150 and Class 300 flange? Does the 150, 300, etc. actually mean anything or is it simply an identifier? In forged fittings, is it 2000 pound and 3000 pound, or is it Class 2000 and Class 3000? How do you determine which Class of forged fitting to select for your specification? Corrosion allowance in piping; how do you determine and then assign corrosion allowance? How do you select the proper bolts and gaskets for a service? How is pipe wall thickness determined? What is MAWP? What is Operating and Design Pressure? What is Operating and Design Temperature? How do Design Pressure and Temperature relate to a PSV set point and leak testing? What Code should you be designing under? What kind of problems can you expect with sanitary clamp fittings? How do you alleviate those problems with sanitary clamp fittings? What is ASME-BPE? How does ASME B31.3 and ASME-BPE work in concert with one another? What is ASME BPE doing to bring accreditation to the pharmaceutical Industry? Design is the culmination and application of industry standards and industry requirements that take into account constructability along with maintenance and operational needs. These points will be covered as well.

We will first of all lay some groundwork by beginning with the basics of general piping. By understanding the basic elements of piping the designer and engineer can improve their decision making in the material selection process and system design effort. These articles will also make clear a number of misconceptions with regard to terminology and general practices. What we will try to avoid is a lot of in-depth discussion and elaborate analysis on specific points. What I would like to achieve is a general discussion on many topics rather than finite rhetoric on only a few. With that said, this first article is entitled:

Piping Design Part I – The Basics
This article will not attempt to cover all of the various types of piping components and joints that are available in industry today. To keep the discussion focused we will discuss only that segment of joints, fittings and components most frequently used in general piping design.

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Neither will we duplicate the dialog of previous articles that have provided excellent commentary on segments of this same topic. Articles such as the one written by John C. Cox and published by Chemical Engineering for their January 2005 edition titled “Avoid Leakage in Pipe Systems”. John provides a concise and descriptive narrative on threaded and compression type connections. And the article by Trinath Sahoo published by Chemical Engineering for their June 2005 edition titled “Gaskets: The Weakest Link”. In his article Trinath gives the reader some excellent insight into the mechanics of gasket selection and design. PIPE FLANGES Pipe flanges are used to mechanically connect pipe sections to other pipe sections, inline components, and equipment. Flanges also allow pipe to be assembled and disassembled without cutting or welding, eliminating the need to issue a burn card for cutting and welding when dismantling is required. In providing a breakable joint, flanges unfortunately provide a potential leak path for the service fluid contained in the pipe. Because of this, as in all other joints, they need to be minimized where possible. The most prevalent flange standards to be used in industry are based on requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standards. These include: B16.1 – Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, B16.5 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings (NPS 1/2 through NPS 24), B16.24 – Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, B16.36 – Orifice Flanges, B16.42 – Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Large Diameter Steel Flanges (NPS 26 through NPS 60) B16.47 – Large Diameter steel flanges (NPS 26 through NPS 60)
NPS, indicated above, is an acronym for Nominal Pipe Size.

Figure 1 The Threaded flange, through Class 400, is connected to threaded pipe in which the pipe thread conforms to ASME B1.20.1. For threaded flanges in Class 600 and higher the length through the hub of the flange exceeds the limitations of ASME B1.20.1. ASME B16.5 requires that when using threaded flanges in Class 600 or higher Schedule 80 or heavier pipe wall thickness be used, and that the end of the pipe be reasonably close to the mating surface of the flange. Note that the term “reasonably close” is taken, in context, from Annex A of ASME B16.5, it is not quantified. In order to achieve this “reasonably close” requirement the length of the thread has to be longer and the diameters of the smaller threads become smaller than that indicated in ASME B1.20.1. When installing Threaded flanges Class 600 and higher, ASME B16.5 recommends using power equipment to obtain the proper engagement. Simply using arm strength with a hand wrench is not recommended. The primary benefit of threaded flanges is in eliminating the need for welding. In this regard Threaded flanges are sometimes used in high-pressure service in which the operating temperature is ambient. They are not suitable where high temperatures, cyclic conditions or bending stresses can be potential problems. Socketweld Flange

Flanges are available with various contact facings (the flange-to-flange contact surface) and methods of connecting to the pipe itself. The flanges under B16.5 are available in a variety of styles and pressure classifications. The different styles, or types, are denoted by the way each connects to the pipe itself and/or the type of face. The type of pipe-to-flange connections consist of Threaded, Socket Welding (or Socket Weld), Slip-On Welding (or Slip-On), Lapped (or Lap Joint), Welding Neck (or Weld Neck), and Blind. Figure 2 Threaded Flange The Socketweld flange is made so that the pipe is inserted into the socket of the flange until it hits the shoulder of the socket. The Pipe is then backed away from the shoulder approximately 1/16” before being welded to the flange hub. If the pipe were resting against the shoulder (This is the flat shelf area depicted in Fig. 2 as the difference between 3

diameters B and B2) of the socket joint during welding, heat from the weld would expand the pipe longitudinally into the shoulder of the socket forcing the pipe-to-flange weld area to move. This could cause the weld to crack. The Socketweld flange was initially developed for use on small size, high-pressure piping in which both a backside hub weld and an internal shoulder weld was made. This provided a static strength equal to the Slip-On flange with a fatigue strength 1.5 times that of the Slip-On flange. Because the two-welds were labor intensive it became the practice to weld only at the hub of the flange. In doing this it relegated the socketweld flange to be more frequently used for small pipe sizes (NPS 2” and below) in non-highpressure, utility type service piping. The Socketweld flange is not approved above Class 1500. Slip-On Flange

fatigue rate is about 66% less than that of a Weld Neck flange. The Slip-On flange is not approved above Class 1500. Lap Joint Flange

Figure 4 The Lap Joint flange requires a companion lap joint, or Type A stub-end (ref. Fig. 5) to complete the joint. The installer is then able to rotate the flange. This allows for quick bolthole alignment of the mating flange during installation without taking the extra precautions required during prefabrication of a welded flange. Their pressure holding ability is about the same as a Slip-On flange. The fatigue life of a Lap Joint/stub-end combination is about 10% that of a Weld Neck flange, with an initial cost that is a little higher than that of a Weld Neck flange.

Figure 3 Unlike the Socketweld flange, the Slip-On flange allows the pipe to be inserted completely through its hub opening. Two welds are made to secure the flange to the pipe. One fillet (pronounced “fill-it”) weld is made at the hub of the flange and a second weld is made at the inside diameter of the flange near the flange face. The end of the pipe is offset from the face of the flange by a distance equal to the lesser of the pipe wall thickness or 1/4” plus approximately 1/16”. This is to allow for enough room to make the internal fillet weld without damaging the flange face. The Slip-On flange is a preferred flange for many applications because of its initial lower cost, the reduced need for cut length accuracy and the reduction in end prep time. However, the final installed cost is probably not much less than that of a Weld Neck flange. The strength of a Slip-On flange under internal pressure is about 40% less than that of a Weld Neck flange. The The real cost benefit in using a Lap Joint flange assembly is realized when installing a stainless steel or other costly alloy piping system. In many cases the designer can elect to use a stub-end specified with the same material as the pipe, but use a less costly, e.g. carbon steel, Lap Joint Flange. This prevents the need of having to weld a more costly compatible alloy flange to the end of the pipe. Just a quick word about stub-ends; they are actually prefabricated or cast pipe flares that are welded directly to the pipe. They are available in three different types: Type A, (which is the lap-joint stub-end), Type B and Type C (ref. Fig. 5). Type A (Fig 5) is forged or cast with an outside radius where the flare begins. This radius conforms to the radius on the inside of the Lap-Joint flange. The mating side of the flare has a serrated surface. Type B (Fig. 5) is forged or cast without the radius where the flare begins. It is used to accommodate the SlipOn flange or Plate flange as a back-up flange.

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Type C (Fig 5) is fabricated from pipe using five suggested methods indicated in ASME B31.3. The most prevalent of these is the machine flare. This is done by placing a section of pipe into a flaring machine, flaring the end of the pipe and then cutting it to length. As you can see in the assembly detail of Fig. 5, stub-end types B & C have no radius at the flare while Type A does. This allows it to conform to the Lap-Joint flange. Due to the radius of the type A stub-end, a slip-on flange would have a poor fit, creating non-uniform loading of the flare face as well as an undesirable point load at the radius of the flare. Weld Neck Flange

Figure 7 While the Blind flange is used to cap off the end of a pipeline or a future branch connection it is also used for other purposes. It can be drilled and tapped for a threaded reducing flange or machined out for a Slip-On reducing flange. The reduced opening can be either on-center or eccentric. Flange Pressure Ratings ASME B16.5 flange pressure ratings have been categorized into material groupings. These groupings are formulated based on both the material composition and the process by which the flange is manufactured.

Figure 6 The reinforcement area of the Weld Neck flange distinguishes it from other flanges. This reinforcement area is formed by the added metal thickness, which tapers from the hub of the flange to the weld end. The bore of the flange needs to be specified in order to obtain the same wall thickness at the weld end as the pipe it will be welded to. This will give it the same ID bore as the pipe. The Weld Neck flange is actually the most versatile flange in the ASME stable of flanges. Much of its use is for fitting-to-fitting fabrication in which the flange can be welded directly to a fitting, such as an elbow, without the need for a short piece of pipe, as would be required with a Slip-On flange. It can be used in low-pressure, nonhazardous fluid services as well as high-pressure, highcyclic and hazardous fluid services. While the initial cost of the Weld Neck flange may be higher than that of a Slip-On flange the installed cost reduces that differential. And for conditions of possible high thermal loading, either cryogenic or elevated temperatures, the Weld Neck flange would be essential. Blind Flange

The available pressure Classifications under ASME B16.5 are: 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500. The correct terminology for this designation is Class 150, Class 300, etc. The term 150 pound, 300 pound, etc. is a carry over from the old ASA (American Standards Association) Classification. ASA is the precursor to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Taking a quick step back, ANSI was founded as a committee whose responsibility was to coordinate the development of standards and to act as a standards traffic cop for the various organizations that develop standards. Its basic function is not to develop standards, but rather to provide accreditation of those standards Originating as the American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC) in 1918, ANSI had, over its first ten years, outgrown its Committee status and in 1928 was reorganized and renamed as the American Standards Association (ASA). In 1966 the ASA was reorganized again under the name of the United States of America Standards Institute (USASI). In 1969 ANSI adopted its present name. While the B16 and B31 Standards have previously carried the ASA and ANSI prefix with its various Standards titles ASME has always been the administrative sponsor in the development of those standards. In the 1970’s the prefix designation changed to ANSI/ASME and finally to ASME. Referring to ANSI B16.* or ANSI B31.* is no longer correct. Instead it is correct to refer to a standard as ANSI/ASME B16.* in that it indicates an

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etc. are grouped into pressure ratings.* or ASME B31. 300 pound.1. austenitic stainless steels.5 began in 1920. temperature and Classification. This is a series of Tables that lists the Working Pressures of flanges based on material groupings. Or you can simply refer to the standard as ASME B16.5. they are a factor in the pressure rating calculation found in B16. MSS (Manufacturers Standardization Society). 6 . which indicates. API (American Petroleum Institute). we will discuss how these designations are factored into the design of the flange. in reverse sequence. In 1927 the American Tentative Standard B16e was approved. sub-category 1 of material group 1 (carbon and low alloy steels). Class 150.5. In Part II of this series. and nickel alloys. were referred to as 150 pound. Rather. ASTM A105 flange this is the table you would use to determine the Working Pressure limit of the flange. In ASME these pressure ratings are a sub-group of the various material groups designated in B16. If you had an ASME B16. For intermediate temperatures.5.5. To find the Working Pressure of the above mentioned flange enter the column of this table designated as 150 then move down the column to the operating temperature. as addressed earlier. This eventually became what we know today as ASME B16. It was at this point the pressure Classification was changed to the Class designation.ANSI accredited ASME standard. These are further segregated into more defined material sub-groups.*.5. Development of ASME B16. Flange Pressure Ratings Flanges. Figure 8 shows Table 2-1. Figure 8 represents one of the Tables from the Table 2 series in ASME B16. Until the 1960‟s the pressure Classifications. AWWA (American Water Works Association) or any other Standard. There are 34 Tables segregated into three material Categories of Carbon and low alloy steels. These designations have no direct correlation with pounds of pressure. whether manufactured to ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers).

as it indicates.5 x design . or 450 psig. That confusion becomes apparent when the engineer is determining design pressure and temperature and applying that to the flange rating. We can extrapolate that piece of information to say that since hydrostatic leak test pressure is based on 1. A design condition is the maximum coincidental pressure and temperature condition that the system is expected or allowed to see. or 285 x 1. This then becomes the condition to which you should design for. represents the working or operating pressures of the flange at an indicated temperature for a specific Class.1 is 1.linear interpolation is permitted. The indication of a working pressure and temperature of a fluid service is the same as indicating the operating pressure and temperature. The maximum hydrostatic leak test pressure for a Class 150 flange in Table 2-1. „Operating‟ and „working‟ are synonymous. There exists some confusion in this area. For now I will explain 7 that every service should have an operating pressure/temperature and a design pressure/temperature. On the surface there appears to be a conflict between rating a flange for design conditions when Table 2 only indicates working pressures.5 times the rated working pressure at 100°F. Tables 2. and to which the leak test is based on. not the operating condition. In the previous paragraph you will notice that I indicated “operating temperature” when looking to determine the Working Pressure of a flange.5 rounded off to the next higher 25 psi.5 = 427. Operating and design pressures and temperatures will be explained in more detail in Article 2.

1. “…If either flange is to the ASME B16.6). high. The height of the raised face for Class 400 and above is 0. Flange Facing & Surface Finishes Standard flange facing designations (ref.5. This is achieved with the use of bolts. Category D fluids additionally do not exceed 150 psig and 366º F. ASME B31. intermediate and low. The cutting tool used for the serrations will have a 0. ASME B16. To better understand the relationship of these criteria I will list and provide some clarification for each: 8 . sanitization) or passivation. As the service fluid is introduced to the piping system and brought to operating pressure. or MSS SP-51 (cast flanges and fittings) specifications. The Low Strength category includes bolt material with a minimum yield strength no greater than 30 ksi.3. the critical nature of the fluid service and environmental conditions all in conjunction with one another.3 further clarifies in para.06 in.5. 9) are as follows: Flat Face. but fluid service compatibility. there are caveats that address the fact that not all Category D fluid services should waive the hydrostatic leak test for an initial service leak test. and as you will see further in this article. Leak testing occurs during or prior to initial operation of the system.3 additionally states in para. sterilization. but are designed for another set. you therefore want to base your flange rating selection on those more extreme. B31.5 and 302. Fig. BOLTS. The High Strength category includes bolt material with a minimum yield strength of not less than 105 ksi. in pressure increments. Category D fluid services are those fluid services that are nonflammable. In specifying flange bolts. Large and Small Tongue and Groove. the bolting material shall be no stronger than low yield strength bolting unless: (a) both flanges have flat faces and a full face gasket is used: or. "Bolting having not more than 30 ksi specified minimum yield strength shall not be used for flanged joints rated ASME B16. and occasional loads (see paras. Making the right selection for the application can mean the difference between a joint with integrity and one without. Small Male and Female (on end of pipe).3. the two most widely used flange facings are the flat face and the raised face. not discounting the lap-joint flange and stub-end combination.2. not only to consider design pressure and temperature. Other ASME B31. and can only be used with selected gaskets as defined in ASME B16. NUTS & GASKETS Sealing the flange joint.3.1 (cast iron). will also be discussed in a subsequent article. The Intermediate Strength bolting materials "…may be used with all listed materials and all gaskets. The Low Strength bolting materials "…may be used with all listed materials but are limited to Class 150 and Class 300 joints". displacement strains. is paramount in providing integrity to the overall piping system. The height of the raised face for Class 150 and 300 flanges is 0. the working pressure limit then remains the working pressure limit because testing is performed at operating or working pressures.5 Class 400 and higher. 309. The Intermediate Strength category includes bolt material with a minimum yield strength of between 30 ksi and 105 ksi. ASME B16. Large and Small Male and Female. The bolting material is grouped into three strength categories.3 fluid services may be expected to operate at one set of conditions. provided it has been verified that a sealed joint can be maintained under rated working pressure and temperature”. which are based on the minimum yield strength of the specified bolt material.06”. nuts and gaskets. 309. with consideration of sustained loads. and initial service leak testing is performed. (b) sequence and torque limits for bolt-up are specified.2. Across industry.3 Category D fluid services. In saying that however.pressure the working pressure limit given in the Table 2 matrix ostensibly becomes the design pressure limit. the High Strength bolting materials "…may be used with all listed materials and all gaskets". such as steam service. which might include periodic steamout (cleaning. it is necessary. As defined in ASME B16. unless calculations have been made showing adequate strength to maintain joint tightness". nontoxic and not damaging to human tissue. the sanitization process can be done as frequently as once per week and last for one to one and half shifts in duration. When working with ASME B31. periodic design conditions. nor for flanged joints using metallic gaskets. and strength of the flanges. The surface finish of standard raised face and flat face flanges has a serrated concentric or serrated spiral surface finish with an average roughness of 125 μin to 250 μin. For those systems. Tongue and Groove. as well as the gasket.25”.5 provides a list of appropriate bolting material for ASME flanges. To clarify periodic in this context. If no leaks are detected the pipeline simply remains in service. the hygienic clamp joint. Raised Face. These conditions. MSS SP-42 (valves with flanged and buttweld ends). all joints are observed for possible leaks. or larger radius and there should be from 45 to 55 grooves per inch. 302. Ring Joint.24 (cast copper alloy). In initial service leak testing the test fluid is the service fluid.

Malleable Iron: Malleable iron fittings. Tube & Fittings One of the big differences between pharmaceutical and semi-conductor piping and other industrial piping. This is an example of where the matching nut is not always explicitly called out in the ASTM Standard. or hygienic fluid services.3. validation and quality control of hygienic piping systems and components. not need to specify the nut since it is already defined in A307. are available in Class 25. That. fabrication. Any relaxation in the gasket will then result in the reduction or elimination of the joints sealing ability. nuts and gaskets have to be selected in conjunction with one another in order for the joint assembly to perform in a way that it is expected to for a given application. This is achieved by applying sufficient stress to the bolt to take it into the material‟s elastic range. To explain this briefly. will determine the number and size of the flange bolts. along with flange size. they will lose their dynamic load on the gasket. it should be selected to compliment the bolt. In an attempt at keeping this article concise we will only cover those fittings that are predominantly used throughout industry. This will help determine bolt strength and material as well as gasket type. Part II in this series will get more into the requirements of hygienic fabrication and where that added cost comes from. 4. are available in Class 125 and Class 250 for sizes NPS 1/4” through 12”. in turn. into the proper nut selection. With regard to the nut. In this case. both in process and in utility services. Because the ASTM Standards are inconsistent in that regard the spec-writer must make sure it is covered in a specification. For now we will stay with general pipe and fittings. under ASME B16. wash-down chemicals. under ASME B16. ASTM A307. Fluid service compatibility will help determine the gasket material. forged and wrought. bolts. Environmental conditions will also help determine bolt material (Corrosive atmosphere.).1. You can see from this bit of information that all four components. states that the proper grade for bolts to be used for pipe flange applications is Grade B. installation. A307 goes further to state that when used for pipe flanges Grade B bolts require a Heavy Hex Grade A nut under ASTM A563. Pipe. alloy and stainless steel bolts. but there are several grades of A194 nuts to select from.4. goes only so far when it states that nuts shall conform to ASTM A194. is the requirements of high purity. Simply selecting a gasket based on material selection and not taking into account the pressure rating requirement could provide a gasket that would get crushed under necessary torque requirements rather than withstand the bolt load and create a seal. etc. The flange Class will also determine the compressibility range of the gasket material. In writing a pipe spec that includes the A307 bolt you would . malleable iron. In order for the flange joint to maintain a gasket seal it requires dynamic loading. if they do not shear they will take a set. and other alloy material as follows: Cast Iron: Cast iron threaded fittings. These requirements. Selecting a low strength bolt to be used with a Class 600 flange joint with proper gasketing will require the bolts to be torqued beyond their yield point. flanges. a material standard for bolts in the lowstrength category. either partially or completely. bronze. 2. However. If the bolts are not stressed sufficiently into their elastic range any relaxation in the gasket could reduce the sealing ability of the joint. brass. qualification. or at the very least beyond their elastic range. ASTM A193. Actually the bolt material specification will steer you. To the other extreme. The critical nature of the fluid will determine the degree of integrity required in the joint. as dictated by current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and defined and quantified by the ISPE and ASME-BPE. are available in Class 150 and Class 300 in sizes NPS 9 What this ultimately means is that all of the variables that come together in making up a flange joint have to do so in a complementary fashion. Dynamic loading of flange bolts allows expansion and contraction movement in and around the joint while maintaining a seal. The coincident of design pressure and temperature is what determines the pressure Class of a flange set. if the bolts were stressed beyond their elastic range and into the plastic range of their material of construction the same issue applies. Cast Fittings Cast fittings are provided in cast iron.1. Cast iron flanged fittings. 125 and 250 in sizes NPS 1” through 48”. bolts act as springs when they are installed and loaded properly. The man-hours required in generating. under ASME B16. stainless steel. maintaining and controlling the added documentation required for hygienic fabrication and installation is in the range of 30% to 40% of the overall cost of fabrication and installation. 3. steel. Pipe fittings are manufactured by the following processes: cast. are stringent with regard to the manufacture. documentation.

