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LEgAL Warning Notice Limited Warranty INTrOduCTION Victorian Atmosphere Scramble for Colonies Detailed Military System Enhanced Economics Easy to Use / Hard to Master INsTALLATION System Requirements updATEs ANd suppOrT ON ThE FOrum INTErFACE mAIN mENu Options Media Game AI System Campaigns and Scenarios Sides and Duration Historical Briefing How to Win Loading, Deleting, and Renaming a Game Saving a Game Play By E-mail (PBEM) WINNINg ThE gAmE Prestige Points (PP) gAmE sCALE NATIONs OF ThE WOrLd Overview Head of State Interface: The National Summary Ruler and Minister Missions Decrees and Laws National Attributes Faction Attributes Explained Technological approach: Trade Approach: Government Types: Social Mobility Religious Attitude Economic Model Military System Power Projection Education Level National Identity Bureaucracy pOLITICs, ruLErs, ANd ELECTIONs Faction Attributes and Elections Elections, Election Attributes, and Actions Taking the Seat after Elections Rulers and Faction Attributes 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 ThE mAp Navigating the Map Regions and Sea Zones Civilization Level Transportation Network Terrain Type Structures Entrenchments Administrative Areas Theaters Filters Army OrgANIzATION Understanding the Unit Panel What is a Unit? What is an Element? Manipulating Forces Fixed Units Command Chain Leadership Leader Ranks Leader Roles Command Penalty Unit Attributes NATO Symbol and Unit Type Combat Efficiency Number of Elements and Experience Cohesion Manpower Element Attributes Leader Attributes Rank Special Abilities Strategic Rating and Activation Important Offensive and Defensive Ratings Seniority Experience Fleets OrdErs Movement Resting Naval Ranges Functionality of the Naval Range Refueling of Naval Units Power Consumption (Rail and Naval) Blocking Movement Patrol Value Evasion Value Finding the Enemy at Sea Interception and Combination Special Orders Rail Movement River Movement Regular Sea Movement Amphibious Landing Postures Raids FOg OF WAr Detection Procedure Detection Value Hide Value 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26


Steel. 1850 Ministry of Industry and Commerce (F4) Assets Balance Window Collecting and Sending Resources Collection Points Trade Areas ThE dOmEsTIC mArkET Goals How Does it Work? 35 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 4 . rEpLACEmENTs.suppLy Overview of the Supply System Out-of-Supply Penalties Attrition due to lack of Supply Loss of Unit Cohesion Loss of Combat Effectiveness Lack of Ammunition and Combat Supply Sources Supply Distribution Rail Transport Depots Supply Wagons Supply Decay Safe Supply Limit (SSL) Supply Decay Percentage Decay Test Naval Units and Supply Foraging and Supply CLImATE ATTrITION mILITAry CONTrOL Effects Controlling Structures LOyALTy (pOpuLATION ALLEgIANCE) Effects Influencing Loyalty BuILdINg uNITs The Military Construction Mode (Overview) Construction Buttons Constructible Units Where to Build Possible Causes preventing the Construction of Units Force Pools Men State Funds (Money) Assets Coal. and Ethnicity Regional Demography Population Growth Creation and Growth of Cities Social Class and Social Mobility Population Satisfaction Possible Effects Population Behavior Table Management of Popular Resistance rEvOLTs Strength and Behavior Revolt Force Pool Region List and Base Revolt Chance Final Revolt Chance Winning and Losing Revolts Miscellaneous rEsOurCEs ANd gOOds Overview Using Resources Money: National and Private Capital Autoconversion of Merchandise into Assets Special Case of Regionalized Assets NATIONAL sTOCks Location of Resources Assets Balance Window ECONOmIC sTruCTurEs Overview Using the Interface Cost of Operation and Deactivation Collection Point Commercial Zones Productivity of Structures Quality of Labor Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction of the Population National Attributes and Technologies Level of Transportation Infrastructure Understanding the Resource Flow Example: United Kingdom. and Goods General Supply Ammunition Units Under Construction on the Map Build Duration The War Ministry Screen (F2) Units Construction Overview Military Options Replacements Special Structures Attributes for Building Building Restrictions for Units mANAgINg yOur NATION National Morale (NM) Impact on War Conduct COmBAT IN ThE FIELd Engaging Combat Marching to the Sound of the Guns Withdrawal Frontage Combat Range Fire Combat Morale Melee Combat Battle Aftermath 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 sIEgE COmBAT Storming a Structure NAvAL COmBAT Damages Done to Elements Effects of Hits on Ships: LOssEs. ANd rEpAIrs Structures for Repairing Ships mANAgINg ThE pOpuLATION General Regional Parameters Representing the Population Social Classes Satisfaction Militancy Education Nationality (Loyalty). Religion.

The Goods TAxEs ANd rEvENuEs Taxes Census Tax Corporate Tax Excise Tax Tariffs Income Tax Maritime Tax INTErNATIONAL TrAdE General National Territory Commercial Zones Sea Trade Boxes The Transaction Window Product Boxes Purchases and Sales rEsEArCh: TEChNOLOgIEs ANd INvENTIONs Overview Dual System: Inventions and Technologies Research Item Categories Research Interface Mastering a Research Item COLONIAL AFFAIrs Overview Spheres of Influence (SOI) Colonial Penetration (CP) Colonial Scapes Definitions: Colonial Actions Types of Actions Definitions: Colonies. and Benefits Influenced Protectorate Formal Colonies CP Increase Duration. Influence Status. and Other Effects CP Requirements for Status Changes Gaining Control of Colonies Higher Colonial Status Protectorate Benefits Colony Benefits Colonies and Diplomacy Colony Population Growth The Cost of the Colonial Empire 48 49 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 51 51 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 57 57 Colonial Regions Subdued Regions. or “The Weird Cases” De Jure Regions De Facto Regions Exceptions to the Region Rules Diplomatic Crisis and Diplomatic Agendas Overview Solving a Crisis: The Agenda Outcome of a Crisis Crisis Resolution Mediators Diplomatic Action. Caps. by Type AppENdICEs Glossary and Abbreviations Terrain Summary for Land Units Shortcut Keys and Commands NATO Symbols Special Ability Icon Definition CrEdITs 60 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 63 65 66 67 dEALINg WITh yOur NEIghBOrs: dIpLOmACy 57 Overview 57 Relationship Rating 57 Impact of the Relationship Rating on Diplomacy 57 Issuing Diplomatic Requests 58 Diplomatic Time Delay and Bilateral Diplomatic Requests 58 Diplomatic Time Delay and Unilateral Diplomatic Actions 58 Responding to Diplomatic Requests 58 Treaties 58 Treaty Categories 58 Declaring War: Country Types and the Casus Belli 58 Nation Types 58 Great Powers and Other Nation-States 59 By Right and by Rule: Region Types 59 Notes on Regions and Gameplay 59 National Regions 59 Claimed Regions 60 National Interest Regions 60 5 .

except in the event of discontinuation or out-of-stock condition. Paradox France will carry out the refunding of the product to the customer. This may happen even if the person has no medical history of epilepsy or has never had any epileptic seizures. In such a circumstance. If you or your child experience any of the following symptoms: dizziness. This guarantee still does not cover the damage. military conquest. economic 6 . In the end. disorientation. economic. or even the Colonial Adventurers. as per articles 1641 and following of the French Civil Code. Paradox france makes no warranties. This manual. In any event. the Diplomatic Corps. your name. address and. every action taken revolves around gaining and losing Prestige. Please remember to include full details of the defect. Limited Warranty In order to avoid any nuisance. Diplomatic rules are clearly made to have players experience the feel of the age when discussing war. We advise that parents should monitor the use of video games by their children. » Rest for at least 10 to 15 minutes per hour while playing a video game. and the software described in this manual. Each power offers a unique experience with its own look. as far away as the length of the cable allows. the value by which victory or defeat is judged. the customer benefits from a contractual guarantee against all defects which could appear in the delivered product throughout a period of 3 months starting from the delivery date. 38240 meylan. while playing a video game. A defective product under guarantee will be exchanged for an identical product. agenda. conditions or representations express or implied. a daytime telephone number where we can contact you. the State Administration. Scramble for Colonies The colonial system is extremely detailed with over 20 possible action types. loss of consciousness. indirect or consequential damages. reproduced. » Preferably play the game on a small screen. For the implementation of the guarantee. mer- INTrOduCTION PRIDE OF NATIONS (PON) is a historical strategy game using simultaneous turn resolution—also referred to as a WEGO system—set in the colonial era of the 19th century. Such people may have a seizure while watching television images or playing certain video games. In no event shall paradox france be liable for any special. the customer must return at his own cost the product guarantee form to Paradox France. » Do not stand too close to the screen. and other agreements. chantability or fitness for any particular purpose. These terms and conditions do not affect or prejudice the statutory rights of a purchaser in any case where a purchaser is a consumer acquiring goods otherwise than in the course of a business. If you or anyone in your family has ever had symptoms related to epilepsy (seizures or loss of consciousness) when exposed to flashing lights. means and warranty period are specified in the appropriate chart of guarantee delivered with the concerned product. subject to normal use in conformity with the recommendations stated in the documents and instructions of usage relating to the said products.LEgAL Warning Please Read Before Using This Game Or Allowing Your Children To Use It. (Side note: modding allows for more nations to become playable. Some people are susceptible to epileptic seizures or loss of consciousness when exposed to certain flashing lights or light patterns in everyday life. eye or muscle twitches. joining the original of the invoice to it. the products are subject to the legal guarantee against hidden defects. It can be played either against the computer’s artificial intelligence (AI) or against a human opponent using file transfer protocols. any involuntary movement or convulsion. blurred vision. 3 allee des frenes. understandings. Among the original features is a diplomatic system that works around the Victorian-age spirit of gentlemen’s agreements. the products are checked by Paradox France before their shipment. Sit a good distance away from the screen. Players assume the role of military.) The game will assign various missions to the player that they must complete to keep their Prestige as high as possible. and political leadership in their countries. leading their nations’ Armies and Fleets. No part of this manual or the described software may be copied. and victory conditions. » Avoid playing if you are tired or have not had much sleep. peace. breakages or dysfunctions due to non-respect of the precautions for use. IMMEDIATELY discontinue use and consult your doctor. However. playing the key members of the Private Business Class. Certain products may benefit from a wider guarantee. or Play By E-Mail (PBEM). Victorian Atmosphere Players lead one of the era’s eight Great Powers. In such a case. from military conquest to political meddling. consult your doctor prior to playing. where possible. translated or reproduced to any electronic medium or machine-readable form without the prior written consent of paradox france sarl. and colonization. and (polite) backstabbing. where the player takes control of a country and guides it through industrialization. is under copyright. Paradox france makes certain limited warranties with respect to the software and the media for the software. Notice Paradox france reserves the right to make improvements to this product described in this manual at any time and without notice. with respect to this manual. » Make sure that the room in which you are playing is well lit. such as ensuring that the US respects the Monroe Doctrine. alliances. This manual is provided “as is”. its quality. All rights are reserved. france. shipped to the customer at the expenses of Paradox France.

