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Piping Design Part 1: The Basics
With regard to material of construction, the ongoing evolution of technology has raised expectations throughout industry…
William M. (Bill) Huitt W. M. Huitt Co. This is the first in a series of three articles that will cover a wide range of piping topics. Topics that will cross industry lines to include chemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceutical, and other industries as well. It will be the intent of these articles to address questions and misunderstandings as they relate to industry on a general basis. “Pipe is pipe”. This is a euphemism (jargon if you will) quite often used among piping designers and engineers. Taken at face value, this is a true statement…pipe is certainly pipe. However, taken in context, it means that no matter which industry you work in when designing piping systems it‟s all the same. And in that context it could not be further from the truth. The pharmaceutical industry, in its current state of growth, is a relative new comer to design, engineering and construction compared to the oil refining, bulk chemical, pulp & paper and nuclear industries. As a frame of reference the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was established in 1880; the American Petroleum Institute (API) was established in 1919; 3-A Standards (for food & dairy) were first developed in the 1920‟s; the ASME committee for BPVC (Boiler Pressure Vessel Code) Section III for nuclear power was proposed in 1963; Semiconductor Equipment and Materials Institute (SEMI) was established in 1973; the International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers (ISPE) was established in 1980; and ASME Biopharmaceutical Equipment (BPE) issued its first Standard in 1997. Prior to ASME-BPE much of the 3-A piping Standards were plagiarized to facilitate design of pharmaceutical facilities. While some of the above Standards Committees, and their resulting Codes and Standards, are specific to a particular industry others are more generalized in their use and are utilized across the various industries. As an example, Not only does the design and construction of a large pharmaceutical facility require the need for pharmaceutical based Standards, Codes, Guidelines and Industry Practices such as those generated by ISPE and ASME-BPE, it also requires those Standards created for other industries as well. Meaning that, when designing and constructing a bulk pharmaceutical finishing facility, or a bulk Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) facility the engineers and constructors will also be working under some of the same standards and guidelines as they would when designing and building in other industries such as a petroleum refinery or bulk chemical facility. It is not that the pharmaceutical industry itself is young, but the necessary engineering standards and practices are. Within the past fifteen or so years, industry practice, including dimensional standards for high purity fittings, were left to the resources of the pharmaceutical Owner or their engineering firm (engineer of record). The same applies to construction methods and procedures, including materials of construction. These requirements were basically established for each project and were very dependent upon
what the Owner‟s personnel and the engineering firm brought to the table. Industry standards did not exist. With regard to material of construction, the ongoing evolution of technology has raised expectations throughout industry, but even more so in the pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and semiconductor industries. For instance, out of the research and development that went into the Hubble Space Telescope came new methodology and technology to better measure and define the all too tangible limits of surface roughness required in material used in hygienic fluid service contact piping. This is of particular interest to the pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and semiconductor industries, where cross-contamination at the molecular level cannot be tolerated in many cases. This requires surfaces to be very cleanable. Surface roughness used to be expressed as polish numbers (ie, #4 or #7) then grit numbers such as 150, 180 or 240). The problem with either of these two methods lay in their subjectivity and their generality. These indicators were not specific enough and the accept/reject result relied too much on a subjective visual verification. There will be more on surface finish requirements in Part II. With acute awareness of the ongoing problems currently faced in the pharmaceutical industry and, for altogether different reasons, the semiconductor industry, various Standards organizations have taken steps to alleviate the consistent problems that have plagued the industry in the past with high purity welding issues, standardization of fittings, and guidelines for industry practice. We will discuss some of the finer points of these issues and in some cases what these Standards organizations, are doing to promote and consolidate some of the better thinking in this industry and in this field. In these early paragraphs it seems as though I am singling out the pharmaceutical industry as the focal point of these discussions. As you will see this is not true. And in saying pharmaceutical I do mean to include biopharmaceutical (biopharm) as well. In making an example of the pharmaceutical industry it is simply an attempt on my part to utilize its relative newness in the development of its own particular brand of standards to give the reader a sense of standards development and how these standards evolve. This article and the two that follow will address metallic piping topics including a discussion on hygienic piping. While non-metallic piping is worthy of discussion it is too broad a topic to try and capture here and will not be a part of these articles. Some of the points that will be covered in this and the following articles are topics such as:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.
ASME flange ratings, is it 150 and 300 pound flange or is it Class 150 and Class 300 flange? Does the 150, 300, etc. actually mean anything or is it simply an identifier? In forged fittings, is it 2000 pound and 3000 pound, or is it Class 2000 and Class 3000? How do you determine which Class of forged fitting to select for your specification? Corrosion allowance in piping; how do you determine and then assign corrosion allowance? How do you select the proper bolts and gaskets for a service? How is pipe wall thickness determined? What is MAWP? What is Operating and Design Pressure? What is Operating and Design Temperature? How do Design Pressure and Temperature relate to a PSV set point and leak testing? What Code should you be designing under? What kind of problems can you expect with sanitary clamp fittings? How do you alleviate those problems with sanitary clamp fittings? What is ASME-BPE? How does ASME B31.3 and ASME-BPE work in concert with one another? What is ASME BPE doing to bring accreditation to the pharmaceutical Industry? Design is the culmination and application of industry standards and industry requirements that take into account constructability along with maintenance and operational needs. These points will be covered as well.
We will first of all lay some groundwork by beginning with the basics of general piping. By understanding the basic elements of piping the designer and engineer can improve their decision making in the material selection process and system design effort. These articles will also make clear a number of misconceptions with regard to terminology and general practices. What we will try to avoid is a lot of in-depth discussion and elaborate analysis on specific points. What I would like to achieve is a general discussion on many topics rather than finite rhetoric on only a few. With that said, this first article is entitled:
Piping Design Part I – The Basics
This article will not attempt to cover all of the various types of piping components and joints that are available in industry today. To keep the discussion focused we will discuss only that segment of joints, fittings and components most frequently used in general piping design.
Neither will we duplicate the dialog of previous articles that have provided excellent commentary on segments of this same topic. Articles such as the one written by John C. Cox and published by Chemical Engineering for their January 2005 edition titled “Avoid Leakage in Pipe Systems”. John provides a concise and descriptive narrative on threaded and compression type connections. And the article by Trinath Sahoo published by Chemical Engineering for their June 2005 edition titled “Gaskets: The Weakest Link”. In his article Trinath gives the reader some excellent insight into the mechanics of gasket selection and design. PIPE FLANGES Pipe flanges are used to mechanically connect pipe sections to other pipe sections, inline components, and equipment. Flanges also allow pipe to be assembled and disassembled without cutting or welding, eliminating the need to issue a burn card for cutting and welding when dismantling is required. In providing a breakable joint, flanges unfortunately provide a potential leak path for the service fluid contained in the pipe. Because of this, as in all other joints, they need to be minimized where possible. The most prevalent flange standards to be used in industry are based on requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Standards. These include: B16.1 – Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, B16.5 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings (NPS 1/2 through NPS 24), B16.24 – Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, B16.36 – Orifice Flanges, B16.42 – Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Large Diameter Steel Flanges (NPS 26 through NPS 60) B16.47 – Large Diameter steel flanges (NPS 26 through NPS 60)
NPS, indicated above, is an acronym for Nominal Pipe Size.
Figure 1 The Threaded flange, through Class 400, is connected to threaded pipe in which the pipe thread conforms to ASME B1.20.1. For threaded flanges in Class 600 and higher the length through the hub of the flange exceeds the limitations of ASME B1.20.1. ASME B16.5 requires that when using threaded flanges in Class 600 or higher Schedule 80 or heavier pipe wall thickness be used, and that the end of the pipe be reasonably close to the mating surface of the flange. Note that the term “reasonably close” is taken, in context, from Annex A of ASME B16.5, it is not quantified. In order to achieve this “reasonably close” requirement the length of the thread has to be longer and the diameters of the smaller threads become smaller than that indicated in ASME B1.20.1. When installing Threaded flanges Class 600 and higher, ASME B16.5 recommends using power equipment to obtain the proper engagement. Simply using arm strength with a hand wrench is not recommended. The primary benefit of threaded flanges is in eliminating the need for welding. In this regard Threaded flanges are sometimes used in high-pressure service in which the operating temperature is ambient. They are not suitable where high temperatures, cyclic conditions or bending stresses can be potential problems. Socketweld Flange
Flanges are available with various contact facings (the flange-to-flange contact surface) and methods of connecting to the pipe itself. The flanges under B16.5 are available in a variety of styles and pressure classifications. The different styles, or types, are denoted by the way each connects to the pipe itself and/or the type of face. The type of pipe-to-flange connections consist of Threaded, Socket Welding (or Socket Weld), Slip-On Welding (or Slip-On), Lapped (or Lap Joint), Welding Neck (or Weld Neck), and Blind. Figure 2 Threaded Flange The Socketweld flange is made so that the pipe is inserted into the socket of the flange until it hits the shoulder of the socket. The Pipe is then backed away from the shoulder approximately 1/16” before being welded to the flange hub. If the pipe were resting against the shoulder (This is the flat shelf area depicted in Fig. 2 as the difference between 3
diameters B and B2) of the socket joint during welding, heat from the weld would expand the pipe longitudinally into the shoulder of the socket forcing the pipe-to-flange weld area to move. This could cause the weld to crack. The Socketweld flange was initially developed for use on small size, high-pressure piping in which both a backside hub weld and an internal shoulder weld was made. This provided a static strength equal to the Slip-On flange with a fatigue strength 1.5 times that of the Slip-On flange. Because the two-welds were labor intensive it became the practice to weld only at the hub of the flange. In doing this it relegated the socketweld flange to be more frequently used for small pipe sizes (NPS 2” and below) in non-highpressure, utility type service piping. The Socketweld flange is not approved above Class 1500. Slip-On Flange
fatigue rate is about 66% less than that of a Weld Neck flange. The Slip-On flange is not approved above Class 1500. Lap Joint Flange
Figure 4 The Lap Joint flange requires a companion lap joint, or Type A stub-end (ref. Fig. 5) to complete the joint. The installer is then able to rotate the flange. This allows for quick bolthole alignment of the mating flange during installation without taking the extra precautions required during prefabrication of a welded flange. Their pressure holding ability is about the same as a Slip-On flange. The fatigue life of a Lap Joint/stub-end combination is about 10% that of a Weld Neck flange, with an initial cost that is a little higher than that of a Weld Neck flange.
Figure 3 Unlike the Socketweld flange, the Slip-On flange allows the pipe to be inserted completely through its hub opening. Two welds are made to secure the flange to the pipe. One fillet (pronounced “fill-it”) weld is made at the hub of the flange and a second weld is made at the inside diameter of the flange near the flange face. The end of the pipe is offset from the face of the flange by a distance equal to the lesser of the pipe wall thickness or 1/4” plus approximately 1/16”. This is to allow for enough room to make the internal fillet weld without damaging the flange face. The Slip-On flange is a preferred flange for many applications because of its initial lower cost, the reduced need for cut length accuracy and the reduction in end prep time. However, the final installed cost is probably not much less than that of a Weld Neck flange. The strength of a Slip-On flange under internal pressure is about 40% less than that of a Weld Neck flange. The The real cost benefit in using a Lap Joint flange assembly is realized when installing a stainless steel or other costly alloy piping system. In many cases the designer can elect to use a stub-end specified with the same material as the pipe, but use a less costly, e.g. carbon steel, Lap Joint Flange. This prevents the need of having to weld a more costly compatible alloy flange to the end of the pipe. Just a quick word about stub-ends; they are actually prefabricated or cast pipe flares that are welded directly to the pipe. They are available in three different types: Type A, (which is the lap-joint stub-end), Type B and Type C (ref. Fig. 5). Type A (Fig 5) is forged or cast with an outside radius where the flare begins. This radius conforms to the radius on the inside of the Lap-Joint flange. The mating side of the flare has a serrated surface. Type B (Fig. 5) is forged or cast without the radius where the flare begins. It is used to accommodate the SlipOn flange or Plate flange as a back-up flange.
Type C (Fig 5) is fabricated from pipe using five suggested methods indicated in ASME B31.3. The most prevalent of these is the machine flare. This is done by placing a section of pipe into a flaring machine, flaring the end of the pipe and then cutting it to length. As you can see in the assembly detail of Fig. 5, stub-end types B & C have no radius at the flare while Type A does. This allows it to conform to the Lap-Joint flange. Due to the radius of the type A stub-end, a slip-on flange would have a poor fit, creating non-uniform loading of the flare face as well as an undesirable point load at the radius of the flare. Weld Neck Flange
Figure 7 While the Blind flange is used to cap off the end of a pipeline or a future branch connection it is also used for other purposes. It can be drilled and tapped for a threaded reducing flange or machined out for a Slip-On reducing flange. The reduced opening can be either on-center or eccentric. Flange Pressure Ratings ASME B16.5 flange pressure ratings have been categorized into material groupings. These groupings are formulated based on both the material composition and the process by which the flange is manufactured.
Figure 6 The reinforcement area of the Weld Neck flange distinguishes it from other flanges. This reinforcement area is formed by the added metal thickness, which tapers from the hub of the flange to the weld end. The bore of the flange needs to be specified in order to obtain the same wall thickness at the weld end as the pipe it will be welded to. This will give it the same ID bore as the pipe. The Weld Neck flange is actually the most versatile flange in the ASME stable of flanges. Much of its use is for fitting-to-fitting fabrication in which the flange can be welded directly to a fitting, such as an elbow, without the need for a short piece of pipe, as would be required with a Slip-On flange. It can be used in low-pressure, nonhazardous fluid services as well as high-pressure, highcyclic and hazardous fluid services. While the initial cost of the Weld Neck flange may be higher than that of a Slip-On flange the installed cost reduces that differential. And for conditions of possible high thermal loading, either cryogenic or elevated temperatures, the Weld Neck flange would be essential. Blind Flange
The available pressure Classifications under ASME B16.5 are: 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500. The correct terminology for this designation is Class 150, Class 300, etc. The term 150 pound, 300 pound, etc. is a carry over from the old ASA (American Standards Association) Classification. ASA is the precursor to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Taking a quick step back, ANSI was founded as a committee whose responsibility was to coordinate the development of standards and to act as a standards traffic cop for the various organizations that develop standards. Its basic function is not to develop standards, but rather to provide accreditation of those standards Originating as the American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC) in 1918, ANSI had, over its first ten years, outgrown its Committee status and in 1928 was reorganized and renamed as the American Standards Association (ASA). In 1966 the ASA was reorganized again under the name of the United States of America Standards Institute (USASI). In 1969 ANSI adopted its present name. While the B16 and B31 Standards have previously carried the ASA and ANSI prefix with its various Standards titles ASME has always been the administrative sponsor in the development of those standards. In the 1970’s the prefix designation changed to ANSI/ASME and finally to ASME. Referring to ANSI B16.* or ANSI B31.* is no longer correct. Instead it is correct to refer to a standard as ANSI/ASME B16.* in that it indicates an
For intermediate temperatures.5. AWWA (American Water Works Association) or any other Standard. Or you can simply refer to the standard as ASME B16. we will discuss how these designations are factored into the design of the flange. and nickel alloys.* or ASME B31. Until the 1960‟s the pressure Classifications. This is a series of Tables that lists the Working Pressures of flanges based on material groupings. which indicates. etc. If you had an ASME B16. they are a factor in the pressure rating calculation found in B16. in reverse sequence. whether manufactured to ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers). ASTM A105 flange this is the table you would use to determine the Working Pressure limit of the flange. 6 . Figure 8 shows Table 2-1.ANSI accredited ASME standard. 300 pound. These designations have no direct correlation with pounds of pressure.5 began in 1920. To find the Working Pressure of the above mentioned flange enter the column of this table designated as 150 then move down the column to the operating temperature. as addressed earlier.5. temperature and Classification. This eventually became what we know today as ASME B16. are grouped into pressure ratings. In ASME these pressure ratings are a sub-group of the various material groups designated in B16.5. Development of ASME B16. Flange Pressure Ratings Flanges.1. Rather. There are 34 Tables segregated into three material Categories of Carbon and low alloy steels.*. austenitic stainless steels. were referred to as 150 pound.5. In Part II of this series. Figure 8 represents one of the Tables from the Table 2 series in ASME B16. It was at this point the pressure Classification was changed to the Class designation. In 1927 the American Tentative Standard B16e was approved.5. API (American Petroleum Institute). MSS (Manufacturers Standardization Society). These are further segregated into more defined material sub-groups. sub-category 1 of material group 1 (carbon and low alloy steels). Class 150.
We can extrapolate that piece of information to say that since hydrostatic leak test pressure is based on 1. For now I will explain 7 that every service should have an operating pressure/temperature and a design pressure/temperature. A design condition is the maximum coincidental pressure and temperature condition that the system is expected or allowed to see. There exists some confusion in this area. „Operating‟ and „working‟ are synonymous.linear interpolation is permitted. On the surface there appears to be a conflict between rating a flange for design conditions when Table 2 only indicates working pressures. The maximum hydrostatic leak test pressure for a Class 150 flange in Table 2-1. or 285 x 1.5 = 427. and to which the leak test is based on.5 times the rated working pressure at 100°F. In the previous paragraph you will notice that I indicated “operating temperature” when looking to determine the Working Pressure of a flange. This then becomes the condition to which you should design for. or 450 psig. The indication of a working pressure and temperature of a fluid service is the same as indicating the operating pressure and temperature. Tables 2. as it indicates.1 is 1. not the operating condition. represents the working or operating pressures of the flange at an indicated temperature for a specific Class. Operating and design pressures and temperatures will be explained in more detail in Article 2.5 rounded off to the next higher 25 psi. That confusion becomes apparent when the engineer is determining design pressure and temperature and applying that to the flange rating.5 x design .
2. but fluid service compatibility.5 provides a list of appropriate bolting material for ASME flanges. Making the right selection for the application can mean the difference between a joint with integrity and one without.3 fluid services may be expected to operate at one set of conditions. To better understand the relationship of these criteria I will list and provide some clarification for each: 8 . the bolting material shall be no stronger than low yield strength bolting unless: (a) both flanges have flat faces and a full face gasket is used: or. Fig. the working pressure limit then remains the working pressure limit because testing is performed at operating or working pressures.2. 9) are as follows: Flat Face.3. The High Strength category includes bolt material with a minimum yield strength of not less than 105 ksi. Large and Small Tongue and Groove. with consideration of sustained loads. is paramount in providing integrity to the overall piping system.25”.1. The cutting tool used for the serrations will have a 0. nor for flanged joints using metallic gaskets. will also be discussed in a subsequent article.06 in. In specifying flange bolts. and can only be used with selected gaskets as defined in ASME B16. the hygienic clamp joint. as well as the gasket. provided it has been verified that a sealed joint can be maintained under rated working pressure and temperature”. in pressure increments.5. Leak testing occurs during or prior to initial operation of the system. it is necessary. there are caveats that address the fact that not all Category D fluid services should waive the hydrostatic leak test for an initial service leak test. all joints are observed for possible leaks. When working with ASME B31. "Bolting having not more than 30 ksi specified minimum yield strength shall not be used for flanged joints rated ASME B16. MSS SP-42 (valves with flanged and buttweld ends).3 additionally states in para. Tongue and Groove. or MSS SP-51 (cast flanges and fittings) specifications. and as you will see further in this article.3 Category D fluid services. 302. Large and Small Male and Female.5 Class 400 and higher. If no leaks are detected the pipeline simply remains in service. sanitization) or passivation. “…If either flange is to the ASME B16.06”. B31. unless calculations have been made showing adequate strength to maintain joint tightness". (b) sequence and torque limits for bolt-up are specified. The Intermediate Strength bolting materials "…may be used with all listed materials and all gaskets. In initial service leak testing the test fluid is the service fluid.6). high. Ring Joint. 309. BOLTS. the sanitization process can be done as frequently as once per week and last for one to one and half shifts in duration. and initial service leak testing is performed. NUTS & GASKETS Sealing the flange joint. The Low Strength bolting materials "…may be used with all listed materials but are limited to Class 150 and Class 300 joints". the critical nature of the fluid service and environmental conditions all in conjunction with one another. periodic design conditions.pressure the working pressure limit given in the Table 2 matrix ostensibly becomes the design pressure limit. Category D fluids additionally do not exceed 150 psig and 366º F. Other ASME B31. 309. and occasional loads (see paras. The height of the raised face for Class 400 and above is 0. ASME B16. and strength of the flanges.3. ASME B16. Across industry. This is achieved with the use of bolts. These conditions.5 and 302. sterilization. To clarify periodic in this context. which might include periodic steamout (cleaning.1 (cast iron). The Low Strength category includes bolt material with a minimum yield strength no greater than 30 ksi. displacement strains. nontoxic and not damaging to human tissue. For those systems. As defined in ASME B16. In saying that however. or larger radius and there should be from 45 to 55 grooves per inch. The Intermediate Strength category includes bolt material with a minimum yield strength of between 30 ksi and 105 ksi. the two most widely used flange facings are the flat face and the raised face. Flange Facing & Surface Finishes Standard flange facing designations (ref.24 (cast copper alloy). intermediate and low. you therefore want to base your flange rating selection on those more extreme. not discounting the lap-joint flange and stub-end combination. Small Male and Female (on end of pipe). not only to consider design pressure and temperature. The surface finish of standard raised face and flat face flanges has a serrated concentric or serrated spiral surface finish with an average roughness of 125 μin to 250 μin. which are based on the minimum yield strength of the specified bolt material. Raised Face. As the service fluid is introduced to the piping system and brought to operating pressure.5. but are designed for another set. the High Strength bolting materials "…may be used with all listed materials and all gaskets". The height of the raised face for Class 150 and 300 flanges is 0.3 further clarifies in para. The bolting material is grouped into three strength categories.3. Category D fluid services are those fluid services that are nonflammable. ASME B31. nuts and gaskets. such as steam service.