There are exceptions in the manufacture of both. If we look in ASTM A234 .S. on the other hand. In quoting from ASTM A961 I was quoting from what ASTM refers to as a General Requirement Specification. under ASME B16. In simpler terms wrought signifies “worked”. What gives wrought iron these attributes is the iron silicate fibers. Forged . whereas cast iron. Forged Fittings Before getting into forged fittings I would like to explain the difference between forged and wrought fittings. with a high carbon content. Today forging metal basically means working the metal by means of hydraulic hammers to achieve the desired shape. The reason I point this out is that many designers and engineers are not aware that when reviewing an A105 or any of the other ASTM individual Product Specifications you may need to include the associated General Requirement Specification in that review. Forged socketweld fittings are available in pressure rating Classes 3000. is more brittle and not as easily worked. They are specific to the Standard that they are associated with. As a small bit of trivia.18. welds easily and in its plastic range is said to be like working taffy candy. Forged Fittings. rather the semi-finished product was a spongy molten mass called a bloom. 900. A694. machining. which includes forging. The slag and impurities were then mechanically removed from the molten mass by twisting and hammering which is where the term wrought originates. True wrought iron is corrosion resistant. bending. fusion welding. 1500 & 2500 in sizes 1/2” though 24”. but that is the general difference. extruding.” The difference therefore between forged and wrought fittings is that forged fittings. In a bloomery the process does not completely melt the iron ore. A727 and A836. press or rolling machine. A181. You cannot automatically transfer the pressure/temperature limits of a flange joint in ASME B16. under ASME B16. where the iron ore was melted to produce wrought iron. forgings. The term forging actually comes from the times when metal was worked by hand. simply put. 600. which is what A961 is. A707. Forged steel and alloy steel socketweld and threaded fittings. or “slag” added to the molten iron with a small percentage of carbon. under ASME B16. Cast Brass: Cast Brass and bronze threaded fittings. Reference to a General Requirement Specification can be found in the respective Product Specification. The plastic working must be performed by a forging machine.5. 6000 and 9000. Cast Copper: Cast copper solder joints. wrought iron was the choice of ornamental iron workers. It needs to be noted here that Classifications such as 150 and 300 are not universal throughout the ASME Standards. are available in sizes 1/4” through 6”. are available in Class 125 and 250. or by a combination of two or more of these operations. A General Requirement Specification is a specification that covers requirements that are typical for multiple individual Product Specifications. press. A bar of steel would be placed into a forge and heated until it reached its plastic state. Wrought fittings.1 and in Para 5. “the product of a substantially compressive hot or cold plastic working operation that consolidates the material and produces the required shape. Something worth noting at this point concerns the ASTM specifications. 10 which is where the process gets its name. Cast Steel: Cast steel. but most of what we see manufactured as wrought iron in the U. up until the late 1960‟s.1 that wrought fittings made under A234 are actually manufactured or fabricated from material preformed by one of the methods listed previously. are manufactured from killed steel. has excellent tensile strength.1/8” though 6” for Class 150 and 1/4” through 3” for Class 300.Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service we can see in Para 4. In this case the individual Product Specifications covered by A961 are A105. derived from the red glow of the molten metal. stainless steel and alloy steel flanged fittings. plates and seamless or fusion welded tubular products that are shaped by hammering. 300.11. and must deform the material to produce a wrought structure throughout the material cross section. in sizes NPS 1/8” through 4” for Class 125 and 1/4” through 4” for Class 250. 400. Valves and Parts for Piping Applications the definition for the term Forged is. Today forged and wrought are almost synonymous. is actually various forms of steel made to look like wrought iron. There seems to be some vague misconception of what the term forged means and what the term wrought means and how it applies to pipe fittings. rolling. when mills stopped producing it.Standard Specification for Common Requirements for Steel Flanges. are available in sizes NPS 1/8” through 4”. or ring rolling machine. are available in Class 150. were called bloomeries. piercing. A182.3. are manufactured from bar. In ASTM A961 . A360. It is still produced in Europe. The smelters. at which time the metal would be pulled out of the forge and hammered into some desired shape. upsetting. under ASME B16. bars.15.5 to that of a fitting in B16. such as a hammer. which while in its plastic state is formed into a fitting with the use of a hammer. pressing.

If a full strength lateral is required either the wall thickness of the lateral itself can be increased or a reinforcement pad can be added at the branch to compensate for the loss of material at the branch opening. Laterals. having 0. The fitting pressure Class is selected based on the pipe wall thickness. In lieu of fitting pressure classifications both B16. The shoulder of the fitting (the area of the fitting that the end of the pipe butts against).D. is a misapplication of pressure rating in these fittings. What I see quite often. DWV fittings 1½” through 2” have a pressure rating of 95 psig.9. of the barrel of the fitting with the I.10% maximum Lead (Pb) content. 80 or XS 160 XXS Threaded 2000 3000 6000 Socketweld 3000 6000 9000 The ASME recommendation is based on matching the I. tube and their respective 11 Pipe Wall Thk. 3000 and 6000. Vent) fitting. as shown in Fig. within the same type of fitting. the higher the liquidus temperature the higher the pressure rating of the joint. 10. depending on whether the fitting is a standard fitting or a DWV (Drain. fittings 1/2” through 1” have a pressure rating of 1035 psig and fittings 1½” through 2” have a pressure rating of 805 psig. Wrought copper solder joint fittings. The pressure/temperature rating for copper fittings are based on the type of solder or brazing material and the tubing size. Referring to Fig.9 (standard radius 1. as a recommendation. Wrought Steel Butt Weld Fittings . There is no pressure/temperature rating classification for these fittings.threaded fittings are available in pressure rating Classes 2000. be rated at 80% of that calculated for straight seamless pipe of the same material and wall thickness.28 (short radius 1D elbows). DWV fittings 1½” through 2” would have a pressure rating of 370 psig.22. or threaded. 10. at 100ºF. 160 the matching threaded forged fitting would be a Class 3000. fittings 1/2” through 1” have a pressure rating of 200 psig and fittings 1½” through 2” have a pressure rating of 175 psig. As an example. short radius elbows.28. plate or forgings. as follows: Table 1 – Correlation of Pipe Wall Thickness & Pressure Rating under B16. either socketweld. given the same material composition. which is a Tin-Antimony-SilverCopper-Nickel (Sn-Sb-Ag-Cu-Ni) solder.D. Under ASME B16. Using alloy HB. of the pipe. for socketweld it would be a Class 6000.5D elbows and other fittings) are available in sizes 1/2” through 48”. This is referred to as its liquidus state. the fittings will have the same allowable pressure/temperature as the pipe. Pipe and Tubing The catch-all terminology for pipe and tubing is tubular products. is approximately. For forged reinforced branch fittings refer to MSS Standard SP-97 – Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings Socket Welding. which has a reduced pressure rating. This includes pipe. Threaded and Buttwelding Ends.11 As an example. referring to Table 1. the same width as the specified mating pipe wall thickness. Wrought Fittings Wrought Steel Butt Weld Fittings under ASME B16.9 and B16. It will vary too. fitting pressure Class with pipe wall thickness. As you can see. Waste. using alloy Sn50.11 is a table that associates. are available in sizes 1/4” through 6”. ASME requires that the fittings under B16. allowing for fabrication tolerances. because of the elongated opening cut from the run pipe section are rated at 40% of that calculated for straight seamless pipe of the same material and wall thickness. you can readily see that by not matching the fitting Class to the pipe wall thickness it will create either a recessed area or a protruding area the length of the barrel of the fitting. if you had a specified pipe wall thickness of Sch. under ASTM B88 and ASME B16. are available in sizes 1/2” through 24”. In ASME B16. This leads me to believe that the person specifying components does not fully understand the relationship between the pressure Class of these fittings and the pipe they are to be used with. there is a significant difference in the pressure ratings of soldered joints depending on the type of filler metal composition. These fittings can be used for brazing as well as soldering. The temperature at which it starts to melt is referred to as its solidus temperature. Much of the difference is in the temperature at which the solder or brazing filler metal fully melts. at 100ºF. 50-50 Tin-Lead Solder. depending on which side you error on. These fittings can be manufactured from seamless or welded pipe or tubing.28 require that the fitting material be the same as or comparable to the pipe material specification and wall thickness. Figure 10 – Socket Weld Fitting Joint from ASME B16. and this includes all of the industries I have been associated with.

XS (Extra Strong) and XX (Double Extra Strong). induction welding or arc welding. also referred as skelp. This gives malleable iron excellent machinability and ductile properties along with good shock resistant properties. White iron has a high carbon content in the carbide form. is normally not required. but leave it very brittle. Pipe NPS 12” and smaller has an OD that is nominally larger than that specified. Line Pipe. Conduit. non-volatile use.fittings. Pipe: Pipe is manufactured to a NPS in which the OD of a given nominal size remains constant while any change in wall thickness is reflected in the pipe ID. The following represents a combined description of Standard and Pressure Pipe. Water Well Pipe.) numbers 5. gray iron and ductile iron. The two types that we are mainly interested in are Standard and Pressure Pipe. Distinguishable only from the standpoint of use. The simple distinction between pipe and tubing is that tubing is thin-walled pipe with a different size for size diameter. As an example. Pipe with a NPS 14” and larger has an OD equal to the size specified. gaskets and other in-line components that make up an entire system used to convey a fluid. Wall thickness is also specified by the symbols Std. 10. 20. or buttweld. By reheating white cast iron in the presence of oxygen containing materials such as iron oxide. Gray cast iron has virtually no elastic or plastic properties. The continuous weld. The lack of graphite gives it its light colored appearance. 30. Arc welding the longitudinal seam of production pipe is accomplished with submerged arc welding (SAW). High-frequency induction welding can be used for high rate production of small NPS pipe. A scarfing tool is used to remove upset material along the seam of flash-welded pipe. Nipple Pipe and Sprinkler Pipe. 100. Tubular products can basically be grouped into three broad classifications: pipe. Fusion Welded pipe is formed from skelp that is cold rolled into pipe and the edges welded together by resistance welding. high-frequency or low-frequency resistance welding. Piles. These are services in which the pipe is required to convey high pressure volatile or non-volatile liquids and gases at sub-zero or elevated temperatures. Standard Pipe is intended for low pressure. Oil Country Tubular Goods. Based on user requirements the above classifications come in various types such as Standard Pipe. . Add the suffix „s‟ when specifying stainless steel or other alloys. malleable iron. Welded steel pipe is manufactured by Furnace Welding or by Fusion Welding. accept for ACR (Air-Conditioning & Refrigeration) tubing. flanges. 40. Wall thickness for tubing is specified in the actual decimal equivalent of its thickness. Pipe wall thicknesses are specified by Schedule (Sch. Carbides 12 give it a high compressive strength and a hardness that provides added resistance to wear. is forged at the time the strip is formed into pipe. 1” tubing will have a 1 1/8” OD. or gas shielded consumable metal arc welding (MIG). Welded Steel Pipe and Tubing: Referring to pipe in the following also includes tubing. bolts. 60. 140 and 160. but has excellent machining and self-lubricating properties due to the graphite content Ductile iron is arguably the most versatile of the cast irons. inert gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) also called tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). Meaning that 1/4” tubing will have a 1/4” OD. valves. (Standard). Pressure Pipe. or the cleaning of upset material along the seam. has an OD that is always 1/8” larger than the diameter specified. It has excellent ductile and machinable properties while also having high strength characteristics. Electric resistance welding (ERW) can be accomplished by flash welding. Flash welding produces a high strength steel pipe in NPS 4” through 36”. Pipe is manufactured in three basic forms: cast. 80. Malleable iron is white cast iron that has been heat treated for added ductility. It contains carbon in the form of flake graphite. Low-frequency resistance welding can be used to manufacture pipe through NPS 22”. Highfrequency resistance welding can be used to manufacture pipe through NPS 42”. Furnace Welding is achieved by heating strip steel. Piping itself refers to a system of pipe. which gives it its gray identifying color. welded and seamless. Cast Pipe: Cast pipe is available in four basic types: white iron. and allowing it to cool very slowly. the free carbon forms small graphite particles. which has an OD equal to that specified. whereas Pressure Pipe is intended for use in higher integrity services. This is a process generally used to manufacture low cost pipe 3 ½” and below. to welding temperature then forming it into pipe. 2” tubing will have a 2” OD. fittings. 1/2” tubing will have a 5/8” OD. Gray iron is the oldest form of cast iron pipe and is synonymous with the name cast iron. pressure tube and mechanical tube. This is a cleaner form of welding in which scarfing. Tubing: Steel and alloy tubing is manufactured to an OD equal to that specified. 120. Copper tubing. Tubing is manufactured in two basic forms: welded and seamless.

and many firms. or relax to the point of reducing the compressive bolt load of the joint enough to where it would not stand up to the hydrotest pressure. creep. The two forging methods are called Forged and Bored. These gaskets had a tendency to creep under required bolt torque pressure at ambient conditions. The tube hollow is then hotworked by the Mandrel Mill Process. and some are still being pursued. or cold-worked. 4. which did not come to the industry until 1956 by way of the same company. Seamless Steel Pipe and Tubing: Referring to pipe in the following also includes tubing. and still are. If further work is required to achieve more accuracy in the diameter. plastic line pipe filled a large fluid handling gap in industry. on many occasion. and should not be relegated to a paragraph or two here. There are also two forging processes used in the manufacture of large diameter (10 to 30 inch) pipe with heavy wall thickness (1. in many cases.5 (steel fittings) and B16. you needed to know in advance what those make-up dimensions were going to be. There was an added problem when gaskets were thrown into the mix. Particularly in fitting make-up situations. When first introduced. Other Material and Systems We have touched on just some of the key points of steel pipe and fittings. Gaskets were not normally required unless frequent dismantling was planned. which will have a larger diameter and thicker wall than its final pipe form. since plastic lined pipe is steel pipe with a liner and is so widely used in the various industries I will touch on some of its key points. which is a solid steel round. Lined Pipe Systems: Lined flex hoses were first developed in 1936 by Resistoflex followed by lined pipe. is manufactured by first creating a tube hollow from a steel billet. the type of weld seam used in the manufacture of pipe is a factor when calculating the Pressure Design Thickness (t) of the pipe wall.1 (cast iron fittings). The billet is heated to its hot metal forming temperature then pierced by a rotary piercer or by a press piercer creating the tube hollow. As other manufacturers such as Dow and Peabody Dore‟ began producing lined pipe and fittings industry standards for lined pipe did not exist. It reduces the overall integrity of the pipe wall by a percentage given in ASME B31. . Mannesmann PlugMill Process. felt more secure in specifying gaskets at every joint. was an envelope type gasket made of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) with an inner core of various filler material. and Hollow Forged. we will keep these articles focused on metallic piping material. The liners in these early systems were not necessarily vacuum rated and at times would collapse under the negative internal pressure.” Meaning. which states. Seamless steel pipe. Some of the fluid services these line pipe systems were specified for.2. Consequently. You will need to read Note 3 under Sub-Para. using various extrusion and mandrel mill methods.4. due to the diligent efforts of the line pipe and gasket industries these types of problems have either been eliminated or controlled. and thus the fitting manufacturer. the gasket of choice.As you will see in Part II. But. However. “Center-to-face dimensions include the plastic lining. The area of non-metallic piping is certainly worth including in the context of piping.5 to 4 inch). there 13 were no standard fitting dimensions and the availability of size and type of fittings would vary from one company to another. Non-metallic piping merits a discussion on its own. However. but brought with it some technical issues. However. Upon completion of these processes the pipe is referred to as hot-finished. While not having industry standard dimensions was a design problem other operational type problems existed as well. wall thickness or improve its finish the pipe can be cold-finished. both engineers and manufacturers. does to this day. From the time a system was installed to the time it was ready to hydrotest the gaskets would. B16. and still.3 based on the type of longitudinal seam weld. Quite often leaks would become apparent during the fill cycle prior to testing. the dimensions given in the referenced ASME standards are to the bare metal face of the fittings. Due to the autonomous nature of lined pipe manufacturing during its initial stages the pipe designer would have to know early in the design process which manufacturer they were going to use. When the pipe is cold-finished it will require heat treating to remove stress in the pipe wall created when worked in its cold state. plugging the pipeline. What I have not touched on are plastic lined pipe systems and non-metallic piping including proprietary piping systems. would normally be expected to operate under a positive pressure. but at times would phase into a negative pressure.Viton (a DuPont trade name) or EPDM. When required. to a much lesser degree. There also exists the problem of permeation with regard to PTFE liner material and of Internal and External Triboelectric Charge Generation and Accumulation (static electricity). or Ugine Sejournet Extrusion Process.42 (ductile iron fittings). Fitting dimensions have been standardized through ASTM F1545 in referencing ASME B16. when lined fittings are manufactured the metal casting is modified to accommodate the liner thickness being included in that same specified center-to-face dimension.

drainable systems is a necessity. component and equipment manufacturers. and increased liner thickness. pharmaceutical manufacturers. Hygienic Piping Hygienic is a term defined in ASME-BPE as: “of or pertaining to equipment and piping systems that by design. This article will concentrate on the basic aspects of the fittings. and W. and when requested can manufacture spools to 144” diameter. liner type. Standard sizes of plastic lined pipe and fittings range from NPS 1” through 12”. This provision will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer depending on size. Permeation issues with PTFE liners (it also exists. Because this term has been so closely associated with the plumbing industry and sanitary drain piping it is felt by the pharmaceutical industry that the change in terminology to hygienic is more appropriate. L. more on welding in Part II. with other liner material) have been accommodated more than resolved with the use of vents in the steel pipe casing. a lined pipe manufacturer. the surface roughness. If the electrical charge generation is allowed to continually dissipate to ground then there is no charge build-up and no problem. valves and the design itself. Enter ASME-BPE. fittings. Hygienic piping was. in approaching ASME about the need to create another standards committee. I won‟t go further with this except to say that. This is what occurs with steel pipe in contact with a flowing fluid. can translate to the Semi-Conductor industry the term hygienic 14 does not. Slope. to a lesser extent. which is a 100% expanded PTFE. and the perseverance to see it through. up until just recently. the application of vent components at the flange joint. but you will need to check the vacuum ratings of available pipe and fittings with each tentative manufacturer. liner specifications are greatly improved. and operation provide for the maintenance of cleanliness so that products produced by these systems will not adversely affect animal or human health. In both the pharmaceutical and semiconductor industries the need for crevice free. This implies a high degree of cleanliness and cleanability without being implicitly connected with one industry or the other. This translates into weld joint quality. mechanical joint design requirements. The orbital welding machine allows the welding operator to make consistent high quality autogenous welds. Gasket materials such as Garlock‟s Gylon gasket. pressure and temperature. materials of construction. Welded fittings. Gore‟s Universal Pipe Gasket. It pertains strictly to the health aspects of a clean and cleanable system for the pharmaceutical industry. A term that can more appropriately be interchanged between these two industries is high-purity. Charge generation has a path to ground and does not have an opportunity to build up. have an added tangent length to accommodate the orbital welding machine. Fusion is made between the parent metals of the two components being welded by means of tungsten inert gas welding. unlike standard buttweld pipe fittings. Because of this the pharmaceutical industry had to make a departure from the 3A standards it plagiarized early on in order to develop a set of guidelines and standards that better suit its industry. Edlon. fitting. What we will do in Part II of this series is provide you with basic information that will at least allow you to be familiar with the subject. Internal and external charge accumulation. or triboelectric charge accumulation. is the result of an electrical charge generation unable to dissipate. known as static electricity.With regard to vacuum rating. interior pipe surface roughness limits. welding. which is a PTFE/Silicate composite. For what is referred to as product contact material. dead-legs and surface roughness will be discussed in Part II. The semi-conductor industry requires a high. This is an issue that requires experience and expertise in order to analyze a particular situation. and inspectors in an effort to develop consensus standards for the industry where none existed before. or in some cases higher. to the handful of engineers undaunted by the task ahead of them. referred to as sanitary piping. also manufactures larger diameter pipe and fittings from NPS 14” through 24”. with regard to hygienic conditions. and help you to understand the issues. ASME-BPE has taken on the task of providing a forum for engineers.” While system components such as tube. for altogether different reasons. With regard to thermoplastic lined pipe there are two issues to be considered: external charge accumulation and internal charge accumulation. my hat goes off to you. degree of cleanliness and cleanability than hygienic systems in the pharmaceutical industry. system drainability and dead-leg limitations. . dead-leg minimums and an easily cleanable system are all imperative. have been developed to reduce the creep rate in a gasket material that is compatible with virtually the same fluid services that lined pipe systems are usually selected for. Autogenous welds are welds made without filler metal. Fittings There are two basic types of fitting joints in hygienic piping: welded and clamp.