Lastly. industry. Follow the on-screen instructions to install the game. and have been acclaimed by thousands of players since 2005. 2000 MHz RAM: 20484 MB Graphic Card: 128 MB vRAM. It is our hope that this level of detail will add to the game’s enjoyment and immersion. be it through Protectorates. such as agriculture. and sending exploration parties.exe. They can be combined into various forces (Brigades. which is that the State is less present in the 19th-century economy than in the 21st century. the desktop shortcut or by inserting the DVD. artillery Batteries. The most important economic factor of the era is also included. Some will be great Corps commanders and terrible Army commanders. Your personal strategy may even mean going into regions that are less favorable for you in SOI to gain an advantage. but it will be the same unit in name only as new equipment and decades of combat experience will give it the well-earned status of elite unit. DirectX 9. DirectX 9. or political. or Win7 Hard Disk: 3 GB free disk space DirectX: Version 9. as these windows provide a wealth of information on regions. buildings. Consequently. The aim is to acquire the highest Colonial Penetration (CP) rating in the various colonial areas. In addition. as well as original portraits for most key leaders. The military engine and AI are proven. and individual capital Warships. Armies. small ship Squadrons. All building and movement on the map (units. INsTALLATION Start your computer and insert the DVD labeled Pride of Nations into your DVD drive.1 compatible (DirectMusic compliant) – DVD-ROM: 8x Peripherals: Microsoft-compatible keyboard and mouse Operating System: Windows XP. do not expect the ‘perfect’ economic solution for the US to lead you to victory as Austria. Vista. Some sub-systems can be delegated to the AI. Select PON. You can view both dynamically on the game map through animated shipping lanes and rail lines. and finally on “setup.” If Microsoft (R) DirectX 9. mining. Please note that the DVD is not required to play the game. For players familiar with Paradox France’s combat system. To uninstall the game. Merchant Fleet expansion and railroad network development are important gameplay factors and keys to both status and development. There are more than 50 different types of resources and industrial products to manage (or to let the engine manage during times of war. You gain the most Prestige by being the leading colonial power in areas where you have high SOI values. then on the icon of your DVD-ROM drive. you may move into regions with a negative SOI value to simply block your rival’s expansion! Detailed Military System Units in the game consist of individual Regiments. such as the legendary Civilization series. nearly all on-map features have a “tooltip” window that appears when you leave your cursor centered on the window. In PON. which can be found on the DVDROM.” Graphic Card: 64 MB vRAM. and lends itself quite well to PBEM. Once the game has been installed. when you are too busy commanding your forces toward victory!). please launch the DirectX installer. and every other facet of the game. PON processes all player turns simultaneously after each has completed their move. Colonies. DirectX 9. for instance. trying to do that will most likely cause your economy to collapse! Easy to Use / Hard to Master The game uses a turn-based format in order to capture the ‘one more turn’ appeal of other well-known franchises. while others will make model Colonial officers but be completely unfit for commanding large Armies against other Great Powers.and sanitary development. 1200 MHz RAM: 1024 MB 7 . giving the game a ‘living world’ touch.000+ leaders included in the game. with the final goal being to reach exclusive control of key areas and resources. As the game develops and time goes on. with the engine regularly receiving new features and improvements. the impact of technological evolution and progress is rendered over the 70 years of history covered by the game. and trade. Leaders have specific attributes (more than 500 are provided) that give each of them a unique flavor and make them more or less tailored for the task assigned to them. when privately held capital and business run the show. cultural. The setup program will start automatically.1 System Requirements minimum Processor : Intel Pentium or AMD. or Win7 Hard Disk: 3 GB free disk space DirectX: Version 9. the game provides an unequalled look at the military assets of the era: all of the nations’ most colorful and distinctive uniforms from the second half of the century are included (over 700 different pictures). Simply put. you can start it from the Windows Start menu. which is useful for people who are more interested in another aspect of the game. your units will change: the infantry brigade you build in 1850 may still be active in 1920. Corps. Squadrons. The world is divided into Spheres of Influence (SOI). Divisions. and then click “add/remove. You can even view overseas immigration and urban growth.1 compatible (DirectMusic compliant) DVD-ROM: 8x Peripherals: Microsoft-compatible keyboard and mouse Operating System: Windows XP. select “add/remove programs” in the Control Panel. Vista. or Dominions. as your settlers flow to new Colonies and your cities grow. This is key.1 compatible Sound Card: 16-bit.1 compatible Sound Card: 16-bit.1 (R) is not present on your PC.1 recommended Processor: Intel Pentium IV or AMD Athlon. this will be a new challenge. in fact. the game is easy to play without slowdown with up to seven partners. These values are in part set historically and in part adjusted dynamically via game events and actions. Enhanced Economics A wide range of economic investment possibilities is on offer in all sectors. Also. DirectX 9. for example. and Fleets) in order to achieve strategic goals and make the best use of the 3. and colonial missions) is done with the user-friendly “drag-and-drop” method. colored map filters and summary windows allow players to check the information relative to their country at their leisure. be they demographic. start the setup program by double-clicking on My Computer. If Autoplay is not activated. Each nation has its strengths and weaknesses in this regard. units.

you can activate or deactivate the Fog of War. where you can save and/or quit the game in progress. INTErFACE Additional information on nearly every aspect of the game can be accessed through tooltips. Don’t hesitate to explore the various tooltips throughout the game screens as these can greatly aid in understanding the game’s many details. The Esc key (at the top-left of most keyboards) allows you to close any window that is currently open. Even a slight tweak to the Fog of War setting will have a significant impact on your opponents’ ability to strategize. and adjust the combat animation delay. and setting game options. If you hover the cursor over a particular item on the screen. By allowing the game more time to process between turns. adjust the tooltip delay.” which can be downloaded from the relevant section on the Paradox Forum. in this case. you can improve your opponents’ AI. including features not documented in this manual. where you can access all of the basic functions.” which allow for smoother scrolling. AI This is where you select the difficulty level and adjust the intelligence of your computer opponent(s). a text box will appear with detailed information about the corresponding feature. Figure 1: Hovering the cursor over a region will display a black “tooltip” box with additional information about the region. System You can adjust technical settings here. Note that a proof of purchase (serial number) may be required in some cases. These include “Region Precaching” and “Textures Init. and whether the game should pause after a turn in which a battle occurs (“Pause after Battle”). leader names and attributes are only revealed after they have conducted their first battle. You can also select how units will be 8 . choose the language used in the game. displayed on the map (“Leader on Top” and “Regroup Armies” options). you will start at the Main Menu. We recommend using the default settings. help is available via the Pride of Nations’ section on the Paradox Forum. In the event that you experience a technical problem. If you hit the Esc key while on the main map. you will be returned to the Main Menu.updATEs ANd suppOrT ON ThE FOrum Paradox France strives to fix any identified problems as soon as possible with “patches. Finally. mAIN mENu After launching the game. there are many keyboard shortcuts that are listed in the Appendix. NotE: Tooltips are extremely valuable for accessing information about almost everything in the game. but it can be adjusted in the Options Menu. saving or loading a game. These include starting a game (against the computer or a human opponent). You can also play with Unknown Leaders (hidden statistics). options Media Here you can activate or deactivate music and sounds. The tooltip delay is set to “instantaneous” by default. Activation and Withdrawal rules. Game In this menu. Note that the game automatically saves your position each turn.