bolts. maintaining and controlling the added documentation required for hygienic fabrication and installation is in the range of 30% to 40% of the overall cost of fabrication and installation. Because the ASTM Standards are inconsistent in that regard the spec-writer must make sure it is covered in a specification. as dictated by current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and defined and quantified by the ISPE and ASME-BPE. they will lose their dynamic load on the gasket. This is achieved by applying sufficient stress to the bolt to take it into the material‟s elastic range. under ASME B16. A307 goes further to state that when used for pipe flanges Grade B bolts require a Heavy Hex Grade A nut under ASTM A563. These requirements. Cast iron flanged fittings. and other alloy material as follows: Cast Iron: Cast iron threaded fittings. Dynamic loading of flange bolts allows expansion and contraction movement in and around the joint while maintaining a seal. Pipe fittings are manufactured by the following processes: cast. The critical nature of the fluid will determine the degree of integrity required in the joint. are available in Class 125 and Class 250 for sizes NPS 1/4” through 12”. Tube & Fittings One of the big differences between pharmaceutical and semi-conductor piping and other industrial piping. flanges. into the proper nut selection.1. The man-hours required in generating. You can see from this bit of information that all four components. are available in Class 150 and Class 300 in sizes NPS 9 What this ultimately means is that all of the variables that come together in making up a flange joint have to do so in a complementary fashion. Cast Fittings Cast fittings are provided in cast iron. In order for the flange joint to maintain a gasket seal it requires dynamic loading. under ASME B16. not need to specify the nut since it is already defined in A307. In writing a pipe spec that includes the A307 bolt you would . or hygienic fluid services. will determine the number and size of the flange bolts. bronze. steel. That. 125 and 250 in sizes NPS 1” through 48”. either partially or completely. are available in Class 25. Environmental conditions will also help determine bolt material (Corrosive atmosphere. In an attempt at keeping this article concise we will only cover those fittings that are predominantly used throughout industry.1. if the bolts were stressed beyond their elastic range and into the plastic range of their material of construction the same issue applies. Any relaxation in the gasket will then result in the reduction or elimination of the joints sealing ability. or at the very least beyond their elastic range. brass. The coincident of design pressure and temperature is what determines the pressure Class of a flange set. etc. installation. Actually the bolt material specification will steer you.4. alloy and stainless steel bolts. This will help determine bolt strength and material as well as gasket type. If the bolts are not stressed sufficiently into their elastic range any relaxation in the gasket could reduce the sealing ability of the joint. To the other extreme. validation and quality control of hygienic piping systems and components.). qualification. is the requirements of high purity. a material standard for bolts in the lowstrength category. This is an example of where the matching nut is not always explicitly called out in the ASTM Standard. Pipe. fabrication. forged and wrought. To explain this briefly. Part II in this series will get more into the requirements of hygienic fabrication and where that added cost comes from. 4. it should be selected to compliment the bolt. ASTM A193. Selecting a low strength bolt to be used with a Class 600 flange joint with proper gasketing will require the bolts to be torqued beyond their yield point. malleable iron. With regard to the nut. are stringent with regard to the manufacture. The flange Class will also determine the compressibility range of the gasket material. However. nuts and gaskets have to be selected in conjunction with one another in order for the joint assembly to perform in a way that it is expected to for a given application. 3.3. In this case. Simply selecting a gasket based on material selection and not taking into account the pressure rating requirement could provide a gasket that would get crushed under necessary torque requirements rather than withstand the bolt load and create a seal. under ASME B16. bolts act as springs when they are installed and loaded properly. in turn. if they do not shear they will take a set. Malleable Iron: Malleable iron fittings. but there are several grades of A194 nuts to select from. both in process and in utility services. ASTM A307. 2. wash-down chemicals. along with flange size. goes only so far when it states that nuts shall conform to ASTM A194. documentation. states that the proper grade for bolts to be used for pipe flange applications is Grade B. For now we will stay with general pipe and fittings. Fluid service compatibility will help determine the gasket material. stainless steel.
are manufactured from killed steel. when mills stopped producing it.11. Forged . are available in Class 125 and 250.1 and in Para 5. under ASME B16. In simpler terms wrought signifies “worked”. has excellent tensile strength. There are exceptions in the manufacture of both. What gives wrought iron these attributes is the iron silicate fibers. 6000 and 9000. press or rolling machine. A707.Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service we can see in Para 4. A181. Today forged and wrought are almost synonymous. 1500 & 2500 in sizes 1/2” though 24”. The smelters. upsetting. are available in Class 150. are available in sizes 1/4” through 6”. machining. They are specific to the Standard that they are associated with. Forged Fittings. fusion welding. rolling. simply put. A bar of steel would be placed into a forge and heated until it reached its plastic state. Cast Copper: Cast copper solder joints. or by a combination of two or more of these operations. Reference to a General Requirement Specification can be found in the respective Product Specification. at which time the metal would be pulled out of the forge and hammered into some desired shape. forgings. extruding.1/8” though 6” for Class 150 and 1/4” through 3” for Class 300. stainless steel and alloy steel flanged fittings. If we look in ASTM A234 . Forged steel and alloy steel socketweld and threaded fittings. In ASTM A961 . press. rather the semi-finished product was a spongy molten mass called a bloom. are manufactured from bar. 400. 900. Today forging metal basically means working the metal by means of hydraulic hammers to achieve the desired shape. Cast Brass: Cast Brass and bronze threaded fittings. The reason I point this out is that many designers and engineers are not aware that when reviewing an A105 or any of the other ASTM individual Product Specifications you may need to include the associated General Requirement Specification in that review. and must deform the material to produce a wrought structure throughout the material cross section. A360. such as a hammer.1 that wrought fittings made under A234 are actually manufactured or fabricated from material preformed by one of the methods listed previously. A694. wrought iron was the choice of ornamental iron workers. A727 and A836. As a small bit of trivia.” The difference therefore between forged and wrought fittings is that forged fittings. A General Requirement Specification is a specification that covers requirements that are typical for multiple individual Product Specifications. where the iron ore was melted to produce wrought iron. welds easily and in its plastic range is said to be like working taffy candy. are available in sizes NPS 1/8” through 4”. under ASME B16. on the other hand. but most of what we see manufactured as wrought iron in the U. or ring rolling machine. In quoting from ASTM A961 I was quoting from what ASTM refers to as a General Requirement Specification.5. In a bloomery the process does not completely melt the iron ore. There seems to be some vague misconception of what the term forged means and what the term wrought means and how it applies to pipe fittings. with a high carbon content. The term forging actually comes from the times when metal was worked by hand. The slag and impurities were then mechanically removed from the molten mass by twisting and hammering which is where the term wrought originates. The plastic working must be performed by a forging machine. which is what A961 is. It is still produced in Europe.3. up until the late 1960‟s. Valves and Parts for Piping Applications the definition for the term Forged is. piercing. bars. in sizes NPS 1/8” through 4” for Class 125 and 1/4” through 4” for Class 250. under ASME B16. plates and seamless or fusion welded tubular products that are shaped by hammering. “the product of a substantially compressive hot or cold plastic working operation that consolidates the material and produces the required shape. Forged Fittings Before getting into forged fittings I would like to explain the difference between forged and wrought fittings. True wrought iron is corrosion resistant. but that is the general difference.18. derived from the red glow of the molten metal. 10 which is where the process gets its name. bending. Cast Steel: Cast steel. Wrought fittings. is actually various forms of steel made to look like wrought iron. were called bloomeries. You cannot automatically transfer the pressure/temperature limits of a flange joint in ASME B16. 300. In this case the individual Product Specifications covered by A961 are A105. pressing. Forged socketweld fittings are available in pressure rating Classes 3000. 600. A182. which while in its plastic state is formed into a fitting with the use of a hammer.15. is more brittle and not as easily worked. whereas cast iron.S.5 to that of a fitting in B16. It needs to be noted here that Classifications such as 150 and 300 are not universal throughout the ASME Standards. Something worth noting at this point concerns the ASTM specifications. under ASME B16. which includes forging. or “slag” added to the molten iron with a small percentage of carbon.Standard Specification for Common Requirements for Steel Flanges.
In lieu of fitting pressure classifications both B16. 50-50 Tin-Lead Solder. There is no pressure/temperature rating classification for these fittings. Wrought Fittings Wrought Steel Butt Weld Fittings under ASME B16. and this includes all of the industries I have been associated with. Vent) fitting. Laterals. as a recommendation. If a full strength lateral is required either the wall thickness of the lateral itself can be increased or a reinforcement pad can be added at the branch to compensate for the loss of material at the branch opening. 80 or XS 160 XXS Threaded 2000 3000 6000 Socketweld 3000 6000 9000 The ASME recommendation is based on matching the I.9. plate or forgings. ASME requires that the fittings under B16. having 0. 3000 and 6000. the fittings will have the same allowable pressure/temperature as the pipe. depending on which side you error on. These fittings can be used for brazing as well as soldering.5D elbows and other fittings) are available in sizes 1/2” through 48”. fitting pressure Class with pipe wall thickness. What I see quite often. are available in sizes 1/4” through 6”. As an example.D. Referring to Fig.28. is approximately.D. Threaded and Buttwelding Ends. the same width as the specified mating pipe wall thickness. Pipe and Tubing The catch-all terminology for pipe and tubing is tubular products. 10.22. fittings 1/2” through 1” have a pressure rating of 1035 psig and fittings 1½” through 2” have a pressure rating of 805 psig. 10. The pressure/temperature rating for copper fittings are based on the type of solder or brazing material and the tubing size. there is a significant difference in the pressure ratings of soldered joints depending on the type of filler metal composition. Much of the difference is in the temperature at which the solder or brazing filler metal fully melts. These fittings can be manufactured from seamless or welded pipe or tubing. Waste. using alloy Sn50. short radius elbows. of the pipe.threaded fittings are available in pressure rating Classes 2000. DWV fittings 1½” through 2” would have a pressure rating of 370 psig. The temperature at which it starts to melt is referred to as its solidus temperature.11 is a table that associates. As you can see. as shown in Fig.11 As an example. This leads me to believe that the person specifying components does not fully understand the relationship between the pressure Class of these fittings and the pipe they are to be used with. 160 the matching threaded forged fitting would be a Class 3000. given the same material composition. tube and their respective 11 Pipe Wall Thk.9 and B16. if you had a specified pipe wall thickness of Sch. be rated at 80% of that calculated for straight seamless pipe of the same material and wall thickness. The fitting pressure Class is selected based on the pipe wall thickness. is a misapplication of pressure rating in these fittings.10% maximum Lead (Pb) content. For forged reinforced branch fittings refer to MSS Standard SP-97 – Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings Socket Welding. fittings 1/2” through 1” have a pressure rating of 200 psig and fittings 1½” through 2” have a pressure rating of 175 psig. which is a Tin-Antimony-SilverCopper-Nickel (Sn-Sb-Ag-Cu-Ni) solder. Figure 10 – Socket Weld Fitting Joint from ASME B16. as follows: Table 1 – Correlation of Pipe Wall Thickness & Pressure Rating under B16. Wrought copper solder joint fittings. are available in sizes 1/2” through 24”. which has a reduced pressure rating. This is referred to as its liquidus state. under ASTM B88 and ASME B16. the higher the liquidus temperature the higher the pressure rating of the joint. Under ASME B16. for socketweld it would be a Class 6000.28 (short radius 1D elbows). DWV fittings 1½” through 2” have a pressure rating of 95 psig. because of the elongated opening cut from the run pipe section are rated at 40% of that calculated for straight seamless pipe of the same material and wall thickness. Wrought Steel Butt Weld Fittings . within the same type of fitting.28 require that the fitting material be the same as or comparable to the pipe material specification and wall thickness. at 100ºF. The shoulder of the fitting (the area of the fitting that the end of the pipe butts against). It will vary too. of the barrel of the fitting with the I. or threaded. Using alloy HB. This includes pipe. at 100ºF. you can readily see that by not matching the fitting Class to the pipe wall thickness it will create either a recessed area or a protruding area the length of the barrel of the fitting. referring to Table 1. In ASME B16.9 (standard radius 1. either socketweld. allowing for fabrication tolerances. depending on whether the fitting is a standard fitting or a DWV (Drain.
Nipple Pipe and Sprinkler Pipe. 10. valves. Oil Country Tubular Goods. also referred as skelp. This is a cleaner form of welding in which scarfing. Electric resistance welding (ERW) can be accomplished by flash welding. The continuous weld. This gives malleable iron excellent machinability and ductile properties along with good shock resistant properties. Welded steel pipe is manufactured by Furnace Welding or by Fusion Welding. flanges. Fusion Welded pipe is formed from skelp that is cold rolled into pipe and the edges welded together by resistance welding. Standard Pipe is intended for low pressure. As an example. non-volatile use. 30. Furnace Welding is achieved by heating strip steel. to welding temperature then forming it into pipe. or the cleaning of upset material along the seam. The lack of graphite gives it its light colored appearance. Distinguishable only from the standpoint of use. Copper tubing. Pipe wall thicknesses are specified by Schedule (Sch. Cast Pipe: Cast pipe is available in four basic types: white iron. Pipe is manufactured in three basic forms: cast. the free carbon forms small graphite particles. . whereas Pressure Pipe is intended for use in higher integrity services. Water Well Pipe. Pipe with a NPS 14” and larger has an OD equal to the size specified. Gray iron is the oldest form of cast iron pipe and is synonymous with the name cast iron. welded and seamless. 80. 40. 140 and 160. It contains carbon in the form of flake graphite. inert gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) also called tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). Tubing is manufactured in two basic forms: welded and seamless. induction welding or arc welding. is forged at the time the strip is formed into pipe. is normally not required. accept for ACR (Air-Conditioning & Refrigeration) tubing. 100. Line Pipe. 2” tubing will have a 2” OD. has an OD that is always 1/8” larger than the diameter specified.) numbers 5. Pipe NPS 12” and smaller has an OD that is nominally larger than that specified. The two types that we are mainly interested in are Standard and Pressure Pipe. (Standard). White iron has a high carbon content in the carbide form. It has excellent ductile and machinable properties while also having high strength characteristics. These are services in which the pipe is required to convey high pressure volatile or non-volatile liquids and gases at sub-zero or elevated temperatures. 60. Wall thickness for tubing is specified in the actual decimal equivalent of its thickness. 120. High-frequency induction welding can be used for high rate production of small NPS pipe. 20. and allowing it to cool very slowly. or buttweld. Flash welding produces a high strength steel pipe in NPS 4” through 36”. Add the suffix „s‟ when specifying stainless steel or other alloys. Malleable iron is white cast iron that has been heat treated for added ductility. Pipe: Pipe is manufactured to a NPS in which the OD of a given nominal size remains constant while any change in wall thickness is reflected in the pipe ID. 1” tubing will have a 1 1/8” OD. 1/2” tubing will have a 5/8” OD. Carbides 12 give it a high compressive strength and a hardness that provides added resistance to wear. Gray cast iron has virtually no elastic or plastic properties. fittings. Meaning that 1/4” tubing will have a 1/4” OD. Piping itself refers to a system of pipe. Low-frequency resistance welding can be used to manufacture pipe through NPS 22”. By reheating white cast iron in the presence of oxygen containing materials such as iron oxide. Based on user requirements the above classifications come in various types such as Standard Pipe. Tubular products can basically be grouped into three broad classifications: pipe. bolts. Pressure Pipe. The following represents a combined description of Standard and Pressure Pipe. high-frequency or low-frequency resistance welding. which gives it its gray identifying color. XS (Extra Strong) and XX (Double Extra Strong). malleable iron. Piles. but has excellent machining and self-lubricating properties due to the graphite content Ductile iron is arguably the most versatile of the cast irons. which has an OD equal to that specified. Tubing: Steel and alloy tubing is manufactured to an OD equal to that specified. Highfrequency resistance welding can be used to manufacture pipe through NPS 42”. Welded Steel Pipe and Tubing: Referring to pipe in the following also includes tubing. This is a process generally used to manufacture low cost pipe 3 ½” and below. gaskets and other in-line components that make up an entire system used to convey a fluid. A scarfing tool is used to remove upset material along the seam of flash-welded pipe. Wall thickness is also specified by the symbols Std. but leave it very brittle.fittings. or gas shielded consumable metal arc welding (MIG). Arc welding the longitudinal seam of production pipe is accomplished with submerged arc welding (SAW). The simple distinction between pipe and tubing is that tubing is thin-walled pipe with a different size for size diameter. gray iron and ductile iron. pressure tube and mechanical tube. Conduit.
wall thickness or improve its finish the pipe can be cold-finished. The billet is heated to its hot metal forming temperature then pierced by a rotary piercer or by a press piercer creating the tube hollow. These gaskets had a tendency to creep under required bolt torque pressure at ambient conditions.3 based on the type of longitudinal seam weld. Fitting dimensions have been standardized through ASTM F1545 in referencing ASME B16. when lined fittings are manufactured the metal casting is modified to accommodate the liner thickness being included in that same specified center-to-face dimension. but brought with it some technical issues. However. However. Particularly in fitting make-up situations. Mannesmann PlugMill Process. using various extrusion and mandrel mill methods. While not having industry standard dimensions was a design problem other operational type problems existed as well. But. Upon completion of these processes the pipe is referred to as hot-finished. Seamless steel pipe. plastic line pipe filled a large fluid handling gap in industry. There also exists the problem of permeation with regard to PTFE liner material and of Internal and External Triboelectric Charge Generation and Accumulation (static electricity). to a much lesser degree. there 13 were no standard fitting dimensions and the availability of size and type of fittings would vary from one company to another. The liners in these early systems were not necessarily vacuum rated and at times would collapse under the negative internal pressure. The area of non-metallic piping is certainly worth including in the context of piping.4. the dimensions given in the referenced ASME standards are to the bare metal face of the fittings. which did not come to the industry until 1956 by way of the same company. is manufactured by first creating a tube hollow from a steel billet. What I have not touched on are plastic lined pipe systems and non-metallic piping including proprietary piping systems. which is a solid steel round. When the pipe is cold-finished it will require heat treating to remove stress in the pipe wall created when worked in its cold state. and some are still being pursued. Quite often leaks would become apparent during the fill cycle prior to testing. As other manufacturers such as Dow and Peabody Dore‟ began producing lined pipe and fittings industry standards for lined pipe did not exist. since plastic lined pipe is steel pipe with a liner and is so widely used in the various industries I will touch on some of its key points. You will need to read Note 3 under Sub-Para. Due to the autonomous nature of lined pipe manufacturing during its initial stages the pipe designer would have to know early in the design process which manufacturer they were going to use.2. Other Material and Systems We have touched on just some of the key points of steel pipe and fittings. If further work is required to achieve more accuracy in the diameter. does to this day. both engineers and manufacturers. in many cases.42 (ductile iron fittings). which states. B16. and thus the fitting manufacturer. felt more secure in specifying gaskets at every joint. would normally be expected to operate under a positive pressure. It reduces the overall integrity of the pipe wall by a percentage given in ASME B31. the type of weld seam used in the manufacture of pipe is a factor when calculating the Pressure Design Thickness (t) of the pipe wall. creep. due to the diligent efforts of the line pipe and gasket industries these types of problems have either been eliminated or controlled. Lined Pipe Systems: Lined flex hoses were first developed in 1936 by Resistoflex followed by lined pipe.5 (steel fittings) and B16. Non-metallic piping merits a discussion on its own. you needed to know in advance what those make-up dimensions were going to be. When first introduced. and still. and still are. Gaskets were not normally required unless frequent dismantling was planned. but at times would phase into a negative pressure. on many occasion.Viton (a DuPont trade name) or EPDM. or Ugine Sejournet Extrusion Process. plugging the pipeline. and should not be relegated to a paragraph or two here. From the time a system was installed to the time it was ready to hydrotest the gaskets would. There are also two forging processes used in the manufacture of large diameter (10 to 30 inch) pipe with heavy wall thickness (1. “Center-to-face dimensions include the plastic lining. or relax to the point of reducing the compressive bolt load of the joint enough to where it would not stand up to the hydrotest pressure. and Hollow Forged.5 to 4 inch). the gasket of choice. The two forging methods are called Forged and Bored. 4.” Meaning. Some of the fluid services these line pipe systems were specified for. was an envelope type gasket made of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) with an inner core of various filler material.1 (cast iron fittings). which will have a larger diameter and thicker wall than its final pipe form. and many firms. we will keep these articles focused on metallic piping material. The tube hollow is then hotworked by the Mandrel Mill Process. Consequently. When required. or cold-worked. .As you will see in Part II. There was an added problem when gaskets were thrown into the mix. Seamless Steel Pipe and Tubing: Referring to pipe in the following also includes tubing. However.