represented in the US by VNE.hold-up. Meaning. 13). is currently in use in Europe. In some cases you can literally rotate the clamp by hand about the ferrules. This is to ensure a competent fit. We‟ll get into this in greater detail in Part II. Figure 11 is an example of an orbital. Inc. the most prevalent gasket material used in high purity piping. and promote microbial growth. The reason I mention this here. but whose standardization has been under development by ASME-BPE. except for that which is being developed by ASME-BPE. You can see by this example why the additional straight tangent section of automatic weld fittings is needed. The intrusion of the gasket into pipe ID on a horizontal line can also cause fluid Figure 12 – Swagelok TS Series Profile Compliments Swagelok Company Swagelok has developed what they call their TS series fittings. there is no force being applied on the joint seal. but another issue that currently exists with the clamp joint is gasket intrusion into the pipe ID due to inadequate compression control of the gasket. Gasket intrusion is a problem in pharmaceutical service for two reasons: 1. welding machine mounted on its work-piece. This type of joint. Swagelok and The Neumo Ehrenberg Group. have. Figure 11 . That extra length provides a mounting surface for attaching the automatic welding machine. There are no specific dimensions and tolerances for the clamp assembly. Currently it is possible to take a set of ferrules from one manufacturer. it is the clamp that applies the force that holds the ferrules together. This can result in the loss of residual product. While this connection alleviates the issues that are present with a gasketed joint 15 . Teflon. attach a clamp from a different manufacturer and tighten up on the clamp nut. The clamp connection is a mechanical connection whose design originated in the food and dairy industry. For those of you unfamiliar with the clamp joint. the component that the clamp fits on. 2. In this example it happens to be a 90° elbow being welded to a cross. arguably. Depending on the hygienic fluid service and the gasket material the gasket protruding into the fluid stream can break down and slough off into the fluid flow. 12) have a design that provides compression control of the gasket while also controlling the creep tendency inherent in. Figure 13 – Maxpure Connect S Compliments Neumo Ehrenberg Group The Neumo Ehrenberg Group manufactures a clamp joint (also provided as a bolted connection) that does not require a gasket (Fig. cause potential cross-contamination of product. These ferrules (Fig. well developed re-designs of the standard hygienic clamp assembly. and the clamp itself come from the same manufacturer. what I would consider.Fittings Ready To Be Orbital Welded Compliments of ARC Machines. is because there are manufacturers that are attempting to overcome these issues by improving on the concept of the clamp joint. Two manufactures. The fact that this can occur begs the need for standardization to a greater degree than what currently exists. Due to a lack of definitive standardization most companies that use this type connection require in their specifications that both the ferrule. or automatic. contaminating the hygienic fluid. called the Connect-S under their newly formed MaxPure label of fittings. mate them together with a gasket. and I won‟t go into it any further until Part II.

titled “Piping Design Part III – Installation. Nevertheless this is a connection design worth consideration. titled “Piping Design Part II – Code. chemical. will wrap up the series by discussing the four title points. will cover the more specific aspects of Code governance. Positions have included design engineer. He has written numerous specifications. papers. About the author: W. Acknowledgement: I wish to thank Earl Lamson. Louis.com www. a piping consulting firm founded in 1987. assembly and installation. CSI (Construction Specifications Institute) and ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers). pulp & paper. Cleaning. several Task Groups. The next article. The third article in this series. MO 63131-0154 (314)966-8919 wmhuitt@aol. guidelines.com 16 . piping design instructor. His experience covers both the engineering and construction fields and crosses industrial lines to include petroleum refining. for taking time out of a busy schedule to read through the draft of this article. and coal gasification. Bill is a member of ISPE (International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers). piping design. His comments kept me concise and on target. (Bill) Huitt has been involved in industrial piping design. Future Articles What we have discussed so far is just some of the basics of general piping. engineering manager and president of W. Design and Fabrication”. and fabrication of pipe in Part II.added care would need to be applied in its handling. an API Task Group. M.wmhuitt. engineering in pipe design and fabrication as it relates to welding. and sets on two corporate specification review boards. He can be reached at: W. biofuel. He is a member of three ASMEBPE subcommittees. While there is a great deal left unsaid we will provide further clarification as we move through the next two articles. project supervisor. nuclear power. He obliged me by reviewing this article with the same skill. piping department supervisor. pharmaceutical. project engineer. Any scratch or ding to the faced part of the sealing surface could compromise its sealing integrity. Huitt Co. M. intelligence and insight he brings to everything he does. petrochemical. Testing and Verification”. and magazine articles on the topic of pipe design and engineering. senior Project Manager with Eli Lilly and Company. Huitt Co. In this first article we have covered a few of the basics. engineering and construction since 1965. M. which will provide us with a little more insight when we discuss the more in-depth topics of piping Codes. P O Box 31154 St.

a trick to it. or be penalized for non-compliance. W. state. which is enforceable by law. Code. irrespective of government regulations or corporate requirements. but before I do. (Bill) Huitt W. and others. NFPA. Therefore the reason for complying with a Code is because you literally have to. This is certainly nothing to get excited about.As published in the June and July 2007 issues of Chemical Engineering Magazine Piping Design Part 2: Code. using material that may potentially not withstand service pressures and temperatures. examinations and testing. but included in corporate specifications. Standard and Code. “why comply with or adopt a piping consensus standard?” When a question like the one above is phrased as it is it supports my contention that many people. M. but it is something worth pointing out. If you considered the question while reading it you may have noticed that there is. M. When not addressed on a municipal level. ASTM. Design and Fabrication There is not a reason sufficiently good enough not to comply with appropriate industry Standards and Codes. By hiring non-certified welders and plumbers. need to comply with a piping Code?” The question was in regard to the building of industrial facilities. cost more to fabricate and install piping systems that have a high degree of integrity as opposed to a system that doesn't. and supporting this type of system with potentially inadequate supports is less costly but there's too much at risk. The question actually intended was. bypassing inspections. as a company. as legally binding requirements. however. International Plumbing Code and others are not mandatory in and of themselves. In these municipal Codes you will find regulations that establish various requirements taken in whole. To comply with these Codes. and some Codes are published as a Standard. the Standard becomes a legal Code on a contractual basis. is that they get bounced around so often in the same context that designers and engineers simply begin interchanging the two terms without much consideration for their different meanings. doesn't cost the builder any more than if they didn't comply. I don't think anyone in good conscience would . Huitt Co. and was in preparation for a meeting that was about to take place for which the main topic was going to be the issue of Code compliance. My take on the reason for the misunderstanding of these two closely related terms. API. then become Code. or in part from the Standards published by the above listed organizations. However. I‟m going to explain the difference between a Standard and a Code. And it doesn‟t help matters when some Standards are published as a Code. although unintentional. “Why do we. referring to engineers and designers in our case. here‟s the written response I gave to the above question: Consensus Standards such as those published by ASME. do not fully understand the difference between a Code and a Standard. ANSI. federal. city and other local Codes are mandatory. A request was put to me a few years back asking if I would respond in writing to the question. It does. as adopted. by definition is law with statutory force. These Standards.

Use listed material. which was published in 1955. the design (includes specifications and engineering). And this doesn‟t mean the BPVC is adopted in its entirety. A state. Test the pipe for tightness. The Code simply explains how to do this in a formal.000 boilers had exploded. Inspect welds and brazing. Inspect the material for MOC. since its first publication in 1915 it has been adopted by 49 states.1 . Uniformity and regulation does have its place. Adequately support the pipe. Providing guidelines for Code adoption on a project basis is direction that should be included in any company‟s set of specifications. Just a bit of trivia: ASME published the first edition of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in 1914-15. In order to answer the question about Code assignment some history has to be told. This changed the Code designation to ANSI/ASME B31. 2005 it was finally adopted by the 50 th state. Some were devastating to both people and property. In keeping this brief I will just touch on the high points. Those numbers fell off drastically as the Code was adopted. On May 18.3 – Petroleum Refinery Piping Standard was published. it makes good sense. In some cases that determination is made for the Engineer or Contractor at the state level. or corporation for that matter. defined here as an industrial facility requiring a significant amount (apply your own order of magnitude here) of pipe. 7. This would later change to B31. 2. was that between 1870 and 1910 approximately 14. . American National Standards Institute. but quite often is not. In 1959 the first ASA B31. the International Plumbing Code or some of the other consensus Standards. That's without considering the safety risk to personnel. the three key factors in its development are the governing Code. I should comply with for my particular project?” Determining proper Code application is relatively straightforward while at the same time providing a certain degree of latitude to the Owner in making the final determination. If anyone intending on fabricating and installing a piping system plans to: 1. the question I get quite often is. There is not a reason sufficiently good enough not to comply with appropriate industry Standards and Codes. but limited basis in this article. in all honesty you would not get a US boiler or pressure vessel manufacturer to by-pass Code compliance. all the provinces of Canada. However. size and rating. or they can adopt it in its entirety. ASA B31. After some reorganization and organizational name changes the ASA became ANSI. or Standard. is check local and state Code.Power Piping. if they are considering to do otherwise.intentionally attempt to do something like that in order to save money. Take the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). unless you wanted to pay their potential attorneys fees. The first of those Standards was ASA B31. the local level or by an Owner company itself. South Carolina. 5. but then again the world is full of unscrupulous individuals and corporations. very simply put. These are the three topics we will discuss on a broad. With regard to Code compliance. a Code waiting to be adopted. Use certified welders and plumbers. Even with utility systems in an admin building or an institutional facility. and there is usually just too much at stake. If not already included. But there is no fee. and pipe fabrication (includes installation). Subsequent Code revisions were designated as ANSI Codes. the potential damage from a ruptured pipeline. They may find regulations that require adherence to ASME. ASME was granted accreditation by ANSI to organize the B31 Committee as the ASME Code for Pressure Piping. In 1978. 3. A professional Consensus Standard is. Specify material that meets the requirements for fluid service. Then they are essentially complying with Code. Until South Carolina adopted the BPVC it was actually no more than a Standard in that state and only required compliance when stipulated in a specification.8 – Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. and accepted by regulatory authorities in over 80 countries. Prior to creation of the Code. pressure and temperature. and what played a large part in instigating its creation. 6. In the early 1950‟s the decision was made to create additional B31 Codes in order to better define the requirements for more specific needs. 4. 2 Like the seatbelt law Code compliance is not just the law. This can cause a number of disconnects through design and construction. The first thing that someone should do. or a slow leak at an untested joint could easily overshadow any savings gained in noncompliance. can adopt a single section or multiple Sections of the BPVC. PIPING CODE In a piping facility. this should be a requirement within any company’s specifications.1 – American Standard Code for Pressure Piping was published by the American Standards Association. In 1942. That is. well thought-out manner. If there was a fee involved for compliance this might be a stimulus for debate. “How do I determine which piping Code.

project XYZ consists of a process manufacturing facility. These differences in Code assignment and battery limits may be a driver for the project‟s contracting strategy. related office building and lab facilities. associated material .1. with Code exclusions. B31.9 would not need to be included.9. is left to the Owner and/or to the local governing jurisdiction. This is due to the range of fluid services and the corresponding pressure and temperature limits of B31. B31. a Standard created for and much more suitable for that type of design and construction.3 would be adopted for those services. applies to refrigerant and secondary coolant piping systems.4 – Liquid Transportation Piping. In the case of a process manufacturing facility. and/or the design and construction contracts for those facilities are a part of the overall process manufacturing facility. lab and/or research facility were under a separate design/construct contract from the process manufacturing facility. B31. This alleviates the need for a designer or constructor building an institutional type facility from having to familiarize themselves with the more voluminous B31. geothermal heating systems. in industrial and institutional plants. If a project includes only the installation of perhaps a refrigeration system. laboratory. can just as easily fall within the requirements of B31. B31.3 Category D fluid services. Since B31.3 or even a B31.9 was first published in 1982. all piping. not even necessarily with associated lab. It was created to fill the need for piping in limited service requirements. The difference. In that case.3 encompasses virtually all piping. B31. including those also covered by B31. not necessarily in this order.5 – Refrigeration Piping. semiconductor and cryogenic plants. Through the years since then they have created. B31. If. As mentioned above. institutional or residential building. are Standards that are better focused on specific segments of industry.9 compared to those of B31.” ASME B31.1 or B31. Or they were a substantial part of the overall project.9.9 as well. The only time B31. office and research facilities. chemical. etc. From its shear scope of responsibility. Engineering specs should clarify and reflect the intent of the Owner and the respective Codes in an attempt to provide consistency and direction across all projects within a company. If the utility service piping for the office and lab facilities is a small percentage of the overall project. ASME B31. In an effort at maintaining a high degree of continuity in the process of making the determination of which Code to apply to a project. B31. lies with the definition and scope of the project itself. reads: “Rules for the Process Piping Code have been developed considering piping typically found in petroleum refineries. and B31.5 would apply. A laboratory or 3 research facility could possibly require fluid services beyond the fluid service limits of B31.1 or B31. fluid service requirements.9. B31. As an example.9 would become governing Codes. paper.1 – Power Piping. Its scope is narrowly focused on only those service conditions that may be required to service the utility needs of operating a commercial. Many piping service requirements such as steam. separate pipe specifications may have to be issued for those portions of the project designated as being governed by B31.1 (except for boiler external piping).1. within the purview of the above mentioned Codes.3 – Process Piping. but not having the size. B31. If a project's scope of work consists of an office. and distinction. however. or an office.5 and B31. In such a case. pharmaceutical. They can work within the much less stringent and extensive requirements of B31.5 – Refrigeration Piping. could be governed by B31. textile.Since 1955 the B31 Committee has continued to categorize.1 or B31.9. PIPING DESIGN Piping design is the job of configuring the physical aspects of pipe and components in an effort to conform with P&ID‟s.5 would apply. Each of these Standards is considered a stand-alone Section of the ASME Code for Pressure Piping. What the B31 committee has accomplished. These fluid services.5.3 would be the governing Code. and is continuing to improve upon.11 – Slurry Transportation Piping.9 and/or B31. air. and related processing plants and terminals. the office and lab facilities were a substantial part of the overall project. research facility. as to which Code should apply to a particular project.5 or B31. is if a refrigeration unit. The final determination as to what constitutes a governing Code.9 and possibly B31. Closely related to B31.3. Its general scope reads: “Rules for this Code Section have been developed considering the needs for applications which include piping typically found in electric power generating stations.” The general scope of ASME B31. in association with a manufacturing facility. chilled water.5 or B31. B31.3 covers all piping. create and better define Code requirements for specific segments of the industry. can come under the auspices of multiple Codes. B31. B31.3. and central and district heating and cooling systems. was first published in 1942. which fall within the definition of B31. pressure or temperature range.9 – Building Services Piping. institutional facility or any combination thereof. company guidelines should be well defined. or they were to go to a separate constructor it may be more beneficial to determine battery limits for those facilities and designate anything inside those battery limits as B31.

Since the purchasing agent won‟t have the answer. will bid the valve with an exception to the proprietary material. In actuality it creates confusion and propagates questions. in many respects. by using the description of one particular valve as a template. Design will require a sufficient degree of information in a specification that will allow for determining the service limitations of the specification and what fluid services the specification‟s material is compatible with. or they will contact the purchasing agent for clarification. do not get so specific or proprietary with the specification that only one manufacturer is qualified to provide the component. It plays such a large part that. as an overview. rather than enter into it here. What happens is that proprietary manufacturer trade names. among other fluid services. electrical. video. HVAC. The valve bidders. end connection type and surface finish where required. coordination. to discuss design without including CAD in the discussion. are carried over to the generic valve spec. both design and construction. and how. structural steel. As an example when specifying Viton you are specifying a generic DuPont 4 . All of this has to be done within a pre-determined threedimensional assigned space while coordinating that activity with that of the architecture. Inversely. and the issues we are still dealing with today in the use of CAD. 2. within the spec itself they are either not definitive enough or they are too definitive. In defining the above issues we‟ll begin with: Point #1: When defining pipe and components in a specification you should provide enough information to identify each component without hamstringing yourself or procurement in the process. planning. fittings and manual valves necessary to the needs of both design and procurement. should provide essential material detail for design. When developing a spec be specific. There are a few rather consistent mistakes that companies make in developing or maintaining specs: 1. technical ability. or whoever is buying the valves for the project. it would eliminate multiple bids for the valve based on the unintentional proprietary requirements in the spec. Pulling together and coordinating the above mentioned discipline activities to achieve such a compilation of design requires a systematic methodology. Piping Specifications A Piping Specification is the document that will describe the physical characteristics and specific material attributes of pipe. one that can be bid on by multiple potential suppliers. PIPING SPECIFICATIONS One of the first activities the piping engineer will be involved with is development of piping specifications. procurement and fabrication. A note of omission here: CAD (Computer Aided Design) is such an integral part of piping design that it’s difficult. and above all experience. a project may have. design guidelines and construction guidelines. Guidelines. The piping specification should make clear exactly what the material of construction is for each component. data & security conduit and trays. its method of implementation and integration has inversely diminished the quality of design with respect to industrial piping. such as some of the trim materials. and operational requirements. I will dedicate an entire article to it at a later date. The economic and technical feasibility of the material selection for chilled water service would not be technically feasible for sulfuric acid. That article will discuss the integration of CAD into the industry including its merits. A common practice of spec writers is to write a specification for a generic type valve. What I mean by that is. equipment data sheets. Also included in the component description should be pressure rating. they are not updated in a timely manner. The article will also discuss industry’s reaction to this unexpected result. and current Good Manufacturing Practice while meeting Owner expectations. The time necessary in responding to these types of issues is better spent on more pressing matters. Piping specifications. other than the one the spec was based on. and what standard that component is manufactured to. You would think that. with valves and other inline equipment it can happen quite easily. However.specifications. unless you intend to do just that. or actually the clarification. but try not to include proprietary data unless you intend to. the question. and/or 3. will need detailed specifications to limit the assumptions they will have to make or the questions they will have to ask in preparing purchase orders. When the procurement person for the mechanical contractor. That is. Procurement too. gets ready to buy this valve the only manufacturer that can supply it with the specified proprietary trim is the one from which the spec was copied. foresight. These documents also become contractual to the project and those contractors that work under them. if not impossible. in doing this. then goes back to the engineer and/or the Owner. the economic and technical material selection for sulfuric acid service would not be economically feasible for chilled water service. With standard pipe and fittings it‟s difficult to provide too much information. sulfuric acid and chilled water. should provide sufficient definition in a well organized manner to allow the designer and constructor the insight and direction they need in order to provide a facility that will meet the expectation of the Owner with minimal in-process direction from the Owner or Construction Manager. The specs are too broad in their content.