Play By E-mail (PBEM) PON can be played against another human opponent using e-mail or any other valid file transfer protocol. Go back to step #2 and repeat. This will generate an ORD file (in the folder mentioned above). If at any time you meet the conditions for an Automatic Victory. NON-hOsT sENds Ord FILE TO hOsT: Each player now loads the game and gives their orders for the upcoming turn. This automatically generates a subfolder in the C:\Games\Pride of Nations\PON\Saves\ directory. The scenario’s duration is indicated by the starting and ending dates. The opponent must store this file in the PONGame\PON\Saves\ folder. such as instant messaging. as well as the number of months (turns) to play. you can hit the Esc key to reach the Main Menu. Important: do not click on “End Turn” during this step. while information pertaining to them is displayed on the right side whenever they are moused over. 2. If you fail to meet these conditions by the end of the game. The procedure is detailed below: 1. The game will remember where you left off. A new turn is now ready to start. The Non-Hosting player then sends their ORD file to the Hosting player. Hover the cursor over the save file in the Load Game window to view its individual options. and starts the game as usual. CrEATE A gAmE: The Host chooses a Campaign or Scenario and a side. the side which has accumulated the most Prestige Points (see below) will be the victor. The list of playable scenarios is shown on the left. where can then access the Save Game menu. They now click on “End Turn” to launch the turn resolution.g. each player saves the game. Sides and Duration The opposing sides are identified by their flags. as indicated by each entry’s tooltip. the opponent could save the TRN file under the PONGame\PON\Saves\JohnVsJoe subfolder. Each scenario and campaign has a set of informative details that is displayed whenever they are accessed in the New Game menu. 3. and Renaming a Game On startup. Saving a Game At any time. 4. there are dozens of ways to gain PP. then you will send the CSA file to your opponent). if you choose to play as the US. or if you want to rename a saved game file. In the Campaign 9 . Loading. just click the “End Turn” button and stop playing.” You have the option to restore from any of the 12 previous turns of any saved game. However. It is best to rename files only through this interface. NotE: The Non-Hosting player doesn’t get to “play back” their opponent’s turn. How to Win You can win the game in one of two ways. The only instance where you might want to manually save a game is if you need a rest in the middle of a turn. named after the selected Campaign or Scenario. Deleting. You can rename the saved game while in the game (note: do not rename a save file outside of the game). you will find two TRN files that each have three letters indicating which nation the files belong to. you immediately win. as this is done automatically each turn once you hit “End Turn. you primarily earn PP by controlling Strategic Cities and Objective Cities. Look for a specific list in the Appendix. hOsT rEsOLvEs TurN The Hosting player saves the ORD file that was received from their opponent into the appropriate directory and loads the game again. In other words. The side with the most PP wins the game. delete. To control these cities. Please note that a number helps differentiate between multiple instances of the same Campaign/ Scenario. One of the players (the “Host”) must initiate the game. they can check the Message Log to see what occurred during the turn. game (1850). In battle scenarios. where all orders are then executed. In the newly created folder. or restore a previous turn of any saved game. though this is only applicable in battle scenarios. When ready. winning is a matter of “Prestige Points” (PP). You generally don’t have to WINNINg ThE gAmE Except in the case of an Automatic Victory. you can either begin a new campaign or resume a previously saved game.Campaigns and Scenarios manually save a game. hOsT sENds TrN FILE TO OppONENT: The Hosting player now sends his opponent the TRN file with the opposing nation’s designation (e. It is advisable to use subfolders in order to keep all PBEM games in progress separate. as described in the specific scenario. For example. and the scope of the victory depends on the PP difference.. Historical Briefing The text below the title is a summary of the historical situation at the time of the scenario. you must garrison them with at least one line Prestige Points (PP) Each side accumulates or is awarded PP every turn. when you want to quit. You also have the option to rename.

if a region’s Loyalty is at 51% or greater. 3. Diplomats are treated as a resource and are used up whenever diplomatic actions are taken. such as proposing a treaty. or hitting F9. Corps. You cannot change these attributes at whim. their current stats are shown represented in three categories: 1.. it is deemed secure even without a garrison. Brigades. as they represent the historical reality of your faction. such as a nearby railway.2 = 10). as well as values of the related units. and the Prestige received from regions inside your Spheres of Influence. There are other factors altering this efficiency. The second effect is that you’ll gain more or less Prestige from your possessions because of Diplomacy. you will see who is in charge: Ruler (President or King/Queen) and Prime Minister. Administration modifies how costly new structures are to build. and Fleets » Map: The whole world. A 5 means ‘no change. with regional areas and Sea Zones NATIONs OF ThE WOrLd overview The Victorian Era was the age of the nation-state. Armies. Whereas Strategic Cities count towards victory in all scenarios. Each attribute can have up to four different values (see below for details). Ships.’ while 4 or less results in penalties and 6 or more in bonuses. To tally up your earnings. Imperialism: Modifies your Force Pool and unit Cohesion. 2. Missions are interesting because they give players Head of State Interface: the National Summary Each country has a national summary which is displayed by hitting the F2 key. Below their names. but in different contexts. These values represent the sum effect of the Ruler and the Prime Minister of the faction. Each figure has a numeric value for each attribute. Diplomacy: Modifies the amount of Diplomats you receive. This is also a modifier on how fast your troops regain Cohesion.infantry or cavalry unit. and you are playing a nation which is a major power. and is a factor in their efficiency (i. Diplomacy modifies how many Diplomats you gain every three months. Imperialism modifies the size of your Force Pool. as well as the decrees and laws currently in effect. Administration: Modifies the initial cost and output of production structures. Divisions. For example. The combination of these attributes gives shape to your faction. Batteries. how much they produce). Objective Cities are specific to the campaign at hand. Below this area are the faction’s national attributes. if you have a 9 in Imperialism and allowance max of 8 infantry Corps. you can see the current Ruler of your faction and their Prime Minister. They are similar to events. a Ruler with a 5 in Administration and a Prime Minister with a -2 will result in an Administration value of 3 for the faction [5 + (-2) = 3]. making it unique and different from all your neighbors. You can check cities you control and the PP you’ve accumulated by viewing the ledger at any time by either clicking on the globe picture at the left of the screen. To the right of the faction’s Rulers are the available missions. Winning a battle also nets you PP. depending on your actions through the course of the game. the game compares the losses you inflicted to the losses you suffered. which can vary from 1 to 9: » Imperialism » Administration » Diplomacy Each stat is the sum of the statistics of the Ruler and their Prime Minister. Missions Missions are tasks which allow you to gain Prestige. Ruler and Minister At the top-left. then you’ll ultimately have 10 infantry Corps to draft (8 * 1. However. you may receive special offers that will affect the attributes in some way. 10 . gAmE sCALE » Start of the Campaign: 1850 (may last till 1920) » Turn Length: Two weeks » Units: Regiments. Strategic and Objective Cities are both important. For example. There are three stats underneath. In the upper-left area of this window. which are added to determine the number for the faction as a whole.e. and can remain available for quite a while before becoming unnecessary.

Faction Attributes Explained Below are the various national attributes that are available. There are two kinds of Options in this pane: the first is Historical Options. Each tooltip offers a small explanation about what an attribute provides in terms of bonuses and penalties. each attribute is in fact point- ABSENt: The Absent attribute describes countries that are gripped by such disorder that technological advancement or even the effective employment of already existing or foreign-supplied technology is impossible.” The AI isn’t as taxed when it is calculating the moves of a non-Organized Major Country. Note.” The value currently being used by the nation is shown in a copper color. Now. and traditions. and writers were at the head of their fields. which you will have some experience with if you have played our previous titles Napoléon’s Campaigns (NCP) or Birth of America II: Wars in America (WIA) (i. such as Brazil.. and the second is Multi-Choice Options. go over the second Option. would have Standard technology. BACkWARD: Each nation. you can only play as an Organized Major Country. National Attributes This is the largest portion of the screen. however. or 4 per attribute. The change will take effect in the next gap between turns. The technologically Backward country lacks functional educational and research facilities and/or sufficient Private or State Capital to help their technologies to reach their greatest potential. While they had and used firearms. with a national attribute being augmented by those from technologies. The two are similar. as it includes 48 icons. and Turkey during most of this period. In the game. then you don’t get the bonus that Protectionist nations receive against the penetration of their market. Each choice has a tooltip which will explain the choice’s cost and effects. Click on it to bring up a new window. Alternatively. Most importantly. The Backward technological attribute describes most non-European countries as well as Russia.short. you’ll be much more competitive than others. and could even manufacture muzzle-loaded rifles. and up to four choices. StANDARD: A country with Standard technology would fall in the mid-range of the industrialized nations. You will note that a multi-choice Option displays an image. however. one of the few countries that would rate this description for a significant period of time would be Germany from 1870 to 1914. allowing you to buy replacement infantry). German technicians were at the cutting edge of several technologies. countries with this attribute are so far behind the technology of Western industrial countries that they cannot even put imported technologies to effective use. our Technological Approach is “Standard. German scientists made an enormous number of basic discoveries in physics. artists. geology. Modifiers can come from several sources. from chemical synthesis to automotive technology. is defined by 12 attributes. the bottom-left attribute is Organization and defines the category to which your nation belongs. from the mightiest to the tiniest. As you can see. from medicine to metallurgy. China. this screen summarizes your nation’s active modifiers by the category they are in. a large text zone. Decrees and Laws Decrees and Laws is the name for two special types of events. this is really the same as a Historical Option in WIA. biology. events. One is the Historical Option event. you will find Options pertaining to the topic at hand. they were unable to manufacture ammunition for the British car- 11 . An example of a country with this attribute is that of the medium-term objectives for their nation. what can I do” feeling: you have a goal. that you can only choose one. ing to several modifiers for your nation. which helps to prevent the “where do I start. To view your two default Options. end your turn and re-open the ledger. In the illustrated example. On the other hand. and you try to achieve it. Russia can advance to Standard technology after 1905. musicians. Advanced countries outside Europe. except that Multi-Choice Options allow for more than just an either-or choice (active or inactive). each attribute can have one and only one value. At the end of each ledger screen. Standard technology assumes that the country has universities where basic research can take place and a private sector that can fund technological advancements. Nations can be one of four categories: » Organized Major Country » Organized Minor Country » Unstable » Tribal In PON. From a “mechanical” standpoint. technological approach: PRoGRESSIVE: A Progressive nation is one that is experiencing a true golden era of technological advancement. Hover the cursor over the first Option (the one with the silhouette) to bring up a rudimentary tooltip. German philosophers. if you opt for “Free Trade” as your Trade attribute. The other possible values are displayed in a steel color. Click the icon to either activate or deactivate the Option. as this is a Multi-Choice Option. and many other fields of knowledge. For example. Italy or France would have Standard technology after 1870. the one that looks like an artillery icon. And as a final note. broken down by categories corresponding to the various approaches. as they are the only ones who can “win. chemistry.e.