A term that can more appropriately be interchanged between these two industries is high-purity. Gore‟s Universal Pipe Gasket.With regard to vacuum rating. or triboelectric charge accumulation.” While system components such as tube. up until just recently. for altogether different reasons. . more on welding in Part II. What we will do in Part II of this series is provide you with basic information that will at least allow you to be familiar with the subject. drainable systems is a necessity. materials of construction. fitting. my hat goes off to you. fittings. to the handful of engineers undaunted by the task ahead of them. It pertains strictly to the health aspects of a clean and cleanable system for the pharmaceutical industry. Because this term has been so closely associated with the plumbing industry and sanitary drain piping it is felt by the pharmaceutical industry that the change in terminology to hygienic is more appropriate. a lined pipe manufacturer. If the electrical charge generation is allowed to continually dissipate to ground then there is no charge build-up and no problem. and operation provide for the maintenance of cleanliness so that products produced by these systems will not adversely affect animal or human health. in approaching ASME about the need to create another standards committee. liner specifications are greatly improved. Because of this the pharmaceutical industry had to make a departure from the 3A standards it plagiarized early on in order to develop a set of guidelines and standards that better suit its industry. Welded fittings. mechanical joint design requirements. liner type. This is what occurs with steel pipe in contact with a flowing fluid. unlike standard buttweld pipe fittings. and W. dead-leg minimums and an easily cleanable system are all imperative. the surface roughness. is the result of an electrical charge generation unable to dissipate. Internal and external charge accumulation. The orbital welding machine allows the welding operator to make consistent high quality autogenous welds. with regard to hygienic conditions. and help you to understand the issues. with other liner material) have been accommodated more than resolved with the use of vents in the steel pipe casing. For what is referred to as product contact material. Autogenous welds are welds made without filler metal. interior pipe surface roughness limits. Edlon. pressure and temperature. but you will need to check the vacuum ratings of available pipe and fittings with each tentative manufacturer. and inspectors in an effort to develop consensus standards for the industry where none existed before. L. The semi-conductor industry requires a high. Slope. also manufactures larger diameter pipe and fittings from NPS 14” through 24”. or in some cases higher. Enter ASME-BPE. system drainability and dead-leg limitations. dead-legs and surface roughness will be discussed in Part II. With regard to thermoplastic lined pipe there are two issues to be considered: external charge accumulation and internal charge accumulation. welding. which is a 100% expanded PTFE. This is an issue that requires experience and expertise in order to analyze a particular situation. Fusion is made between the parent metals of the two components being welded by means of tungsten inert gas welding. can translate to the Semi-Conductor industry the term hygienic 14 does not. In both the pharmaceutical and semiconductor industries the need for crevice free. ASME-BPE has taken on the task of providing a forum for engineers. This implies a high degree of cleanliness and cleanability without being implicitly connected with one industry or the other. degree of cleanliness and cleanability than hygienic systems in the pharmaceutical industry. to a lesser extent. referred to as sanitary piping. which is a PTFE/Silicate composite. component and equipment manufacturers. This article will concentrate on the basic aspects of the fittings. This translates into weld joint quality. and when requested can manufacture spools to 144” diameter. Hygienic piping was. the application of vent components at the flange joint. and the perseverance to see it through. I won‟t go further with this except to say that. have been developed to reduce the creep rate in a gasket material that is compatible with virtually the same fluid services that lined pipe systems are usually selected for. Hygienic Piping Hygienic is a term defined in ASME-BPE as: “of or pertaining to equipment and piping systems that by design. This provision will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer depending on size. Gasket materials such as Garlock‟s Gylon gasket. known as static electricity. pharmaceutical manufacturers. have an added tangent length to accommodate the orbital welding machine. valves and the design itself. and increased liner thickness. Charge generation has a path to ground and does not have an opportunity to build up. Standard sizes of plastic lined pipe and fittings range from NPS 1” through 12”. Permeation issues with PTFE liners (it also exists. Fittings There are two basic types of fitting joints in hygienic piping: welded and clamp.
called the Connect-S under their newly formed MaxPure label of fittings. These ferrules (Fig. Teflon. and promote microbial growth. We‟ll get into this in greater detail in Part II. or automatic.hold-up. and the clamp itself come from the same manufacturer. The intrusion of the gasket into pipe ID on a horizontal line can also cause fluid Figure 12 – Swagelok TS Series Profile Compliments Swagelok Company Swagelok has developed what they call their TS series fittings. 13). represented in the US by VNE. Depending on the hygienic fluid service and the gasket material the gasket protruding into the fluid stream can break down and slough off into the fluid flow. In some cases you can literally rotate the clamp by hand about the ferrules. there is no force being applied on the joint seal. Figure 11 .Fittings Ready To Be Orbital Welded Compliments of ARC Machines. Gasket intrusion is a problem in pharmaceutical service for two reasons: 1. This is to ensure a competent fit. arguably. Figure 13 – Maxpure Connect S Compliments Neumo Ehrenberg Group The Neumo Ehrenberg Group manufactures a clamp joint (also provided as a bolted connection) that does not require a gasket (Fig. is because there are manufacturers that are attempting to overcome these issues by improving on the concept of the clamp joint. 2. Swagelok and The Neumo Ehrenberg Group. The clamp connection is a mechanical connection whose design originated in the food and dairy industry. Meaning. While this connection alleviates the issues that are present with a gasketed joint 15 . Two manufactures. There are no specific dimensions and tolerances for the clamp assembly. This type of joint. what I would consider. welding machine mounted on its work-piece. For those of you unfamiliar with the clamp joint. attach a clamp from a different manufacturer and tighten up on the clamp nut. well developed re-designs of the standard hygienic clamp assembly. The fact that this can occur begs the need for standardization to a greater degree than what currently exists. the component that the clamp fits on. Inc. but whose standardization has been under development by ASME-BPE. Due to a lack of definitive standardization most companies that use this type connection require in their specifications that both the ferrule. except for that which is being developed by ASME-BPE. the most prevalent gasket material used in high purity piping. That extra length provides a mounting surface for attaching the automatic welding machine. have. 12) have a design that provides compression control of the gasket while also controlling the creep tendency inherent in. The reason I mention this here. Currently it is possible to take a set of ferrules from one manufacturer. it is the clamp that applies the force that holds the ferrules together. is currently in use in Europe. This can result in the loss of residual product. You can see by this example why the additional straight tangent section of automatic weld fittings is needed. but another issue that currently exists with the clamp joint is gasket intrusion into the pipe ID due to inadequate compression control of the gasket. and I won‟t go into it any further until Part II. Figure 11 is an example of an orbital. In this example it happens to be a 90° elbow being welded to a cross. mate them together with a gasket. cause potential cross-contamination of product. contaminating the hygienic fluid.
His comments kept me concise and on target. a piping consulting firm founded in 1987. The third article in this series. While there is a great deal left unsaid we will provide further clarification as we move through the next two articles.com www. Positions have included design engineer. P O Box 31154 St. Future Articles What we have discussed so far is just some of the basics of general piping. About the author: W. Testing and Verification”. Cleaning. Nevertheless this is a connection design worth consideration. He has written numerous specifications. titled “Piping Design Part III – Installation. will cover the more specific aspects of Code governance. project supervisor. senior Project Manager with Eli Lilly and Company. nuclear power. and sets on two corporate specification review boards.com 16 . M. Huitt Co. and fabrication of pipe in Part II. pharmaceutical. intelligence and insight he brings to everything he does. pulp & paper. engineering in pipe design and fabrication as it relates to welding. guidelines. piping department supervisor. He is a member of three ASMEBPE subcommittees. Huitt Co. M.wmhuitt. and magazine articles on the topic of pipe design and engineering. titled “Piping Design Part II – Code.added care would need to be applied in its handling. chemical. In this first article we have covered a few of the basics. piping design. biofuel. which will provide us with a little more insight when we discuss the more in-depth topics of piping Codes. assembly and installation. CSI (Construction Specifications Institute) and ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers). MO 63131-0154 (314)966-8919 wmhuitt@aol. for taking time out of a busy schedule to read through the draft of this article. an API Task Group. petrochemical. papers. Design and Fabrication”. M. (Bill) Huitt has been involved in industrial piping design. He can be reached at: W. He obliged me by reviewing this article with the same skill. piping design instructor. His experience covers both the engineering and construction fields and crosses industrial lines to include petroleum refining. engineering and construction since 1965. several Task Groups. will wrap up the series by discussing the four title points. and coal gasification. The next article. Bill is a member of ISPE (International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers). engineering manager and president of W. Acknowledgement: I wish to thank Earl Lamson. project engineer. Any scratch or ding to the faced part of the sealing surface could compromise its sealing integrity. Louis.
here‟s the written response I gave to the above question: Consensus Standards such as those published by ASME. need to comply with a piping Code?” The question was in regard to the building of industrial facilities. but included in corporate specifications. state. which is enforceable by law. “why comply with or adopt a piping consensus standard?” When a question like the one above is phrased as it is it supports my contention that many people. These Standards. (Bill) Huitt W. although unintentional. API. referring to engineers and designers in our case. Standard and Code. ANSI. International Plumbing Code and others are not mandatory in and of themselves. When not addressed on a municipal level. “Why do we. M. M. irrespective of government regulations or corporate requirements. cost more to fabricate and install piping systems that have a high degree of integrity as opposed to a system that doesn't. By hiring non-certified welders and plumbers. I don't think anyone in good conscience would . and some Codes are published as a Standard. as a company. as legally binding requirements. and was in preparation for a meeting that was about to take place for which the main topic was going to be the issue of Code compliance. doesn't cost the builder any more than if they didn't comply. I‟m going to explain the difference between a Standard and a Code. My take on the reason for the misunderstanding of these two closely related terms. and supporting this type of system with potentially inadequate supports is less costly but there's too much at risk. using material that may potentially not withstand service pressures and temperatures. by definition is law with statutory force. To comply with these Codes. Huitt Co. However. the Standard becomes a legal Code on a contractual basis. city and other local Codes are mandatory. bypassing inspections. If you considered the question while reading it you may have noticed that there is. however. And it doesn‟t help matters when some Standards are published as a Code. but it is something worth pointing out. is that they get bounced around so often in the same context that designers and engineers simply begin interchanging the two terms without much consideration for their different meanings. ASTM. a trick to it.As published in the June and July 2007 issues of Chemical Engineering Magazine Piping Design Part 2: Code. The question actually intended was. or be penalized for non-compliance. federal. and others. examinations and testing. In these municipal Codes you will find regulations that establish various requirements taken in whole. This is certainly nothing to get excited about. as adopted. but before I do. It does. Therefore the reason for complying with a Code is because you literally have to. then become Code. do not fully understand the difference between a Code and a Standard. Design and Fabrication There is not a reason sufficiently good enough not to comply with appropriate industry Standards and Codes. W. or in part from the Standards published by the above listed organizations. NFPA. Code. A request was put to me a few years back asking if I would respond in writing to the question.
In 1959 the first ASA B31. There is not a reason sufficiently good enough not to comply with appropriate industry Standards and Codes. Uniformity and regulation does have its place. This can cause a number of disconnects through design and construction. However. If not already included. South Carolina. was that between 1870 and 1910 approximately 14. Adequately support the pipe. if they are considering to do otherwise. In 1942. but limited basis in this article. 2005 it was finally adopted by the 50 th state. it makes good sense. defined here as an industrial facility requiring a significant amount (apply your own order of magnitude here) of pipe. all the provinces of Canada. this should be a requirement within any company’s specifications. 5. With regard to Code compliance. Just a bit of trivia: ASME published the first edition of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in 1914-15. Until South Carolina adopted the BPVC it was actually no more than a Standard in that state and only required compliance when stipulated in a specification. In order to answer the question about Code assignment some history has to be told. the design (includes specifications and engineering). On May 18. Even with utility systems in an admin building or an institutional facility. well thought-out manner. or corporation for that matter.intentionally attempt to do something like that in order to save money. “How do I determine which piping Code. and pipe fabrication (includes installation). unless you wanted to pay their potential attorneys fees. Then they are essentially complying with Code. but then again the world is full of unscrupulous individuals and corporations. but quite often is not. The first of those Standards was ASA B31. Providing guidelines for Code adoption on a project basis is direction that should be included in any company‟s set of specifications. or a slow leak at an untested joint could easily overshadow any savings gained in noncompliance. and accepted by regulatory authorities in over 80 countries. 7. In 1978. size and rating. Inspect welds and brazing. This would later change to B31. In some cases that determination is made for the Engineer or Contractor at the state level. Those numbers fell off drastically as the Code was adopted. 3. Use listed material. Take the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). the question I get quite often is. The Code simply explains how to do this in a formal. These are the three topics we will discuss on a broad. Use certified welders and plumbers. 2 Like the seatbelt law Code compliance is not just the law. PIPING CODE In a piping facility. And this doesn‟t mean the BPVC is adopted in its entirety. which was published in 1955. 4.8 – Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. Prior to creation of the Code. can adopt a single section or multiple Sections of the BPVC. 6. the International Plumbing Code or some of the other consensus Standards. Some were devastating to both people and property. very simply put. ASA B31. I should comply with for my particular project?” Determining proper Code application is relatively straightforward while at the same time providing a certain degree of latitude to the Owner in making the final determination. Subsequent Code revisions were designated as ANSI Codes. They may find regulations that require adherence to ASME. ASME was granted accreditation by ANSI to organize the B31 Committee as the ASME Code for Pressure Piping. or they can adopt it in its entirety. A state. The first thing that someone should do. Inspect the material for MOC. the local level or by an Owner company itself. and what played a large part in instigating its creation.000 boilers had exploded. After some reorganization and organizational name changes the ASA became ANSI. a Code waiting to be adopted. in all honesty you would not get a US boiler or pressure vessel manufacturer to by-pass Code compliance.1 – American Standard Code for Pressure Piping was published by the American Standards Association. pressure and temperature.1 . American National Standards Institute. Specify material that meets the requirements for fluid service. the potential damage from a ruptured pipeline. That's without considering the safety risk to personnel. In the early 1950‟s the decision was made to create additional B31 Codes in order to better define the requirements for more specific needs.Power Piping. and there is usually just too much at stake. This changed the Code designation to ANSI/ASME B31. 2. In keeping this brief I will just touch on the high points. . If there was a fee involved for compliance this might be a stimulus for debate. is check local and state Code. or Standard. the three key factors in its development are the governing Code. since its first publication in 1915 it has been adopted by 49 states. A professional Consensus Standard is.3 – Petroleum Refinery Piping Standard was published. But there is no fee. If anyone intending on fabricating and installing a piping system plans to: 1. That is. Test the pipe for tightness.
Or they were a substantial part of the overall project.9. What the B31 committee has accomplished. lab and/or research facility were under a separate design/construct contract from the process manufacturing facility. As mentioned above. These fluid services. B31. A laboratory or 3 research facility could possibly require fluid services beyond the fluid service limits of B31. and B31.3. in industrial and institutional plants. and central and district heating and cooling systems. Its general scope reads: “Rules for this Code Section have been developed considering the needs for applications which include piping typically found in electric power generating stations. institutional or residential building. It was created to fill the need for piping in limited service requirements. geothermal heating systems. can just as easily fall within the requirements of B31. semiconductor and cryogenic plants.9 and possibly B31. chilled water. can come under the auspices of multiple Codes. which fall within the definition of B31. paper. not necessarily in this order. in association with a manufacturing facility. Closely related to B31. B31.4 – Liquid Transportation Piping. Through the years since then they have created. company guidelines should be well defined. are Standards that are better focused on specific segments of industry. and/or the design and construction contracts for those facilities are a part of the overall process manufacturing facility.1 (except for boiler external piping). PIPING DESIGN Piping design is the job of configuring the physical aspects of pipe and components in an effort to conform with P&ID‟s. could be governed by B31. As an example.5 or B31. within the purview of the above mentioned Codes. and related processing plants and terminals. a Standard created for and much more suitable for that type of design and construction. If the utility service piping for the office and lab facilities is a small percentage of the overall project. If a project's scope of work consists of an office. office and research facilities. air. is if a refrigeration unit.9 as well. Engineering specs should clarify and reflect the intent of the Owner and the respective Codes in an attempt to provide consistency and direction across all projects within a company. fluid service requirements.9 was first published in 1982. Many piping service requirements such as steam. In that case. associated material .9 and/or B31.5 would apply.9.5. These differences in Code assignment and battery limits may be a driver for the project‟s contracting strategy.5 would apply.” The general scope of ASME B31.3 covers all piping. The only time B31. applies to refrigerant and secondary coolant piping systems.9 would become governing Codes.5 or B31.3 or even a B31.3 Category D fluid services. B31.1 or B31.1. pharmaceutical. but not having the size. B31.1 – Power Piping. B31. In the case of a process manufacturing facility.3. The difference. all piping. lies with the definition and scope of the project itself. textile.Since 1955 the B31 Committee has continued to categorize. or an office. institutional facility or any combination thereof. laboratory.9 would not need to be included. Since B31. If a project includes only the installation of perhaps a refrigeration system. is left to the Owner and/or to the local governing jurisdiction. This is due to the range of fluid services and the corresponding pressure and temperature limits of B31.1. as to which Code should apply to a particular project. ASME B31. however.1 or B31.9 compared to those of B31. In an effort at maintaining a high degree of continuity in the process of making the determination of which Code to apply to a project. and is continuing to improve upon.5 – Refrigeration Piping. From its shear scope of responsibility. separate pipe specifications may have to be issued for those portions of the project designated as being governed by B31. In such a case. including those also covered by B31. Each of these Standards is considered a stand-alone Section of the ASME Code for Pressure Piping. not even necessarily with associated lab. project XYZ consists of a process manufacturing facility. The final determination as to what constitutes a governing Code. the office and lab facilities were a substantial part of the overall project. B31.1 or B31. create and better define Code requirements for specific segments of the industry.3 – Process Piping. was first published in 1942. with Code exclusions. This alleviates the need for a designer or constructor building an institutional type facility from having to familiarize themselves with the more voluminous B31. They can work within the much less stringent and extensive requirements of B31. B31. chemical.” ASME B31.9 – Building Services Piping. B31. B31.11 – Slurry Transportation Piping. B31. If. and distinction. etc. or they were to go to a separate constructor it may be more beneficial to determine battery limits for those facilities and designate anything inside those battery limits as B31. research facility. B31. reads: “Rules for the Process Piping Code have been developed considering piping typically found in petroleum refineries.5 and B31. Its scope is narrowly focused on only those service conditions that may be required to service the utility needs of operating a commercial.3 would be the governing Code.9.9. related office building and lab facilities.3 encompasses virtually all piping.5 – Refrigeration Piping.3 would be adopted for those services. pressure or temperature range. B31.
gets ready to buy this valve the only manufacturer that can supply it with the specified proprietary trim is the one from which the spec was copied. as an overview. such as some of the trim materials. coordination. rather than enter into it here. or whoever is buying the valves for the project. That is. What happens is that proprietary manufacturer trade names. What I mean by that is. When the procurement person for the mechanical contractor. do not get so specific or proprietary with the specification that only one manufacturer is qualified to provide the component. and operational requirements. With standard pipe and fittings it‟s difficult to provide too much information. the economic and technical material selection for sulfuric acid service would not be economically feasible for chilled water service. within the spec itself they are either not definitive enough or they are too definitive. That article will discuss the integration of CAD into the industry including its merits.specifications. or actually the clarification. Inversely. unless you intend to do just that. with valves and other inline equipment it can happen quite easily. PIPING SPECIFICATIONS One of the first activities the piping engineer will be involved with is development of piping specifications. structural steel. HVAC. the question. by using the description of one particular valve as a template. The specs are too broad in their content. technical ability. one that can be bid on by multiple potential suppliers. are carried over to the generic valve spec. but try not to include proprietary data unless you intend to. should provide sufficient definition in a well organized manner to allow the designer and constructor the insight and direction they need in order to provide a facility that will meet the expectation of the Owner with minimal in-process direction from the Owner or Construction Manager. should provide essential material detail for design. Since the purchasing agent won‟t have the answer. Procurement too. then goes back to the engineer and/or the Owner. Also included in the component description should be pressure rating. You would think that. procurement and fabrication. and how. However. It plays such a large part that. and/or 3. its method of implementation and integration has inversely diminished the quality of design with respect to industrial piping. The time necessary in responding to these types of issues is better spent on more pressing matters. and the issues we are still dealing with today in the use of CAD. if not impossible. design guidelines and construction guidelines. Guidelines. A common practice of spec writers is to write a specification for a generic type valve. end connection type and surface finish where required. Piping specifications. video. sulfuric acid and chilled water. Design will require a sufficient degree of information in a specification that will allow for determining the service limitations of the specification and what fluid services the specification‟s material is compatible with. in many respects. When developing a spec be specific. In defining the above issues we‟ll begin with: Point #1: When defining pipe and components in a specification you should provide enough information to identify each component without hamstringing yourself or procurement in the process. A note of omission here: CAD (Computer Aided Design) is such an integral part of piping design that it’s difficult. The economic and technical feasibility of the material selection for chilled water service would not be technically feasible for sulfuric acid. it would eliminate multiple bids for the valve based on the unintentional proprietary requirements in the spec. There are a few rather consistent mistakes that companies make in developing or maintaining specs: 1. foresight. among other fluid services. The article will also discuss industry’s reaction to this unexpected result. All of this has to be done within a pre-determined threedimensional assigned space while coordinating that activity with that of the architecture. or they will contact the purchasing agent for clarification. will bid the valve with an exception to the proprietary material. and current Good Manufacturing Practice while meeting Owner expectations. Pulling together and coordinating the above mentioned discipline activities to achieve such a compilation of design requires a systematic methodology. planning. 2. In actuality it creates confusion and propagates questions. and above all experience. they are not updated in a timely manner. The piping specification should make clear exactly what the material of construction is for each component. equipment data sheets. will need detailed specifications to limit the assumptions they will have to make or the questions they will have to ask in preparing purchase orders. electrical. other than the one the spec was based on. I will dedicate an entire article to it at a later date. both design and construction. fittings and manual valves necessary to the needs of both design and procurement. a project may have. The valve bidders. These documents also become contractual to the project and those contractors that work under them. to discuss design without including CAD in the discussion. in doing this. Piping Specifications A Piping Specification is the document that will describe the physical characteristics and specific material attributes of pipe. data & security conduit and trays. As an example when specifying Viton you are specifying a generic DuPont 4 . and what standard that component is manufactured to.