etc. rating and material 5 6. manufacturers are bought and sold. Users of these specifications are designers. And depending on its application the load requirements for each trap may vary. depending on the size of the project. In saying “almost” above what I meant by that is. Point #2: All too often after a specification is developed it will reside in the company‟s database without being periodically reviewed and updated. As an example. that these documents have to be interpreted and used by a wide range of personnel. however. thermodynamic. or at least value the fact. definitive and repeatable. I think you can see why this type of requirement needs to be its own specification and not a part of the piping specification. at the very least. 4. Viton GF. from design through close-out. capital projects. All of these things constitute the need and necessity to review and revise specifications on a timely basis. as an example. bidders. 7. 5. gaskets and valves can all be used at any point in the system as specified. Viton is a type of fluorocarbon. Lessons-learned from projects can then be considered for adoption into company specs. Each of these has specific formulations. which is Viton A. You could. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES . Fluorocarbons are designated FKM under ASTM D-1418. written in a concise manner that will allow them to design and order or verify components within that specification. A piping specification should contain only those components and information that would typically be used from job to job. receipt verification clerks. fittings. And that doesn‟t take into account the need for the different types of traps. industry standards. in developing a specification. Generic in that there are several different types of Viton such as Viton A. sight glasses. strainers. rating and material Flange type. The pipe. Some specifications are written to include such components as steam traps. etc. The specification for a steam trap. manufacturers improve their products. Adding specialty type items to the specification makes it convoluted and difficult to control and interpret. 3. procurement personnel. This does not make them a good candidate for inclusion into a basic pipe specification. etc. A piping specification should be concise. e. prompting a new revision. inverted bucket. To explain the above we can use. Those personnel are looking for particular information. have multiple variations of the four basic types of steam traps with anywhere from 30 to 300 or more traps in multiple sizes and various load requirements. Or an FKM suitable for colder temperatures may be a better choice. If. So when specifying “Viton” you are identifying a specific product from a specific manufacturer…almost. publish every two years. 3-way or 4way valves. which gives them different fluid service compatibility and pressure/ temperature ranges. That would include the following (as an example): 1. 8. bolts. Pressure/Temperature limit of the spec Limiting factor for Pressure/Temperature Pipe material Fitting type. 2. validation and maintenance personnel. a carbon steel piping system that is specified to be used in a 150 psig steam service. if you write the spec as Viton you would most likely get the original formulation. will arguably have an average duration of two years. Gasket type. Be specific for those that have to use the specs to design from and those that have to purchase the material. Those miscellaneous items are better referred to as specialty items (or some other similar descriptive name) and are sized and specified for each particular application. That would be a Viton GFLT. In attempting to include the specialty type items it will. The fluid service may be more suited for an FKM with polytetrafluoroethylene in it. F&T. Point #3: Specs being too broad in their content refers to an attempt at making the specs all-inclusive. 10. Viton GFLT. and we‟ll stay with the fluorocarbon gasket or seal material example.g. In doing this. which would indicate that a comparable material from one of the other fluorocarbon manufacturers would be acceptable so long as the fluid service compatibility and pressure/temperature ranges were equal to or greater than the Viton GF material. whereas a steam trap application at a shell & tube heat exchanger may have a heavier modulating load. A company that houses their own set of specifications should review those specifications at least every two years. a steam trap application at a drip leg will have a light steady load. fabricators. rating and material Bolt & nut type and material Manual valves grouped by type Notes Branch chart matrix with corrosion allowance The ten line items above provide the primary component information and notations required for a typical piping system. 9. you could identify Viton GF or equal. complicate and exacerbate the process. This timing works out for a couple reasons: 1. Viton B. part numbers change. on average. flanges. With that in mind you can better understand.product. Industry standards change. will vary depending on its intended application. and other miscellaneous type items. and 2. That would be a Viton GF. you wish to establish minimum requirements for a component or a material it is certainly acceptable to identify a specific proprietary item as a benchmark.

more established 6 2. on the Owner‟s part. this translates into change orders at some point in a project. The down-side of this is the project to project inconsistency in specifications and methodology when using different engineers and constructors. as in scenario 1. and a brief description of expectation. In scenario 3 the Owner. not only material specifications as described earlier. but afford the best situation for both the Owner and Engineer/Constructor. an explanation as to why the project is governed by a particular Code or Codes. or Customer. but also the guidelines and narratives (yes. The guidelines should not be a rhetorical essay. 3. three scenarios in which project specifications and guidelines are delivered to a project: 1. By providing the Engineer and Constructor. brings no specifications or guidelines to the project table. A narrative. should convey to the designer and constructor point by point requirements as to how a facility is to be designed and constructed. association between the material specifications and the guidelines. the numbering scheme used for the specifications and guidelines. Without these guidelines as part of any bid package or Request For Proposal package. For Project Management. engineering and construction for the project. engineering and construction efforts. The narrative allows you to be more explanatory and descriptive than a formal point-by-point specification. This applies to qualified Constructors as well. is in order. narratives) necessary to define the design and construction requirements. Leaving the full facilities delivery to the Engineer and Constructor depends a great deal on the qualifications of the Engineer and the Constructor. in general. Specification development becomes part of the overall project engineering effort. and whether or not consistency from plant to plant and project to project is an issue. the Owner is essentially leaving it up to the Engineer and/or Constructor to bring their own set of guidelines to the table. are assembled. In scenario 1 the Owner. In scenario 2 the Owner. Look at it this way. a complete arsenal of specifications and guidelines. straight-forward language. or Customer. When a project is approved to go out for bid to an Engineer the necessary specifications and guidelines. has some specifications and guidelines that have possibly not been updated for several years. in most cases. making the assumption that both the engineer and constructor are qualified for the level of work required. By actively and methodically developing a set of guidelines an Owner/Customer does not . If the Owner approaches a project with expectations as to how they would like their plant or facility designed and built then some preparation.Design and construction guidelines. generally speaking. the guidelines should tell them how to assimilate and use the material specifications in applying them to Good Design Practice. reams of specifications and guidelines necessary to build an industrial facility of any appreciable size. Scenarios 1 and 3 are at opposite ends of the spectrum. packaged and provided to the Engineer as bid documents. It gives the bidder/Engineer a Readers Digest version of the stacks of specifications and guidelines they are expected to read through and assimilate within a matter of a few weeks How piping specifications are delivered to a project can have a significant impact on the project itself. has developed. maintain and refine all of the specifications and guidelines necessary to execute a project. Preparation should include. working in conjunction with the piping specifications. This too is effective. along with the requisite drawings. These too would be used in the bid process as well as on the project itself. A guideline should explain to the engineering firm or constructor. Ineffective and outdated Owner specifications create confusion and inefficient iterations in both the bid process and the execution of a project. and beyond that as working documents in the design. preferably a CSI (Construction Specifications Institute) format. for each discipline. It additionally creates the greatest opportunity for conflicts between Owner documents and the Engineer‟s documents. I mention the use of narratives here because it helps facilitate the understanding and convey the magnitude of the. just what it is the Owner expects of them in executing the design and construction of a facility. due only to the fact that the learning curve is minimal. they can very effectively execute the design. petroleum refining and chemical companies you will see entire departments whose mission is to create. These are provided to the Engineer with the understanding and stipulation that any errors or omissions in the documents should be addressed and corrected by the Engineer. definitive manner. Most engineering firms will be prepared to execute a project with their own set of specifications and guidelines. in a concise. Scenario 2 is a worse case situation. should explain in simple. In the older. with a full set of current specifications and well articulated guidelines. but instead should follow an industry standard format. throughout their existence. There are. Scenario 3 allows the Engineer and Constructor to bring their own game-plan to the project. And this may or may not be a good thing. the material specifications tell the designer and constructor what material to use. or Customer.

aside from whatever innate ability a good designer might possess. Cleanability/Drainability. and 3. but is instead learned by being involved in the process of hands-on design over a period of time accompanied by ongoing learning. “Piping Design”. the points that aren‟t made clear enough. psi1 (e. See ASME B16. but can also be an issue in the chemical industry. require on a proprietary basis. Developing guidelines to convey your company‟s requirements and expectations can be accomplished using one or both of the following two basic methods: 1. Direct impact piping systems are those systems that carry product or carry a fluid service that ultimately comes in contact with product.4. etc. design pressure/temperature. for each discipline. See ASME B16.4. to hopefully provide them with the facility they require and hope to get. I will key in on a few topics that generally find their way to me for clarification.2. the knowledge required is not taught through formal education. for the specified material at temperature T. such as an engineering firm or constructor. to allow the document to conform to their own particular brand of requirements and nuances. D2. The ability to hinder the growth (we don‟t yet have the ability to control it) of biofilm and to enhance the ability to remove it once it does appear. 400. This definition of Pr does not apply to Class 150. as specified in ASME B16. The format examples provided by CSI give a company sufficient flexibility in writing guidelines. I described the act of designing piping systems for a facility as bringing a number of technical components together to make the pipe conform to a specific set of requirements. We will discuss flanges. and charge accumulation. D2. within a prescribed area. or specifications for that matter. D2. technical background or the imagination required to execute such a task. psig.5. Quantifying and specifying a maximum surface roughness for internal pipe wall for use in.have to rely on an outside resource.5. providing a degree of familiarity to the engineers and constructors that will have to adhere to them. as the Owner. That‟s pretty simplistic. D2. What you may not know is that the Class designation is a factor in the calculation for determining the rated working pressure of a flange. to a microscopic level. bio-pharmaceutical and semiconductor industries. 1) = = = ceiling pressure. Ongoing learning can be in the form of organized classes. 300.3 and D2. The need for a relatively smooth internal pipe wall is predicated on three primary issues as it relates to the industries mentioned above.g. or readily apparent in the more formal format.for the specified material at temperature T Pressure rating class index. plus a listing and description of the necessary Code and cGMP requirements.3 and D2. Flanges In the learning process. what is referred to as direct impact fluid services. crevices in which . A narrative. in a much more descriptive manner. 2. It also lends a degree of intra-industry conformity to the guidelines and specifications. and does not really convey the magnitude of the experience. psig. Since we do not have enough space here to cover all of the design elements I would like to.. Most designers are familiar with ASME flange Classifications such as 150. para. is a necessity in the above mentioned industries. Experience is the essential component here. a mentor and/or any other means available to help learn and understand the physical requirements and restraints of the various systems you will be designing and industries you will be serving. wall thickness. Those issues are: 1. A formal point-by-point format that covers all necessary criteria that you. that allows the writer to expand and define. And even though verbally stating 150 pound flange (we discussed the origin of this term in Part I) rolls off the tongue much easier and is still an industry accepted term. of this series of articles.5.2. Design Elements In the first paragraph of this segment of the article. The guideline itself can be structured based on one of the CSI formats. D3 at temperature T Rated working pressure. Pipe Internal Surface Finish Internal surface roughness is a topic that is specific to the pharmaceutical. psi. To reduce. pipe internal surface finish. MAWP/MADP. That calculation is: 2. Class 150 is the proper terminology and designation. some designers (I include engineers as well) will gloss over some of the primary basics of design and go directly to the bottom line information they need. we discussed ASME flanges and their Classifications. paras. Pr = 300 psi for Class 300) Selected stress. And this doesn‟t even scratch the surface. Case in point: In Part I. paras. And that is simply because. pipe 7 PT Where: Pc = PT Pr S1 1 Pr S1 / 8750 Pc (eq. weld seam factor.

June 2004 by Frank Riedewald. of this series of articles. 2) Where t ≥ D/6: . 2) is based on internal pressure. stress value of the material at design temperature. In ASME B31. on the microscopic level. Along those lines. While the pharmaceutical industry is concerned with bacterial growth and cross contamination. in order for a system to be fully cleanable it has to be designed and laid out in a manner that will eliminate any pockets and provide enough slope to eliminate any residual liquid (drainable). One is pressure design thickness (t) and the other is minimum required thickness (tm). the ASME-BPE Standard provides criteria for minimum slope. Not only is this residual liquid. Regarding the first point. results of the studies in the above mentioned paper indicate that the surface finish range best suited to reduce biofilm adherence to the internal pipe wall surface is from 0. Fig. and the sum of all mechanical allowances. 1 – Biofilm magnified ≈2000X (Courtesy of Mr. 8 (eq. actual (not nominal) OD of the pipe. it can also be costly due to the high cost of some drug products. There are two equations for finding pressure design thickness (t) for straight pipe under internal pressure. was delivered at an ASME-BPE symposium in Cork. 2 – Biofilm Attachment vs Surface Roughness (Courtesy of Mr. particularly in gas delivery systems. The other calculation used is that in which t ≥ D/6. In it he explains the results of testing that was performed to determine the relative association between the formation of biofilm. 2.microscopic particles can reside and at some point dislodge and get carried along in the fluid stream to damage product.8Ra µin). Ireland. or hold-up. gasket intrusion. 3) is based on the above listed criteria except for the OD and uses instead ID of the pipe. This pertains to point three above.4Ra µm to 1. Riedewald) Pipe Weld Seam Factor Part I.7Ra µin to 58. joint efficiency factor. maximum deadleg. and the coefficient Y [a factor used to adjust internal pressure (P) for a nominal material at temperature]. mentioned the fact that the weld seam in longitudinally welded pipe is a factor in the pipe wall pressure design thickness calculation. biofilm (Fig. the semiconductor industry is concerned more with particulate damage to product. This calculation (eq. In the semiconductor industry you might typically see surface finishes in the 7Ra µin to 15Ra µin. “Microbial Biofilms – are they a problem in the Pharmaceutical Industry?”. 1) is defined as a bacterial population composed of cells which are firmly attached as microcolonies to a solid surface. cleanability and drainability are associative in this context.Ra µm (15. Meaning that. a contaminant. One is where t < D/6. What this implies is that while we currently do not have the means to prevent the onset of biofilm on the internal walls of hygienic or semiconductor piping systems we can facilitate its removal in the cleaning process by specifying the proper surface finish of the internal pipe walls.6 µm). Referring to the graph in Fig. Riedewald) One of the many interesting factors that came from the studies mentioned in this paper is the fact that the internal surface of the pipe wall can actually be too smooth. and many other criteria for design of cleanable and drainable hygienic piping systems. a Senior Process Engineer with Lockwood-Greene IDC Ltd. The accepted max surface finish in the pharmaceutical and bio-pharmaceutical industries is 25Ra µin (0. A paper titled. This calculation (eq. The two equations look like this: Where t < D/6: t PD 2( SE PY ) Fig. gasket concavity. pipe wall surface finish and pipe wall surface cleanability. Regarding the second point.3 there are two pipe wall thicknesses to calculate for. from both a bacterial standpoint and as a cross batch contaminant.

mounted on legs. at design temperature Quality factor. or mounted on lugs. material thickness. thickness of each nozzle neck. 5) To determine wall thickness for pipe under external pressure conditions refer to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section VIII. The Boardman formula: PBO 2 TF S T D (0. Throughout design the vessel‟s intended maximum pressure is referred to as its design pressure. 7) = = = = = = = Burst Pressure.3 term.5 mm) in addition to the specified depth of the cut. or equivalent) shall apply. inches. but the final MAWP is the limiting pressure of the vessel. 3. They are: The Barlow formula. There are three equations generally used in calculating burst pressure for pipe. All calculations are based on specified material and component tolerances along with fabrication specifics. the tolerance shall be assumed to be 0. UG-28 through UG30 and ASME B31. In applying this to piping we will first calculate the burst pressure of the pipe and then determine the MAWP. reinforcement. psi.1. mounted vertically or horizontally. inches Pipe ID.1. Para. etc. the Maximum Allowable Design Pressure (MADP). (0. the type and size of each weld. minus factory tolerance Minimum tensile strength.20. and is calculated based on the installed configuration of the vessel. are all designed predicated on this predetermined design criteria. 6) The Lame` formula: PL Where: PBA PBO PL D d TF ST 9 ST (D 2 d 2 ) (D 2 d 2 ) (eq. then replaces the design pressure. We will instead transpose this term to MADP (Maximum Allowable Design Pressure).t P(d 2c) 2[ SE P(1 Y )] (eq.3. 304. etc. Actual pipe OD Pipe ID Internal design gage pressure Stress value for material from ASME B31. etc. 4) PBA 2 TF S T D (eq. This value. 3) Where: t = tm = c = D d P S E Y = = = = = = Pressure design thickness Minimum required thickness. but more closely relates to piping.02 in. For threaded components.1.8 T ) (eq. 2 & eq. The material. which may exceed the design pressure. flanges. and what the vessel engineers will design to. which is also not a B31.3 Table 304. psig (Barlow Formula) Burst Pressure. Taking a page from the BPVC we will go through a few brief steps to determine Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) for straight pipe. nozzles. it comes from the BPVC. When a vessel goes into design it is assigned a coincidental design pressure and temperature. the nominal thread depth (dimension h of ASME B1. The minimum required thickness (tm) is simple enough: tm t c (eq. For machined surfaces or grooves where the tolerance is not specified. a term more closely related to piping. from . corrosion. psig (Lame` Formula) Actual pipe OD. psig (Boardman Formula) Burst Pressure. Keep in mind that for seamless pipe E will be removed from equations eq. welds. That is. as was mentioned earlier. including mechanical. and erosion allowances Sum of the mechanical allowances (thread or groove depth) plus corrosion and erosion allowances. Division 1.3 expression. meaning types and sizes of welds. But let me begin by saying that MAWP is not a B31. Only when all of the factual data of construction is accumulated and entered into vessel engineering programs can the MAWP be determined. valid for t < D/6. it can never be less than the design pressure. These are the maximum conditions the vessel is expected to experience while in service. The difference between the design pressure and the MAWP is that the engineer will design to the design pressure. or joint efficiency factor Coefficient from ASME B31.3 Table A-1.1. Not until after the vessel is fabricated can the engineer know what the actual material thickness is. inches Wall thickness.3. or. once determined.

is the result of charge generation unable to dissipate. if a charge cannot dissipate and is allowed to accumulate. or real industry consensus on how to determine design conditions. Extenuating process conditions can mean increased pressure and temperature. which we will get into in the final article of this series. as mentioned above. Design conditions are also used to determine component rating and as a basis for determining leak test pressure. as it does in grounded metallic pipe. However. non-reactive chemicals. loss of temperature control in heat transfer. that the bolts. then there is no problem. plus the greater of 30 psi or 10%. as triboelectric charge accumulation. There is no published standard. the design temperature. in large part. With regard to thermoplastic lined pipe there are two forms of this to be considered: External Charge Accumulation (ECA) and Internal Charge Accumulation (ICA). How do you determine these values and where do you apply them? We‟ll cover the where first. known as static electricity. When pipe spools.3 Table A-1 Safety factor. are joined by flanges using non-metallic gaskets the only thing that completes the Spool-to-spool continuity is the bolting. System Design Pressure: Unless extenuating process conditions dictate otherwise. it now becomes a problem by potentially becoming strong enough to create an Electrostatic Discharge (ESD).Sf M = = B31. The improved paint primer on lined pipe flanges makes this more difficult to achieve because normal bolt tightening doesn‟t guarantee metal-to-metal contact between the nut and the flange. If a charge generated in a flowing fluid is allowed to dissipate to ground. or L subscript Design Pressure and Temperature The ASME B31. the result of the prime paint coat that is applied by the manufacture. In understanding what constitutes design conditions we first of all need to define them. for operating temperatures between 32°F and 750°F. To explain the loss of spool-to-spool continuity: this lack of integral continuity is. plus 25°F rounded off to the next higher 5°. lined or un-lined. Pipe generally does not come with a prime coat of paint. This was achieved in the past by 10 Using the results from any one of the above equations we can then solve for MADP as follows: M P* * Sf (eq. I will integrate them into one by stating: The design pressure and temperature of each component in a piping system shall be not less than the most severe condition of coincident internal or external pressure and temperature (minimum or maximum) expected during service. etc. shall be equal to the maximum anticipated operating temperature. or more technically known. Applying a sort of philosophy created by the above definitions is somewhat straight forward for utility services such as steam. 8) ** = BA. the design pressure is the pressure at the most severe coincident of internal or external pressure and temperature (minimum or maximum) expected during service. in which P = Internal Design Gage pressure and S = Stress value at design temperature. beyond that defined above. at least one of the bolts.3 definition for Design Pressure and Design Temperature is stated as two separate definitions. What I will provide here is a resultant philosophy developed from many sources along with my own experiences. Charge Accumulation of Lined Pipe Clarification Internal and external charge accumulation. when installing lined pipe. has penetrated the primer and made contact with bare metal. a factor of 3 or 4 is applied to burst pressure to determine MADP Maximum Allowable Design Pressure (MADP) System Operating Temperature: The temperature at which a fluid service is expected to normally operate at. due to chemical reaction. etc. What we did earlier in determining pipe wall thickness was based on design conditions. “…extenuating process conditions…” implies a slightly different set of rules for process systems. External Charge Accumulation ECA is a concern with lined pipe due to the possibility of not achieving spool-to-spool continuity during installation due. Since flange bolts are used to complete continuity from spool to spool the installer has to make certain. water. It basically comes down to an Owner‟s or engineer‟s experience. However. System Design Temperature: Unless extenuating process conditions dictate otherwise. that part of the above definitions for design conditions that provide the caveat. however lined pipe does. It goes on to state: The most severe condition is that which results in the greatest required component thickness and the highest component rating. to improved paint primer on flanges. Following is some accepted terminology and their definitions: System Operating Pressure: The pressure at which a fluid service is expected to normally operate at. . BO.