for people from 12 . A Ruthless dictator may be popular in some sectors of society. this means that there is some sort of rank of birth. trade Approach: FREE tRADE: Free Trade was a goal of liberal political thought in the Western industrialized countries. and popular willingness to vote for taxes. In the game. parliaments.” and many Russian leaders and political elites took the preservation of this power very seriously as a responsibility to God and their people. China also sought to close itself to outside trade but was continually forced by foreign pressure to revert to. this characteristic will sometimes be used for a government that has some elements of constitutional rule or popular legitimacy but suffers from such a high level of internal disorder that the social contract has broken down. A prominent example would be Japan before the Perry mission of 1853. move to cities. (This was the case with Germany from its creation in 1870 until its defeat in the Great War. An example would be erarchy with a basis in some condition that is difficult to change. a protectionist stance (perhaps a Chinese regime that is successful in defeating foreign aggressors would revert to a Closed policy). Non-monarchs must be perceived as legitimate by certain political elites to qualify for either of the autocracy characteristics. but Elitist societies can also have a class structure based entirely on wealth if it is very difficult for a poor person to achieve economic success. The adoption of a Liberal Democratic form of government was a multi-step process. and so forth. as with post-Revolutionary communist states. CoNStItUtIoNAL AUtoCRACy: In this form of government. RUtHLESS: Countries with Ruthless governments are ruled by force tarily closed their ports in order to limit foreign influence. They were equally unable to develop tactics that would allow their highly organized and skilled armed forces to fight effectively against soldiers equipped with repeating rifles. including the United States before 1912 and many Latin American countries.tridge rifles they captured. Legitimacy is an important part of Full Autocracy. for example. Obviously. few countries had all or even many of these elements. and their leaders had to be consulted on matters of peace and war. Often. fairly large groups of people (African Americans. Normally. Generally. in which there is a social hi- the default government type around the world. at best. American Indians. like France after 1870. an independent judiciary. PRotECtIoNISM: CLoSED: In the game. as was the case during most of the 19th century. and perhaps even the courts. most whites after the American Civil War could change class fairly freely. Government types: LIBERAL DEMoCRAtIC: Since the Second World War. a dictator perceived as illegitimate by the ruling class of their country would qualify for the Ruthless characteristic. Britain was the foremost example of a nation devoted to Free Trade. with a Protective tariff being a lynchpin of Republican Party economic policy during their long period of rule from 1861 to 1912. most nations that are Closed to trade have volun- the Buganda Kingdom of what is now Uganda: King Mutesa had extensive territorial claims and influence over many territories but was absolute ruler only over his own clan. Places with Open societies must almost necessarily have good educational systems and will generally have populations more involved in politics. Full Autocracy as a form of government applies to Russia until her Revolution. he had no hope of rising to the top in any profession without a degree from the right schools and membership in the right clubs. It was possible. law (including international law). with the Emperor or King having a great deal of authority over the bureaucracy. decentralized monarchy would be considered either Ruthless or Constitutional Autocracy. this has become against the will of the nation’s ruling class or the majority of its people. The children of clerks or workers could even hope to become professionals or capitalists. or socially connected members of the community. In the game. new laws. executive au- thority is dominant while some popularly elected institutions exercise some independent power. trading partners reciprocate and a global system of Protectionism arises. so a country does not have to be entirely non-discriminatory in the application of this principle: in the United States.) This characteristic also applies to countries with dictators and even elected presidents whose executive authority is only weakly restrained by law and public opinion. Social Mobility oPEN: The concept of social advancement in the game primarily governs the speed with which people move from one class to another in response to changing economic circumstances. just before the game begins. In any case. Ruthless governments are going to have plenty of disorder to contend with. provides opportunities to peasants to be educated. a free press. though very difficult. the government attempts to manage trade by setting tariffs in order to both raise government funds and promote the development of domestic production for certain products. Liberal Democratic governments are severely limited in their policy choices by public opinion. a weak. FULL AUtoCRACy: The Emperor of Russia from the 17th century until the Russian Revolution was called the “Autocrat. while still having to rely on a parliament to approve taxes. A country that is Open. the ruler must actually be sovereign over their entire territory. but only a few countries were able to put these ideas into practice. and to many countries outside Europe. This is true even if. even though significant numbers of minorities were largely excluded from the process. while the other clans and cities were autonomous within their own territories. wealthy. in game terms. so America qualifies as Open in this period. and Asian and European Catholic immigrants at the beginning of the period covered by the game) are excluded. was very popular among the black peasantry. countries with Constitutional Autocracy were formally monarchical. having abandoned its protective tariff in 1846. It is possible to have a social democracy without having a political democracy. The classic example of an Elitist society is Great Britain up until the 1950s. In the period covered by the game. Buganda was more like a confederation or feudal state. Britain remained a devoted free trader until the 1930s. but in the Ruthless government type. as for example in the United States. Under this system. this will be a limited subset of the educated. The Closed attribute may also be used to describe a country that is experiencing so much internal disorder that it is unable to trade effectively with other countries. In order for a government to be a Full Autocracy. having a majority of such institutions along with a consensus within at least the dominant social group qualifies a country for this form of government. Other countries. and become proletarians or even middle-class clerks. who provided the foot soldiers that kept him in power for decades. the second Emperor of Haiti. The United States was mostly Protectionist during this period. had brief flirtations with Free Trade during the 19th century. but the assembly of the nobles functions. as a sort of proto-parliament. The default attribute is Protectionism. ELItISt: The default condition is Elitist. Some dictators and non-European monarchs qualify for this characteristic not because formal institutions exist to limit their power but because they cannot wield fully autocratic power over their entire realm. The National Identity characteristic governs how minorities are treated. Even dictatorships and hereditary monarchies pretend to have elections. Political decision-making authority was always in the hands of men with either noble ancestry or lots of money—preferably both. the distinction depending on the legitimacy of the government in the eyes of its people and especially the elite political class. however. every dictator needs henchmen to impose their rule. and government budgets. Faustin Solouque. No matter how skilled or hard-working a young man might be. military.