etc. whereas a steam trap application at a shell & tube heat exchanger may have a heavier modulating load. And depending on its application the load requirements for each trap may vary. The pipe. 5. industry standards. Viton GF. You could. 3. Users of these specifications are designers. Those personnel are looking for particular information. fittings. etc. manufacturers are bought and sold. 3-way or 4way valves. Industry standards change. Point #3: Specs being too broad in their content refers to an attempt at making the specs all-inclusive. Those miscellaneous items are better referred to as specialty items (or some other similar descriptive name) and are sized and specified for each particular application. strainers. which gives them different fluid service compatibility and pressure/ temperature ranges. All of these things constitute the need and necessity to review and revise specifications on a timely basis. rating and material Flange type. Lessons-learned from projects can then be considered for adoption into company specs. The fluid service may be more suited for an FKM with polytetrafluoroethylene in it.g. In doing this. As an example. written in a concise manner that will allow them to design and order or verify components within that specification. Some specifications are written to include such components as steam traps. thermodynamic. Generic in that there are several different types of Viton such as Viton A. which would indicate that a comparable material from one of the other fluorocarbon manufacturers would be acceptable so long as the fluid service compatibility and pressure/temperature ranges were equal to or greater than the Viton GF material. flanges. at the very least. 9. that these documents have to be interpreted and used by a wide range of personnel. This timing works out for a couple reasons: 1. publish every two years. however. on average. Adding specialty type items to the specification makes it convoluted and difficult to control and interpret. Viton is a type of fluorocarbon. So when specifying “Viton” you are identifying a specific product from a specific manufacturer…almost. rating and material 5 6. and 2. In saying “almost” above what I meant by that is. Viton B. F&T.product. And that doesn‟t take into account the need for the different types of traps. A piping specification should be concise. 8. if you write the spec as Viton you would most likely get the original formulation. Each of these has specific formulations. part numbers change. will vary depending on its intended application. Point #2: All too often after a specification is developed it will reside in the company‟s database without being periodically reviewed and updated. you wish to establish minimum requirements for a component or a material it is certainly acceptable to identify a specific proprietary item as a benchmark. Pressure/Temperature limit of the spec Limiting factor for Pressure/Temperature Pipe material Fitting type. I think you can see why this type of requirement needs to be its own specification and not a part of the piping specification. depending on the size of the project. validation and maintenance personnel. If. bolts. definitive and repeatable. e. a steam trap application at a drip leg will have a light steady load. as an example. prompting a new revision. 4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES . rating and material Bolt & nut type and material Manual valves grouped by type Notes Branch chart matrix with corrosion allowance The ten line items above provide the primary component information and notations required for a typical piping system. procurement personnel. That would include the following (as an example): 1. With that in mind you can better understand. or at least value the fact. you could identify Viton GF or equal. bidders. 10. capital projects. That would be a Viton GFLT. 7. Be specific for those that have to use the specs to design from and those that have to purchase the material. will arguably have an average duration of two years. Fluorocarbons are designated FKM under ASTM D-1418. have multiple variations of the four basic types of steam traps with anywhere from 30 to 300 or more traps in multiple sizes and various load requirements. A company that houses their own set of specifications should review those specifications at least every two years. and other miscellaneous type items. which is Viton A. sight glasses. A piping specification should contain only those components and information that would typically be used from job to job. inverted bucket. and we‟ll stay with the fluorocarbon gasket or seal material example. The specification for a steam trap. a carbon steel piping system that is specified to be used in a 150 psig steam service. Or an FKM suitable for colder temperatures may be a better choice. Gasket type. To explain the above we can use. etc. gaskets and valves can all be used at any point in the system as specified. This does not make them a good candidate for inclusion into a basic pipe specification. receipt verification clerks. Viton GFLT. manufacturers improve their products. In attempting to include the specialty type items it will. fabricators. 2. complicate and exacerbate the process. That would be a Viton GF. in developing a specification. from design through close-out.
as in scenario 1. and whether or not consistency from plant to plant and project to project is an issue. The down-side of this is the project to project inconsistency in specifications and methodology when using different engineers and constructors. along with the requisite drawings. on the Owner‟s part. or Customer. engineering and construction efforts. brings no specifications or guidelines to the project table. These too would be used in the bid process as well as on the project itself. Ineffective and outdated Owner specifications create confusion and inefficient iterations in both the bid process and the execution of a project. and beyond that as working documents in the design. I mention the use of narratives here because it helps facilitate the understanding and convey the magnitude of the.Design and construction guidelines. engineering and construction for the project. 3. they can very effectively execute the design. It additionally creates the greatest opportunity for conflicts between Owner documents and the Engineer‟s documents. The narrative allows you to be more explanatory and descriptive than a formal point-by-point specification. and a brief description of expectation. should explain in simple. By providing the Engineer and Constructor. These are provided to the Engineer with the understanding and stipulation that any errors or omissions in the documents should be addressed and corrected by the Engineer. Leaving the full facilities delivery to the Engineer and Constructor depends a great deal on the qualifications of the Engineer and the Constructor. making the assumption that both the engineer and constructor are qualified for the level of work required. is in order. packaged and provided to the Engineer as bid documents. definitive manner. the Owner is essentially leaving it up to the Engineer and/or Constructor to bring their own set of guidelines to the table. preferably a CSI (Construction Specifications Institute) format. the guidelines should tell them how to assimilate and use the material specifications in applying them to Good Design Practice. maintain and refine all of the specifications and guidelines necessary to execute a project. Without these guidelines as part of any bid package or Request For Proposal package. petroleum refining and chemical companies you will see entire departments whose mission is to create. just what it is the Owner expects of them in executing the design and construction of a facility. are assembled. It gives the bidder/Engineer a Readers Digest version of the stacks of specifications and guidelines they are expected to read through and assimilate within a matter of a few weeks How piping specifications are delivered to a project can have a significant impact on the project itself. throughout their existence. Most engineering firms will be prepared to execute a project with their own set of specifications and guidelines. Look at it this way. three scenarios in which project specifications and guidelines are delivered to a project: 1. By actively and methodically developing a set of guidelines an Owner/Customer does not . has some specifications and guidelines that have possibly not been updated for several years. This too is effective. Scenario 3 allows the Engineer and Constructor to bring their own game-plan to the project. A narrative. There are. If the Owner approaches a project with expectations as to how they would like their plant or facility designed and built then some preparation. in a concise. but instead should follow an industry standard format. should convey to the designer and constructor point by point requirements as to how a facility is to be designed and constructed. a complete arsenal of specifications and guidelines. In scenario 2 the Owner. this translates into change orders at some point in a project. due only to the fact that the learning curve is minimal. The guidelines should not be a rhetorical essay. in most cases. When a project is approved to go out for bid to an Engineer the necessary specifications and guidelines. an explanation as to why the project is governed by a particular Code or Codes. generally speaking. In the older. Specification development becomes part of the overall project engineering effort. the material specifications tell the designer and constructor what material to use. narratives) necessary to define the design and construction requirements. but also the guidelines and narratives (yes. And this may or may not be a good thing. association between the material specifications and the guidelines. Preparation should include. Scenario 2 is a worse case situation. Scenarios 1 and 3 are at opposite ends of the spectrum. or Customer. reams of specifications and guidelines necessary to build an industrial facility of any appreciable size. straight-forward language. working in conjunction with the piping specifications. has developed. in general. For Project Management. In scenario 3 the Owner. not only material specifications as described earlier. more established 6 2. A guideline should explain to the engineering firm or constructor. with a full set of current specifications and well articulated guidelines. In scenario 1 the Owner. This applies to qualified Constructors as well. the numbering scheme used for the specifications and guidelines. for each discipline. but afford the best situation for both the Owner and Engineer/Constructor. or Customer.
the knowledge required is not taught through formal education. what is referred to as direct impact fluid services.5. pipe 7 PT Where: Pc = PT Pr S1 1 Pr S1 / 8750 Pc (eq. to hopefully provide them with the facility they require and hope to get. we discussed ASME flanges and their Classifications. Those issues are: 1. to allow the document to conform to their own particular brand of requirements and nuances. Pipe Internal Surface Finish Internal surface roughness is a topic that is specific to the pharmaceutical. for the specified material at temperature T. The ability to hinder the growth (we don‟t yet have the ability to control it) of biofilm and to enhance the ability to remove it once it does appear. is a necessity in the above mentioned industries. within a prescribed area. D2. MAWP/MADP. and 3. psi. as the Owner. a mentor and/or any other means available to help learn and understand the physical requirements and restraints of the various systems you will be designing and industries you will be serving. Quantifying and specifying a maximum surface roughness for internal pipe wall for use in. Pr = 300 psi for Class 300) Selected stress. some designers (I include engineers as well) will gloss over some of the primary basics of design and go directly to the bottom line information they need. require on a proprietary basis.3 and D2. And that is simply because. Flanges In the learning process. psig.3 and D2. bio-pharmaceutical and semiconductor industries.5. aside from whatever innate ability a good designer might possess. for each discipline. This definition of Pr does not apply to Class 150. The need for a relatively smooth internal pipe wall is predicated on three primary issues as it relates to the industries mentioned above. or specifications for that matter.4. that allows the writer to expand and define. but is instead learned by being involved in the process of hands-on design over a period of time accompanied by ongoing learning. D2. We will discuss flanges. A formal point-by-point format that covers all necessary criteria that you. The format examples provided by CSI give a company sufficient flexibility in writing guidelines. to a microscopic level.5. 400. D2. The guideline itself can be structured based on one of the CSI formats. such as an engineering firm or constructor. Direct impact piping systems are those systems that carry product or carry a fluid service that ultimately comes in contact with product. in a much more descriptive manner. of this series of articles. 300. 2.2. and charge accumulation. psi1 (e. design pressure/temperature. I described the act of designing piping systems for a facility as bringing a number of technical components together to make the pipe conform to a specific set of requirements. the points that aren‟t made clear enough. What you may not know is that the Class designation is a factor in the calculation for determining the rated working pressure of a flange. D3 at temperature T Rated working pressure. Cleanability/Drainability.g. technical background or the imagination required to execute such a task. That calculation is: 2. Most designers are familiar with ASME flange Classifications such as 150.2. crevices in which . To reduce. Since we do not have enough space here to cover all of the design elements I would like to.have to rely on an outside resource. etc. wall thickness.for the specified material at temperature T Pressure rating class index. and does not really convey the magnitude of the experience. weld seam factor. Class 150 is the proper terminology and designation. providing a degree of familiarity to the engineers and constructors that will have to adhere to them. 1) = = = ceiling pressure. “Piping Design”. See ASME B16.4. And this doesn‟t even scratch the surface. paras. See ASME B16. plus a listing and description of the necessary Code and cGMP requirements. Experience is the essential component here. I will key in on a few topics that generally find their way to me for clarification. paras. And even though verbally stating 150 pound flange (we discussed the origin of this term in Part I) rolls off the tongue much easier and is still an industry accepted term. para. D2. It also lends a degree of intra-industry conformity to the guidelines and specifications.. but can also be an issue in the chemical industry. That‟s pretty simplistic. Ongoing learning can be in the form of organized classes. as specified in ASME B16. Case in point: In Part I. psig. Developing guidelines to convey your company‟s requirements and expectations can be accomplished using one or both of the following two basic methods: 1. A narrative. or readily apparent in the more formal format. Design Elements In the first paragraph of this segment of the article. pipe internal surface finish.
mentioned the fact that the weld seam in longitudinally welded pipe is a factor in the pipe wall pressure design thickness calculation. results of the studies in the above mentioned paper indicate that the surface finish range best suited to reduce biofilm adherence to the internal pipe wall surface is from 0.microscopic particles can reside and at some point dislodge and get carried along in the fluid stream to damage product.8Ra µin). 2) Where t ≥ D/6: . particularly in gas delivery systems. the ASME-BPE Standard provides criteria for minimum slope. A paper titled. from both a bacterial standpoint and as a cross batch contaminant. Regarding the second point. 1) is defined as a bacterial population composed of cells which are firmly attached as microcolonies to a solid surface.Ra µm (15. The other calculation used is that in which t ≥ D/6. June 2004 by Frank Riedewald. The two equations look like this: Where t < D/6: t PD 2( SE PY ) Fig. Fig. In ASME B31. Referring to the graph in Fig. Ireland. 2 – Biofilm Attachment vs Surface Roughness (Courtesy of Mr. Riedewald) One of the many interesting factors that came from the studies mentioned in this paper is the fact that the internal surface of the pipe wall can actually be too smooth.6 µm). maximum deadleg. or hold-up. There are two equations for finding pressure design thickness (t) for straight pipe under internal pressure. a contaminant. a Senior Process Engineer with Lockwood-Greene IDC Ltd. stress value of the material at design temperature. In it he explains the results of testing that was performed to determine the relative association between the formation of biofilm. “Microbial Biofilms – are they a problem in the Pharmaceutical Industry?”. One is pressure design thickness (t) and the other is minimum required thickness (tm). pipe wall surface finish and pipe wall surface cleanability. gasket concavity. 8 (eq. cleanability and drainability are associative in this context. Regarding the first point. and the sum of all mechanical allowances. 1 – Biofilm magnified ≈2000X (Courtesy of Mr. and the coefficient Y [a factor used to adjust internal pressure (P) for a nominal material at temperature]. The accepted max surface finish in the pharmaceutical and bio-pharmaceutical industries is 25Ra µin (0. While the pharmaceutical industry is concerned with bacterial growth and cross contamination. gasket intrusion.7Ra µin to 58. Meaning that. This calculation (eq. 3) is based on the above listed criteria except for the OD and uses instead ID of the pipe. of this series of articles. This pertains to point three above. biofilm (Fig. This calculation (eq. the semiconductor industry is concerned more with particulate damage to product. it can also be costly due to the high cost of some drug products. and many other criteria for design of cleanable and drainable hygienic piping systems. in order for a system to be fully cleanable it has to be designed and laid out in a manner that will eliminate any pockets and provide enough slope to eliminate any residual liquid (drainable). on the microscopic level. actual (not nominal) OD of the pipe. What this implies is that while we currently do not have the means to prevent the onset of biofilm on the internal walls of hygienic or semiconductor piping systems we can facilitate its removal in the cleaning process by specifying the proper surface finish of the internal pipe walls.3 there are two pipe wall thicknesses to calculate for. Riedewald) Pipe Weld Seam Factor Part I. 2) is based on internal pressure. was delivered at an ASME-BPE symposium in Cork. Not only is this residual liquid. In the semiconductor industry you might typically see surface finishes in the 7Ra µin to 15Ra µin. joint efficiency factor. 2. One is where t < D/6.4Ra µm to 1. Along those lines.
6) The Lame` formula: PL Where: PBA PBO PL D d TF ST 9 ST (D 2 d 2 ) (D 2 d 2 ) (eq. 304. reinforcement. or equivalent) shall apply. mounted on legs. There are three equations generally used in calculating burst pressure for pipe.t P(d 2c) 2[ SE P(1 Y )] (eq. But let me begin by saying that MAWP is not a B31. psig (Barlow Formula) Burst Pressure. the Maximum Allowable Design Pressure (MADP). Taking a page from the BPVC we will go through a few brief steps to determine Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) for straight pipe. it comes from the BPVC. or joint efficiency factor Coefficient from ASME B31. The Boardman formula: PBO 2 TF S T D (0. For threaded components. or mounted on lugs. which is also not a B31. psi. When a vessel goes into design it is assigned a coincidental design pressure and temperature. Division 1. and is calculated based on the installed configuration of the vessel. or. The material.3 term. the nominal thread depth (dimension h of ASME B1. the type and size of each weld. but the final MAWP is the limiting pressure of the vessel. and erosion allowances Sum of the mechanical allowances (thread or groove depth) plus corrosion and erosion allowances.3. are all designed predicated on this predetermined design criteria. minus factory tolerance Minimum tensile strength. mounted vertically or horizontally. That is. but more closely relates to piping. These are the maximum conditions the vessel is expected to experience while in service. inches Pipe ID. Para. it can never be less than the design pressure. (0. They are: The Barlow formula. 5) To determine wall thickness for pipe under external pressure conditions refer to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section VIII.1.8 T ) (eq.02 in. as was mentioned earlier. psig (Boardman Formula) Burst Pressure. This value. UG-28 through UG30 and ASME B31. All calculations are based on specified material and component tolerances along with fabrication specifics. Throughout design the vessel‟s intended maximum pressure is referred to as its design pressure. For machined surfaces or grooves where the tolerance is not specified. psig (Lame` Formula) Actual pipe OD. etc. flanges. In applying this to piping we will first calculate the burst pressure of the pipe and then determine the MAWP. We will instead transpose this term to MADP (Maximum Allowable Design Pressure). including mechanical.3. thickness of each nozzle neck. etc. and what the vessel engineers will design to.3 Table 304. Not until after the vessel is fabricated can the engineer know what the actual material thickness is. 7) = = = = = = = Burst Pressure.1. 2 & eq. Actual pipe OD Pipe ID Internal design gage pressure Stress value for material from ASME B31.5 mm) in addition to the specified depth of the cut. inches Wall thickness. meaning types and sizes of welds.1.3 expression. Only when all of the factual data of construction is accumulated and entered into vessel engineering programs can the MAWP be determined. 3.1. which may exceed the design pressure. Keep in mind that for seamless pipe E will be removed from equations eq. from .20. nozzles. a term more closely related to piping. then replaces the design pressure. once determined. The minimum required thickness (tm) is simple enough: tm t c (eq. welds. inches. The difference between the design pressure and the MAWP is that the engineer will design to the design pressure. valid for t < D/6. 4) PBA 2 TF S T D (eq.3 Table A-1. at design temperature Quality factor. material thickness. corrosion. 3) Where: t = tm = c = D d P S E Y = = = = = = Pressure design thickness Minimum required thickness. etc. the tolerance shall be assumed to be 0.
System Design Pressure: Unless extenuating process conditions dictate otherwise.3 Table A-1 Safety factor. has penetrated the primer and made contact with bare metal. However. To explain the loss of spool-to-spool continuity: this lack of integral continuity is. In understanding what constitutes design conditions we first of all need to define them. However. It goes on to state: The most severe condition is that which results in the greatest required component thickness and the highest component rating. Design conditions are also used to determine component rating and as a basis for determining leak test pressure. at least one of the bolts. to improved paint primer on flanges. External Charge Accumulation ECA is a concern with lined pipe due to the possibility of not achieving spool-to-spool continuity during installation due. or more technically known. the result of the prime paint coat that is applied by the manufacture. BO. then there is no problem. I will integrate them into one by stating: The design pressure and temperature of each component in a piping system shall be not less than the most severe condition of coincident internal or external pressure and temperature (minimum or maximum) expected during service. What I will provide here is a resultant philosophy developed from many sources along with my own experiences. the design pressure is the pressure at the most severe coincident of internal or external pressure and temperature (minimum or maximum) expected during service. If a charge generated in a flowing fluid is allowed to dissipate to ground. When pipe spools. is the result of charge generation unable to dissipate. as triboelectric charge accumulation. that part of the above definitions for design conditions that provide the caveat. plus 25°F rounded off to the next higher 5°. or L subscript Design Pressure and Temperature The ASME B31. it now becomes a problem by potentially becoming strong enough to create an Electrostatic Discharge (ESD). due to chemical reaction. Charge Accumulation of Lined Pipe Clarification Internal and external charge accumulation.3 definition for Design Pressure and Design Temperature is stated as two separate definitions. Applying a sort of philosophy created by the above definitions is somewhat straight forward for utility services such as steam. Extenuating process conditions can mean increased pressure and temperature. are joined by flanges using non-metallic gaskets the only thing that completes the Spool-to-spool continuity is the bolting. if a charge cannot dissipate and is allowed to accumulate. It basically comes down to an Owner‟s or engineer‟s experience. 8) ** = BA. when installing lined pipe. that the bolts.Sf M = = B31. The improved paint primer on lined pipe flanges makes this more difficult to achieve because normal bolt tightening doesn‟t guarantee metal-to-metal contact between the nut and the flange. as mentioned above. as it does in grounded metallic pipe. There is no published standard. Pipe generally does not come with a prime coat of paint. How do you determine these values and where do you apply them? We‟ll cover the where first. Following is some accepted terminology and their definitions: System Operating Pressure: The pressure at which a fluid service is expected to normally operate at. or real industry consensus on how to determine design conditions. shall be equal to the maximum anticipated operating temperature. which we will get into in the final article of this series. non-reactive chemicals. “…extenuating process conditions…” implies a slightly different set of rules for process systems. loss of temperature control in heat transfer. known as static electricity. This was achieved in the past by 10 Using the results from any one of the above equations we can then solve for MADP as follows: M P* * Sf (eq. etc. etc. the design temperature. plus the greater of 30 psi or 10%. water. in which P = Internal Design Gage pressure and S = Stress value at design temperature. lined or un-lined. however lined pipe does. a factor of 3 or 4 is applied to burst pressure to determine MADP Maximum Allowable Design Pressure (MADP) System Operating Temperature: The temperature at which a fluid service is expected to normally operate at. . System Design Temperature: Unless extenuating process conditions dictate otherwise. for operating temperatures between 32°F and 750°F. What we did earlier in determining pipe wall thickness was based on design conditions. With regard to thermoplastic lined pipe there are two forms of this to be considered: External Charge Accumulation (ECA) and Internal Charge Accumulation (ICA). beyond that defined above. in large part. Since flange bolts are used to complete continuity from spool to spool the installer has to make certain.