4) can be installed using two 1/4” x1/2” long hex head screws and two lock washers. The Continuity Plate has two 0. 4. After a flange set is installed and fully bolted the Continuity Plate (Fig. going to jump to ground causing a spark. resistivity factor. is described as follows and represented in Fig. will fail locally causing fluid to leak to the environment. 3). The entire continuity plate assembly is relatively simple to install. which. as they were tightened. This means that any charge created internally to the pipe cannot readily be conducted away to ground by way of the PTFE liner. with regard to pipe. used as a pipe liner. This indicates that for every 0.130” thick liner this translates into 58500 volts of triboelectric charge to burn through the liner thickness. as an example. The dielectric strength of PTFE is 450 to 500 volts/mil. For a 2” pipeline with a 0. Figure 3 – Grounding Lug Location Another method of creating continuity at flange joints. Corrosive fluid (a major user of lined pipe) is now in contact with and corroding the metal pipe wall and at some point. PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene). the current 11 ready-made solution to the external continuity problem is the addition of stud bolts located in close proximity to flanges on both pipe spools and fittings (see Fig. If continuity from spool to spool is not achieved any charge generation resulting from an internal or an external source cannot readily dissipate to ground. x 1/2” deep. The drilled and tapped hole in each flange will need to be centered between boltholes so that they line up after the flange bolts are installed. These studs can be applied at the factory or in the field. The voltage in triboelectric charge generation will build until it is strong enough to jump to the closest grounded object creating an undesired spark of electricity in doing this (Electrostatic Discharge). This is a relatively high resistance to conductivity. and 2. With improved prime coat material this is no longer a guarantee. Corrective Action External Charge Generation The simplest method to ensure continuity is to sand away any primer on the back side of each flange to ensure good metal-to-metal contact between nut and flange. flanges would be purchased predrilled and tapped in the center of the outer edge of the flange between the backside of the flange and the face side of the flange. Internal Charge Accumulation ICA. When the rate of charge generation is greater than the rate of charge relaxation (the ability of material to conduct away the generated charge).using star washers on at least one flange bolt while assuming possible bare metal contact with the other bolts allowing the washers. . 4: Referring to Fig. thermoplastics are not good conductors of electricity. to scrape away the prime coat so that contact was made with the bare metal of the flange.001” of PTFE liner 450 volts of triboelectric charge will be required to penetrate the liner. if continuity has not been achieved for the outer pipe. charge accumulation occurs.312” slotted boltholes allowing for misalignment and movement. depending on rate of corrosion. a spark of triboelectric charge is. When the liner is penetrated by an accumulated charge two additional problems (time bombs) are created: 1. Aside from that or the use of a conductive prime paint. while being less obtrusive and more integral. It isn‟t charge generation itself that is the problem. Instead the charge will be allowed to build until it exceeds its total dielectric strength and burns a pinhole in the liner to the internal metal wall of the casement pipe. The tapped hole is 1/4” dia. Without being impregnated with a conductive material. At each flange joint a grounding strap (jumper) is then affixed to a stud on one spool with a nut. has a high (>1016 Ohms/Square). The initial charge that burned through the liner is now charging the outer metal pipe. it‟s the charge accumulation. extended over the flange joint and attached to a stud on the connecting spool completing continuity throughout the chain of connecting spools and fittings. at some point. is unique to thermoplastic lined pipe and solid thermoplastic pipe. unobtrusive and establishes integral contact with the pipeline.

With regard to External Charge Accumulation. if not all.RECOMMENDED VELOCITIES BS 5958 Recommended Flow Liquid Conductivity Velocity >1000 pS/m No restriction 50 – 1000 pS/m Less than 7 m/s Less than 50 pS/m Less than 1 m/s pS/m (picosiemens/meter) Figure 5 – Conductive Orifice Plate Assembly Figure 6 – Conductivity Orifice Plate Assembly Section Conclusion and Recommendations It is difficult to pre-determine what fluid services and systems will be candidates for charge accumulation prevention and Electrostatic Discharge protection. The tab portion of the plate extends beyond the flange OD.Figure 4 – Continuity Flange Plate Internal Charge Generation One of the first options in preventing Internal Charge Accumulation is by minimizing charge generation. which is. the majority. or a prime coat using a conductive paint. we then have to declare that a company‟s pipe specifications need to reflect a global resolution that will affect all installations. . 12 If velocity reduction is not an option. the recommendation for future installations with the least impact would be to specify pipe with no prime coat or at least no primer on the flanges. What is shown is an orifice plate made of conductive (static dissipative) material that is compatible with the fluid service. grounded through equipment. Indeed. The simplest and most conservative answer to that is to assume that all fluid services in lined pipe systems are susceptible. Continuity is achieved by attaching the plate to the flange OD that is in contact with the piping. PIPE FABRICATION Entering this part of the article on fabrication does not mean that we leave engineering behind. To minimize design impact. On the tab is a bolthole for attaching the modified Continuity Flange Plate. is the only recommendation. In saying that. in turn. as shown in Figures 5 & 6. The orifice itself is off center to the OD of the plate and the pipeline itself. This would better ensure spool-to-spool external continuity. The plate is designed to come in contact with the interior surface of the liner wall as well as protrude into the flowing fluid providing a conduit for internally generated charge. To retard charge generation by reducing flow velocities British Standard (BS) suggests the following as represented in Table 1 per BS 5958: TABLE 1 . This can be done by adjusting the flow velocity relative to the liquid‟s conductivity. It can also be suggested that the continuity plates can be tacked on to one flange rather than drilling and tapping both flanges. One method for conducting charge accumulation from the interior of the pipe to ground is indicated in Figures 5 & 6. cost and even schedule impact on a project this needs to be evaluated early in the project due to the possibility of a change in line size. With the shallow portion of the ID at the invert of the pipe it allows the piping to drain in horizontal runs. The un-primed pipe would be primed prior to installation with care given to primer touchup on flanges after installation by the installing contractor or their sub. For existing installations either the studs or the continuity plate installation would work. fabricators (referring to the fabricators that are qualified for heavy industrial work) will have an engineering staff. For dissipating internal charge generation the orifice plate. or if further safeguards against charge accumulation are warranted then a mechanical solution to provide a path to ground for Internal Charge Generation might be called for.

errors and omissions. The clamp „C‟ representation is the result that we want to achieve with the hygienic clamp.Hygienic Clamp Joint As a project moves from the design phase into the construction phase anyone with a modicum of project experience can acknowledge the fact that there will most certainly be conflicts. grooved. The greatest asset a project manager can have is the ability to learn from past experience and the talent to put into practice what they have learned. To start with. I described the threaded flange joint in Article I. designated as NPT (National Pipe Taper) under ASME B1. In this regard. some gasket materials have a tendency to creep (creep relaxation). Fabrication Pipe fabrication. installation requirements and joint integrity. with sealant. any mechanical joint is considered a potential leak point and should be minimized. is the type of thread used in joining pipe. but we will save that for a future article. threaded. to paraphrase Article I. no matter how diligent one thinks they are during design. More simply put. Some of the solutions regarding fittings were 13 . or considerations. They are not suitable where high temperatures. 7 are three installed conditions of the hygienic joint. In Article I we discussed the flange joint. There are methods and approaches to design in which this expected result can be minimized. minus the clamp. In joint „B‟ the clamp wasn‟t tightened enough and left a recess at the gasket area. 7 there are issues with this type clamp.1. we will discuss the others here. Joint „A‟ represents a clamp connection that has been over tightened causing the gasket to intrude into the ID of the tubing. or cold flow. The clamped joint. measurable by torque loss. on the other hand. that prompt the decision as to which type of connection to use in the assembly of a piping system.20. threaded components are sometimes used in high-pressure service in which the operating temperature is ambient. This creates a damming effect. As you can see in Fig. allows the threads to form a leak-tight seal by jamming them together as the joint is tightened. Threaded Joints Pipe thread. The problem is that this is very difficult to control on a repeatable basis. Figure 7 – Hygienic Clamp Joint (Courtesy Rubber Fab Technologies Group) Represented in Fig. There have been a number of both gasket and fitting manufacturers that have been investing a great deal of research in attempting to resolve this issue with the clamp joint. Cold Flow is defined as: Permanent and continual deformation of a material that occurs as a result of prolonged compression or extension at or near room temperature. Also. refers to the sanitary or hygienic clamp. clamped. Creep relaxation is defined as: A transient stress-strain condition in which strain increases concurrently with the decay of stress. as mentioned in Article I. This is a tapered thread that. There are various factors. then you can expect to compound whatever problems do occur because you weren‟t prepared to handle them. If. This is inherent in the methodology of today‟s design/engineering process. Joint „C‟ represents a joint in which the proper torque was applied to the clamp leaving the ID of the gasket flush with the ID of the tubing. Those same criteria apply also to threaded fittings. in which the benefits of the threaded joint is both in cost savings and in eliminating the need for welding. the assumption is made that the Issued for Construction design drawings will facilitate fabrication and installation with minimal problems. preventing the system from completely draining. is the construction of piping systems by forming and assembling pipe and components with the use of flanged. This creates a pocket where residue can accumulate and cleanability becomes an issue. The preparation for such errors and omissions is always prudent. Using that as our premise we can continue to discuss the various joining methods. the decision as to which type of joint should be specified comes down to accessibility requirements. Even when the gasket and ferrules are initially lined up with proper assembly and torque on the joint. it is the loss of tightness in a gasket. It‟s actually a retrospective concept. cyclic conditions or bending stresses can be potential concerns. in this context. crimped and welded joints.

addressed in Article I. to enable the joining of pipe and fittings with the use of a compression tool. Figure 8 – Grooved Pipe & Coupling (Courtesy Victaulic) Pressed Joint The advantage of machine welding is apparent in doing production welds. When done properly it is as strong as the pipe itself. Those requirements include Gasket material that complies with USP Biological Reactivity Test #87 & 88 Class VI for Plastics and FDA CFR Title 21 Part 177. what I am referring to is a gasket that is not only compatible with the hygienic fluid service. They must be supported properly from the base of the vertical run. or manually. ASTM A105. and others have been working on acceptable gasket materials that have reduced creep relaxation factors. Since no welding is required modifications can be made while operation continues. The axial load consideration carries over to supporting the pipe as well. While the static internal pressure rating of these systems is comparable to an ASME Class 150 flange joint there are additional fluid service and installation characteristics that need to be considered. 316 and 304 stainless steel and copper. carbon steel. A welding operator is someone who operates an automatic welding machine. wall thickness and nominal pipe size. Welding is not required and threading is only necessary when required for instrument or equipment connection. This is shop welding in which there is a quantity of welds to be made on the same material type.5 flange. This can be alleviated with proper support. Grooved Joint The grooved joint (Fig. while others choose to selectively locate couplings. Additionally. and the weld procedure specification. as well as compression controlled gasket designs. 8). Figure 9 – Pressed Joint (Courtesy Victaulic) These types of systems are available from various manufacturers in carbon steel. up through 2” NPT. Because of this design characteristic the manufacturers of grooved joint systems have focused their efforts and created a niche in the fire protection and utility fluid service requirements. Because of the thin wall pipe corrosion allowance becomes a big consideration with carbon steel. in some cases superior to the ASME Class 150 flange joint. Welded Joint The welded joint is by far the most integrated and secure joint you can have. It‟s a decision that should be made based on the particular requirements or preference of a project or facility. Do not allow joints in vertical runs to be under tension. A welder is. The pressed joint is actually a system that uses thin wall pipe. Once the machine is set up 14 . and the automatic welding machine has to be programmed. someone who welds. but also meets certain FDA requirements. When mentioning acceptable gasket material in the previous paragraph. it is someone who welds by hand. much as you would selective locate a flange joint in a system. Its main weakness is in its allowable bending and torsional stress at the coupling. is as good as or. Ensure that vertical runs of this pipe are supported properly from beneath. gasket manufacturers. from simply a static internal pressure containment standpoint. with the exception of steam and steam condensate. In the smaller sizes. such as in steam condensate. Some contractors choose to couple at every joint and fitting. The ends of the pipe still have to be prepared and aligned. The key to a weld‟s integrity lies in the craftsmanship of the welder or welding operator. To be more precise. With axial and torsional loading being the weak spot in these systems they are not practical where water hammer is a potential. Before I go further I want to explain the difference between the terms welder and welding operator. as you might have guessed. the performance qualification of the welder or welding operator. 1” through 4” the working pressure limit will be equal to that of a Class 300. ASME B16. This type of joint is comparatively easy to install and enhances that fact in areas that would require a fire card for welding.

SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) is the most common form of welding used. Welding Pipe The majority of welds you will see in pipe fabrication will be full penetration circumferential buttwelds. 2. They are: 1. Metal Inert Gas welding. Once the orbital welder is programmed for the 15 Figure 12 – SMAW (Stick) Welding (Courtesy The Welding Institute) FCAW: Flux Cored Arc Welding is a semiautomatic or automatic welding process. 10). 3. Figure 11 – GTAW (TIG) Welding (Courtesy The Welding Institute) A wide differential in sulfur content between the two components being joined can cause the weld to drift into the high sulfur side. 11). It is similar to MIG welding. or just simply Stick welding. spray. As the weld is being made the flux breaks down to form a shielding gas that protects the weld from the atmosphere. GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) or MIG GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) or TIG SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) or MMA or Stick Welding FCAW (Flux Cored Automatic welding) material it is welding it will provide excellent welds on a consistent basis. 4. This is another topic that could easily stand alone as an article. The TIG process is more exacting. SMAW: Also referred to as MMA. Tungsten Inert Gas welding. which allows it to be the most common weld done today. fillet . pulsed-spray With the use of a shielding gas the GMAW process is better used indoors or in an area protected from the wind. which is coated with a flux (Fig. 3. 12). Those types include: 1. GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) can be automatic or manual. The shielding gas is an inert or semi-inert gas such as argon or CO2 that protects the weld area from atmospheric gases. which can be done with filler metal or without filler metal (autogenous). Instead we will focus on some of the primary types of welding used with pipe. Figure 10 – GMAW (MIG) Welding (Courtesy The Welding Institute) GTAW: Most often referred to as TIG. In Article 1 I mentioned the use of orbital welding for hygienic tube welding. It is a process by which a shielding gas and a continuous. Orbital welding uses the GTAW method. It uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode to make the weld (Fig. This can cause welds to be rejected due to lack of full penetration. Manual Metal Arc welding. but is more complex and slower than MIG welding. The flux provides the shielding gas that protects the weld area from the atmosphere during welding.for a run of typical pipe like this it is very efficient and consistent in its weld quality. 2. There are four commonly used methods of metal transfer used in GMAW. short-circuiting. that is. and 4. GMAW: Most often referred to as MIG. Provided. It is a manual form of welding that uses a consumable electrode. but we won‟t do that here. that the chemistry of the base material is within allowable ranges. If the shielding gas is disturbed the weld area can be affected. consumable wire electrode is fed through the same gun (Fig. globular. The SMAW welding process is versatile and simple. but the continuously fed consumable wire has a flux core. GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) can be an automatic or semi-automatic welding process. which can detrimentally affect the weld area.

26. Inspector Qualification 10. while they go hand in hand. Commissioning and qualification. This is a topic that I will touch on again in Article III.3) Hygienic Fabrication and Documentation Hygienic and semiconductor pipe fabrication uses automatic autogenous welding in the form of orbital welding. Fillet welds are used at socketweld joints and at slip-on flanges. Certification of Compliance 3. Welds in which a combination of the buttweld and fillet weld would be used would be at a stub-in joint or a joint similar to that. A stub-in joint (not to be confused with a stub-end) is a connection in which the end of a pipe is welded to the longitudinal run of another pipe (Fig. 18. generalized. 12. is that which is generally required to move an installed hygienic system through validation. 17. Incoming Material Examination Reports Material Certification a. 14. 2. Depending on the size and type of a project it can be a massive undertaking. Mechanical and electropolishing procedures 8. is a weld without the use of filler metal. 16. may include. The branch connection can be at 90º or less from the longitudinal pipe run. The documentation needed. are two activities that are essentially distinct within themselves. This. developing and maintaining the required documentation for hygienic pipe fabrication and installation can add an additional 30% to 40% to the piping cost of a project. 13). 23. titled “Piping Design Part III – Installation. What you do not want to do is discover during C&Q that you are missing a portion of the required documentation. 22. And this isn‟t all that‟s required. In some cases hand welding is required. Welder Qualification Summary 16 The above listed documentation. When fabricating pipe for hygienic services it will be necessary to comply with.welds or a combination of the two. procedural documents. Resurrecting this information is labor intensive and can delay a project‟s turn-over significantly. that are also required. 15. Depending on what the design conditions are this can be a reinforced connection or an unreinforced connection. 11. but this is kept to a minimum. 21. WPQ‟s (Welder & Welding Operator Performance Qualification) 6. Examiner Qualification 9. Cleaning. I cannot stress it strongly enough just how imperative it is that all necessary documentation be identified up front. but also an extensive amount of documentation. MTR‟s b. Weld Gas Certification 4. from the fabrication effort for validation. 24. The term validation is a broad. selfdefining term that includes the act of commissioning and qualification. as explained in Article I. Acknowledgement: . not only a specific method of welding. Future Articles The third and final article in this series. Signature Logs 5. For this article I will go no further with the topic of Validation. but is not limited to: 1. Testing and Verification”. The circumferential buttwelds are the welds used to weld two pipe ends together or other components with buttweld ends. and will generally require pre-approval. 25. If not properly set up and orchestrated it can become a logistical nightmare. which closely parallels the list in ASME-BPE. 13. 20. Gage Calibration certifications Weld Continuity Report WPS‟s (Weld Procedure Specifications) PQR‟s (Procedure qualification Record) Weld Coupon log Weld Maps Slope Maps Weld Logs Leak Test Reports Inspection reports Passivation Records Detail mechanical layouts technical specifications for components As-Built Isometrics Original IFC isometrics Documentation recording any changes from IFC to As-Build isometrics Figure 13 – Sample Stub-In Connections (Courtesy ASME B31. Welder & Welding Operator Inspection Summary 7. 19. It uses the orbital welding TIG process. It needs to be procured throughout the process and assimilated in a turnover package in a manner that makes it relatively easy to locate needed information while also allowing the information to be cross indexed and traceable within the TO package. Commissioning and Qualification. commissioning and qualification (C & Q). etc. will wrap up the series by discussing the four title points. There is additional supporting documentation such as P&ID‟s. As mentioned in Article I.

He has written numerous specifications. M. Huitt Co. papers. P O Box 31154 St. pulp & paper.I wish to thank Earl Lamson. engineering and construction since 1965. He can be reached at: W. piping department supervisor. engineering manager and president of W. Louis. chemical. M. Positions have included design engineer. Senior Project Manager with Eli Lilly and Company.com www. nuclear power. Huitt Co. a piping consulting firm founded in 1987. piping design instructor. MO 63131-0154 (314)966-8919 wmhuitt@aol. Earl has a remarkable set of project and engineering skills that set him apart from many I have worked with. several Task Groups. project supervisor. an API Task Group. guidelines. and coal gasification. for being kind enough in taking time out of a busy schedule to read through the draft of this second article. Bill is a member of ISPE (International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers). His experience covers both the engineering and construction fields and crosses industrial lines to include petroleum refining. M. He is a member of three ASME-BPE subcommittees.wmhuitt. That and the fact that I value his opinion are the reasons I asked him to review this article.com 17 . project engineer. petrochemical. pharmaceutical. About the author: W. biofuel. and magazine articles on the topic of pipe design and engineering. and sets on two corporate specification review boards. (Bill) Huitt has been involved in industrial piping design. CSI (Construction Specifications Institute) and ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers).

) 5. weather conditions. 2. No time-consuming need to carefully crib. M. maintaining quality while doing so. the facility itself. More efficient opportunity to fab around unexpected obstacles (structural steel. Testing & Verifification Efficiency. to a lesser degree. before making that final decision. 4. 4. cleanliness requirements. Reduced risk of damage to spool pieces. often proprietary and exceedingly difficult-to-define topic. (Bill) Huitt W.As published in the September and October 2007 issues of Chemical Engineering Magazine Piping Design Part 3: Installation. The installation of pipe can be accomplished in the following four primary ways. or combinations thereof: 1. A number of factors will dictate whether or not it is feasible to field fabricate: The size and type of the project. As the title implies this article will discuss the Installation. tiedown and chock pre-fabricated *spool pieces for transport to the job site. let’s look at some of the pros and cons of field fabrication: Pros: 1. 2. The pipe is fabricated on site either in place or in segments . and Modular construction at an on-site field fabrication area and then erected. I am including fabrication in this article simply because fabrication is such an integral part of pipe installation. cable tray. Rather than delve into it in great detail as part of a multi-topic article I will attempt to simply provide some understanding as to its function and need. availability of qualified personnel. existing building operations. 3. etc. quality and safety are the imperatives that are factored in when considering field fabrication. Validation of piping systems. if all pipe could be fabricated on-site in a safe and efficient manner. M. etc. etc. in Article II. FIELD FABRICATE AND INSTALL Field fabrication and installation is just what it implies. PIPE INSTALLATION But first things first. Testing and. although somewhat briefly. assembly & installation. Huitt Co. or the cost I would like to assure you that I am not going to diverge off into fabrication again since we discussed it.) need to be shipped to the site location. quality and safety are the imperatives that are factored in when considering field fabrication. Field fabricate and install. Efficiency. And before you think I missed it. cost is the fallout of those factors. However. valves. but don’t forget cost. Only raw material (pipe. This is much easier to handle and store than multi-plane configurations of pre-fabricated pipe. 3. W. Cleaning. Logistically speaking. time available to do the work. it would make sense to do it in that manner. Cleaning. Fabricate-as-you-install reduces the rework risk assumed when pre-fabricating spools. fittings. Shop fabricate and field erected. Skid fabrication. I say to a lesser degree with Validation because Validation is a very complex. duct. pipe size and material. the installation of pipe follows its fabrication and is very frequently a part of it.