and raising new units in the face of emergencies is difficult and expensive. placed similar absolute restrictions on the lower social classes. The State will full State Control of the economy but do not have the organizational resources to actually exert such control. such as a Liberal Democratic government and Open mobility. Spain during most of the period covered by the game. However. such as power generation. strategic raw materials production. An example would be Iboland in southeastern Nigeria. The classic example of a Rigid society is Imperial Russia before 1905. and Mexico. or the surviving independent Indian cultures of North and South America. and transportation. The United States also hewed mostly to a Free economic model until the late 19th century. Colonial subjects of other religions will feel oppressed and rebel if any opportunity offers itself. Their ideas were the most influential in the United Kingdom. NoNE: This attribute is applied to economies that are so disrupted by social disorder or so decentralized that the idea of State influence over the economy is meaningless. Pretty much all countries were like this during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Some Elitist countries have a good educational system and meritocratic civil service examinations which do permit some mobility. they do not have any barriers to foreign control over their domestic economy. Theocratic societies include the Papal States. government places limits on business activities. This was the ideal of early 19th-century liberal political economists who were inspired by Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Economically Free societies will experience a high degree of economic volatility. Economic Model FREE: This attribute describes a society that favors the private sector over the public in almost all circumstances. the United States would qualify once the pervasive anti-Catholic discrimination of the mid-19th century began to fade. A few European countries. such as China. The Professional Army is generally quite small. which can lay them open to some religious-based disorders but does not tie the government’s hands to any great extent. 13 . and Italy. when they will turn to a more State-directed model. The military officer class in such a country is sometimes divorced from the rest of the ruling class. few countries achieved a truly Tolerant society during this period. and thus the UK will have this attribute throughout most of the game up until the outbreak of the Great War.the lower ranks in society to acquire these markers of status. Russia. and it is hard to mobilize for all-out war. or else are peasant or pre-modern societies without centralized government. Military System PRoFESSIoNAL ARMy: A society with this attribute has invested in high-quality professional training for officers and long-service enlisted personnel. and restricted the activities of the Catholic Church to some extent while still preserving a cultural preference for Catholicism and considerable discrimination against non-Catholics. and perhaps France. Examples would include Taiping China and the more decentralized states in Africa. and will produce many businessmen. civil war. Tibet. often have this characteristic. and to any fully functional Socialist societies that might arise. but they pay for this with heightened unrest among non-believers and colonial subjects as well as the possibility of serious disturbances if heresy and a schism break out within the church. StAtE CoNtRoL: Most pre-modern countries. Mahdist Sudan. less strongly affected by the Enlightenment than others. Societies with this attribute will enjoy lower levels of unrest among believers in the State church. and there may be a risk of unrest and military coups. These societies qualify for the Indifferent attribute. People who insist on practicing another religion may be permitted their lives and freedom. possessed closed social hierarchies in which nobody from the wrong group was ever permitted to achieve power or social influence. though this is not always the case. tax-funded State churches while also permitting other religious groups to function without much interference. some of which were still function- find it almost impossible to remain at peace with countries holding different religions. and other theocracies. The State gets legitimacy from the church. INDIFFERENt: INtoLERANt: This is the default condition in most of the world out- side Western Europe and North America at the start of the game. Under State Control. Western European and many Latin American Catholic countries (respectively: Belgium. however. France. The State may also act directly in the economy in truly critical areas. both upwards and downwards. These countries are typically those that are experiencing enormous social disorder. European examples of such countries include many Italian states before 1870. the Netherlands. such as rapid transit or arms production. This attribute can only really be applied to the wartime economies of Germany. although the Progressives introduced more State control after the beginning of the 20th century. Intolerant societies see a natural linkage between the State and the national church. aspire to ing in the 19th century outside of Europe. The people have little sense that military service is a citizen’s duty. and has created a very skilled armed force. and the Ottoman Empire. In those areas that are critical to the strength of the State. Carlist Spain. and Argentina) were aggressively secular in their policies. and the church gets funding and protection from the State. and the United States. but are certainly not welcomed into full citizenship and may be persecuted. MIxED ECoNoMy: This is the default condition for industrialized countries. Wahabi Najd. and many non-Western societies were still like this during the 19th century. This characteristic also applies to countries that would rather exercise full control over their economies but don’t have the necessary administrative resources or degree of centralization. Countries with the Mixed Economy attribute permit businessmen to operate freely in certain areas of the economy that they feel are not strategic. where military coups were unheard of after the early 18th century. Other social choices are also constrained by the strength of the religious establishment. By the end of the period covered in the game. Tolerant societies almost never face religious unrest and also attract religiously motivated refugees from more restrictive countries. Most northwestern European countries (such as Germany. or those with some social disorder. Many Latin American countries built Professional Armies out of their liberation armies. at least if there is any chance of conquest in the name of God. Individual taxes are limited because there are few rich people to pay them. and it is such systems that distinguish the Elitist country from the truly Rigid societies. Many technologically Backward societies. the Scandinavian countries. though the attribute could also describe the wartime economies of Britain. NoNE: Countries that have no class system are classified as having a social overture of None. the society produces very few businessmen but can automatically refuse foreign investment. France. RIGID: Many pre-modern societies. Imperial Germany before the outbreak of the Great War is the most noteworthy example of such a country. Brazil. and Great Britain) maintained official. The foremost example of a Professional Army in the period of the game is Great Britain. Theocratic: Societies that are completely devoted to their State religion and very intolerant of other faiths are labeled with this attribute. with some good examples being Imperial Germany and Mandarin China in times of domestic peace. Religious Attitude toLERANt: True religious tolerance was another goal of liberal reformers during the 19th century. On the other hand.

unless they are at war. FEUDAL: Most countries outside Europe and North America could not maintain a truly Professional Army. An example of this process would be Imperial Germany. There are some State schools. as would Prussia/Germany from the beginning of the game until the beginning of their colonial expansion in the 1880s. with the Zulu of southern Africa being a notable example. and the Soviet Union might join them. NoNExIStENt: This attribute does not mean that there is no educa- tion at all in the country. The Ottoman Empire after 1908 would be a perfect example of a country with this attribute: a small number of educated people. They instead have Feudal armies. subscribe to a distinct national identity that is identified with the State. only Great Britain and France qualify. However. had Professional Armies before 1870 but switched to a conscript system in the late 19th century. Imperial China is a classic example. These countries can move their Fleets and Armies throughout the region. save for a few striking exceptions. Power Projection Regional: These countries seek to influence events in their immediate region. government. These societies could rapidly mobilize millions of reasonably well-trained and well-officered men by the turn of the 20th century. An example of this case would be the United States after the Civil War. and Merchant Fleets to any area. The United States would qualify for this attribute between the Civil War and the Great War. countries that have lost wars will adopt this attribute for some years.and these soldiers often became political leaders. and civil servants thought of themselves as “Turks” and the Empire as “Turkish. Sometimes. for example. and then to remain available as reserves to be called up in case of war. would qualify as a country with a Nonexistent education level. CoNSCRIPtIoN: The alternative to a Professional Army is the citizen international affairs. Germany. Asians. During wartime. Another situation where this attribute would apply is where some classes have developed a national consciousness. to them. and Japan up until after 1900. The wealthy and a few lucky individuals from the lower orders can access this system. Unfortunately. Hispanics. even without taking the effects of lower technology into account. WoRLDWIDE: The Great Powers alone qualify for this attribute. did not manage to create a mass public education system during the period covered by the game. An example of this case would be Russia in the 19th century. would also qualify for this attribute. HEMISPHERIC: These countries are secondary powers that seek to con- tries and those entering the Industrial Revolution. This attribute applies even to those countries that exclude some minority groups while still serving the majority. with a huge army mostly composed of peasant levies who fought with enthusiasm but little skill. These societies require almost all men to serve in the military for a short period of time for training. PoPULAR: Most people in the State have a sense of nationalism that attribute defines countries that have so few expansionist ambitions that they will remain essentially passive in inspires loyalty as the means by which their national aspirations can 14 . military officers. Italy and Austria/Hungary. Regional powers that were very successful in their sub-regions might develop hemispheric ambitions: an example would be Argentina after the outbreak of the Great War. most of whose constituent states. and also had some border skirmishes with Ecuador. A few countries outside Europe managed successful Conscription. for example. any country can move its Fleets. and 1914. where most whites saw themselves as Americans and saw America as a ‘white man’s country. or at least as being unconnected with politics. These countries can move their Fleets and Armies in peacetime into sea regions or countries that border their own. The UK. and Russia up until the Revolution. but most children do not get much education. and may adopt aggressive means to reach this end. trol events throughout a large region. later.” However. These countries may place Merchant Fleets in Commercial Zones that serve their home country but may not move Fleets out of their nation’s coastal waters or Armies outside their national territory. where the upper and middle classes were very conscious of a Russian national identity while the peasantry clung to a religious identity as Orthodox and a regional or village identity. which is the default condition for the industrialized countries of mainland Europe like France and Germany after 1870. even though it had an extensive system of State schools training men for the civil service exams. there is a university system performing research and teaching students the cutting edge of technology. and American Indians were excluded. most people continued to think of themselves as subjects of the Sultan and saw national identity as immaterial. such as the United States after the Civil War. Those that did will qualify for the High education attribute. but can result in long-term benefits as some of the skilled officers built up during the period of professionalism remain available to lead the large armies that can be raised under Conscription. just that only a very few people can benefit or that the education system does not teach subjects appropriate for people to live in an industrial civilization. the civil service exams evaluated only the candidate’s ability to interpret Confucian texts and write classical poetry. which provides at least a minimal population of highly educated cadres for industry. while one or more reasonably large minority groups do not participate in this sense or are at least excluded by the majority. Most small countries qualify for this attribute. Armies. REStRAINED: This First is the situation where a majority subscribes to a national view of the State. the United States. nor did the State have the organizational resources to enforce Conscription. concentrated in intellectual and elite social circles. At the beginning of the game. France after 1870 would be the best example of a country with a High education level.’ while African Americans. and they can place Merchant Fleets in any area that borders their zone of influence. Education Level HIGH: Few countries in the 19th century achieved the liberal goal of widespread free public education. which permit them to be active anywhere in the world. REStRICtED: This is the most common case for industrialized coun- army. MoDERAtE: This attribute covers a wide variety of different situations. highly disciplined professional force backed up by huge mobs of untrained levies. unless they were outstandingly neutral or pacifist in their foreign policy. the government is merely a power exercised upon them by others. A good example would be Peru in the mid-19th century: Peru fought a war against Chile (18791884). Their military units are numerous and cheap but very ineffective in combat. The Prussian officer corps was able to lead the conscripts to great victories in the 1860s. as will countries that are too poor or disorganized to consider expansion. China before 1911. but without seeking to move into the global domain of the Great Powers. and can place Merchant Fleets in Commercial Zones that border their own continent. and the military. which consist of a small. Most of the people have different ethnic or social backgrounds and have no sense of nationalism. experienced tension with Brazil after having lost a good deal of territory in the Amazon before the game begins. National Identity ELItISt: Only a small minority within the nation. 1870. Converting from a professional to a mass army results in considerable disorder in the ranks over the short term. especially Prussia.