4) can be installed using two 1/4” x1/2” long hex head screws and two lock washers. 3). 4. The Continuity Plate has two 0. it‟s the charge accumulation. The dielectric strength of PTFE is 450 to 500 volts/mil. a spark of triboelectric charge is. This is a relatively high resistance to conductivity. If continuity from spool to spool is not achieved any charge generation resulting from an internal or an external source cannot readily dissipate to ground. has a high (>1016 Ohms/Square). With improved prime coat material this is no longer a guarantee.312” slotted boltholes allowing for misalignment and movement. When the liner is penetrated by an accumulated charge two additional problems (time bombs) are created: 1. After a flange set is installed and fully bolted the Continuity Plate (Fig. while being less obtrusive and more integral. This means that any charge created internally to the pipe cannot readily be conducted away to ground by way of the PTFE liner. which. to scrape away the prime coat so that contact was made with the bare metal of the flange. with regard to pipe. depending on rate of corrosion. Without being impregnated with a conductive material. if continuity has not been achieved for the outer pipe. is unique to thermoplastic lined pipe and solid thermoplastic pipe. The drilled and tapped hole in each flange will need to be centered between boltholes so that they line up after the flange bolts are installed. used as a pipe liner. For a 2” pipeline with a 0. The tapped hole is 1/4” dia. PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene). at some point.001” of PTFE liner 450 volts of triboelectric charge will be required to penetrate the liner. 4: Referring to Fig. is described as follows and represented in Fig. These studs can be applied at the factory or in the field. thermoplastics are not good conductors of electricity. The entire continuity plate assembly is relatively simple to install. Instead the charge will be allowed to build until it exceeds its total dielectric strength and burns a pinhole in the liner to the internal metal wall of the casement pipe. Figure 3 – Grounding Lug Location Another method of creating continuity at flange joints. x 1/2” deep. resistivity factor. At each flange joint a grounding strap (jumper) is then affixed to a stud on one spool with a nut. the current 11 ready-made solution to the external continuity problem is the addition of stud bolts located in close proximity to flanges on both pipe spools and fittings (see Fig. The initial charge that burned through the liner is now charging the outer metal pipe. charge accumulation occurs. as they were tightened. The voltage in triboelectric charge generation will build until it is strong enough to jump to the closest grounded object creating an undesired spark of electricity in doing this (Electrostatic Discharge). . When the rate of charge generation is greater than the rate of charge relaxation (the ability of material to conduct away the generated charge). will fail locally causing fluid to leak to the environment. as an example. going to jump to ground causing a spark.using star washers on at least one flange bolt while assuming possible bare metal contact with the other bolts allowing the washers. flanges would be purchased predrilled and tapped in the center of the outer edge of the flange between the backside of the flange and the face side of the flange. Corrosive fluid (a major user of lined pipe) is now in contact with and corroding the metal pipe wall and at some point. This indicates that for every 0. Corrective Action External Charge Generation The simplest method to ensure continuity is to sand away any primer on the back side of each flange to ensure good metal-to-metal contact between nut and flange.130” thick liner this translates into 58500 volts of triboelectric charge to burn through the liner thickness. unobtrusive and establishes integral contact with the pipeline. Internal Charge Accumulation ICA. Aside from that or the use of a conductive prime paint. and 2. It isn‟t charge generation itself that is the problem. extended over the flange joint and attached to a stud on the connecting spool completing continuity throughout the chain of connecting spools and fittings.
the recommendation for future installations with the least impact would be to specify pipe with no prime coat or at least no primer on the flanges. What is shown is an orifice plate made of conductive (static dissipative) material that is compatible with the fluid service. the majority. In saying that. This would better ensure spool-to-spool external continuity. or if further safeguards against charge accumulation are warranted then a mechanical solution to provide a path to ground for Internal Charge Generation might be called for.Figure 4 – Continuity Flange Plate Internal Charge Generation One of the first options in preventing Internal Charge Accumulation is by minimizing charge generation. It can also be suggested that the continuity plates can be tacked on to one flange rather than drilling and tapping both flanges. as shown in Figures 5 & 6. . cost and even schedule impact on a project this needs to be evaluated early in the project due to the possibility of a change in line size. The un-primed pipe would be primed prior to installation with care given to primer touchup on flanges after installation by the installing contractor or their sub. One method for conducting charge accumulation from the interior of the pipe to ground is indicated in Figures 5 & 6.RECOMMENDED VELOCITIES BS 5958 Recommended Flow Liquid Conductivity Velocity >1000 pS/m No restriction 50 – 1000 pS/m Less than 7 m/s Less than 50 pS/m Less than 1 m/s pS/m (picosiemens/meter) Figure 5 – Conductive Orifice Plate Assembly Figure 6 – Conductivity Orifice Plate Assembly Section Conclusion and Recommendations It is difficult to pre-determine what fluid services and systems will be candidates for charge accumulation prevention and Electrostatic Discharge protection. To retard charge generation by reducing flow velocities British Standard (BS) suggests the following as represented in Table 1 per BS 5958: TABLE 1 . which is. or a prime coat using a conductive paint. This can be done by adjusting the flow velocity relative to the liquid‟s conductivity. With regard to External Charge Accumulation. 12 If velocity reduction is not an option. To minimize design impact. PIPE FABRICATION Entering this part of the article on fabrication does not mean that we leave engineering behind. The plate is designed to come in contact with the interior surface of the liner wall as well as protrude into the flowing fluid providing a conduit for internally generated charge. For existing installations either the studs or the continuity plate installation would work. With the shallow portion of the ID at the invert of the pipe it allows the piping to drain in horizontal runs. The tab portion of the plate extends beyond the flange OD. Continuity is achieved by attaching the plate to the flange OD that is in contact with the piping. Indeed. if not all. fabricators (referring to the fabricators that are qualified for heavy industrial work) will have an engineering staff. in turn. The orifice itself is off center to the OD of the plate and the pipeline itself. The simplest and most conservative answer to that is to assume that all fluid services in lined pipe systems are susceptible. we then have to declare that a company‟s pipe specifications need to reflect a global resolution that will affect all installations. is the only recommendation. For dissipating internal charge generation the orifice plate. On the tab is a bolthole for attaching the modified Continuity Flange Plate. grounded through equipment.
preventing the system from completely draining. This creates a pocket where residue can accumulate and cleanability becomes an issue. crimped and welded joints. any mechanical joint is considered a potential leak point and should be minimized. as mentioned in Article I. allows the threads to form a leak-tight seal by jamming them together as the joint is tightened. This is a tapered thread that. They are not suitable where high temperatures. In Article I we discussed the flange joint. grooved. 7 there are issues with this type clamp. The clamp „C‟ representation is the result that we want to achieve with the hygienic clamp. refers to the sanitary or hygienic clamp. Cold Flow is defined as: Permanent and continual deformation of a material that occurs as a result of prolonged compression or extension at or near room temperature. Even when the gasket and ferrules are initially lined up with proper assembly and torque on the joint. Those same criteria apply also to threaded fittings. Creep relaxation is defined as: A transient stress-strain condition in which strain increases concurrently with the decay of stress. no matter how diligent one thinks they are during design. in this context. Using that as our premise we can continue to discuss the various joining methods. threaded. There have been a number of both gasket and fitting manufacturers that have been investing a great deal of research in attempting to resolve this issue with the clamp joint. The greatest asset a project manager can have is the ability to learn from past experience and the talent to put into practice what they have learned. There are various factors. More simply put. or considerations. I described the threaded flange joint in Article I. cyclic conditions or bending stresses can be potential concerns. Threaded Joints Pipe thread. The clamped joint. 7 are three installed conditions of the hygienic joint. but we will save that for a future article. is the construction of piping systems by forming and assembling pipe and components with the use of flanged. This is inherent in the methodology of today‟s design/engineering process. Fabrication Pipe fabrication. installation requirements and joint integrity. If. threaded components are sometimes used in high-pressure service in which the operating temperature is ambient. The problem is that this is very difficult to control on a repeatable basis. There are methods and approaches to design in which this expected result can be minimized. or cold flow. some gasket materials have a tendency to creep (creep relaxation). This creates a damming effect. In joint „B‟ the clamp wasn‟t tightened enough and left a recess at the gasket area. Figure 7 – Hygienic Clamp Joint (Courtesy Rubber Fab Technologies Group) Represented in Fig. to paraphrase Article I. designated as NPT (National Pipe Taper) under ASME B1. clamped. errors and omissions. As you can see in Fig. In this regard. in which the benefits of the threaded joint is both in cost savings and in eliminating the need for welding. To start with. It‟s actually a retrospective concept. the assumption is made that the Issued for Construction design drawings will facilitate fabrication and installation with minimal problems.20. on the other hand. The preparation for such errors and omissions is always prudent.Hygienic Clamp Joint As a project moves from the design phase into the construction phase anyone with a modicum of project experience can acknowledge the fact that there will most certainly be conflicts. Joint „C‟ represents a joint in which the proper torque was applied to the clamp leaving the ID of the gasket flush with the ID of the tubing. measurable by torque loss. Joint „A‟ represents a clamp connection that has been over tightened causing the gasket to intrude into the ID of the tubing.1. with sealant. Also. minus the clamp. the decision as to which type of joint should be specified comes down to accessibility requirements. that prompt the decision as to which type of connection to use in the assembly of a piping system. then you can expect to compound whatever problems do occur because you weren‟t prepared to handle them. it is the loss of tightness in a gasket. we will discuss the others here. is the type of thread used in joining pipe. Some of the solutions regarding fittings were 13 .
someone who welds. but also meets certain FDA requirements. to enable the joining of pipe and fittings with the use of a compression tool. it is someone who welds by hand. as you might have guessed. is as good as or.5 flange. They must be supported properly from the base of the vertical run. or manually. Before I go further I want to explain the difference between the terms welder and welding operator. the performance qualification of the welder or welding operator. A welding operator is someone who operates an automatic welding machine. Those requirements include Gasket material that complies with USP Biological Reactivity Test #87 & 88 Class VI for Plastics and FDA CFR Title 21 Part 177. With axial and torsional loading being the weak spot in these systems they are not practical where water hammer is a potential. This type of joint is comparatively easy to install and enhances that fact in areas that would require a fire card for welding. and others have been working on acceptable gasket materials that have reduced creep relaxation factors. ASTM A105. with the exception of steam and steam condensate. in some cases superior to the ASME Class 150 flange joint. and the automatic welding machine has to be programmed. Since no welding is required modifications can be made while operation continues. A welder is. ASME B16. The ends of the pipe still have to be prepared and aligned. up through 2” NPT. wall thickness and nominal pipe size.addressed in Article I. Some contractors choose to couple at every joint and fitting. The axial load consideration carries over to supporting the pipe as well. In the smaller sizes. Because of this design characteristic the manufacturers of grooved joint systems have focused their efforts and created a niche in the fire protection and utility fluid service requirements. While the static internal pressure rating of these systems is comparable to an ASME Class 150 flange joint there are additional fluid service and installation characteristics that need to be considered. Ensure that vertical runs of this pipe are supported properly from beneath. such as in steam condensate. carbon steel. as well as compression controlled gasket designs. The pressed joint is actually a system that uses thin wall pipe. Do not allow joints in vertical runs to be under tension. Once the machine is set up 14 . from simply a static internal pressure containment standpoint. Grooved Joint The grooved joint (Fig. and the weld procedure specification. much as you would selective locate a flange joint in a system. When done properly it is as strong as the pipe itself. Additionally. gasket manufacturers. Welded Joint The welded joint is by far the most integrated and secure joint you can have. 316 and 304 stainless steel and copper. Because of the thin wall pipe corrosion allowance becomes a big consideration with carbon steel. This can be alleviated with proper support. Welding is not required and threading is only necessary when required for instrument or equipment connection. It‟s a decision that should be made based on the particular requirements or preference of a project or facility. while others choose to selectively locate couplings. To be more precise. 8). Figure 8 – Grooved Pipe & Coupling (Courtesy Victaulic) Pressed Joint The advantage of machine welding is apparent in doing production welds. 1” through 4” the working pressure limit will be equal to that of a Class 300. The key to a weld‟s integrity lies in the craftsmanship of the welder or welding operator. This is shop welding in which there is a quantity of welds to be made on the same material type. Figure 9 – Pressed Joint (Courtesy Victaulic) These types of systems are available from various manufacturers in carbon steel. what I am referring to is a gasket that is not only compatible with the hygienic fluid service. Its main weakness is in its allowable bending and torsional stress at the coupling. When mentioning acceptable gasket material in the previous paragraph.
GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) or MIG GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) or TIG SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) or MMA or Stick Welding FCAW (Flux Cored Automatic welding) material it is welding it will provide excellent welds on a consistent basis. 2. Instead we will focus on some of the primary types of welding used with pipe. fillet . 3. pulsed-spray With the use of a shielding gas the GMAW process is better used indoors or in an area protected from the wind. It is a process by which a shielding gas and a continuous. 4. or just simply Stick welding. There are four commonly used methods of metal transfer used in GMAW. Figure 11 – GTAW (TIG) Welding (Courtesy The Welding Institute) A wide differential in sulfur content between the two components being joined can cause the weld to drift into the high sulfur side. globular. and 4. short-circuiting. This is another topic that could easily stand alone as an article. They are: 1. It uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode to make the weld (Fig. spray. SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) is the most common form of welding used. which can detrimentally affect the weld area.for a run of typical pipe like this it is very efficient and consistent in its weld quality. but is more complex and slower than MIG welding. but the continuously fed consumable wire has a flux core. which is coated with a flux (Fig. Tungsten Inert Gas welding. If the shielding gas is disturbed the weld area can be affected. but we won‟t do that here. 12). It is similar to MIG welding. that is. The TIG process is more exacting. 3. The SMAW welding process is versatile and simple. Orbital welding uses the GTAW method. 10). which can be done with filler metal or without filler metal (autogenous). SMAW: Also referred to as MMA. Those types include: 1. Welding Pipe The majority of welds you will see in pipe fabrication will be full penetration circumferential buttwelds. The shielding gas is an inert or semi-inert gas such as argon or CO2 that protects the weld area from atmospheric gases. consumable wire electrode is fed through the same gun (Fig. which allows it to be the most common weld done today. GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) can be an automatic or semi-automatic welding process. It is a manual form of welding that uses a consumable electrode. GMAW: Most often referred to as MIG. Manual Metal Arc welding. 11). The flux provides the shielding gas that protects the weld area from the atmosphere during welding. Provided. GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) can be automatic or manual. Figure 10 – GMAW (MIG) Welding (Courtesy The Welding Institute) GTAW: Most often referred to as TIG. that the chemistry of the base material is within allowable ranges. Once the orbital welder is programmed for the 15 Figure 12 – SMAW (Stick) Welding (Courtesy The Welding Institute) FCAW: Flux Cored Arc Welding is a semiautomatic or automatic welding process. 2. In Article 1 I mentioned the use of orbital welding for hygienic tube welding. This can cause welds to be rejected due to lack of full penetration. Metal Inert Gas welding. As the weld is being made the flux breaks down to form a shielding gas that protects the weld from the atmosphere.
Future Articles The third and final article in this series. 17. 21. WPQ‟s (Welder & Welding Operator Performance Qualification) 6. Testing and Verification”. The branch connection can be at 90º or less from the longitudinal pipe run. Weld Gas Certification 4. Welder Qualification Summary 16 The above listed documentation. There is additional supporting documentation such as P&ID‟s. For this article I will go no further with the topic of Validation. This is a topic that I will touch on again in Article III. Signature Logs 5. and will generally require pre-approval. titled “Piping Design Part III – Installation. not only a specific method of welding. while they go hand in hand. from the fabrication effort for validation. 18. 19. may include. Depending on the size and type of a project it can be a massive undertaking. And this isn‟t all that‟s required. Acknowledgement: . In some cases hand welding is required.3) Hygienic Fabrication and Documentation Hygienic and semiconductor pipe fabrication uses automatic autogenous welding in the form of orbital welding. 20. 26. Certification of Compliance 3. 2. As mentioned in Article I. etc. Cleaning. 22. MTR‟s b. developing and maintaining the required documentation for hygienic pipe fabrication and installation can add an additional 30% to 40% to the piping cost of a project. Fillet welds are used at socketweld joints and at slip-on flanges. When fabricating pipe for hygienic services it will be necessary to comply with. are two activities that are essentially distinct within themselves. but this is kept to a minimum. Welds in which a combination of the buttweld and fillet weld would be used would be at a stub-in joint or a joint similar to that. Welder & Welding Operator Inspection Summary 7. as explained in Article I. commissioning and qualification (C & Q). Depending on what the design conditions are this can be a reinforced connection or an unreinforced connection. It uses the orbital welding TIG process. Resurrecting this information is labor intensive and can delay a project‟s turn-over significantly. selfdefining term that includes the act of commissioning and qualification. 13). 13. that are also required. procedural documents. Inspector Qualification 10. generalized. The documentation needed. will wrap up the series by discussing the four title points.welds or a combination of the two. The term validation is a broad. is that which is generally required to move an installed hygienic system through validation. Mechanical and electropolishing procedures 8. The circumferential buttwelds are the welds used to weld two pipe ends together or other components with buttweld ends. 15. Commissioning and Qualification. is a weld without the use of filler metal. Incoming Material Examination Reports Material Certification a. 25. I cannot stress it strongly enough just how imperative it is that all necessary documentation be identified up front. Examiner Qualification 9. 11. It needs to be procured throughout the process and assimilated in a turnover package in a manner that makes it relatively easy to locate needed information while also allowing the information to be cross indexed and traceable within the TO package. A stub-in joint (not to be confused with a stub-end) is a connection in which the end of a pipe is welded to the longitudinal run of another pipe (Fig. but is not limited to: 1. What you do not want to do is discover during C&Q that you are missing a portion of the required documentation. which closely parallels the list in ASME-BPE. 12. Gage Calibration certifications Weld Continuity Report WPS‟s (Weld Procedure Specifications) PQR‟s (Procedure qualification Record) Weld Coupon log Weld Maps Slope Maps Weld Logs Leak Test Reports Inspection reports Passivation Records Detail mechanical layouts technical specifications for components As-Built Isometrics Original IFC isometrics Documentation recording any changes from IFC to As-Build isometrics Figure 13 – Sample Stub-In Connections (Courtesy ASME B31. but also an extensive amount of documentation. 24. 14. Commissioning and qualification. If not properly set up and orchestrated it can become a logistical nightmare. 23. This. 16.