In connecting to equipment there is a build-up. If the facility under construction is not enclosed then protection from the elements will have to be provided. The dimensional location of the equipment items given on design drawings is not a finite location. 3. or final. The actual set-in-place location of the vessel. are very often field fabricated and installed because of the added risk of damage during transport. of tolerances that will effectively place the actual. 2. is quite frequently more effective than attempting to pre-fabricate pipe based on dimensional assumptions. related to field verification prior to shop fabrication. The field routing installation of pipe through an array of insufficiently documented locations of existing pipe and equipment. This means that the length of pipe that is joined to another in the field is cut precisely to length and the end prepared in the shop for welding. The actual set-in-place pipe run-up location. *Spool pieces are the pre-fabricated sections of pipe that are fabricated and numbered in the fab shop then shipped to the job site for installation. in pre-fabricated form. on a retrofit project. and what prompts the need for a FCW. These are welded joints that connect the pre-fabricated spools. generally speaking. location of the nozzle at some point in the xyz geometry of three-dimensional space. The tolerance stack-up comes from the following: 1. Weather is arguably the biggest deterrent. SKID (SUPER SKID) FABRICATION 2 . field fabrication of buttwelded pipe is not as efficient and cost effective as shop fabrication. Manufacturing tolerances in material forming. The FW indicates a joint in which the end of a pipe segment is prepared for the installer to set in place and weld to its connecting joint without additional modification in the field. What factors into the installation of shop fabricated pipe is the actual location of the equipment nozzle it will be connecting to in relation to the pipe’s installed location. is the actual. The FCW provides the installer with an additional length of pipe. The section with the field closure weld would be the length required to agree with that indicated on the design drawing. pipe supports and others. and the actual installed location of the connecting points. In a new facility. The spools are then labeled with an identifier and transported to the job site for installation. grooved. and other proprietary type joints that do not require buttwelding are field fabricated and installed. As part of the process of developing spool sections field-welded joints need to be designated. nozzle location. 2. In order to allow for these inevitable deviations between the drawing dimensions used to fabricate the vessel. fittings and components that are assembled by welding into spool assemblies at the fabricator’s facility. Each spool piece needs its own identifier marked on the piece itself in some fashion that will make it easy to know where its destination is in the facility and/or where it belongs in a multi-spool system of pipe. When welding has to be done in conditions that are not environmentally controlled then preheating will be required if the ambient temperature (not the metal surface temperature) is 0° F or below. to allow for field adjustment. and vessel support location. 4. socketweld. threaded. Odds are that all equipment and piping will not be installed exactly where indicated on design drawings. SHOP FABRICATE AND INSTALL Shop fabrication is. usually 4” to 6” longer than what is indicated on the design drawings. Generally speaking. plus an additional 4” to 6” (more or less depending on fabricator’s comfort level with the equipment locations). location of both the fixed equipment that the pipe assemblies may connect to and the actual installed location of the pipe assembly itself. will be required for that final adjustment. Buttwelding of small. In doing this the designer or fabricator will identify two different types of field-welded joints. they are merely intended locations. other than where the design drawing indicates. What this does is allow the field to make the final determination in the adjustments when connecting to fixed equipment. Load cell installation (when applicable). as-installed. What has to be considered. as are drawings for building steel. 4. and install the pipe assembly. One is a Field Weld (FW) and the other is a Field Closure Weld (FCW). or stackup. 3.6. or two. as opposed to having to route piping through an array of poorly located existing pipe and equipment. Concerns about safety and efficiency when working in a facility while it is in operation in advance of a turnaround or to begin advance work on a plant expansion. The field closure piece is a designated section of the pipe assembly in which a field weld has been indicated. a field closure piece. Cons: 1. from the shop to the site. set the vessel. any pipe. 1 1/2” NPS and less. This will allow the installer to efficiently stage the piece and ready it for installation.

In approaching this decision keep in mind that the method of installation needs to be weighed against a contractor’s preferred methodology. rotating equipment. Using those three elements as a basis for making our determination let us look at some common variables: 1. rotating equipment. . make up a complete process or utility system. are interchanged with the term skid. Each project is individualized with its own particular set of decision drivers with regard to a selected execution 3 approach. may comprise multiple skids. Modules too consist of all or some of the following: vessels. efficiency. electrical panels. and that those things that did not remain intact during transport are discovered and repaired. Pharmaceutical b. if not all fabrication in the shop. A single process or utility system may fit onto one skid or. lighting. when combined. walls. The three main criteria. Or. Large percentage of alloy pipe c. in many cases. wiring and connectors. Petroleum refining f. Open to the elements Industry a. supports. Some contractors prefer to do most. architectural components. In saying that I am not implying that the contractor’s preferred methodology should drive your decision on how to execute a job. The skid is then shipped to the job site where it is installed in its final location. in-line piping components. 3. gages. piping. instrumentation. and insulation. framework. while others are flexible enough to utilize the best of both methods. Sounds simple. piping. quality and safety indicated earlier under “Field Fabricate and Install”. A module can refer to pre-fabricated units that actually form the structure of a facility as each is installed. and then assessing logistics. supports. Food & Dairy e. connection and start-up of a particular skid package will dictate to what extent the skid fabricator will be involved after it is shipped to the job site. Clean-build e. once you determine how the job needs to be executed you then look to only those contractors whose preferred methodology agrees with your project execution plans. including additional hydro-testing. It requires experienced personnel assigning values to the various aspects of project execution. operator interfaces. There are no hard and fast rules for determining a best approach at job execution. Room repetition Range of pipe material and sizes a. After fabrication of a skid is complete it will typically go through Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT) at the fabricator’s facility. Bulk chemical g. Power generation Type of project a. framework. as an example. This is basically a system shake-down to determine that everything is intact. 4. Logistics and the necessary skill-set required for the installation. interchanged with the term skid fabrication. the units may be smaller sub-assemblies that. that the following is a guideline and not hard and fast rules. would apply here as well. Fast track approach c. What I am attempting to say here is. HVAC. and insulation. It saves on misperception when a company defines these terms. Biopharmaceutical c. automation components. Single level f. On the contrary. as to what is meant when using the term module. Off-Shore i. The smaller sub-assembly modules. Pipeline j. There are simply too many project variables and complexities to allow it. Semiconductor d. Controlled environment b. allows a complete locker room module to be placed and connected to a complete water treatment module. Small percentage of alloy pipe b. instrumentation. INSTALL APPROACH Now that we have a general idea of the four primary approaches to piping installations how do we decide which is the best method. Multi-level g. in this context.A skid is a pre-packaged assembly that may contain all or some of the following that make up an operating system: vessels. electrical wiring and connectors. to use for a particular project? But there is one major caveat I would like to address before launching into this subject. both for internal discussion and for the purpose of making it clear to outside contractors. but is in actuality can be a very complex process. New (Grassroots/Greenfield) project d. After installation it would typically go through a follow-up Site Acceptance Test (SAT). or combination of methods. Pulp & paper h. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION The term module or modular construction is quite often. others prefer to set up at the job-site. automation components. in-line piping components. Large % of large pipe sizes 2. Retrofit b. overlaying a timeline. Environment a. This. depending on size restraints.

duct or equipment until. wind. to follow some rather simple rules: 1. Non-Clean/Outdoor Build a. d. which shall remain on the ends until connected in place. remaining after construction in accessible or inaccessible spaces of the facility. There are exceptions to this. Semiconductor d. better equipment (generally speaking). Such contamination can be discovered in one of two ways. Clean/Indoor build a. cold. at least a portion 4 . Fabricated pipe delivered to the job site shall have the ends covered in a suitable fashion with suitable material. 8. but under clean/indoor build we can list the following. Off-Shore e. upon discovery. After roof and walls are installed ensure that there is no standing water remaining in the facility. Duct work delivered to the job site shall have the ends covered with a plastic sheet material. Mix of small and large pipe sizes Location a. 2. as stipulated by the design.5. to be microbial and particulate free. That is. pipe rack or yard piping. Do not begin installing pipe. can potentially be devastating to production. Pulp & paper d. and better control. and will not necessarily have a requirement or need for pre-fabrication. no food or drink. All of this can have a potential impact on safety and efficiency. Working in an open air structure will require protection from the elements (rain. 5. but we can group the various industries into clean/indoor build and nonclean/outdoor build. of required documentation. steel and all. and shall remain on the ends until connected in place. The other method of discovery comes from the continuous testing and validation of the product stream.). snow. Country with limited resources of a facility. Large % of small pipe sizes e. etc. If a contaminant is discovered in the product the production line is stopped and the problem then becomes an investigation in to finding the source of the contamination. a roof is installed. Remote location c. etc. Depending on the project it could be cost effective on an overall strategic basis to modularize the pipe rack. ensure on a daily basis that there is no moisture or debris in the wall cavity. Off site break and lunch areas. Environment The environment is only a factor when work has to be done in an open-air structure or other outdoor installation (tank farm. pipeline. Petroleum refining b. It will be necessary. Bulk chemical c. Food waste can entice and support rodents and insects. The big advantage to shop fabrication is the controlled environment in which it’s done. Industry I know this is generalizing. which can eventually become airborne. allowed on the site premises. a routine methodology of how a piece of work progresses through the shop.). Biopharmaceutical c. There may additionally be a requirement to work in elevated areas on scaffolding and otherwise. There can be no debris. Close to metropolitan area b. biopharm and food 7 dairy is food waste and hidden moisture. The clean-build philosophy therefore dictates more stringent and strict requirements for controlling and inspecting for debris on an ongoing basis throughout construction and start-up. During and after flushing and testing of pipelines all water spills shall be controlled to the extent possible and shall be cleaned up after flushing and testing or at the end of the work day. If not discovered until the facility is in operation the impact. Pipeline f. possibly behind a wall or some other out-of-the-way place. Pharmaceutical b. Smoking or smokeless tobacco products of any kind are not allowed on the site property. means that not only does current production have to cease. 4. Once found it hen has to be remediated. on a clean-build site. 7. This includes the Quality Control aspect. such as those framed and dry-walled. through a developed routine. Power generation The clean build philosophy comes from the need to construct certain facilities with a more stringent control on construction debris. but product will have to be analyzed for possible contamination. Those industries listed above under Clean/Indoor Build often require a facility. Pipe rack installation consists mainly of straight runs of pipe. other than water. organic or inorganic. Discovery at the source. unless it is pre-fabricated as modular skid units. 3. 6. at the very least. Food & Dairy Under non-clean/outdoor build we can list the following. Prior to and during the construction of hollow walls. and hidden moisture can propagate mold. Of particular concern with the pharmaceutical.

semiconductor and food & dairy industries) inside an environmentally controlled area it will be more practical to shop fabricate or utilize skid or modular fabrication for most. Maintaining a clean job site is an integral component of good project execution. Europe or Asia. 2. if the project is a retrofit it will require much of the pipe. it may not be beneficial to transport buttwelded pipe spools NPS 1 ½” and less. The decision to shop fab and install or to field fab and install becomes one based on efficiency rather than how best to maintain a clean area.) 4 = Grooved – Partially (Shop-welded spools with grooved ends.) 5 = Buttweld 6 = Flanged – Lined or unlined Pipe Notes: a. A fast track project. equipment. As an example. in a somewhat precise manner. If the project is a clean-build project (typical for the pharmaceutical. Hygienic tubing b. Handling and transporting small diameter pipe and/or thin-wall tubing spools creates the potential for damage to those spools. but certainly not the much more involved need to locate previously installed obstructions as needs to be done when working with an existing facility. drink cans and bottles. This will reduce the number of personnel and the amount of fabrication debris in the facility. etc. Following that logic most of the buttwelded pipe should be shop fabricated.Type of Project While the type of project is not the main influence in determining how you approach the execution of a project it does play a key role. pieces of pipe. It will help drive the decision as to how the piping should be fabricated and installed. This approach is time driven and not budgetary driven. Keeping personnel and equipment to a minimum at the job site is not an absolute. There is still safety and efficiency to be concerned with on any project and a clean job site is a major part of that. if not all of the piping. If you are shop fabricating everything and the distance from shop to site is simply across town the risk to damaging small diameter pipe spools is a great deal less than if they have to be shipped half way across the US. These types of systems require a great deal more control and a cleaner fabrication. And that’s not to say that if it doesn’t qualify as a clean-build project then the construction debris can just be allowed to pile up. A couple of things to consider. Or even across an ocean. then shop or field fabricate. unless you are fabricating hygienic or semi-conductor piping. A new grassroots facility still requires routing verification as you go. weld rod and weld wire remnants. Whereas shop and skid fabrication would be utilized as much as possible simply to expend more man-hours over a shorter time period while attempting to maintain efficiency. when determining which buttwelded pipe to shop fabricate. and provide better control for keeping it out of the pipe itself. b) ≥1½ Tubing 5 Shop Joint Type: 1 = Socketweld 2 = Threaded 3 = Grooved – Fully (Grooved fittings and pipe ends. but is still inside an environmentally controlled facility the same logic does not necessarily apply. and clothing items. With personnel you could have food wrappers. walls. A practical rule of thumb in determining what to shop fab and what to field fab follows in Table 3-1: Table 3-1 Shop and Field Fabrication Size (in) Material Joint Shop/Field ≤1½ Pipe 1. but is one of the key considerations to the efficiency of pipe installation. 3. regardless of size and joint connection. biopharmaceutical. It may be more practical to fabricate these sizes on site. food waste. This is due simply to the fact that the effort and cost necessary to verify the location of all existing pipe. one that has a compressed schedule. 6 Field ≤1½ Pipe 4&5 Shop ≥2 Pipe 3&6 Field ≥2 Pipe 4&5 Shop ≤1 Tubing 5 Field ≤1 Tubing 5 Shop (a. Dictates of the project and a contractors SOP will determine how best to define what gets shop fabricated and what gets field fabricated. would not be very practical. or the pipe will need to be fabricated at an off-site. You would be better served by field verifying the approximate location of the above items with existing drawings. will require parallel activities where possible. Fabrication debris could include metal filings. columns. duct. better controlled shop facility. 5 . Even though there may be added cost to this approach. Range of Pipe Material and Sizes Shop fabricated spools need to be transported to the job site. Meaning that pipe fabrication will require a clean shop area on-site. to be field fabricated and installed. etc. In transporting spools over long distances. If the project is not a clean-build. Special cribbing and support for transport The above Table 3-1 is a general methodology. verify and install as you go. is size and material. unless there is a great deal of thought and care given to cribbing the load of spools. This requires handling. cutting oil. for planning and logistic purposes.

security is a real concern that requires real consideration and real resolution. air or an inert gas is forced through a piping system either in preparation for chemical cleaning or as the only cleaning process. “as they apply in this context”.Petroleum refining and bulk chemical projects are generally open air projects in which field fabrication and installation of pipe is exposed to the elements. chemical cleaning. This translates into fewer accidents. metal filings. When the term “cleaning” is used in this context it may infer what is defined as flushing. Nowadays. weld spatter. citric acid or other mild oxidant. even in metropolitan areas. Location Job site location is one of the key markers in determining shop or field fabrication. safety is. Particularly when working with thin-wall tubing. Project planning is a big component in project execution. To expand on that thought. Defining the requirements for the internal cleaning of piping systems falls within the responsibilities of the Owner. is used to promote or accelerate the formation of a thin (25 to 50 Angstroms) protective oxide layer (a passive layer) on the internal surface of pipe. Consequently when building a pharmaceutical facility in another region you may find a sufficient population of trained and experienced craftsman for that industry. and passivation. In ASTM A 380 & 967 you will find Standards on cleaning. pipe sizes NPS 2” to 3” and larger ship much better than smaller pipe sizes. with respect to the potential for damage during transport. above all. Referring back to Table 3-1. that project resources. Blow-down can be considered as flushing with a gas. In many cases building a facility in a remote location will be a driver for utilizing a disproportionate amount of skid or module fabrication. is a catch-all term that also includes flushing. but is more so when attempting to build in remote areas. Disproportionate in the sense that project management may look at modularizing the entire job. when constructing in any number of remote areas. I say. Reduced on-site staffing is a good counter-measure in reducing risk to personnel when building in remote or even non-remote third-world areas. you may discover that there are an abundance of craftsman available when building a refinery. Note: Cleaning and Flushing can be interchanged when the process only requires water. Passivation: A process by which a chemical solution. In certain regions of the US for example. or an area with reasonable access to needed resources. This is a consideration when determining what to shop fab and what to field fab. And this doesn’t even touch on the security aspect. from a trained and experienced personnel perspective. and other unwanted debris. Definitions Cleaning: A process by which water. Building a project in a remote location requires the project team to rethink the job-as-usual methodology. acids or proprietary cleaning solutions are flushed through a piping system to remove contaminants such as cutting oils. Flushing: A process by which water. depending on source and context. it removes any free iron from the pipe surface to form a chromium-rich oxide layer to protect the metal surface from aggressive liquids such as high purity waters. as it is on any type project. usually with a base of nitric. Flushing can be accomplished by using dynamic pressure head or released static pressure head. Senior Project Manager with Eli Lilly and Company. descaling and passivation. it was pointed out to me by Earl Lamson. So before we go further let me provide some definition for these terms as they apply in this context. because these terms are somewhat flexible in their meaning. but that same region may have difficulty. but nothing in ASTM on simply flushing and general cleaning. air or an inert gas to meet the required level of cleanliness. PIPE SYSTEM CLEANING While there are requirements in ASME for leak testing cleaning requirements do not exist. In stainless steels. the most commonly used alloy at present. Cleaning and Testing 6 . While a clean build is not a requirement on these types of projects efficiency and. fittings and equipment. but may not find that resource adequate when building a chemical plant. dirt. are quite frequently siloed around a specific industry. in this context. From a logistics standpoint mobilization of personnel and material become a major factor in determining the overall execution of such a project. solvents. and could be used to describe activities other than what is intended in this dialog. The term “cleaning”. This would constitute a larger amount of modularization over what might normally be expected for the same type project in a more metropolitan region. it would make sense to utilize shop fabrication as much as possible. an observation I fully agree with. as in a fill-and-dump procedure. phosphoric. Because of this. Fabricating pipe spools under better controlled shop conditions will provide improved efficiency and safer per hour working conditions over what you will generally find in the field. in supporting the construction of a semiconductor facility. rather than mobilize the staffing and facilities needed to fab and install on or near the job site.