AGGRESSIVE: Under this model of national identity. you have two months to try and make them a better fit for the position to ensure that they win. the system is fair. For the government types without elections. old age. Although abnormal. the candidates will have each of their election attributes evaluated and receive a total “fit” value for the position. drawing others into its identity as brothers rather than conquered foreigners. Election Attributes. If the laws are just and are administered by a corps of dedicated and reasonably honest civil servants. and the Chinese Empire during the Taiping Rebellion. after experiencing a period of great disorder and corruption in public administration. CRoNyISM: Under this attribute. the new Ruler will take their seat and everything will continue as before. rebellious national identities. the country will benefit from this attribute. oLIGARCHy: The civil service and legal system in an Oligarchy really only serve the ruling class. Coups and popular uprisings are both more common under this condition. ineffective bureaucracies. so they may suffer a sudden death or spend 50 years as Ruler. pay taxes. bad health. such as military production. with all the bonuses and negative effects they bring. This puts a brake on economic growth and creates incitements to civil unrest. and you could be severely penalized while no Ruler occupies the seat. but could apply to other countries engaged in wars of conquest organized along ethnic lines. like a sudden death. Thus. This attribute is found in large backwards empires like Russia. well administered. In this case. such as events. depending on the Bureaucracy level. When the election takes place. the Ruler’s Administration value will decide whether their value is used as the Faction Attribute. For example. pOLITICs. Serbs. Italy and Spain would also be considered oligarchies for most of the game. An example of a country experiencing Cronyism was China in peacetime between 1850 and 1911. Most non-Western independent countries during this period would qualify for this attribute: Brazil is oligarchic throughout the game. This hinders international trade and domestic wealth production. This attribute was specifically created for Prussia/Imperial Germany.). Corrupt attribute describes a system in which most of the benefits of a civil service and the rule of law are lost due to the high level of internal corruption. and costs of large transactions are relatively small. For them. you will suffer a delay between when the old one leaves and the new one enters. and Actions You will be presented with a list of candidates two months before the actual election. and nobody can be secure in their property rights. where strong national identification with the State existed even among people who were somewhat ethnically different from the majority. After an old Ruler is replaced with a new one. etc. On the other hand. So.g. The one with the higher value will win the election. each official in a State position will have a random chance of “dying. However. a certain candidate may favor war and another peace. A case that would fall under this attribute would be where a significant regional/ethnic separatist sentiment existed in a country that was otherwise fairly nationalistic. and Provencal. An outstanding example in this case is the UK. the Ottoman Empire after the turn of the century. the injustice and disorder experienced only by the poor in an Oligarchy have spread to every corner of the society. while minorities are more likely to want to secede. the former Ruler (or Prime Minister) is removed from office and. or a natural death. ruLErs. as well as other functions of the State. taking the Seat after Elections After the winner of the election is decided. assassination. but also addresses the willingness of the people to cooperate with government regulations. where Austrians and Hungarians mostly had strong national identification with the State while Czechs. like the Bretons. or another value coming from another source. An example of this case would be Austria/ fulfilled. may override the Faction Attributes the Ruler brings. other sources.. Each candidate will have their own list of electoral attributes that will favor one side or another. and other minority groups developed their own. a core nation (or sub-nation) actively seeks to unify or spread the sense of nationalism across its region. rank injustice prevails in any legal case. In old. such as the Central Asian emirates or Ethiopia. Prime Ministers will not be able to do this. their new Faction Attributes will be in place and effective. this delay may be very difficult for the faction to sustain because no one will be in office. leading to an almost complete absence of public services for the majority of the population. as with the Zulu. if you are interested in favoring a certain candidate. Alsatians. After the delay passes. Elections. ANd ELECTIONs Faction Attributes and Elections You will be able to have elections based on your faction’s type of Government as follows: » Liberal Democratic: Elections for Rulers and Prime Ministers » Constitutional Autocracy: Elections for Prime Ministers only » Full Autocracy: No elections » Ruthless: No elections The elections will take place every four years for Rulers and every two years for Prime Ministers. It can also describe countries that have not yet emerged from feudalism. and mostly honest. unless something unexpected happens. the system does not work well for the ordinary citizen. Rulers and Faction Attributes One unique feature of Rulers is that they will bring to your faction the Faction Attributes that shape your nation. and Germany also developed such a corps of officials after national unification.” This random chance will be unique and based on the historical conditions of the person (e. and resist official corruption. 15 . The classic example of this attribute is France. CoRRUPt: The Bureaucracy PRoFESSIoNAL ELItE: The attribute of Bureaucracy covers more than just a corps of civil servants. foreign business can come into the country and function normally. The United States built one around the turn of the century. Bribes are a daily requirement.

1. The three icons below the current date allow you to end the Planning Phase and start the Resolution Phase. Manufactured Goods. DIPLoMAtS. shelf at the bottom-left of the display to open a new window. save the game. The USA has 1. and 634 Prestige Points. 4. Clicking on the flag leads you to your capital region. A grayed-out button signifies that the Special Order is currently not applicable to the selected Force. main indicators of your success (check the tooltips for additional details). to the right are the three most useful indicators in the currently active map mode. The second tab will allow you to select the New York Fleet. respectively. the USA has 4 Diplomats. and Officers/Conscripts. 3.43) are grouped into three different tabs. Double-clicking on these will open a window with additional information. 8. AND PREStIGE PoINtS: The 2. AVAILABLE ASSEtS: State Funds. 0 Coal. Red messages are events of particular importance. In this example. and 30 Officers/240 Conscripts available this turn. Clicking on the handle to the right will expand the message panel to display more information. Unit Panel: The Unit Panel displays the units present in the currently selected Force. which not only displays your position but also allows you to jump to any location by clicking on it. and go to the Main Menu. Terrain and Weather: The terrain type and weather in the region where your cursor is currently located. There are 24 different filter buttons around the map. etc. ACtIVE NAtIoN. 16 .013 State Funds. In the above example. NAtIoNAL MoRALE. and the tooltip displays how many turns remain before the game ends. Postures: Use these four buttons to assign a specific Posture to the selected Force. Special Orders: The different Special Orders (see p. During a turn’s resolution. reinforcements. will appear just below this area. two US units—the New York Militia (an infantry unit) and the New York Battery (a heavy coastal artillery battery)—form a single unit (the New York Garrison). Steel.023 Private Capital.) that indicate what happened during the turn. CURRENt DAtE AND MAIN CoMMANDS: The current date is displayed here. Jump Map and Filters: The map of the entire theater of war. battle messages. In this example. such as invalid move destinations. Also. 96 National Morale. 5. Clicking on a black message centers the map on the region corresponding to the message. Coal. 6. check the tooltip for details. 0 Steel. The one on the left activates the Construction mode within the currently selected map mode. Note that both units are ‘locked’ in place (a small padlock) and cannot move until attacked. You can always return to the Message Log by right-clicking anywhere on the map. the USA has selected Military Mode and can click on the left icon (with the soldiers in ranks) to open the Military Construction screen. 9. The six buttons on the left allow you to filter the messages by category. Warning messages. 0 Manufactured Goods. You can also click on the book- 7. a naval unit. Private Capital.ThE mAp Figure 2: The Main Interface 1. MAP MoDE BUttoNS: The button on the right allows you to change the map mode (right-click to go backwards). the Unit Panel is replaced by a Message Log (Figure 4) which lists various game messages (events.

transportation Network » None » Tracks » Roads » Railways Units moving into regions with tracks will never pay more than 150% of the clear terrain cost. Regions and Sea Zones Units and Fleets move and battle across regions and sea zones. » Town: A town is a small city (Level 1-3). The Figure 4: The grey square and the light blue square with a “1” denote one land and one naval Force within the city. Fleets in Ports cannot be attacked. Unlike Depots. coaling stations. simply place and hold the cursor on the edge of the screen. they have different Levels (1 to 20) indicated by the dark blue box with a figure on the left-hand side. A good network of Depots is critical to moving Supply from your rear areas to the front. Civilization Level The different Civilization Levels are: » Wild » Cleared » Civilized » Rich Depending on the Civilization Level (and other factors). Cities cannot be destroyed. etc. Fortifications can be destroyed.). you will access the sub-unit details panel which provides more information. You can also press the mouse wheel button to swap between the highest and lowest zoom levels. The front-right side shows the city itself. whatever the real terrain type. whatever the terrain type. Structures All structures provide shelter for land units against bad weather. CIty: A city is indicated by a round sprite. Page Up. Forts are constructed through the Industrial Building Mode (as they represent large fortification networks) and not the Military Construction Mode (which is for military units and not structures). FoRtIFICAtIoN: PoRtS: Ports provide Supply unless blockaded. A black diamond symbol with a figure next to the city level indicates the level of Fortifications in the city/region. The back-left side is the industry space. if a Harbor or Anchorage is in the region. except when they cross bridges (representing railway bottlenecks. Navigating the Map To scroll through the map.Figure 3: The Message Log is displayed after turn resolution. Fortifications are indicated by the small wall-like graphic on the left-hand side of the city sprite. indicated by the figure inside the dark grey square to the left. while the size and look of the buildings give an indication of its population value and culture. NotE: Regions are further grouped into Areas. 1. 2. terrain type Different terrain types have varying effects on movement. Chimneys indicate that there are industries in the city. DEPot: It can be built at a cost of two Supply Wagons or two transport ships. Elements Panel The small panel on the bottom-right shows the elements composing the currently selected unit. Flags indicate when units are inside a structure. as shown above. This is also where new units will appear (with the exception of Partisans). ready to be moved. currently selected unit will also be represented in the region on the map. Units moving by train will only spend one day for each region traveled. units inside a city are not displayed but rather are indicated by small grey or blue boxes. A detailed list is in the Appendix. and again. Like cities. Unlike a city. where factory buildings appear when the city has industry. and Areas are further grouped into Theaters. but instead are 17 . Area and Theater borders can be displayed on the map using the appropriate filters (see below). size and look vary with quantity. On the map. or use the arrow keys. naval units inside a Port are not displayed. A pile of crates on the left-front denotes the presence of a Depot. Harbors do the same for ships. If you click on one of these elements. and Supply. combat. Terrain type and weather are also displayed at the top of the screen. unsupplied troops in an enemy region have a limited ability to live off the land each turn. Cities have a Level between 1 and 20. use the mouse wheel or the End. Units moving into regions with roads or rails won’t pay more than the clear terrain cost. it is unable to forward Supply during the Supply Distribution Phase unless a Depot has been built in the town. and Page Down keys. Tooltips indicate the different characteristics of each region and sea zone. Depots are able to stockpile and pass on Supply during the Supply Distribution Phase. Controlling key cities is critical to winning the game. Clicking on the structure (or the Harbor basin for ships) will display a list of those units inside on the Unit Panel. To zoom in or out of the map. On the map. They can also be destroyed.