Earl has a remarkable set of project and engineering skills that set him apart from many I have worked with. piping design instructor. several Task Groups. That and the fact that I value his opinion are the reasons I asked him to review this article. CSI (Construction Specifications Institute) and ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers).com 17 . He has written numerous specifications. engineering manager and president of W. and coal gasification.I wish to thank Earl Lamson. P O Box 31154 St. for being kind enough in taking time out of a busy schedule to read through the draft of this second article. papers. nuclear power. Bill is a member of ISPE (International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers). M. Positions have included design engineer.com www. His experience covers both the engineering and construction fields and crosses industrial lines to include petroleum refining. Huitt Co. project supervisor. petrochemical. engineering and construction since 1965. MO 63131-0154 (314)966-8919 wmhuitt@aol. chemical. Louis. a piping consulting firm founded in 1987.wmhuitt. (Bill) Huitt has been involved in industrial piping design. project engineer. About the author: W. Senior Project Manager with Eli Lilly and Company. He is a member of three ASME-BPE subcommittees. and sets on two corporate specification review boards. an API Task Group. and magazine articles on the topic of pipe design and engineering. biofuel. He can be reached at: W. guidelines. piping department supervisor. pulp & paper. Huitt Co. M. M. pharmaceutical.
assembly & installation. The pipe is fabricated on site either in place or in segments . Rather than delve into it in great detail as part of a multi-topic article I will attempt to simply provide some understanding as to its function and need.) need to be shipped to the site location.) 5. Cleaning. cable tray. Cleaning. Reduced risk of damage to spool pieces. M. (Bill) Huitt W. etc. Efficiency. Testing and. 4. I am including fabrication in this article simply because fabrication is such an integral part of pipe installation. availability of qualified personnel. Only raw material (pipe. often proprietary and exceedingly difficult-to-define topic. Testing & Verifification Efficiency. More efficient opportunity to fab around unexpected obstacles (structural steel. before making that final decision. cost is the fallout of those factors. the installation of pipe follows its fabrication and is very frequently a part of it. in Article II. let’s look at some of the pros and cons of field fabrication: Pros: 1. etc. This is much easier to handle and store than multi-plane configurations of pre-fabricated pipe. cleanliness requirements. the facility itself. but don’t forget cost. Validation of piping systems. Fabricate-as-you-install reduces the rework risk assumed when pre-fabricating spools. fittings. Huitt Co. although somewhat briefly. Shop fabricate and field erected. M. valves. W. Skid fabrication.As published in the September and October 2007 issues of Chemical Engineering Magazine Piping Design Part 3: Installation. 4. A number of factors will dictate whether or not it is feasible to field fabricate: The size and type of the project. or the cost I would like to assure you that I am not going to diverge off into fabrication again since we discussed it. Field fabricate and install. Logistically speaking. and Modular construction at an on-site field fabrication area and then erected. tiedown and chock pre-fabricated *spool pieces for transport to the job site. maintaining quality while doing so. quality and safety are the imperatives that are factored in when considering field fabrication. pipe size and material. The installation of pipe can be accomplished in the following four primary ways. etc. to a lesser degree. As the title implies this article will discuss the Installation. it would make sense to do it in that manner. And before you think I missed it. FIELD FABRICATE AND INSTALL Field fabrication and installation is just what it implies. if all pipe could be fabricated on-site in a safe and efficient manner. 2. 3. However. No time-consuming need to carefully crib. 2. or combinations thereof: 1. 3. quality and safety are the imperatives that are factored in when considering field fabrication. weather conditions. PIPE INSTALLATION But first things first. I say to a lesser degree with Validation because Validation is a very complex. existing building operations. duct. time available to do the work.
In a new facility. and install the pipe assembly. SHOP FABRICATE AND INSTALL Shop fabrication is. In connecting to equipment there is a build-up. plus an additional 4” to 6” (more or less depending on fabricator’s comfort level with the equipment locations). Load cell installation (when applicable). and other proprietary type joints that do not require buttwelding are field fabricated and installed. What factors into the installation of shop fabricated pipe is the actual location of the equipment nozzle it will be connecting to in relation to the pipe’s installed location. socketweld. The spools are then labeled with an identifier and transported to the job site for installation. The FCW provides the installer with an additional length of pipe. 2. as opposed to having to route piping through an array of poorly located existing pipe and equipment. 1 1/2” NPS and less. on a retrofit project. These are welded joints that connect the pre-fabricated spools. threaded. The FW indicates a joint in which the end of a pipe segment is prepared for the installer to set in place and weld to its connecting joint without additional modification in the field. *Spool pieces are the pre-fabricated sections of pipe that are fabricated and numbered in the fab shop then shipped to the job site for installation.6. This will allow the installer to efficiently stage the piece and ready it for installation. other than where the design drawing indicates. and what prompts the need for a FCW. fittings and components that are assembled by welding into spool assemblies at the fabricator’s facility. to allow for field adjustment. Weather is arguably the biggest deterrent. 3. What this does is allow the field to make the final determination in the adjustments when connecting to fixed equipment. in pre-fabricated form. Buttwelding of small. The actual set-in-place pipe run-up location. is quite frequently more effective than attempting to pre-fabricate pipe based on dimensional assumptions. The actual set-in-place location of the vessel. location of both the fixed equipment that the pipe assemblies may connect to and the actual installed location of the pipe assembly itself. related to field verification prior to shop fabrication. When welding has to be done in conditions that are not environmentally controlled then preheating will be required if the ambient temperature (not the metal surface temperature) is 0° F or below. will be required for that final adjustment. from the shop to the site. As part of the process of developing spool sections field-welded joints need to be designated. grooved. a field closure piece. nozzle location. usually 4” to 6” longer than what is indicated on the design drawings. Concerns about safety and efficiency when working in a facility while it is in operation in advance of a turnaround or to begin advance work on a plant expansion. is the actual. The tolerance stack-up comes from the following: 1. of tolerances that will effectively place the actual. any pipe. and vessel support location. One is a Field Weld (FW) and the other is a Field Closure Weld (FCW). field fabrication of buttwelded pipe is not as efficient and cost effective as shop fabrication. In doing this the designer or fabricator will identify two different types of field-welded joints. The field closure piece is a designated section of the pipe assembly in which a field weld has been indicated. are very often field fabricated and installed because of the added risk of damage during transport. set the vessel. or two. Cons: 1. and the actual installed location of the connecting points. generally speaking. This means that the length of pipe that is joined to another in the field is cut precisely to length and the end prepared in the shop for welding. Odds are that all equipment and piping will not be installed exactly where indicated on design drawings. 3. 4. as-installed. 4. In order to allow for these inevitable deviations between the drawing dimensions used to fabricate the vessel. location of the nozzle at some point in the xyz geometry of three-dimensional space. What has to be considered. If the facility under construction is not enclosed then protection from the elements will have to be provided. they are merely intended locations. Each spool piece needs its own identifier marked on the piece itself in some fashion that will make it easy to know where its destination is in the facility and/or where it belongs in a multi-spool system of pipe. Manufacturing tolerances in material forming. The section with the field closure weld would be the length required to agree with that indicated on the design drawing. SKID (SUPER SKID) FABRICATION 2 . as are drawings for building steel. 2. The field routing installation of pipe through an array of insufficiently documented locations of existing pipe and equipment. pipe supports and others. or final. Generally speaking. or stackup. The dimensional location of the equipment items given on design drawings is not a finite location.
connection and start-up of a particular skid package will dictate to what extent the skid fabricator will be involved after it is shipped to the job site. After fabrication of a skid is complete it will typically go through Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT) at the fabricator’s facility. to use for a particular project? But there is one major caveat I would like to address before launching into this subject. piping. would apply here as well. or combination of methods. others prefer to set up at the job-site. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION The term module or modular construction is quite often. including additional hydro-testing. may comprise multiple skids. Bulk chemical g. quality and safety indicated earlier under “Field Fabricate and Install”. Sounds simple. Open to the elements Industry a. Using those three elements as a basis for making our determination let us look at some common variables: 1. Each project is individualized with its own particular set of decision drivers with regard to a selected execution 3 approach. After installation it would typically go through a follow-up Site Acceptance Test (SAT). once you determine how the job needs to be executed you then look to only those contractors whose preferred methodology agrees with your project execution plans. Some contractors prefer to do most. The three main criteria. piping. Multi-level g. Pipeline j. Large percentage of alloy pipe c. supports. while others are flexible enough to utilize the best of both methods. as an example. INSTALL APPROACH Now that we have a general idea of the four primary approaches to piping installations how do we decide which is the best method. allows a complete locker room module to be placed and connected to a complete water treatment module. and then assessing logistics. Room repetition Range of pipe material and sizes a. supports. Or. Semiconductor d. if not all fabrication in the shop. It saves on misperception when a company defines these terms. both for internal discussion and for the purpose of making it clear to outside contractors. walls. interchanged with the term skid fabrication. in many cases. and that those things that did not remain intact during transport are discovered and repaired. electrical panels. Food & Dairy e. instrumentation. in-line piping components. make up a complete process or utility system. It requires experienced personnel assigning values to the various aspects of project execution. are interchanged with the term skid. HVAC. in-line piping components. The smaller sub-assembly modules. Logistics and the necessary skill-set required for the installation. Off-Shore i. rotating equipment. gages. and insulation. 3. rotating equipment. instrumentation. There are no hard and fast rules for determining a best approach at job execution. Fast track approach c. the units may be smaller sub-assemblies that. This is basically a system shake-down to determine that everything is intact. Pharmaceutical b. What I am attempting to say here is. Single level f. framework. On the contrary. In saying that I am not implying that the contractor’s preferred methodology should drive your decision on how to execute a job. Environment a. architectural components. automation components. Biopharmaceutical c. automation components. Pulp & paper h. A single process or utility system may fit onto one skid or. efficiency. that the following is a guideline and not hard and fast rules. Controlled environment b. Power generation Type of project a. In approaching this decision keep in mind that the method of installation needs to be weighed against a contractor’s preferred methodology. and insulation. . overlaying a timeline. framework. There are simply too many project variables and complexities to allow it. 4. Small percentage of alloy pipe b. lighting. wiring and connectors. Large % of large pipe sizes 2. operator interfaces. electrical wiring and connectors. in this context. but is in actuality can be a very complex process. New (Grassroots/Greenfield) project d. This. Petroleum refining f. when combined. A module can refer to pre-fabricated units that actually form the structure of a facility as each is installed. depending on size restraints.A skid is a pre-packaged assembly that may contain all or some of the following that make up an operating system: vessels. Retrofit b. as to what is meant when using the term module. The skid is then shipped to the job site where it is installed in its final location. Clean-build e. Modules too consist of all or some of the following: vessels.
Pharmaceutical b. ensure on a daily basis that there is no moisture or debris in the wall cavity. All of this can have a potential impact on safety and efficiency. Food & Dairy Under non-clean/outdoor build we can list the following. a roof is installed. 8. If not discovered until the facility is in operation the impact. 4. but under clean/indoor build we can list the following. There may additionally be a requirement to work in elevated areas on scaffolding and otherwise. Do not begin installing pipe. Prior to and during the construction of hollow walls. to follow some rather simple rules: 1. other than water. upon discovery. 2. Clean/Indoor build a. Petroleum refining b. Off-Shore e. which can eventually become airborne. That is. allowed on the site premises. There are exceptions to this. better equipment (generally speaking). and shall remain on the ends until connected in place. but product will have to be analyzed for possible contamination. on a clean-build site. etc. Pulp & paper d. Discovery at the source. Mix of small and large pipe sizes Location a. This includes the Quality Control aspect. pipe rack or yard piping. and hidden moisture can propagate mold. duct or equipment until. remaining after construction in accessible or inaccessible spaces of the facility. Pipeline f. Duct work delivered to the job site shall have the ends covered with a plastic sheet material. Environment The environment is only a factor when work has to be done in an open-air structure or other outdoor installation (tank farm. Those industries listed above under Clean/Indoor Build often require a facility. as stipulated by the design. There can be no debris. organic or inorganic. d. and better control. pipeline. to be microbial and particulate free. Power generation The clean build philosophy comes from the need to construct certain facilities with a more stringent control on construction debris. and will not necessarily have a requirement or need for pre-fabrication. Biopharmaceutical c. During and after flushing and testing of pipelines all water spills shall be controlled to the extent possible and shall be cleaned up after flushing and testing or at the end of the work day. 3. Pipe rack installation consists mainly of straight runs of pipe. After roof and walls are installed ensure that there is no standing water remaining in the facility. 6. which shall remain on the ends until connected in place.). at the very least. steel and all. The clean-build philosophy therefore dictates more stringent and strict requirements for controlling and inspecting for debris on an ongoing basis throughout construction and start-up. snow. etc. means that not only does current production have to cease. Non-Clean/Outdoor Build a. possibly behind a wall or some other out-of-the-way place. Such contamination can be discovered in one of two ways. Close to metropolitan area b. unless it is pre-fabricated as modular skid units. Food waste can entice and support rodents and insects. cold. can potentially be devastating to production. Large % of small pipe sizes e. no food or drink. Semiconductor d.5. at least a portion 4 . Industry I know this is generalizing. 5. Remote location c. Depending on the project it could be cost effective on an overall strategic basis to modularize the pipe rack. It will be necessary. The big advantage to shop fabrication is the controlled environment in which it’s done.). Country with limited resources of a facility. Bulk chemical c. of required documentation. such as those framed and dry-walled. 7. but we can group the various industries into clean/indoor build and nonclean/outdoor build. Working in an open air structure will require protection from the elements (rain. Fabricated pipe delivered to the job site shall have the ends covered in a suitable fashion with suitable material. Off site break and lunch areas. Smoking or smokeless tobacco products of any kind are not allowed on the site property. a routine methodology of how a piece of work progresses through the shop. The other method of discovery comes from the continuous testing and validation of the product stream. If a contaminant is discovered in the product the production line is stopped and the problem then becomes an investigation in to finding the source of the contamination. Once found it hen has to be remediated. Of particular concern with the pharmaceutical. wind. biopharm and food 7 dairy is food waste and hidden moisture. through a developed routine.
It will help drive the decision as to how the piping should be fabricated and installed. then shop or field fabricate. regardless of size and joint connection. These types of systems require a great deal more control and a cleaner fabrication. In transporting spools over long distances. if not all of the piping. biopharmaceutical. would not be very practical. If you are shop fabricating everything and the distance from shop to site is simply across town the risk to damaging small diameter pipe spools is a great deal less than if they have to be shipped half way across the US. verify and install as you go. 2. unless there is a great deal of thought and care given to cribbing the load of spools. This approach is time driven and not budgetary driven. pieces of pipe. This is due simply to the fact that the effort and cost necessary to verify the location of all existing pipe. A couple of things to consider. it may not be beneficial to transport buttwelded pipe spools NPS 1 ½” and less. Dictates of the project and a contractors SOP will determine how best to define what gets shop fabricated and what gets field fabricated. As an example. If the project is a clean-build project (typical for the pharmaceutical. etc. Or even across an ocean. Handling and transporting small diameter pipe and/or thin-wall tubing spools creates the potential for damage to those spools. A practical rule of thumb in determining what to shop fab and what to field fab follows in Table 3-1: Table 3-1 Shop and Field Fabrication Size (in) Material Joint Shop/Field ≤1½ Pipe 1. to be field fabricated and installed. equipment. when determining which buttwelded pipe to shop fabricate. Even though there may be added cost to this approach. Range of Pipe Material and Sizes Shop fabricated spools need to be transported to the job site. 6 Field ≤1½ Pipe 4&5 Shop ≥2 Pipe 3&6 Field ≥2 Pipe 4&5 Shop ≤1 Tubing 5 Field ≤1 Tubing 5 Shop (a. will require parallel activities where possible. better controlled shop facility. semiconductor and food & dairy industries) inside an environmentally controlled area it will be more practical to shop fabricate or utilize skid or modular fabrication for most. etc.Type of Project While the type of project is not the main influence in determining how you approach the execution of a project it does play a key role. for planning and logistic purposes. The decision to shop fab and install or to field fab and install becomes one based on efficiency rather than how best to maintain a clean area. or the pipe will need to be fabricated at an off-site. and clothing items. cutting oil.) 5 = Buttweld 6 = Flanged – Lined or unlined Pipe Notes: a. A fast track project. and provide better control for keeping it out of the pipe itself. Maintaining a clean job site is an integral component of good project execution. Hygienic tubing b. drink cans and bottles. b) ≥1½ Tubing 5 Shop Joint Type: 1 = Socketweld 2 = Threaded 3 = Grooved – Fully (Grooved fittings and pipe ends. A new grassroots facility still requires routing verification as you go. With personnel you could have food wrappers. if the project is a retrofit it will require much of the pipe. walls. but is still inside an environmentally controlled facility the same logic does not necessarily apply. unless you are fabricating hygienic or semi-conductor piping. If the project is not a clean-build. weld rod and weld wire remnants. but certainly not the much more involved need to locate previously installed obstructions as needs to be done when working with an existing facility. And that’s not to say that if it doesn’t qualify as a clean-build project then the construction debris can just be allowed to pile up.) 4 = Grooved – Partially (Shop-welded spools with grooved ends. is size and material. in a somewhat precise manner. columns. Whereas shop and skid fabrication would be utilized as much as possible simply to expend more man-hours over a shorter time period while attempting to maintain efficiency. Keeping personnel and equipment to a minimum at the job site is not an absolute. Special cribbing and support for transport The above Table 3-1 is a general methodology. Meaning that pipe fabrication will require a clean shop area on-site. Fabrication debris could include metal filings. 5 . This will reduce the number of personnel and the amount of fabrication debris in the facility. 3. There is still safety and efficiency to be concerned with on any project and a clean job site is a major part of that. but is one of the key considerations to the efficiency of pipe installation. This requires handling. duct. It may be more practical to fabricate these sizes on site. one that has a compressed schedule. Europe or Asia. You would be better served by field verifying the approximate location of the above items with existing drawings. food waste. Following that logic most of the buttwelded pipe should be shop fabricated.
and could be used to describe activities other than what is intended in this dialog. security is a real concern that requires real consideration and real resolution. air or an inert gas is forced through a piping system either in preparation for chemical cleaning or as the only cleaning process. The term “cleaning”. it removes any free iron from the pipe surface to form a chromium-rich oxide layer to protect the metal surface from aggressive liquids such as high purity waters. In ASTM A 380 & 967 you will find Standards on cleaning. And this doesn’t even touch on the security aspect. While a clean build is not a requirement on these types of projects efficiency and. Flushing: A process by which water. phosphoric. from a trained and experienced personnel perspective. In stainless steels. even in metropolitan areas. Cleaning and Testing 6 . Passivation: A process by which a chemical solution. Because of this. fittings and equipment. are quite frequently siloed around a specific industry. Project planning is a big component in project execution. and other unwanted debris. usually with a base of nitric. but nothing in ASTM on simply flushing and general cleaning. Reduced on-site staffing is a good counter-measure in reducing risk to personnel when building in remote or even non-remote third-world areas. In many cases building a facility in a remote location will be a driver for utilizing a disproportionate amount of skid or module fabrication. Location Job site location is one of the key markers in determining shop or field fabrication. descaling and passivation. Referring back to Table 3-1. solvents. From a logistics standpoint mobilization of personnel and material become a major factor in determining the overall execution of such a project. rather than mobilize the staffing and facilities needed to fab and install on or near the job site. Definitions Cleaning: A process by which water. is used to promote or accelerate the formation of a thin (25 to 50 Angstroms) protective oxide layer (a passive layer) on the internal surface of pipe. Particularly when working with thin-wall tubing. Fabricating pipe spools under better controlled shop conditions will provide improved efficiency and safer per hour working conditions over what you will generally find in the field. depending on source and context. is a catch-all term that also includes flushing. I say. but is more so when attempting to build in remote areas. Nowadays. that project resources. citric acid or other mild oxidant. Senior Project Manager with Eli Lilly and Company. an observation I fully agree with. So before we go further let me provide some definition for these terms as they apply in this context. it was pointed out to me by Earl Lamson. as it is on any type project. This would constitute a larger amount of modularization over what might normally be expected for the same type project in a more metropolitan region. in supporting the construction of a semiconductor facility. Defining the requirements for the internal cleaning of piping systems falls within the responsibilities of the Owner. the most commonly used alloy at present. Blow-down can be considered as flushing with a gas. “as they apply in this context”. acids or proprietary cleaning solutions are flushed through a piping system to remove contaminants such as cutting oils. This is a consideration when determining what to shop fab and what to field fab. Consequently when building a pharmaceutical facility in another region you may find a sufficient population of trained and experienced craftsman for that industry. PIPE SYSTEM CLEANING While there are requirements in ASME for leak testing cleaning requirements do not exist. but may not find that resource adequate when building a chemical plant. air or an inert gas to meet the required level of cleanliness. or an area with reasonable access to needed resources. Building a project in a remote location requires the project team to rethink the job-as-usual methodology. chemical cleaning. dirt. metal filings. above all. with respect to the potential for damage during transport. and passivation. it would make sense to utilize shop fabrication as much as possible. To expand on that thought. Note: Cleaning and Flushing can be interchanged when the process only requires water. but that same region may have difficulty. when constructing in any number of remote areas. When the term “cleaning” is used in this context it may infer what is defined as flushing. as in a fill-and-dump procedure. In certain regions of the US for example. Flushing can be accomplished by using dynamic pressure head or released static pressure head. This translates into fewer accidents. safety is. in this context. because these terms are somewhat flexible in their meaning. weld spatter. you may discover that there are an abundance of craftsman available when building a refinery. pipe sizes NPS 2” to 3” and larger ship much better than smaller pipe sizes.Petroleum refining and bulk chemical projects are generally open air projects in which field fabrication and installation of pipe is exposed to the elements. Disproportionate in the sense that project management may look at modularizing the entire job.
and the flush medium. clean. the piping needs to be examined internally as it is installed. and which to do first. suspend and remove this unwanted material in the piping system it is necessary that water or air be forced through the piping system at a velocity sufficient to suspend the heaviest suspected particles and move them along the pipeline. Styrofoam cups. The last thing you want to happen is to discover too late that a joint wasn’t fully connected or an inline component was taken out of the pipeline. A walk-down of the test circuit should be done just prior to filling the system with any liquid. as listed above. as mentioned earlier. In order to dislodge. and other miscellaneous debris including dirt and rocks. Each contractor will have their preference.) 7 Before getting into further specifics of this discussion we need to define some general cleaning and testing procedures and assign them some easy to use indicators. on large systems. In a clean-build facility an incident such as this can potentially be costly and time-consuming to remediate. But what velocity is necessary? The main concept behind flushing a pipeline is to dislodge and remove suspected debris. clean with cleaning solution. prior to flushing the entire system. which could also be the only flush and cleaning required. This is to prevent any large debris items. to leak test smaller segments. air or inert gas. Before subjecting the system to an internal test pressure the piping should first be walked down to make certain. Cleaning Category C-1 is simply a flush with water. At the very least. candy wrappers. The system is then flushed with water or air to make sure that there are no obstacles in the piping. In a facility that is not a clean-build it can simply be a mess that has to be cleaned up. weld rod. In large systems it may be beneficial to leak test smaller test circuits and then perform a final cleaning once the entire system is installed and tested. air or inert gas) C-2 Flush. the system is ready for chemical cleaning or to leak test. a flushing velocity of approximately 10 feet per second should be achieved during the flush. This would include a final completed system leak test that would test all of the joints that connect the test circuits. unless these joints were tested as the assembly progressed. passivate. . Please refer to the following section on “Leak Testing” to find clarification of the terms used in Table 3-3. After this initial flush. flush C-4 Flush. It is in the Owner’s best interest to determine their preference or be at risk in just leaving it to the contractor. there are drivers for both and different schools of thought on the overall process. of approximately 10 feet per second. or test circuits as they are installed. Metal filings. The velocity required to suspend the particles and move them along the pipeline for removal is dependent upon their size and weight. in water. perform either a basic flush of a *test circuit. In this way it will be much easier to discuss the various processes.With regard to cleaning and leak testing. We can then work through some general scenarios and see which sequencing works best. flush Following is a list of leak testing requirements: Table 3-3 – General Leak Testing Scenarios Category Description T-1 Initial service leak test T-2 Hydrostatic leak test T-3 Pneumatic leak test T-4 Sensitive leak test T-5 Alternative leak test While the cleaning descriptions are self explanatory the leak testing descriptions may not be. These are cleaning procedures that are used on in-service piping to clean the fluid service residue build-up from interior pipe walls after a period of use. if for no other reason than to be able to understand what it is the contractor is proposing to do. The one non-manual assist that water requires in order for it to clean the inside of a piping system is velocity. arguably the heaviest particles normally found in newly fabricated pipe. in advance of leak testing. from remaining in the piping during the test. If it is decided. Note: *refer to the following section on “Leak Testing” One other thing I would like to mention before we go on. Since we are discussing new pipe installation we will not include steam-out cleaning or pipeline pigging. Over the years we have discovered in installed piping systems everything from soda cans to shop towels. Therefore. that there are no missing or loose components. Following is a list of cleaning requirements: Table 3-2 – General Cleaning Scenarios Category Description C-1 Flush only (water. nuts & bolts. That is. Now that we have touched on those generalities let’s take a look at each of the cleaning Categories listed in Table 3-2 and see how to apply them. will have a terminal mid-range settling velocity. flush C-3 Clean with cleaning solution. (This does not apply to acid cleaning. work gloves. or perform an internal visual examination as the pipe is installed. In either case you should have a line of thought on the process.