or test circuits as they are installed. the piping needs to be examined internally as it is installed. air or inert gas) C-2 Flush. on large systems. Please refer to the following section on “Leak Testing” to find clarification of the terms used in Table 3-3. work gloves. flush C-3 Clean with cleaning solution. Since we are discussing new pipe installation we will not include steam-out cleaning or pipeline pigging. in water. A walk-down of the test circuit should be done just prior to filling the system with any liquid. there are drivers for both and different schools of thought on the overall process. Following is a list of cleaning requirements: Table 3-2 – General Cleaning Scenarios Category Description C-1 Flush only (water. and the flush medium. to leak test smaller segments. We can then work through some general scenarios and see which sequencing works best. These are cleaning procedures that are used on in-service piping to clean the fluid service residue build-up from interior pipe walls after a period of use. prior to flushing the entire system.With regard to cleaning and leak testing. arguably the heaviest particles normally found in newly fabricated pipe. The one non-manual assist that water requires in order for it to clean the inside of a piping system is velocity. Therefore. perform either a basic flush of a *test circuit. as mentioned earlier. In order to dislodge. (This does not apply to acid cleaning. candy wrappers. In a clean-build facility an incident such as this can potentially be costly and time-consuming to remediate. of approximately 10 feet per second. In a facility that is not a clean-build it can simply be a mess that has to be cleaned up. as listed above. or perform an internal visual examination as the pipe is installed. In this way it will be much easier to discuss the various processes. clean with cleaning solution. Now that we have touched on those generalities let’s take a look at each of the cleaning Categories listed in Table 3-2 and see how to apply them. It is in the Owner’s best interest to determine their preference or be at risk in just leaving it to the contractor. That is. in advance of leak testing. The last thing you want to happen is to discover too late that a joint wasn’t fully connected or an inline component was taken out of the pipeline. and other miscellaneous debris including dirt and rocks. In large systems it may be beneficial to leak test smaller test circuits and then perform a final cleaning once the entire system is installed and tested. Cleaning Category C-1 is simply a flush with water. After this initial flush. the system is ready for chemical cleaning or to leak test. unless these joints were tested as the assembly progressed. which could also be the only flush and cleaning required. suspend and remove this unwanted material in the piping system it is necessary that water or air be forced through the piping system at a velocity sufficient to suspend the heaviest suspected particles and move them along the pipeline. clean. Each contractor will have their preference. nuts & bolts. The velocity required to suspend the particles and move them along the pipeline for removal is dependent upon their size and weight. flush Following is a list of leak testing requirements: Table 3-3 – General Leak Testing Scenarios Category Description T-1 Initial service leak test T-2 Hydrostatic leak test T-3 Pneumatic leak test T-4 Sensitive leak test T-5 Alternative leak test While the cleaning descriptions are self explanatory the leak testing descriptions may not be. This is to prevent any large debris items. will have a terminal mid-range settling velocity. weld rod. Over the years we have discovered in installed piping systems everything from soda cans to shop towels. If it is decided. a flushing velocity of approximately 10 feet per second should be achieved during the flush. At the very least. In either case you should have a line of thought on the process. Before subjecting the system to an internal test pressure the piping should first be walked down to make certain. and which to do first. This would include a final completed system leak test that would test all of the joints that connect the test circuits. air or inert gas. . from remaining in the piping during the test. Note: *refer to the following section on “Leak Testing” One other thing I would like to mention before we go on. But what velocity is necessary? The main concept behind flushing a pipeline is to dislodge and remove suspected debris. that there are no missing or loose components. passivate. flush C-4 Flush. if for no other reason than to be able to understand what it is the contractor is proposing to do. Styrofoam cups. Metal filings.) 7 Before getting into further specifics of this discussion we need to define some general cleaning and testing procedures and assign them some easy to use indicators. The system is then flushed with water or air to make sure that there are no obstacles in the piping.

particularly at high impingement areas of the piping system (elbows. to achieve a velocity of 10 FPS. 5s 40 80 ½ 12 10 7 ¾ 20 16 13 Pipe Sizes (inches) 1 34 27 22 1½ 77 64 55 2 123 105 92 3 272 230 ─ 4 460 397 ─ circulation of a cleaning solution. this barrier against corrosion is maintained with corrosion inhibitors that are injected into the fluid stream on an ongoing basis. as in bending or forming pipe without the benefit of heat. And keep in mind that when I talk about passivated surfaces this is a natural occurrence with metals in an oxygen environment.56 1. The following Table 3-5 indicates the rate of air flow required to achieve approximately 25 feet per second of velocity through various sizes and schedules of pipe.66 0. This is an operational. Rouging is an unwanted surface discoloration which is periodically removed by means of a derouging process. which are solution annealed (heat treated) after threading.08 0.03 11. as-needed chemical cleaning process that will remove all or most of the rouge and also re-passivate the internal pipe surface. the oxidation rate of the stainless steel providing a chromium rich oxide corrosion barrier as defined above. Cleaning solutions are. usually 316L.84 0.02 2. proprietary detergent or acid-based solutions each blended for specific uses.55 1½ 0.33 1 0.). This will show up as surface rouge. Free iron has a tendency to come out of solution when material is cold worked. The acids used in some cleaning solutions for ferrous and copper materials leave behind a passivated interior pipe surface as a result of the cleaning process.71 0. As an example a 6” NPS pipeline would require approximately 900 to 1000 GPM. chilled water.79 One thing you might notice is that the size range only extends to 4” NPS for both the liquid flush and for the air or gas blow-down.05 4 5. which is then followed by a final flush of water. Deionized (DI) Water and in some cases Soft Water.19 0.56 2. in many cases. Purging a piping system clear of debris with air requires a velocity of approximately 25 feet per second.35 2 1. The acid based solution also passivates the pipe wall.23 0. Cleaning Category C-2 is a three-step process by which the piping system is initially flushed out with a liquid to remove most of the loose debris.47 4. cutting oils and grease. Detergent-based solutions are generally used for removing dirt.73 8.14 0.67 5. etc. Passivation is also a periodic ongoing preventative maintenance procedure. Table 3-4 – Rate of Flushing Liquid Needed to Maintain Approximately 10 FPS Velocity (GPM) Pipe Sch. This is followed by the 8 . pump casings.18 ¾ 0. Table 3-5 – Rate of Air Flow to Maintain Approx 25 FPS Velocity (SCFS) Pipe Sch Press 15 psig Press 50 psig 5s 40 80 5s 40 80 Pipe Sizes (inches) ½ 0. To explain: High purity water is very corrosive and attacks any free iron found on the surface of stainless pipe.04 3. When using stainless alloys. In doing this there has to be enough static head to generate sufficient force and velocity to achieve essentially the same result as the pumped or line pressure liquid. The alternative for liquid flushing the larger pipe sizes other than using source line pressure or a pump is to perform a fill-and-dump.59 2.39 0.11 0.26 3 3. This gets a little cumbersome and costly.. The reason for that is the volume of liquid or gas required to achieve the necessary velocity through the larger pipe sizes is quite significant.15 0. tees.18 1. depending on wall thickness of the pipe. Over time (and this is one hypothetical thought on the subject). That is unless you have pumps or compressors in place that can achieve the necessary flow rate. As defined earlier. quick opening valve.23 0. Acid-based solutions are used to remove the same contaminants as the detergentbase plus weld discoloration and residue. passivation is a final intended step in the preparation for service of these pipelines.32 6.62 1.25 0.The following Table 3-4 indicates the rate of flow required to achieve approximately 10 feet per second of velocity through various sizes and schedules of pipe. In utility water services such as tower water.41 0. etc. In this process the pipe system is completely filled with liquid and then drained through a full line size. Purified Water. in hygienic water services such as Water For Injection (WFI). It also occurs with the threading of alloy bolts.06 2. Once the passive layer wears through any free iron exposed to the high purity water will oxidize.30 0. in the presence of O 2.51 0.3 9. or rust. The acid merely initiates and speeds up the process.17 4. this very thin corrosion barrier tends to get depleted or worn off. Passivation removes this free iron while also accelerating.30 0.88 1.39 1.65 5. passivation provides a protective oxide barrier against corrosion.86 0.

based on design conditions. A dedicated set of P&ID’s to identify the limits and number the test circuits. and not damaging to human tissue. by fluid service. and Leak test data forms The two sets of documents. 5. Cleaning and testing. 15. when pressure testing a relief valve. 4. The Leak Test Data forms should contain key data such as: 1. Cleaning Category C-3 is a two-step cleaning process that uses a detergent or acid based solution to clean the pipe interior of any unwanted residue or debris. but to test the pressure set point of the valve by gradually adding pressure to the relief valve until it lifts the valve off of the seat. then checking joints and component seals for leaks. Before discussing the various types of leak tests and leak test procedures I would like to briefly talk about controlling and tracking this activity. This is then followed by a final flush of water. on the other hand. such as pressure gages. A checklist form for field supervision to ensure that each step of the test process is accomplished. should be a controlled process.. like many aspects of a project. then a final flush of water. 2.3 Category D fluid service. LEAK TESTING Pressure testing is a misnomer that is quite often used when referring to leak testing of piping systems. A leak test. 9 2. from those listed above. This is a subject that has more questions than answers at the present time. nontoxic. 8. is not to check for leaks. Comment section (indicate if leaks were found and system was repaired and retested or if system passed) 18. Test circuit number P&ID number(s) Date of test Project name and/or number Location within facility Line number(s) Design pressure Test pressure Test fluid Test fluid temperature Time (military) recorded test begins Pressure at start of test Time (military) recorded test ends Pressure at end of test Total elapsed time of test Total pressure differential (plus or minus) from beginning to end of test period 17. ASME B31. there should be a formal method of documenting and tracking this activity as the Contractor proceeds through the leak testing process. in advance of the work to be done. 3. 12. 11. This includes fluids in which the following apply: (1) the fluid handled is nonflammable. They consist of the following: 1. Signatures & dates Also make certain that the testing contractor has current calibration logs of their test instruments. A form to record components that were either installed or removed prior to testing. 6. And as long as all parties understand what is meant by that. The Initial Service leak test is a process by which the test fluid is the fluid that is to be used in the intended piping system at operating pressure and temperature. 16. One of the questions to be answered is whether or not rouge is actually detrimental to product streams. 14. Cleaning Category C-4 is a three or four-step process generally used in hygienic service piping. that need to be retained are the P&ID’s (#1) and the Leak Test Data Forms (#4). It is accomplished by connecting to the fluid source with a . (2) the design gage pressure does not exceed 1035 kPA (150 psi).3 defines five primary leak tests as follows: Initial Service Leak Test: This applies only to those fluid services meeting the criteria as defined under ASME B31. 13. 10. However. Currently the ASME-BPE is looking into this issue. 9. There are variations to each of these primary cleaning functions and it would be in an Owner’s best interest to define these requirements. only a water flush with Deionized (DI) quality water or better would be necessary for cleaning followed by passivation of the piping system. is performed to check the sealing integrity of a piping system by applying internal pressure to a pre-determined limit. In documenting the leak testing activity there are certain forms that will be needed.Discussions and research on the topic of rouging continues. In most cases. 7. simply due to the clean fabrication approach used in hygienic pipe fabrication. The other two sets of forms are procedural checklists. To continue with the leak testing. Meaning. The intent. then that’s fine. in a true sense a pressure test is a test you perform on a relief valve to test its set point pressure. It is not intended that the MAWP of a piping system be verified or validated. 3. 4. and (3) the design temperature is from -29°C (-20°F) through 186°C (366°F).

3 the process for sensitive leak testing is as follows: The test shall be in accordance with the gas and bubble test method specified in the BPV Code.3. I also recommend its use when a fluid is classified as a Category M fluid service.3 or B31. However. psi (see B31. It is not required that the examination take place while holding test pressure. There is more to the entire procedure that I did not include here. What I mean by that is the calculated test pressure is the minimum pressure required for the system. (a) The test pressure shall be at least the lesser of 105kPa (15 psi) gage. or 25% [of] the design pressure. This is not stated. or by another method demonstrated to have equal sensitivity.4 P 1. psig ST = Stress value at test temperature. Sensitivity of the test shall be not less than 10 -3 atm-ml/sec under test conditions. PT 1. 5. P T P T P T 1. Meaning that what you achieve in the test is what it will be in operation.2Pto1. B31. and for B31.3 Table A-1 Eq. A rolling examination of all joints is continually performed during the fill cycle and for a period of time after the system is completely filled and is under line pressure. 2: P T 1. normally water. energy in the pressurized gas. 4) (eq. for B31.3 is calculated using eq. Sensitive leak test: This leak test is performed when there is a higher than normal potential for fluid leakage. (eq.1P 1. In liquid systems air is purged during the fill cycle through high point vents.5PST S (eq. 5) The test pressure for pneumatic leak testing under B31. as described in B1.9 it is calculated using eq.1 for full details on pneumatic leak testing. psi P = Internal design gage pressure. this test has a hazardous potential because of the stored 10 .valved connection and then gradually opening the source valve and filling the system. One misconception I need to address here with pneumatic leak testing is in its procedure.1 refers to this test as Mass-Spectrometer and Halide Testing. but is inferred in B31.3 explains. In a situation in which the distribution of the pipeline that is being tested has distribution on multiple floors of a facility there will be pressure differentials between the floors due to static head differences. under a calculated pressure. psi (see B31. This will occur in operation and is acceptable under initial service test conditions. When pneumatic testing is performed it must be done under a strictly controlled procedure with on-site supervision in addition to coordination with all other crafts and personnel in the test area. And for that reason alone it should be used very selectively. 3. 4. 1 represents the equation for that calculated pressure. While holding design pressure all joints are examined for leaks. such as for hydrogen.5P (eq. The only difference is that the flowing fluid during operation will incur an amount of pressure drop that will not be present during the static test. Hydrostatic leak test: This is the most commonly used leak test and is performed by using a liquid. When hydrostatically testing a multi-floor system the minimum calculated test pressure shall be realized at the highest point. 1. This is a relatively easy test to perform simply from a preparation and cleanup standpoint. pressure variations due to static head differences in elevation have to be accommodated in hydrostatic testing. pressure is increased gradually until the test pressure is reached.3 Table A-1) S = Stress value at design temperature. There is a misconception that the test pressure should be maintained while the joints are examined. and in some cases with additives to prevent freezing. Section V. The test pressure achieved for initial service testing pressure is what it is.1) After allowing a sufficient amount of time for piping strains to equalize the pressure is then reduced to the design pressure (refer to article II for design pressure). This is not correct. 1) Where: PT = Test Pressure. 2) Unlike initial service testing.3. 3) (eq. as long as the metal temperature of ST remains below the temperature at which the allowable stress value for ST begins to diminish and the allowable stress value of S and ST are equal then ST and S cancel each other leaving the simpler eq.5P (eq. As B31. Pneumatic leak test: This test is performed using air or a preferred inert gas.1 it is calculated using eq. In B31. Article 10. However. At that point the test pressure is held until piping strains equalize throughout the system. Please refer to B31.

After completing the preliminary low pressure pneumatic test. Dy (L U )2 Where: K1 (eq. (m) K1 = 208. (in. The circumferential butt or groove weld used in welding the weld neck and the o-let fitting together should be radiographically or ultrasonically examined. or fluid services classified as a Category M fluid service I would suggest the following in preparation for the process described under B31. if any. By capping the valve with a blind flange modified to include a test rig of valves. In testing fluid services that are extremely difficult to seal against. 6) D = outside diameter of pipe. Once the system is thoroughly purged. 5 above. Cleaning and Leak Testing Procedures As you can see by equations eq.3. and includes longitudinal welds used in the manufacture of pipe and fittings that have not been previously tested hydrostatically or pneumatically. the pressure being held long enough at each step to equalize piping strains. 6). the sensitive leak test shall be used on any untested mechanical joints. It requires a 100% radiograph or ultrasonic examination of those welds. This test is conducted only when it is determined that hydrostatic or pneumatic testing would be detrimental to the piping system and/or the fluid intended for the piping system. The process calls for the examination of all groove welds. no 11 intermediate restraints. (mm/m)2 = 30 SA/Ea. Very briefly. As mentioned this does depend on the existing service fluid. (mm) L = developed length of piping between anchors.(b) The pressure shall be gradually increased until a gage pressure the lesser of one-half the test pressure or 170 kPa (25 psi) gage is attained.3: prior to performing the sensitive leak test perform a low pressure (15 psig) test with air or an inert gas using the bubble test method. at which time a preliminary check shall be made. ksi (MPa) Ea = reference modulus of elasticity at 70°F (21°C). in. Check every mechanical joint for leakage. Where applicable. or impractical to achieve. and contains no less than 98% helium. a flexibility analysis verifies. you can perform a leak test rather than an alternative leak test.)2 SA = allowable displacement stress range per equation (1a) of ASME B31. and (c) is of uniform size. And the flange joint connecting the valve should have the torque of each bolt checked after visually ensuring correct type and placement of the gasket. If it is a fluid service that can be considered a Category D fluid service then it is quite possible that a hydrostatic or pneumatic leak test can be performed on the described tie-in. What we will do here is apply that understanding and describe a few general procedures for cleaning and testing. (b) can be judged adequate by comparison with previously analyzed systems./ft. Alternative leak test: In lieu of performing an actual leak test. in. continue using helium to perform the sensitive leak test with a helium mass spectrometer. nipples and hose connectors. in which a hydrostatic or pneumatic test can be used. is based on design pressure and design temperature. has no more than two points of fixation. There are circumstances. in which internal pressure is used. except for initial service testing. Helium is the trace gas used in this process and has a molecule that is close to the size of the hydrogen molecule making it nearly as difficult to seal against as hydrogen without the volatility. the leak test pressure. on a theoretical basis. purge all of the gas from the system using helium. ft. Then the pressure shall be gradually increased in steps until the test pressure is reached. If the existing fluid service is steam or a cryogenic fluid then you might want to consider the alternative leak test. in-service line using a saddle with an o-let branch fitting with a weld neck flange welded to that and a valve mounted to the flange. that an installed piping system is within the allowable stress range of the material and components under design conditions if a system: (a) duplicates or replaces without significant change. Test each mechanical joint using the mass-spectrometer to determine leak rate. and falls within the limitations of empirical equation (eq.000 SA/Ea. This Alternative leak test also requires a flexibility analysis as applicable. a system operating with a successful service record. the alternative leak test takes the examination and flexibility analysis approach. the fillet weld used to weld the saddle to the existing pipe can be examined using the dye penetrant or magnetic particle method. straight line between anchors. Within temperature limitations. As an alternative to testing with internal pressure it is acceptable to qualify a system through examination and flexibility analysis. In Article 2 we described design pressure and temperature. . (mm) U = anchor distance. in. ksi (MPa) One example in which an alternative leak test might be used is in making a branch tie-in to an existing. an inherent risk to personnel. It depends on what the fluid service is in the existing pipeline. regarding the tie-in scenario we just discussed for alternative leak testing. 1 through eq. (mm) y = resultant of total displacement strains to be absorbed by piping system.

A general practice in the flushing and cleaning process.3 goes on to state. Assuming that if your company repeatedly executes projects you will have cleaning and testing guidelines. Beyond the essential requirements. 346. It’s better to give some forethought to these activities rather than be surprised at the results. If a submitted alternate procedure does not compromise the intent of the Owner it is recommended that they be accepted. Do not flush through coils. But even within the industrial sector there are varying degrees of required testing and documentation. fill that gap. With that in mind let’s create a couple of general cleaning procedures. Building a commercial or institutional type facility will not require the same level of documentation and stringent controls that an industrial type facility would require. Using the same symbology indicated in Table 3-2 these cleaning procedures will be categorized as follows: Category C-1: Flush or Blow Down only (water. have been very simplistic. as is apparent in ASME B31. plates. such as those indicated above.3: Unless otherwise specified by the engineering design. Each piping circuit is assigned a specific clean and test protocol in advance. they can then be specified in the line list with the respective fluid services as you require. What your procedural guidelines should do is be explicit enough and current to the point where the contractors know that someone has given some thought as to how they want that work accomplished. including: (a) date of test (b) identification of piping system tested (c) test fluid (d) test pressure (e) certification of results by examiner These records need not be retained after completion of the test if a certification by the inspector that the piping has satisfactorily passed pressure testing as required by this Code is retained. in Para.1 These systems shall be flushed with the fluid that the system is intended for. Meaning that you don’t want to bury yourself in unwarranted paperwork and place an unneeded burden on the contractor when it isn’t necessary. in making that assumption. This will allow the Owner to see if that efficiency is really there. Always provide high point vents for evacuating air during the fill cycle and low point drains for clearing out all of the liquid when the process is complete. much as those given in the following.As in all other project functions control and documentation is a key element in the cleaning and testing of piping systems. ASME B31. documentation requirements in industry standards are simplistic and somewhat generalized. however. The contractor. do not. 12 prepared for your contractor. is the evacuation of air when using liquids. It is certainly acceptable to accommodate suggestions to a procedure from a contractor when it doesn’t compromise the intent of the Owner’s requirements and improves the efficiency of the contractor. Many pre-developed procedures I have seen over the years. 345. the Owner. Include a permanent block valve at the supply line connection. attempt to get too specific in some of their requirements. Connect system to its permanent supply line. may simply ignore them and perform their own procedures. If not you may not get what you expect. engineer or contractor has to assume responsibility and know-how for providing more specific and proprietary requirements for a particular project specific to the particular needs of the Owner. the following records shall be retained for at least 5 years after the record is generated for the project: (a) examination procedures. Standards. also indicated in leak testing. It does. Refer to test Category T-1. air or inert gas) C-1. All outlets shall have temporary hoses run to drain. those developed by Owners in particular. There shall be no hydrostatic or pneumatic leak test. . to some extent. a. which states in Para. in some form. An Initial Service leak test will be performed. This will give you some idea as to what you might consider developing for your own set of specifications. need to be handled in a manner that is dictated by the type of project. Making it far more likely they (the contractors) will execute your procedure instead of their’s. This is an indicator to most contractors that the Owners Rep will most likely not attempt to enforce them. Once a menu of these cleaning and testing procedures are developed. and (b) examination personnel qualifications. To begin with.7: Records shall be made of each piping system during the testing. and typically out of date. using pre-assigned symbols.3. In this manner there is no second guessing during construction.2. that cover such a broad array of industrial manufacturing. and this includes the leak test procedures that follow. strainer or filter elements. Cleaning Procedures This section will describe some fundamental cleaning procedures as they might appear in a specification or guideline. as a rule. The following will help.