Ships are produced and can be repaired in Ports. Most units are recruited on a Theater basis. In addition. 22. Nationality and Population Allegiance: Shows the local population’s bias towards your side (or another). Definitions and Colonial Status: Displays the various colonies’ boundaries (borders and regions) and their current Colonial Status. 18 . Administrative Areas: The various Areas are displayed in different colors. are: 1. clockwise from top-left. even if you don’t have a Force present. Red indicates if there are structures but no connection. 15. Supply: Crates and cannonballs indicate the quantity of General Supply and Ammunition. Its main purpose is to speed the construction and repair of naval units. Weather Zones: Shows the various Weather Zones of the current game world. Theaters of Operations: Each Theater is displayed in a different color. Batteries will also engage bombarding ships and block any enemy Supply transport arriving by river. You won’t be able to raise more units in an Area than its maximum value. Click on the Port basin to access the naval units. National and Claimed Regions: Each National Region is displayed in a solid color. Entrenchment Levels are represented on the map by a sand bag that wraps around land units’ sprite bases (with Levels 5-8 being identified by a gun icon). CoLoNIAL StRUCtURES: These are different types of buildings that help recruitment from only one or two regions. In addition. Parts of your Nation: Shows the region where you can station your units when at peace. 14. Regions of nations you are currently at war with will have stripes. Each additional level requires increasingly more time to build (i. and dark brown indicates a connection but no collection structure. Levels beyond 5 do not provide additional cover but instead increase the Batteries’ firepower. 16.e. » Harbor: Any size (Level 4-20) Port is considered a Harbor. naval units can be repaired there faster. Serves mostly as a shelter. Colonial Penetration (CP): Displays CP in the various colonies by gradient. which are usually at the Area level. except for troops with very specific local requirements that allow for 21. There are different categories of Ports: » Anchorage: Usually a small (Level 1) Port. Current Weather: Shows what the weather is like on the current game map. Regions without any collection point are displayed in red. 17. Military Control: Shows the regions where you have a significant military presence. They are not subject to sieges. Unconnected regions have no color filter. naval warehouses. Strategic Cities and Objectives: Highlights Objectives and cities granting PP. Regions highlighted in green indicate how far your Supply network extends. De Jure Regions: De Jure Regions are those regions that belong to your nation ‘By Right. Also. the button re- 3. Units automatically start entrenching if they don’t move during a turn. Several political and economic decisions are also declared at the Area level.’ Your nation can receive a Casus Belli for them if owned by another nation. extending their range. increase the colonial power’s penetration and control over the region they are in (see Colonial Affairs section for details). Population Satisfaction: Displays population satisfaction (happy to upset) in your national regions. building an Entrenchment from Level 2 to Level 3 takes longer than expanding an Entrenchment from Level 1 to Level 2). 6. such emplaced Batteries will defend the river(s)/seacoast in their region and fire on nearby moving Fleets. 2. so it can only field a limited number of troops for the side controlling it. The building leader’s Strategic Rating plays a key role in the speed of the process. Claimed Regions are displayed with stripes. and machine plants for naval use. Serves as a shelter and refueling port for naval units. Collection Points: Each region with a collection point (for resource gathering) is displayed in green. These are shown on the map with a star by the city’s name. Revolt Risks: Displays the revolt risk in the various regions. and indicates their owner. use the TAB key (or click on the buttons located next to the Mini-Map). light brown if connected by land only. 13. 20. The different filters. the button removes all military unit stacks from view. Administrative Areas Each Administrative Area (hereafter called Area) has limited resources. 9. Historical examples include the small earthen forts built by both sides during the American Civil War to protect rivers and key terrain. Regions. 4. Filtering of All Stacks: When ON. that are present. 7.. 19. Filtering All Friendly Land Stacks: When ON. Trade Areas: Each Trade Area is displayed in a different color. » Coaling Station: Usually a small (Level 1-3) Port. and light blue if connected by sea only. though they do provide units with limited shelter against bad weather. respectively. whether it is owned or not. you can only draft units in an Area if you control at least one of the Area’s Strategic Cities. When at war. Trade Status: Displays the status of each region according to its connection to national soil: white if connected by land and sea. Those Entrenchments of Levels 5-8 can only be achieved if there is artillery present in the region. 18. A Force only needs a few days to dig into Level 1. » Naval Base: A Harbor with a specific military use. theaters A Theater is a collection of Areas.indicated by a light blue box below the Port level box. and only in Harbors can new naval units be produced. representing shipyards. 8. Local units gain a small combat bonus when fighting in their own Area. Sphere of Influence (SOI): Displays the worth of the various colonial areas (‘colonies’) in terms of SOI. 10. Some rules and abilities only work at the Theater level. those occupied by the enemy will display stripes. Entrenchments provide defensive benefits depending on their Level (1-8) but are not considered to be structures. whether owned or not. Serves both as a shelter and a coaling station for ships. especially for low-level Entrenchments. Filters There are over 24 filters to help visualize information on the map. 5. CoUNtRy StRUCtURES: Entrenchments Entrenchments represent substantial defensive structures which are not permanent fixed fortifications. 11.. International Relationships: Shows regions in gradients from green (friendly) to red (enemy) in terms of relationships with the owning nation. Regions adjacent to those with a collection point are displayed in light brown. A round sprite on the game screen that does not allow for unit shelter. To cycle through them. 12. Examples include mining and agricultural buildings that are outside of cities on the map.

MULtI-SELECtIoN PRoCEDURE: To select/deselect several units. Army OrgANIzATION Understanding the Unit Panel There can be a variety of Forces in a region and/or in the structures therein. There are many types of units in the game. Figure 6: Here. Elements. which can represent anything from full Divisions to independent artillery Batteries or administrative staff (Headquarters). or drag the corresponding tab from the Unit Panel directly to its destination on the map. They are represented in the game as having a single element.) can be displayed in a tooltip by hovering the cursor over the different icons in the upper-right corner of the Unit Panel (5). You can also move units between Forces by dragging and dropping them onto the destination Force’s tab. as explained above. Filtering Enemy Stacks and Fleets: When ON. Additional Forces in the region are each indicated by a tab (3) just above the Unit Panel. To switch Forces. one unit equals one element. you can merge Forces in the same location by dragging and dropping one tab onto another. Leaders are also treated like units in most respects. Elements are sometimes referred to as sub-units. because there is no difference between an independent stack and another stack. and destination indicated in the top-left corner (4). However. Filtering Stacks made only of Locked (fixed) units: When ON. PRoCEDURE: To display the list of a unit’s elements in the Elements Panel. Fixed Units In some scenarios and campaigns. as opposed to units. be given orders individually. press Ctrl-Click on each unit in turn. units are fixed permanently and will not move under any circumstance. composition. A unit is a container of elements (from 1 to 18). they all share the ability to be moved and. while others will only move if attacked. the Unit Panel will show all of the units in the region (1). 19 . as explained. which is the unit itself. Command Chain The Command Chain is rather simple as there isn’t one. They are now considered to be a new Force and will be shown in a separate tab. The active Force is also represented visually on the map. You can click on the symbols to open a detailed window describing the element. they are rated differently. although they seldom operate alone and are usually grouped into Forces. Ammunition. we call a stack an Army (or Fleet). which is the leader himself. it is not a simplified AACW system. 24. including how they are manipulated. This makes them the smallest element in the game that you can manipulate. The main characteristics of combat units and leaders are directly displayed on their counter within the Unit Panel. In some cases. They cannot move until either a regular unit from their side ends a turn in their region or a specific date has been reached. a unit is a container of up to 18 elements. Figure 5: Unit Panel Details When you click on a unit or structure on the map. the button removes all enemy military unit stacks from view. as shown by the NATO symbols displayed on the right. The mouse wheel will also scroll the panel. If led by a Rank 3 leader. you will come across fixed units identified by a (a “locked” icon) on their counter. Manipulating Forces In order to split one or more units from a Force. Leaders are handled in the same way: one leader = one element. Finally. Each single element is in turn differentiated by its attributes. However. HINt: Use the arrow buttons on each side (2) to scroll between a Force’s units if there are too many to fit in the Unit Panel. cannot be manipulated: they are an integral part of their parent unit and always stay together. Figure 7: This separate artillery battery is made up of a single element: here. The purpose of having separate Forces is that so they can be issued different orders. click on a unit to select it. Please note that some units are so small that they cannot be subdivided. select the units to be separated from the main Force in the Unit Panel. ready to be issued a move order. 23. In order to issue a movement order to a Force.” in other words. click on its corresponding tab to make it the active Force. the button removes all locked friendly and enemy unit stacks from view. displayed in the Elements Panel. The size of a Force is limited by leadership. either select it and then drag and drop its counter from its region to its destination.). this is the Birth of America (BOA) system with some of Paradox France’s American Civil War (AACW) additions. independent stack. as indicated on the unit’s tooltip. the Light Brigade unit is made up of six elements: five light cavalry regiments and one light horse battery. etc.moves all friendly land military unit stacks from view. we call it what we want (Corps. this is indicated by a gray square around the counter. Basically. Essential information about a Force (level of General Supply. What is a Unit? The Unit Panel shows all of the different components of a Force (see illustration above) which fall under the term “unit. The unit currently selected within the Force has its name. current position. etc. What is an Element? Units are further subdivided into elements. if needed. however. then drag and drop them to their current region on the map. otherwise. per se.