Passivation is also a periodic ongoing preventative maintenance procedure.56 1. Once the passive layer wears through any free iron exposed to the high purity water will oxidize. usually 316L.17 4. In this process the pipe system is completely filled with liquid and then drained through a full line size. etc.66 0.30 0. This is an operational. The alternative for liquid flushing the larger pipe sizes other than using source line pressure or a pump is to perform a fill-and-dump. this very thin corrosion barrier tends to get depleted or worn off.15 0.39 1. cutting oils and grease. Free iron has a tendency to come out of solution when material is cold worked. Cleaning solutions are.55 1½ 0.19 0. To explain: High purity water is very corrosive and attacks any free iron found on the surface of stainless pipe.39 0. That is unless you have pumps or compressors in place that can achieve the necessary flow rate.23 0. Over time (and this is one hypothetical thought on the subject).67 5.30 0. pump casings. chilled water. particularly at high impingement areas of the piping system (elbows. Table 3-4 – Rate of Flushing Liquid Needed to Maintain Approximately 10 FPS Velocity (GPM) Pipe Sch. 5s 40 80 ½ 12 10 7 ¾ 20 16 13 Pipe Sizes (inches) 1 34 27 22 1½ 77 64 55 2 123 105 92 3 272 230 ─ 4 460 397 ─ circulation of a cleaning solution. this barrier against corrosion is maintained with corrosion inhibitors that are injected into the fluid stream on an ongoing basis.05 4 5.59 2.32 6. In utility water services such as tower water. Acid-based solutions are used to remove the same contaminants as the detergentbase plus weld discoloration and residue.23 0.02 2. to achieve a velocity of 10 FPS.51 0. Table 3-5 – Rate of Air Flow to Maintain Approx 25 FPS Velocity (SCFS) Pipe Sch Press 15 psig Press 50 psig 5s 40 80 5s 40 80 Pipe Sizes (inches) ½ 0.3 9.71 0.62 1.41 0. in the presence of O 2. This is followed by the 8 .79 One thing you might notice is that the size range only extends to 4” NPS for both the liquid flush and for the air or gas blow-down.35 2 1. passivation is a final intended step in the preparation for service of these pipelines. The acids used in some cleaning solutions for ferrous and copper materials leave behind a passivated interior pipe surface as a result of the cleaning process.26 3 3. which are solution annealed (heat treated) after threading.47 4. depending on wall thickness of the pipe.08 0. etc.88 1.73 8. The reason for that is the volume of liquid or gas required to achieve the necessary velocity through the larger pipe sizes is quite significant. In doing this there has to be enough static head to generate sufficient force and velocity to achieve essentially the same result as the pumped or line pressure liquid. Rouging is an unwanted surface discoloration which is periodically removed by means of a derouging process.14 0.65 5.18 ¾ 0. When using stainless alloys. or rust.33 1 0. which is then followed by a final flush of water. in hygienic water services such as Water For Injection (WFI).56 2. This gets a little cumbersome and costly. as in bending or forming pipe without the benefit of heat. Purging a piping system clear of debris with air requires a velocity of approximately 25 feet per second.86 0. as-needed chemical cleaning process that will remove all or most of the rouge and also re-passivate the internal pipe surface. The acid merely initiates and speeds up the process. proprietary detergent or acid-based solutions each blended for specific uses. Detergent-based solutions are generally used for removing dirt.04 3. Cleaning Category C-2 is a three-step process by which the piping system is initially flushed out with a liquid to remove most of the loose debris.11 0. in many cases.. tees. And keep in mind that when I talk about passivated surfaces this is a natural occurrence with metals in an oxygen environment. Deionized (DI) Water and in some cases Soft Water. passivation provides a protective oxide barrier against corrosion.18 1. As an example a 6” NPS pipeline would require approximately 900 to 1000 GPM.The following Table 3-4 indicates the rate of flow required to achieve approximately 10 feet per second of velocity through various sizes and schedules of pipe. Purified Water.). quick opening valve.25 0.03 11. The following Table 3-5 indicates the rate of air flow required to achieve approximately 25 feet per second of velocity through various sizes and schedules of pipe. The acid based solution also passivates the pipe wall. the oxidation rate of the stainless steel providing a chromium rich oxide corrosion barrier as defined above.84 0. This will show up as surface rouge. It also occurs with the threading of alloy bolts. Passivation removes this free iron while also accelerating. As defined earlier.06 2.
LEAK TESTING Pressure testing is a misnomer that is quite often used when referring to leak testing of piping systems. by fluid service. simply due to the clean fabrication approach used in hygienic pipe fabrication. 16. that need to be retained are the P&ID’s (#1) and the Leak Test Data Forms (#4). 2. One of the questions to be answered is whether or not rouge is actually detrimental to product streams. 9 2. nontoxic. 13. is performed to check the sealing integrity of a piping system by applying internal pressure to a pre-determined limit. Test circuit number P&ID number(s) Date of test Project name and/or number Location within facility Line number(s) Design pressure Test pressure Test fluid Test fluid temperature Time (military) recorded test begins Pressure at start of test Time (military) recorded test ends Pressure at end of test Total elapsed time of test Total pressure differential (plus or minus) from beginning to end of test period 17. ASME B31. 8.. The other two sets of forms are procedural checklists. A leak test. when pressure testing a relief valve. should be a controlled process. 5. Meaning. It is not intended that the MAWP of a piping system be verified or validated. then a final flush of water. It is accomplished by connecting to the fluid source with a . Cleaning Category C-4 is a three or four-step process generally used in hygienic service piping. 4. but to test the pressure set point of the valve by gradually adding pressure to the relief valve until it lifts the valve off of the seat. However. and Leak test data forms The two sets of documents. And as long as all parties understand what is meant by that. Comment section (indicate if leaks were found and system was repaired and retested or if system passed) 18. (2) the design gage pressure does not exceed 1035 kPA (150 psi). Cleaning Category C-3 is a two-step cleaning process that uses a detergent or acid based solution to clean the pipe interior of any unwanted residue or debris.3 Category D fluid service. there should be a formal method of documenting and tracking this activity as the Contractor proceeds through the leak testing process. then checking joints and component seals for leaks. This is a subject that has more questions than answers at the present time. 3. 7. Cleaning and testing. in a true sense a pressure test is a test you perform on a relief valve to test its set point pressure. The Initial Service leak test is a process by which the test fluid is the fluid that is to be used in the intended piping system at operating pressure and temperature. The intent. Currently the ASME-BPE is looking into this issue. 12.Discussions and research on the topic of rouging continues. such as pressure gages. To continue with the leak testing. Before discussing the various types of leak tests and leak test procedures I would like to briefly talk about controlling and tracking this activity. Signatures & dates Also make certain that the testing contractor has current calibration logs of their test instruments. then that’s fine. on the other hand. 4. only a water flush with Deionized (DI) quality water or better would be necessary for cleaning followed by passivation of the piping system. A dedicated set of P&ID’s to identify the limits and number the test circuits. A form to record components that were either installed or removed prior to testing. This is then followed by a final flush of water. 3. In most cases. like many aspects of a project. 6. This includes fluids in which the following apply: (1) the fluid handled is nonflammable. from those listed above. 14. A checklist form for field supervision to ensure that each step of the test process is accomplished. 9. based on design conditions. 10. 15. 11. There are variations to each of these primary cleaning functions and it would be in an Owner’s best interest to define these requirements. The Leak Test Data forms should contain key data such as: 1. In documenting the leak testing activity there are certain forms that will be needed.3 defines five primary leak tests as follows: Initial Service Leak Test: This applies only to those fluid services meeting the criteria as defined under ASME B31. is not to check for leaks. and (3) the design temperature is from -29°C (-20°F) through 186°C (366°F). and not damaging to human tissue. They consist of the following: 1. in advance of the work to be done.
3 the process for sensitive leak testing is as follows: The test shall be in accordance with the gas and bubble test method specified in the BPV Code. but is inferred in B31. Pneumatic leak test: This test is performed using air or a preferred inert gas. I also recommend its use when a fluid is classified as a Category M fluid service.5P (eq.valved connection and then gradually opening the source valve and filling the system. When pneumatic testing is performed it must be done under a strictly controlled procedure with on-site supervision in addition to coordination with all other crafts and personnel in the test area.5PST S (eq. The only difference is that the flowing fluid during operation will incur an amount of pressure drop that will not be present during the static test. 3) (eq.1 refers to this test as Mass-Spectrometer and Halide Testing. as long as the metal temperature of ST remains below the temperature at which the allowable stress value for ST begins to diminish and the allowable stress value of S and ST are equal then ST and S cancel each other leaving the simpler eq. Hydrostatic leak test: This is the most commonly used leak test and is performed by using a liquid. There is a misconception that the test pressure should be maintained while the joints are examined. In B31. One misconception I need to address here with pneumatic leak testing is in its procedure. as described in B1. P T P T P T 1. Article 10. and in some cases with additives to prevent freezing.1) After allowing a sufficient amount of time for piping strains to equalize the pressure is then reduced to the design pressure (refer to article II for design pressure). PT 1. energy in the pressurized gas. 5. this test has a hazardous potential because of the stored 10 . B31.3 explains. 4. 1. 5) The test pressure for pneumatic leak testing under B31. Please refer to B31. And for that reason alone it should be used very selectively. There is more to the entire procedure that I did not include here. Sensitivity of the test shall be not less than 10 -3 atm-ml/sec under test conditions.3.3 Table A-1) S = Stress value at design temperature. At that point the test pressure is held until piping strains equalize throughout the system.1P 1. under a calculated pressure. normally water. for B31.3 or B31. psi P = Internal design gage pressure. 1) Where: PT = Test Pressure. or 25% [of] the design pressure. This will occur in operation and is acceptable under initial service test conditions. This is not stated.5P (eq.3. In liquid systems air is purged during the fill cycle through high point vents. psi (see B31. As B31. 1 represents the equation for that calculated pressure.2Pto1. This is a relatively easy test to perform simply from a preparation and cleanup standpoint. 4) (eq.9 it is calculated using eq. psig ST = Stress value at test temperature.3 Table A-1 Eq. 3. The test pressure achieved for initial service testing pressure is what it is. psi (see B31.1 it is calculated using eq. However. A rolling examination of all joints is continually performed during the fill cycle and for a period of time after the system is completely filled and is under line pressure. What I mean by that is the calculated test pressure is the minimum pressure required for the system. This is not correct. pressure is increased gradually until the test pressure is reached. (eq. When hydrostatically testing a multi-floor system the minimum calculated test pressure shall be realized at the highest point.1 for full details on pneumatic leak testing. (a) The test pressure shall be at least the lesser of 105kPa (15 psi) gage. Sensitive leak test: This leak test is performed when there is a higher than normal potential for fluid leakage. In a situation in which the distribution of the pipeline that is being tested has distribution on multiple floors of a facility there will be pressure differentials between the floors due to static head differences. pressure variations due to static head differences in elevation have to be accommodated in hydrostatic testing. Meaning that what you achieve in the test is what it will be in operation.4 P 1. such as for hydrogen. 2: P T 1.3 is calculated using eq. However. and for B31. or by another method demonstrated to have equal sensitivity. It is not required that the examination take place while holding test pressure. While holding design pressure all joints are examined for leaks. 2) Unlike initial service testing. Section V.
or impractical to achieve. And the flange joint connecting the valve should have the torque of each bolt checked after visually ensuring correct type and placement of the gasket. if any. ft. (mm) U = anchor distance. In testing fluid services that are extremely difficult to seal against. Alternative leak test: In lieu of performing an actual leak test. the pressure being held long enough at each step to equalize piping strains. and falls within the limitations of empirical equation (eq. and includes longitudinal welds used in the manufacture of pipe and fittings that have not been previously tested hydrostatically or pneumatically. This test is conducted only when it is determined that hydrostatic or pneumatic testing would be detrimental to the piping system and/or the fluid intended for the piping system. on a theoretical basis. and (c) is of uniform size. Helium is the trace gas used in this process and has a molecule that is close to the size of the hydrogen molecule making it nearly as difficult to seal against as hydrogen without the volatility. at which time a preliminary check shall be made. the leak test pressure. 6) D = outside diameter of pipe. in which a hydrostatic or pneumatic test can be used. in. in-service line using a saddle with an o-let branch fitting with a weld neck flange welded to that and a valve mounted to the flange. This Alternative leak test also requires a flexibility analysis as applicable.000 SA/Ea. (in. a flexibility analysis verifies. 6). in. purge all of the gas from the system using helium. a system operating with a successful service record. The circumferential butt or groove weld used in welding the weld neck and the o-let fitting together should be radiographically or ultrasonically examined. As mentioned this does depend on the existing service fluid. If the existing fluid service is steam or a cryogenic fluid then you might want to consider the alternative leak test. (m) K1 = 208.3. It requires a 100% radiograph or ultrasonic examination of those welds. What we will do here is apply that understanding and describe a few general procedures for cleaning and testing. Test each mechanical joint using the mass-spectrometer to determine leak rate. Very briefly. After completing the preliminary low pressure pneumatic test. nipples and hose connectors. that an installed piping system is within the allowable stress range of the material and components under design conditions if a system: (a) duplicates or replaces without significant change. Check every mechanical joint for leakage. (mm) L = developed length of piping between anchors. .(b) The pressure shall be gradually increased until a gage pressure the lesser of one-half the test pressure or 170 kPa (25 psi) gage is attained. As an alternative to testing with internal pressure it is acceptable to qualify a system through examination and flexibility analysis. If it is a fluid service that can be considered a Category D fluid service then it is quite possible that a hydrostatic or pneumatic leak test can be performed on the described tie-in. the fillet weld used to weld the saddle to the existing pipe can be examined using the dye penetrant or magnetic particle method. is based on design pressure and design temperature. In Article 2 we described design pressure and temperature. Then the pressure shall be gradually increased in steps until the test pressure is reached. Cleaning and Leak Testing Procedures As you can see by equations eq. or fluid services classified as a Category M fluid service I would suggest the following in preparation for the process described under B31. straight line between anchors. Dy (L U )2 Where: K1 (eq. Once the system is thoroughly purged. you can perform a leak test rather than an alternative leak test.3: prior to performing the sensitive leak test perform a low pressure (15 psig) test with air or an inert gas using the bubble test method. regarding the tie-in scenario we just discussed for alternative leak testing. has no more than two points of fixation. The process calls for the examination of all groove welds. except for initial service testing.)2 SA = allowable displacement stress range per equation (1a) of ASME B31. and contains no less than 98% helium. By capping the valve with a blind flange modified to include a test rig of valves. continue using helium to perform the sensitive leak test with a helium mass spectrometer. (mm) y = resultant of total displacement strains to be absorbed by piping system. Within temperature limitations. 1 through eq. in. no 11 intermediate restraints. (mm/m)2 = 30 SA/Ea. ksi (MPa) One example in which an alternative leak test might be used is in making a branch tie-in to an existing. ksi (MPa) Ea = reference modulus of elasticity at 70°F (21°C)./ft. 5 above. in which internal pressure is used. (b) can be judged adequate by comparison with previously analyzed systems. There are circumstances. Where applicable. the sensitive leak test shall be used on any untested mechanical joints. the alternative leak test takes the examination and flexibility analysis approach. It depends on what the fluid service is in the existing pipeline. an inherent risk to personnel.
and (b) examination personnel qualifications.7: Records shall be made of each piping system during the testing. strainer or filter elements. attempt to get too specific in some of their requirements. as a rule. Standards. If a submitted alternate procedure does not compromise the intent of the Owner it is recommended that they be accepted. With that in mind let’s create a couple of general cleaning procedures. If not you may not get what you expect. and this includes the leak test procedures that follow. also indicated in leak testing. much as those given in the following. Do not flush through coils. But even within the industrial sector there are varying degrees of required testing and documentation. ASME B31. fill that gap. Beyond the essential requirements. In this manner there is no second guessing during construction. It does.As in all other project functions control and documentation is a key element in the cleaning and testing of piping systems.1 These systems shall be flushed with the fluid that the system is intended for. It’s better to give some forethought to these activities rather than be surprised at the results. including: (a) date of test (b) identification of piping system tested (c) test fluid (d) test pressure (e) certification of results by examiner These records need not be retained after completion of the test if a certification by the inspector that the piping has satisfactorily passed pressure testing as required by this Code is retained. do not. Include a permanent block valve at the supply line connection. that cover such a broad array of industrial manufacturing. The following will help. This will allow the Owner to see if that efficiency is really there.3. A general practice in the flushing and cleaning process. such as those indicated above. as is apparent in ASME B31. using pre-assigned symbols. in some form. engineer or contractor has to assume responsibility and know-how for providing more specific and proprietary requirements for a particular project specific to the particular needs of the Owner. Each piping circuit is assigned a specific clean and test protocol in advance.3: Unless otherwise specified by the engineering design. There shall be no hydrostatic or pneumatic leak test. may simply ignore them and perform their own procedures. This will give you some idea as to what you might consider developing for your own set of specifications. air or inert gas) C-1. plates. the Owner. in making that assumption. which states in Para. need to be handled in a manner that is dictated by the type of project. Making it far more likely they (the contractors) will execute your procedure instead of their’s. the following records shall be retained for at least 5 years after the record is generated for the project: (a) examination procedures. is the evacuation of air when using liquids. 346. .2. Building a commercial or institutional type facility will not require the same level of documentation and stringent controls that an industrial type facility would require. have been very simplistic. The contractor. a. Many pre-developed procedures I have seen over the years. they can then be specified in the line list with the respective fluid services as you require. in Para. 345.3 goes on to state. Once a menu of these cleaning and testing procedures are developed. to some extent. Refer to test Category T-1. All outlets shall have temporary hoses run to drain. Meaning that you don’t want to bury yourself in unwarranted paperwork and place an unneeded burden on the contractor when it isn’t necessary. An Initial Service leak test will be performed. however. those developed by Owners in particular. Assuming that if your company repeatedly executes projects you will have cleaning and testing guidelines. Using the same symbology indicated in Table 3-2 these cleaning procedures will be categorized as follows: Category C-1: Flush or Blow Down only (water. documentation requirements in industry standards are simplistic and somewhat generalized. Connect system to its permanent supply line. 12 prepared for your contractor. Always provide high point vents for evacuating air during the fill cycle and low point drains for clearing out all of the liquid when the process is complete. and typically out of date. This is an indicator to most contractors that the Owners Rep will most likely not attempt to enforce them. Cleaning Procedures This section will describe some fundamental cleaning procedures as they might appear in a specification or guideline. What your procedural guidelines should do is be explicit enough and current to the point where the contractors know that someone has given some thought as to how they want that work accomplished. It is certainly acceptable to accommodate suggestions to a procedure from a contractor when it doesn’t compromise the intent of the Owner’s requirements and improves the efficiency of the contractor. To begin with.