1 These systems shall be pre-flushed with potable water. and connect to flush/test manifold. d. cleaned with (indicate cleaning agent) then a rinse/neutralization followed by leak testing with potable water.664 . Using supply line pressure. will require the system to be drained and repaired.035 ─ . d. b. and as the system is placed into service. or as directed by Owner rep. After the second flush (step 4).b. or as directed by Owner’s Rep. clean and rinse process there should be no need to check for transient debris. e.2 ─ ─ C-1. followed by a neutralization rinse.70 9. Any leaks discovered during the flushing process. perform an initial flush through the system. Category C2: Flush then clean with cleaning solution. Route outlet hose or pipe to sewer. d.22 ─ 16 ─ 9.028 . Thereby leak Table 3-6 – Volume of Water Per Lineal Foot of Pipe (gal. Open valve between flush/test manifold and piping system. (Note: During the water flush check the system for leaks. Flush a quantity of fluid through each branch not less than three times that contained in the system. Connect a flush/test manifold at a designated inlet to the system.68 ─ 1. If no debris is found the system is ready for leak testing.84 ─ 14 ─ 7. approved by Owner.11 ─ 12 ─ 6. Use Table 3-6 to estimate volume of liquid in the system. b. or during the process of placing the system into service. or as directed by Owner rep.129 ─ .016 .012 3/4 .34 9. c. However.60 6 1.71 2.058 ─ . These systems are required only to undergo an Initial Service leak test.455 ─ . all joints shall be checked for leaks. Route temporary hose or pipe from potable water supply.5 ─ 24 ─ 22. perform an initial flush through the system with a quantity of potable water not less than three times that contained in the system. if debris is found repeat step 3.61 ─ 10 ─ 4. and the rate of flow in Table 3-4. if circumstances dictate otherwise then a final check for debris may be warranted. After the initial flush.16 5. Perform a second flush with a volume of potable water not less than that contained in the system. Use Table 3-6 to estimate volume of liquid in the system. Verify no leaks prior to introducing chemical cleaning solution to the piping system.154 3 . Secure end of outlet. Because of the thoroughness of the flush. with a quantity of potable water equal to not less than three times that contained in the system. c.31 4.4 14.51 1. Using a Once through procedure (not a recirculation).5 ─ 20 ─ 15.22 ─ 18 ─ 12. During the flushing procedure.021 ─ . insert a conical strainer into a spool piece located between the discharge of the piping system and the outlet hose. and connect to flush/test manifold.) Pipe Sizes (inches) Sch. Route temporary hose or pipe from potable water supply. Route outlet hose or pipe to sewer.771 ─ . Use Table 3-6 to estimate volume of liquid in the system.2 These systems shall be flushed clean with Potable Water. pull the strainer and check for debris. C-2. After which the process will start over with step 2. only for neutralization.386 .037 11/2 .36 8 ─ 2.093 2 . Install a temporary hose or pipe on the designated outlet(s) of the system.176 . Close valve between the circulating pump (if no valve included in the system design insert a lineblind or install a blind flange with a drain valve) discharge and flush/test rig. and a temporary hose or pipe on the designated outlet(s) of the system.106 . 5s 20 40 80 1/2 . The entire system would then cleaned once installed and tested. Discharge to sewer. c. a. approved by Owner. flush system through all outlets until water is clear and free of any debris at all outlet points. Hook up flush/test manifold at a designated temporary inlet to the system between the circulating pump discharge and the system inlet.207 ─ .) 13 . If it is determined that the system will be installed and tested progressively in segments. the sequence of cleaning and testing can be altered to follow the segmented installation. testing segments of a piping system as they are installed without cleaning. a. by-passing the circulation pump.023 1 .045 .345 4 .2 14. and the rate of flow in Table 3-4. Using the once through procedure (meaning the cleaning fluid is not re-circulated).

Connect head tank.5°C) for Category D fluid services what the Owner needs to consider here are three factors: within that range of 140°F (60°C). the upper limit of Category D fluids. Reconnect as in step #1 for the once through flush/neutralization. However. k. If cleaning residue is allowed to dry on the interior pipe wall. Acids. installation of temporary spools pieces. and nitrogen are all easy to identify as qualifyiers for Category D fluid services. but provide enough specifics for you to develop leak testing procedures that will suit your company’s own particular needs. Remove pump and temporary circulation loop then configure the system for leak testing. insertion of line-blinds. to connection provided on circulation loop. Drain cleaning agent to sewer or containment. what do we consider hazardous. are flexible enough to accommodate suggested modifications from the contractor. To minimize corrosion. Cooling tower water. and flush system with potable water using a quantity not less than three times that of the system volume. it starts to become detrimental to personnel upon contact. these procedures. The 140ºF temperature mentioned above is with respect to simply coming in contact with an object at that temperature. at ambient conditions water will simply make you wet if you get dripped or sprayed on. j. Discharge to sewer. The fluid services that fall within the acceptable Category D guidelines. as I stated earlier. Before continuing I need to be clear on the above subject matter. for any fluid service selected for initial service leak testing lies in determining what fluid services to place into each of the fluid service Categories. I then indicated that while Category D fluid services qualified for initial service leak testing there are caveats that should be considered. to 366°F (185.3 definition for Category D fluid services. by OSHA standards. And. At this point the range of human tolerance becomes a factor. Again. In various litigation related to scalding it has been determined that an approximate one-second exposure to 160°F water will result in third degree burns. volatile chemicals and petroleum products are usually easy to identify as those not qualifying as a Category D fluid service. chilled water. that if failure should occur the results would not cause catastrophic damage to property or irreparable harm to personnel. Category D. or other source containing cleaning agent. if anticipated. or as directed by Owner’s Rep. g. Since the (name cleaning agent) solution has a neutral pH the rinse water will have to be visually examined for clarity. retain water if cleaning chemicals will be added to the circulating water. Configure valves and hoses to circulate through pump. Category M. In Article 1 I stated the B31. The rinse must be started in as short as quickly after the cleaning cycle as possible. After completing the initial flush. for the most part. this is a situation in which ASME provides some flexibility in testing by lowering the bar on requirements where there is reduced risk in failure. l. drain remaining water in the system. f. And an approximate ten minute exposure to 120°F water can result in third degree burns. Rinse until clear. The Owner’s responsibility. With the maximum temperature limit of 366°F (185. as directed by Owner. Provided.e. h. as the temperature continues to elevate it eventually moves into a range that increasing becomes scalding upon human contact and human tolerance is no longer a factor because it is now hazardous and the decision is made for you. it will be more difficult to remove by simply flushing. and High Pressure. Leak Test Procedures As in the cleaning procedures we will keep this general. but still have the potential for being hazardous to personnel are not so straight forward. the temperature at which discomfort begins to set in. An approximate half-minute exposure to 130°F water will result in third degree burns. Or. i. The final rinse and neutralization must be accomplished before any possible residue has time to dry. Once the temperature of water exceeds 140°F (60°C). caustics. Once neutralization is achieved proceed to step #12. what is the level of 14 . circulate cleaning agent at a low velocity rate prescribed by the cleaning agent manufacturer. This may include removal of some components. Fill the system with the pre-measured (indicate preferred cleaning agent and mixing ratio or % by volume) and circulate through the system for 48 hours. Those Categories being: Normal. Brief contact at that temperature would not be detrimental. Those three examples should provide an idea as to the kind of dialog that needs to be created in providing guidance and direction to the contractor responsible for the work. air. Test pH for neutralization.5°C). etc. Using water as an example.

But. The first would be: within the above indicated temperature range at what temperature should a fluid be considered hazardous. to its permanent supply source and to all of its terminal points. if we can consider that there is a high assured integrity value for these piping systems there are two remaining factors to be considered. This could translate into lost production and could be considered a high degree of importance. Control Room. and that the system is still intact. how probable is it that personnel could be in the vicinity of a leak. etc. As an example. then there is a high degree of assured integrity in the system. You could also extend this logic a bit further by assigning normal fluid service status to the primary headers of a chilled water system and assigning Category D status to the secondary distribution branches then leak test accordingly. If the system is not placed into service or tested immediately after flushing and cleaning.3 as Category D Fluid service and will require Initial Service Leak Testing only. If. Once it is determined that the system has been filled and vented properly.6°C) it would be considered hazardous in this evaluation. gradually increase pressure . installation and testing. and how does that factor into this process. By applying different Category significance to the same piping system it could cause more confusion than it is worth. For our purpose here let us determine that any fluid 160°F (71°C) and above is hazardous upon contact with human skin. What I mean by assured integrity is this: if there are procedures and protocols in place that require. If on the other hand a chilled water system has to be shut down for leak repair to a main header. a fluid service is hot enough to be considered hazardous. Using the same symbology indicated in Table 33 these leak test procedures will be categorized as follows: Category T-1: Initial Service Leak Test T-1. This system would therefore be of relative low importance and not a factor in this evaluation process. if you have a fluid that is operating at 195°F (90. In other words it may be more value added to simply default to the more conservative Category of Normal. connect the system. 1.opportunity for risk to personnel. as defined in B31. Open the block valve at the supply line and gradually feed the liquid into the system. but is in an area of a facility that sees very little personnel activity then the fluid service could still be considered as a Category D fluid service. Hold pressure to its minimum until the system is completely filled and vented. this could have a significant impact to operations and production. In doing so. and has set idle for an unspecified period of time it shall require a preliminary pneumatic test at the discretion of the Owner. if not already connected. if the system is located in a Group 5 area (ref. Start and stop the fill process to allow proper high point venting to be accomplished. and what is the level of assured integrity of the installation. All three of these factors: temperature. Table 3-7 – Areas Under Consideration For Cat. After this preliminary pressure check proceed. air shall be supplied to the system to a pressure of 10 psig and held there for 15 minutes to ensure that joints and components have not been tampered with. if a safety shower water system has to be shut down for leak repair the down-time to make the repairs has little impact on plant operations. If the fluid you are considering is within this temperature range then it has the potential of being 15 considered a normal fluid. D Group Description Yes No 1 Personnel Occupied Space √ 2 3 4 5 Corridor Frequented by Personnel Sensitive Equipment (MCC. After the above exercise in evaluating a fluid service we can now continue with a few examples of leak test procedures. 2. 3. for instance. should one occur. Table 3-7) it could still qualify as a Category D fluid service.1 This Category covers liquid piping systems categorized by ASME B31. If some or all of these requirements are not in place then there is no assured integrity. or in other words.3. Continuing.) Corridor Infrequently Used by Personnel Maintenance & Operations Personnel Only Access √ √ √ √ As an example. 4. pending its location as listed in Table 3-7. You need to be cautious in considering this. have to be considered together to arrive at a reasonable determination for borderline Category D fluid services. risk of contact. validate and document third-party inspection of all pipe fabrication. One factor I have not included here is the degree of relative importance of a fluid service. and secondly. and assured integrity. After completion of the flushing and cleaning process. if a system failed how big of a disruption would it cause in plant operation.

Hold that pressure for approximately 2 minutes to allow piping strains to equalize. the system shall be connected to its permanent supply source. if not already done so. it could require simply checking the torque on the bolts without draining the entire system. If no leaks are identified continue to step 3. 4. Open the block-valve at the supply line and gradually feed the gas into the system.This Category covers liquid piping systems categorized by ASME B31. Hold that pressure for approximately 2 minutes to allow piping strains to equalize. 3. Record test results and fill in all required fields on the leak test form. Increase the pressure to a point equal to the lesser of one-half the operating pressure or 25 psig. and to all of its terminal points. holding that pressure momentarily (approximately 2 minutes) after each increase to allow piping strains to equalize. Should leaks be found at any time during this process drain the system. repair leak(s) and begin again with step 1. careful preparation is key. After this preliminary pressure check proceed. If someone forgot to fully tighten the bolts then do so now.3 as Normal Fluid service. Continue to supply the system gradually until test pressure is achieved. 2.2. T-1. repair leak(s) and begin again with step 2. Check for leaks by sound and/or bubble test. 5. If leaks are found release pressure. gradually increase pressure until 50% of the test pressure is reached. repair leak(s) and begin again with step 1. evacuate system and replace all items temporarily removed. (Caveat: Should the leak be no more than a drip every minute or two on average at a flange joint. clean the threads. If no leaks are found. This includes valve and equipment seals and packing. Start and stop the fill process to allow proper high point venting to be accomplished. If it happens to be a threaded joint you may still need to drain the system. Continue to increase pressure in 25 psi increments. Make a preliminary check of all joints by sound or bubble test. disassemble the joint. air shall be supplied to the system to a pressure of 10 psig and held there for 15 minutes to ensure that joints and components have not been tampered with. 1. During the process of filling the system. and that the system is still intact. 8. 3. After completion of the blow-down process. with the flush/test manifold still in place and the temporary potable water supply still connected (reconnect if necessary). 5.This Category covers pneumatic piping systems categorized by ASME B31. 6. The most convenient place for this information to reside is the piping line list or piping system list. check all joints for leaks. 16 . Should any leaks be found drain system. Continue to supply the system gradually until full operating pressure is achieved. If leaks are found release pressure. Record test results and fill in all required fields on the leak test form. and increasing pressure to 50% of the test pressure.until 50% of operating pressure is reached. Record all data and activities on leak test forms. After completion of the flushing and cleaning process. Hold pressure to its minimum until the system is completely filled and vented. hold it for a minimum of 30 minutes or until all joints have been checked for leaks. repair and repeat from step 2. add new sealant and reconnect the joint before continuing. If leaks are found evacuate system as required.3 as Category D Fluid service and will require Initial Service Leak Testing. open the block valve at the supply line and complete filling the system with potable water. If no leaks are found the system is ready for service. test fluids. For leak testing to be successful on your project. If the system is not placed into service or tested immediately after flushing and cleaning. Those three examples should provide an idea as to the kind of guideline that needs to be created in providing direction to the contractor responsible for the work.) 6. 5.1: Hydrostatic Leak Test T-3. 1. 7. check all joints for leaks. This preparation starts with gathering information on test pressures. Once it is determined that the system has been filled and vented properly. During the process of filling the system. Category T-3. until the operating pressure is reached. 4. 2. Once the test pressure has been achieved. and the types of tests that will be required.1. and has set idle for an unspecified period of time it shall require a preliminary pneumatic test at the discretion of the Owner. repair leak(s) and begin again with step 1. In doing so.

7. 9. The line list itself is an excellent control document that might include the following for each line item: 1. etc. have increasingly provided improved interpretation of these guidelines to meet many industry imposed. 11. Test results. No one wants to head for the litigation table at the end of a project. walk-down and checkout procedures are not nearly as complex. 10. welding machine qualification. Performing this kind of activity while in the heat of a project schedule tends to force quick agreement to specifications and requirements written by parties other than those with the Owner’s best interest at heart. It is derived from the need to authenticate and document specifically defined requirements for a project and stems indirectly from. Most contractors qualified to perform at this level of work are in it to perform well and to meet their obligations. industrial projects outside the pharmaceutical. documentation of materials used. food & drug. Line size Fluid Nominal material of construction Pipe Spec Insulation spec P&ID Line sequence number from and to information Pipe code Fluid Service Category Heat Tracing Operating Pressure Design Pressure Operating Temperature Design Temperature Type of Cleaning Test Pressure Test Fluid Type of Test Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) and FDA requirements. industries not prone to require such in-depth scrutiny. will be maintained under separate cover. The bottom line is that the Owner is still responsible for the end result. These CFR Titles and FDA requirements drove the need to demonstrate or prove compliance. 19. At face value this exercise would provide an assurance that the fabricating/installing contractor is fulfilling their contractual obligation. Elements such as: material verification. Having access to this line-by-line information in such a concise well organized manner reduces guess-work and errors during testing. software functionality and repeatability to welder qualification. 13. 4. Other projects may require a more detailed approach by listing each to and from line along with the particular data for each line. The added benefit is that in knowing that this degree of scrutiny will take place the contractor will themselves take extra pain to minimize the possibility of any rejects. 18. 12. etc. and the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. Just the opposite is actually true. Validation is actually a subset activity under the umbrella of Commissioning and Qualification (C&Q). and semi-conductor industries. stringent. welder and welding operator qualification records. Together the line list provides the required information on each line or system and the test data forms provide signed verification of the actual test data of the test circuits that make up each line or system. 5. 15. or all inclusive. Compared to validation. And I am not inferring that all contractors are out to get by with as little as they can.A piping line list and piping system list achieve the same purpose only to different degrees of detail. VALIDATION The process of Validation has been around for longer than the 40 plus years I have been in this business. Wrapping Up Developing this type of information on a single form provides everyone involved with the basic information needed for each line. 2. 14. Most will already have their own verification procedure in place. could benefit from adopting some of the essential elements of validation. leak test records. 17. the Code of Federal Regulation 29CFR Titles 210 and 211 current Good 17 . and continues to become. 8. From these basic governmental outlines companies. Validating a piping system to ensure compliance and acceptability is always beneficial and money well spent. 3. And the best way to avoid that is for the Owner to be proactive in developing their requirements prior to initiating a project. documented on the test data forms. 6. On some projects it may be more practical to compile the information by entire service fluid systems. This allows the spec writers and reviewers the benefit of having time to consider just what those requirements are and how they should be defined without the time pressures imposed when this activity is project driven. as well as self-imposed requirements. You may know it by its less formal namesakes walk-down and checkout. To a lesser extent. The cGMP requirements under 29CFR Titles 210 & 211 are a vague predecessor of what validation has become. 16. and in response to. These requirements can cover everything from verification of examination and inspection.

ASME B31. I also hope these articles provided enough basic knowledge of piping for you to recognize when there is more to a piping issue than what you are being told. (Bill) Huitt has been involved in industrial piping design. Acknowledgement: My deep appreciation again goes to Earl Lamson. One thing that should be understood with industry Standards is the fact that they will always be in a state of flux. and coal gasification. a piping consulting firm founded in 1987. Positions have included design engineer. several Task Groups.wmhuitt. Writing these articles was a form of informational triage for me. His comments kept me concise and on target. He obliged me by applying the same skill. when used appropriately. nuclear power. We had discussed industry Standards earlier and how they are selected and applied on a project. He can be reached at: W. biofuel. and simply building the knowledge base of the Standard. project engineer. What I didn’t cover is the fact that most projects will actually have a need to comply with multiple industry Standards. and the others. And then there were the extended discussions on some topics that ultimately had to be sacrificed. intelligence and insight he brings to everything he does. but could leave out without too much of an impact. and ASME-BPE for any hygienic piping requirements. About the author: W. petrochemical. pulp & paper. papers. work hand-in-hand with one another by referencing each other where necessary. two new Parts are being added to the seven Parts currently existing in ASME-BPE. to go into great detail on any specific topic. Louis. CSI (Construction Specifications Institute) and ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers). Huitt Co. In a large grass-roots pharmaceutical project you may need to include industry compliance Standards for much of the underground utility piping. not.1 for boiler external piping (if not included with packaged boilers). His experience covers both the engineering and construction fields and crosses industrial lines to include petroleum refining. M. ASME B31. piping design instructor. These are changes that reflect updating to a new understanding. always changing. thanks in large part to the cooperation of the standards developers and ANSI. And this is a good thing. senior Project Manager with Eli Lilly and Company. guidelines. staying abreast of technology. He is a member of three ASME-BPE subcommittees.com www. Huitt Co. project supervisor. an API Task Group. My attempt at covering such a wide range of discussion on industrial piping was to provide a basic broad understanding of some key points on this topic.com 18 . through discussion and debate on content. There will be a Metallic Materials of Construction Part MMOC. and sets on two corporate specification review boards. His comments help make this article. M. This is why some topics were briefer than I would have liked. as I said earlier. these Standards can be used as needed on a project without fear of conflict between those Standards. P O Box 31154 St. As an example. chemical. piping department supervisor. engineering and construction since 1965. M. There were definite piping topics I wanted to include and others I would have preferred to include. An integrated set of American National Standards is the reason that. MO 63131-0154 (314)966-8919 wmhuitt@aol. He has written numerous specifications. expanded clarification on the various sections that make up a Standard.3 for chemical and utility piping throughout the facility. These Standards committees have enough work to do within their defined scope of work without inadvertently duplicating work done by other Standards organizations. better documents than they otherwise would have been. for taking the time to review each of these three articles. and magazine articles on the topic of pipe design and engineering. I hope that in writing these articles I piqued enough interest that some of you will dig deeper into this subject matter to discover and learn some of the more finite points of what we discussed here. pharmaceutical. engineering manager and president of W. and a Certification Part CR.Before closing out this last of three articles there are just a couple of things I would like to touch on. These and other Standards. Bill is a member of ISPE (International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers). This is all part of the ever-evolving understanding of the needs of the industrial community and improved clarification.