Hook up flush/test manifold at a designated temporary inlet to the system between the circulating pump discharge and the system inlet.016 . insert a conical strainer into a spool piece located between the discharge of the piping system and the outlet hose. by-passing the circulation pump. with a quantity of potable water equal to not less than three times that contained in the system.4 14. b.012 3/4 .207 ─ . followed by a neutralization rinse.106 . During the flushing procedure. Using the once through procedure (meaning the cleaning fluid is not re-circulated). Install a temporary hose or pipe on the designated outlet(s) of the system. Use Table 3-6 to estimate volume of liquid in the system. Discharge to sewer. testing segments of a piping system as they are installed without cleaning. The entire system would then cleaned once installed and tested. Route outlet hose or pipe to sewer. Use Table 3-6 to estimate volume of liquid in the system. flush system through all outlets until water is clear and free of any debris at all outlet points.70 9. perform an initial flush through the system. and a temporary hose or pipe on the designated outlet(s) of the system. clean and rinse process there should be no need to check for transient debris. After the initial flush. Connect a flush/test manifold at a designated inlet to the system.71 2.22 ─ 18 ─ 12.16 5. Thereby leak Table 3-6 – Volume of Water Per Lineal Foot of Pipe (gal.60 6 1. Open valve between flush/test manifold and piping system. d. However. pull the strainer and check for debris.771 ─ . Secure end of outlet.058 ─ . or during the process of placing the system into service.84 ─ 14 ─ 7. Route outlet hose or pipe to sewer.31 4. d. and as the system is placed into service. only for neutralization.61 ─ 10 ─ 4. Using supply line pressure. c. Flush a quantity of fluid through each branch not less than three times that contained in the system.023 1 . Use Table 3-6 to estimate volume of liquid in the system.037 11/2 . c.2 ─ ─ C-1. Verify no leaks prior to introducing chemical cleaning solution to the piping system. all joints shall be checked for leaks. After which the process will start over with step 2. d.5 ─ 24 ─ 22. c. Close valve between the circulating pump (if no valve included in the system design insert a lineblind or install a blind flange with a drain valve) discharge and flush/test rig.36 8 ─ 2. After the second flush (step 4).11 ─ 12 ─ 6.021 ─ .22 ─ 16 ─ 9. or as directed by Owner rep. C-2.) Pipe Sizes (inches) Sch. and the rate of flow in Table 3-4.68 ─ 1. if debris is found repeat step 3. Category C2: Flush then clean with cleaning solution.129 ─ . approved by Owner. (Note: During the water flush check the system for leaks. the sequence of cleaning and testing can be altered to follow the segmented installation.176 .028 . a.386 .2 These systems shall be flushed clean with Potable Water. 5s 20 40 80 1/2 . a. approved by Owner. Route temporary hose or pipe from potable water supply. perform an initial flush through the system with a quantity of potable water not less than three times that contained in the system. e. and connect to flush/test manifold. and the rate of flow in Table 3-4. cleaned with (indicate cleaning agent) then a rinse/neutralization followed by leak testing with potable water.) 13 .2 14.5 ─ 20 ─ 15.035 ─ . b.664 . If it is determined that the system will be installed and tested progressively in segments.b. and connect to flush/test manifold. or as directed by Owner rep. if circumstances dictate otherwise then a final check for debris may be warranted. Any leaks discovered during the flushing process.345 4 . Perform a second flush with a volume of potable water not less than that contained in the system. Because of the thoroughness of the flush. If no debris is found the system is ready for leak testing.045 .455 ─ . Using a Once through procedure (not a recirculation).154 3 .093 2 . or as directed by Owner’s Rep. Route temporary hose or pipe from potable water supply.34 9.1 These systems shall be pre-flushed with potable water.51 1. will require the system to be drained and repaired. These systems are required only to undergo an Initial Service leak test.
i. Since the (name cleaning agent) solution has a neutral pH the rinse water will have to be visually examined for clarity. Once the temperature of water exceeds 140°F (60°C). Test pH for neutralization. Remove pump and temporary circulation loop then configure the system for leak testing. circulate cleaning agent at a low velocity rate prescribed by the cleaning agent manufacturer. k.5°C). This may include removal of some components. by OSHA standards.e. The rinse must be started in as short as quickly after the cleaning cycle as possible. l. I then indicated that while Category D fluid services qualified for initial service leak testing there are caveats that should be considered. to 366°F (185. Leak Test Procedures As in the cleaning procedures we will keep this general. at ambient conditions water will simply make you wet if you get dripped or sprayed on. for the most part. Using water as an example. Again. However. g. h. In Article 1 I stated the B31. but provide enough specifics for you to develop leak testing procedures that will suit your company’s own particular needs. and nitrogen are all easy to identify as qualifyiers for Category D fluid services. The 140ºF temperature mentioned above is with respect to simply coming in contact with an object at that temperature. if anticipated. for any fluid service selected for initial service leak testing lies in determining what fluid services to place into each of the fluid service Categories. what is the level of 14 . Category M. j. or other source containing cleaning agent. drain remaining water in the system. Discharge to sewer. what do we consider hazardous. Category D. Fill the system with the pre-measured (indicate preferred cleaning agent and mixing ratio or % by volume) and circulate through the system for 48 hours. Configure valves and hoses to circulate through pump. and High Pressure. this is a situation in which ASME provides some flexibility in testing by lowering the bar on requirements where there is reduced risk in failure. etc. Acids. the temperature at which discomfort begins to set in. Drain cleaning agent to sewer or containment. Once neutralization is achieved proceed to step #12. Brief contact at that temperature would not be detrimental. After completing the initial flush. Rinse until clear. The final rinse and neutralization must be accomplished before any possible residue has time to dry. air. are flexible enough to accommodate suggested modifications from the contractor. Connect head tank. Cooling tower water. The Owner’s responsibility. In various litigation related to scalding it has been determined that an approximate one-second exposure to 160°F water will result in third degree burns. To minimize corrosion.5°C) for Category D fluid services what the Owner needs to consider here are three factors: within that range of 140°F (60°C). these procedures. chilled water. installation of temporary spools pieces. Provided. Or. Reconnect as in step #1 for the once through flush/neutralization. as the temperature continues to elevate it eventually moves into a range that increasing becomes scalding upon human contact and human tolerance is no longer a factor because it is now hazardous and the decision is made for you. it starts to become detrimental to personnel upon contact. With the maximum temperature limit of 366°F (185. retain water if cleaning chemicals will be added to the circulating water. or as directed by Owner’s Rep. insertion of line-blinds. The fluid services that fall within the acceptable Category D guidelines. If cleaning residue is allowed to dry on the interior pipe wall. And. At this point the range of human tolerance becomes a factor. volatile chemicals and petroleum products are usually easy to identify as those not qualifying as a Category D fluid service. And an approximate ten minute exposure to 120°F water can result in third degree burns. as directed by Owner. that if failure should occur the results would not cause catastrophic damage to property or irreparable harm to personnel. caustics. Before continuing I need to be clear on the above subject matter. Those three examples should provide an idea as to the kind of dialog that needs to be created in providing guidance and direction to the contractor responsible for the work. to connection provided on circulation loop. the upper limit of Category D fluids. Those Categories being: Normal. as I stated earlier.3 definition for Category D fluid services. but still have the potential for being hazardous to personnel are not so straight forward. it will be more difficult to remove by simply flushing. f. An approximate half-minute exposure to 130°F water will result in third degree burns. and flush system with potable water using a quantity not less than three times that of the system volume.
You could also extend this logic a bit further by assigning normal fluid service status to the primary headers of a chilled water system and assigning Category D status to the secondary distribution branches then leak test accordingly. Once it is determined that the system has been filled and vented properly. etc. if we can consider that there is a high assured integrity value for these piping systems there are two remaining factors to be considered. and secondly.opportunity for risk to personnel. If some or all of these requirements are not in place then there is no assured integrity.1 This Category covers liquid piping systems categorized by ASME B31. to its permanent supply source and to all of its terminal points. if not already connected. What I mean by assured integrity is this: if there are procedures and protocols in place that require. if a safety shower water system has to be shut down for leak repair the down-time to make the repairs has little impact on plant operations. if the system is located in a Group 5 area (ref. should one occur. If the fluid you are considering is within this temperature range then it has the potential of being 15 considered a normal fluid. how probable is it that personnel could be in the vicinity of a leak. if you have a fluid that is operating at 195°F (90. connect the system. or in other words. All three of these factors: temperature. In doing so. then there is a high degree of assured integrity in the system. validate and document third-party inspection of all pipe fabrication. One factor I have not included here is the degree of relative importance of a fluid service. Continuing. If on the other hand a chilled water system has to be shut down for leak repair to a main header. 2. As an example. This system would therefore be of relative low importance and not a factor in this evaluation process. as defined in B31. The first would be: within the above indicated temperature range at what temperature should a fluid be considered hazardous. D Group Description Yes No 1 Personnel Occupied Space √ 2 3 4 5 Corridor Frequented by Personnel Sensitive Equipment (MCC. 3. Table 3-7 – Areas Under Consideration For Cat. for instance. But. Open the block valve at the supply line and gradually feed the liquid into the system. and what is the level of assured integrity of the installation. Using the same symbology indicated in Table 33 these leak test procedures will be categorized as follows: Category T-1: Initial Service Leak Test T-1. risk of contact. and that the system is still intact. After the above exercise in evaluating a fluid service we can now continue with a few examples of leak test procedures. and how does that factor into this process. If. Start and stop the fill process to allow proper high point venting to be accomplished. After completion of the flushing and cleaning process.) Corridor Infrequently Used by Personnel Maintenance & Operations Personnel Only Access √ √ √ √ As an example. Control Room. For our purpose here let us determine that any fluid 160°F (71°C) and above is hazardous upon contact with human skin. Table 3-7) it could still qualify as a Category D fluid service. This could translate into lost production and could be considered a high degree of importance. this could have a significant impact to operations and production. and has set idle for an unspecified period of time it shall require a preliminary pneumatic test at the discretion of the Owner. By applying different Category significance to the same piping system it could cause more confusion than it is worth.3. have to be considered together to arrive at a reasonable determination for borderline Category D fluid services. 4. and assured integrity. if a system failed how big of a disruption would it cause in plant operation. 1. but is in an area of a facility that sees very little personnel activity then the fluid service could still be considered as a Category D fluid service. pending its location as listed in Table 3-7.6°C) it would be considered hazardous in this evaluation. If the system is not placed into service or tested immediately after flushing and cleaning. gradually increase pressure . You need to be cautious in considering this. a fluid service is hot enough to be considered hazardous. installation and testing.3 as Category D Fluid service and will require Initial Service Leak Testing only. In other words it may be more value added to simply default to the more conservative Category of Normal. Hold pressure to its minimum until the system is completely filled and vented. After this preliminary pressure check proceed. air shall be supplied to the system to a pressure of 10 psig and held there for 15 minutes to ensure that joints and components have not been tampered with.
Should any leaks be found drain system. 16 . If leaks are found evacuate system as required. Hold pressure to its minimum until the system is completely filled and vented.) 6. test fluids. Open the block-valve at the supply line and gradually feed the gas into the system.3 as Category D Fluid service and will require Initial Service Leak Testing. and to all of its terminal points. 3. gradually increase pressure until 50% of the test pressure is reached. repair leak(s) and begin again with step 2.1: Hydrostatic Leak Test T-3. check all joints for leaks. For leak testing to be successful on your project. Continue to supply the system gradually until test pressure is achieved.2. If the system is not placed into service or tested immediately after flushing and cleaning. 5. hold it for a minimum of 30 minutes or until all joints have been checked for leaks. 5. (Caveat: Should the leak be no more than a drip every minute or two on average at a flange joint. and that the system is still intact. T-1. with the flush/test manifold still in place and the temporary potable water supply still connected (reconnect if necessary). 2. 8. Record test results and fill in all required fields on the leak test form. If it happens to be a threaded joint you may still need to drain the system. Should leaks be found at any time during this process drain the system.This Category covers pneumatic piping systems categorized by ASME B31. Record test results and fill in all required fields on the leak test form. If leaks are found release pressure. clean the threads. the system shall be connected to its permanent supply source. 2. it could require simply checking the torque on the bolts without draining the entire system. This preparation starts with gathering information on test pressures. During the process of filling the system. Category T-3. This includes valve and equipment seals and packing. evacuate system and replace all items temporarily removed. Once it is determined that the system has been filled and vented properly. Record all data and activities on leak test forms. Make a preliminary check of all joints by sound or bubble test. If no leaks are found the system is ready for service. and the types of tests that will be required. if not already done so. and increasing pressure to 50% of the test pressure. If no leaks are identified continue to step 3. check all joints for leaks. Increase the pressure to a point equal to the lesser of one-half the operating pressure or 25 psig. If no leaks are found. 7. After completion of the flushing and cleaning process. careful preparation is key. 4. Continue to increase pressure in 25 psi increments. In doing so.until 50% of operating pressure is reached. 1. The most convenient place for this information to reside is the piping line list or piping system list. 5. 4. until the operating pressure is reached. After this preliminary pressure check proceed. holding that pressure momentarily (approximately 2 minutes) after each increase to allow piping strains to equalize. Hold that pressure for approximately 2 minutes to allow piping strains to equalize. Once the test pressure has been achieved. Those three examples should provide an idea as to the kind of guideline that needs to be created in providing direction to the contractor responsible for the work. open the block valve at the supply line and complete filling the system with potable water.This Category covers liquid piping systems categorized by ASME B31. Continue to supply the system gradually until full operating pressure is achieved. 1. add new sealant and reconnect the joint before continuing. After completion of the blow-down process. 6. air shall be supplied to the system to a pressure of 10 psig and held there for 15 minutes to ensure that joints and components have not been tampered with.3 as Normal Fluid service. During the process of filling the system. repair and repeat from step 2. Start and stop the fill process to allow proper high point venting to be accomplished. 3. If leaks are found release pressure. Hold that pressure for approximately 2 minutes to allow piping strains to equalize. Check for leaks by sound and/or bubble test. disassemble the joint. and has set idle for an unspecified period of time it shall require a preliminary pneumatic test at the discretion of the Owner. repair leak(s) and begin again with step 1. repair leak(s) and begin again with step 1. repair leak(s) and begin again with step 1.1. If someone forgot to fully tighten the bolts then do so now.
8. At face value this exercise would provide an assurance that the fabricating/installing contractor is fulfilling their contractual obligation. 10. and semi-conductor industries. 6. 4. 5. The bottom line is that the Owner is still responsible for the end result. have increasingly provided improved interpretation of these guidelines to meet many industry imposed. documentation of materials used. 7. Performing this kind of activity while in the heat of a project schedule tends to force quick agreement to specifications and requirements written by parties other than those with the Owner’s best interest at heart. Other projects may require a more detailed approach by listing each to and from line along with the particular data for each line. etc. and continues to become. the Code of Federal Regulation 29CFR Titles 210 and 211 current Good 17 . 16. leak test records. and in response to. Wrapping Up Developing this type of information on a single form provides everyone involved with the basic information needed for each line. as well as self-imposed requirements. No one wants to head for the litigation table at the end of a project. Validating a piping system to ensure compliance and acceptability is always beneficial and money well spent. On some projects it may be more practical to compile the information by entire service fluid systems. 17. stringent. could benefit from adopting some of the essential elements of validation. 14. industrial projects outside the pharmaceutical. Test results. industries not prone to require such in-depth scrutiny. will be maintained under separate cover. These CFR Titles and FDA requirements drove the need to demonstrate or prove compliance. These requirements can cover everything from verification of examination and inspection. food & drug. etc. 19. 9. Validation is actually a subset activity under the umbrella of Commissioning and Qualification (C&Q). You may know it by its less formal namesakes walk-down and checkout. The added benefit is that in knowing that this degree of scrutiny will take place the contractor will themselves take extra pain to minimize the possibility of any rejects. software functionality and repeatability to welder qualification. From these basic governmental outlines companies. The cGMP requirements under 29CFR Titles 210 & 211 are a vague predecessor of what validation has become. Elements such as: material verification. documented on the test data forms. or all inclusive. 18. Line size Fluid Nominal material of construction Pipe Spec Insulation spec P&ID Line sequence number from and to information Pipe code Fluid Service Category Heat Tracing Operating Pressure Design Pressure Operating Temperature Design Temperature Type of Cleaning Test Pressure Test Fluid Type of Test Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) and FDA requirements. To a lesser extent. The line list itself is an excellent control document that might include the following for each line item: 1.A piping line list and piping system list achieve the same purpose only to different degrees of detail. walk-down and checkout procedures are not nearly as complex. This allows the spec writers and reviewers the benefit of having time to consider just what those requirements are and how they should be defined without the time pressures imposed when this activity is project driven. welding machine qualification. 3. Compared to validation. 13. 2. 12. 15. Most will already have their own verification procedure in place. and the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. 11. VALIDATION The process of Validation has been around for longer than the 40 plus years I have been in this business. Together the line list provides the required information on each line or system and the test data forms provide signed verification of the actual test data of the test circuits that make up each line or system. It is derived from the need to authenticate and document specifically defined requirements for a project and stems indirectly from. welder and welding operator qualification records. Having access to this line-by-line information in such a concise well organized manner reduces guess-work and errors during testing. And I am not inferring that all contractors are out to get by with as little as they can. And the best way to avoid that is for the Owner to be proactive in developing their requirements prior to initiating a project. Just the opposite is actually true. Most contractors qualified to perform at this level of work are in it to perform well and to meet their obligations.
These Standards committees have enough work to do within their defined scope of work without inadvertently duplicating work done by other Standards organizations. M. better documents than they otherwise would have been. work hand-in-hand with one another by referencing each other where necessary.wmhuitt. What I didn’t cover is the fact that most projects will actually have a need to comply with multiple industry Standards. petrochemical. He can be reached at: W. intelligence and insight he brings to everything he does. This is why some topics were briefer than I would have liked. and coal gasification. Huitt Co. piping department supervisor. and the others. chemical. ASME B31.com 18 . piping design instructor. M. to go into great detail on any specific topic. MO 63131-0154 (314)966-8919 wmhuitt@aol. and a Certification Part CR. for taking the time to review each of these three articles. engineering and construction since 1965. He obliged me by applying the same skill. My attempt at covering such a wide range of discussion on industrial piping was to provide a basic broad understanding of some key points on this topic. These and other Standards. Louis. when used appropriately. One thing that should be understood with industry Standards is the fact that they will always be in a state of flux. Acknowledgement: My deep appreciation again goes to Earl Lamson.3 for chemical and utility piping throughout the facility. but could leave out without too much of an impact. And this is a good thing. papers. pharmaceutical. About the author: W. and sets on two corporate specification review boards. pulp & paper. project supervisor. M. and ASME-BPE for any hygienic piping requirements. We had discussed industry Standards earlier and how they are selected and applied on a project. always changing. project engineer. These are changes that reflect updating to a new understanding.Before closing out this last of three articles there are just a couple of things I would like to touch on. expanded clarification on the various sections that make up a Standard. There were definite piping topics I wanted to include and others I would have preferred to include. thanks in large part to the cooperation of the standards developers and ANSI. And then there were the extended discussions on some topics that ultimately had to be sacrificed. Bill is a member of ISPE (International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers). and simply building the knowledge base of the Standard.1 for boiler external piping (if not included with packaged boilers). ASME B31. His comments help make this article. engineering manager and president of W. staying abreast of technology. He is a member of three ASME-BPE subcommittees. these Standards can be used as needed on a project without fear of conflict between those Standards. a piping consulting firm founded in 1987. Positions have included design engineer. senior Project Manager with Eli Lilly and Company. and magazine articles on the topic of pipe design and engineering. There will be a Metallic Materials of Construction Part MMOC. As an example. guidelines. His experience covers both the engineering and construction fields and crosses industrial lines to include petroleum refining. (Bill) Huitt has been involved in industrial piping design. an API Task Group. several Task Groups. P O Box 31154 St. I hope that in writing these articles I piqued enough interest that some of you will dig deeper into this subject matter to discover and learn some of the more finite points of what we discussed here. This is all part of the ever-evolving understanding of the needs of the industrial community and improved clarification. Writing these articles was a form of informational triage for me. His comments kept me concise and on target. He has written numerous specifications. as I said earlier.com www. biofuel. not. In a large grass-roots pharmaceutical project you may need to include industry compliance Standards for much of the underground utility piping. I also hope these articles provided enough basic knowledge of piping for you to recognize when there is more to a piping issue than what you are being told. CSI (Construction Specifications Institute) and ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers). nuclear power. through discussion and debate on content. two new Parts are being added to the seven Parts currently existing in ASME-BPE. Huitt Co. An integrated set of American National Standards is the reason that.
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