At sea. with the exception that two Fleets cannot be synchronized. NAto Symbol and Unit type A NATO symbol on the unit icon indicates the primary type of element it contains. on the lefthand side Any Special Abilities of the unit are listed here. especially in Europe. though with altered seniority and stats (for better or worse!). To act as a CiC. working in the same way as an Army. this was reflected in the separation. is a 3*** CiC leader. that. as they are used for commanding main formations. This does not include extra CmdP that may come from specific units (HQs) or abilities. During combat. meaning they would command a small elite force. Unit Attributes Unit counters are differentiated in the following ways: » Nationality: Background color » Special Abilities: Top-left corner » Unit Type: Top-right corner » Cohesion: Purple column » Manpower: Green column » Combat Efficiency: Numerical value in a white rectangle below the two colored gauges » Number of Elements: Number of ribbons on the left-hand side. The game’s combat engine works at the element level. think of it as an overall indicator of the unit’s power. etc. led by a 3*** general) is that its motions may then be synchronized with another Army stack. Leader Ranks There are three leadership ranks. Discipline. Combat Efficiency This gives an indication of the lethality and staying power of a unit during combat. and a force without the Attrition-reduction bonus in the hostile terrain of Africa or India can mean death by numbers! HINt: Rank 1 (1* Colonial/Commando) leaders are interesting because they have good stats for colonies. Promotions can still occur. the maximum CmdP any one stack can receive from its leader is 48 (Max CmdP = 48). they function es- sentially as Army commanders. The advantage of having one lead an Army stack (i. Leadership Leaders have an enormous impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of military assets. whether on the unit or on the elements themselves. but the game allows for Number of Elements and Experience The ribbons on the left-hand side of a unit indicate both the num- 20 . RANk 2 (2**) generals (or admirals) are the most commonly encoun- Command Penalty There is a 5% command penalty for every 2 missing CmdP. for example. one for every two elements » Experience: A medal or star just above the nameplate. to receive additional details. whether at land or at sea. 3*** admirals are Fleet commanders. Leaders are given leadership ratings that reflect their historical abilities. like a raiding party. Each element is of a specific type. but the new general would still in effect be Rank 2. Union Major General Winfield S. This is a Corps General (commands Corps or any main combat stack) » RANk 3: Provides 48 CmdP. Hancock is one example of a 2** leader. This is an Army General (can command an Army. On land. Combat Efficiency is a number used to provide a quick assessment of the Unit Strength.Units need leaders to command them (see next section). as shown on the Elements Panel. There is no hard-coded restriction. they suffer movement and combat penalties. but would not be able to successfully command a large unit. but is not used during battle. » RANk 1: Provides 2 CmdP. even if they have astonishing combat stats. RANk 3 (3***) leaders are a bit particular. and cavalry Squadrons. Historical examples could include many of the minor but successful colonial leaders of the era. This would be sub-optimal. For example. For example. even if more than one leader is present in a stack. Such leaders can also be used in the (home) mainland as a ‘commando’ leader. up to a maximum penalty of 35%. tered leader. mostly used in colonies (or any hostile lands) due to their special abilities that allow them to move small forces without suffering the severe effects of Attrition in wild areas. NotE: Abilities can stack as per the standard rules.) of each element into account to precisely simulate the outcome of every battle. The symbol’s tooltip provides additional information (see also page 133). A Rank 1 colonial leader can lead a small force in Europe. A unit’s characteristics are derived from the attribute values of its elements. In effect. as reflected in the game. for example) » RANk 2: Provides 12 CmdP. if their abilities function at the stack level. The actual title of each leader is customizable. while the units have a -25% fire reduction. with corresponding strengths and weaknesses. or a Rank 2 army general can lead a colonial force in India. a 3*** leader must have a related ability and be the senior leader in the Theater. but the trade-off is that they can’t command many elements.e. British General Sir Horatio Kitchner. NotE: Cohesion and Manpower effects are already factored in. but can contain infantry Regiments. Union Admiral David G. the stat-reduction penalty for Rank 1 leaders is tripled. as shown in the Elements Details Panel (see next page). such as Corps and Squadrons. Historically. but see below) In all cases. an infantry Brigade is an infantry unit. a Division with a Cohesion Level of 1 will have a very low Combat Efficiency.. and these ratings affect almost every aspect of the game. the CiC provides a bonus or a malus to all leaders under their command within the same Theater. a small force in Europe is a drop in the sea when it comes to war. however. depending on whether it is activated (bonus) or not (malus). meaning that a 1* leader can be useful as the sub-officer of a 3*** Army leader. thanks to the Command Point (CmdP) system. Commanders in Chief (CiC) are a special set of 3*** leaders. Leader Roles RANk 1 (1*) leaders are only land leaders. otherwise. In contrast. Units that are ‘leader-less’ and/or Forces that exceed their leader’s CmdP capacity are subject to movement and combat penalties. You can click on any NATO symbol. of ‘colonial’ and ‘regular’ general officers. Rate of Fire. Farragut is an example of a 3*** naval leader. taking each parameter (Gun Range. a colonial leader with 6-6-6 stats commanding a Corps costing 12 CmdP has a 25% penalty for movement. and the stats of the leader are reduced by 75%! This is to ensure that a Rank 1 leader can’t be used to command a Corps. artillery Batteries. Primarily a Colonial leader (Colonel or Brigadier General. For example. 2** leaders rarely have good stats for colonial work but are great at commanding large forces in more developed areas. but each rank has a very precise role.

most senior leader) improves the abilities of subordinate units with their Offensive/ Defensive Rating (+5% to combat for each point) and Special Abilities. the 42nd Royal Highlanders Regiment’s details are shown. a leader must check if they go unnoticed or if they are captured and eliminated. Strategic Rating and Activation Important Each Force’s commanding officer takes a test based on their Strategic Rating for each turn. All leaders have strengths and weaknesses. as indicated by a brown envelope icon on the Force. that influence a variety of mechanics (combat. The tooltips will provide additional details. tested separately for each element) » Offensive Posture prohibited (not applicable for admirals) An inactive leader can represent delayed orders. When alone in a region with enemy units. speed. Special Abilities Leaders may have Special Abilities. firepower. the odds of it disappearing are great. National Morale (NM) also affects a unit’s Cohesion as well as its Cohesion recovery rate. Movement and combat reduce a unit’s Cohesion. etc. Figure 8: Click on an element’s NATO symbol in the Elements Panel to display a depiction of the element as well as its attribute values.” NotE: A unit with low Cohesion could suffer from poor morale. It will be slow in moving and prone to break during combat. McClellan. Some of these abilities apply at all times while others apply conditionally. such as Discipline and Weight. This depends on training and Experience. some are good on the offensive while others are better at defending. as they don’t have leaders. or any other debilitating factor. They are not prohibited from assuming Offensive Posture. When elements have suffered hits. 21 . whereas the Ranger Special Ability affects the whole Force but is only useful in woods. Element Attributes Every single element of a unit has several attributes. NotE: Be aware that. the commanding officer of a stack (its highest-ranked. but suffer from movement and combat penalties (-35% to both). inadequate training. tECHNICAL NotE: You may deactivate this rule in the Options Menu. or none). the most talented officers are not always in command. whereas five stars represents an elite unit. Leaderless troops are always active. A great historical example is Union General George B. PLAy NotE: Try to use your leaders to the best of their abilities. the NATO symbol in the detail panel will display a red gauge. Figure 9: A leader’s counter only shows two pieces of information: Rank (number of stars) and Special Abilities (icon(s) in the top-left corner). Manpower Manpower is the number of men remaining in a unit. increasing both their overall efficiency in combat and maximum Cohesion level. NotE: A very cautious Army commander can even negatively impact the Activation Check of subordinate Corps commanders. Cohesion Cohesion represents a unit’s general readiness for combat. and is a good indicator of the unit’s resilience: if it is almost empty. just like in real life. Army. In addition to providing CmdP. but also from those bestowed by their own divisional leader. while resting gradually improves its Cohesion until it reaches its maximum level. The Strategic Rating also has a critical impact on the stack’s performance (see below). as it is assumed the unknown commanding Colonel is willing to take action but is not the best man for the job. and close). medium. transport. Leader Attributes Good leadership is essential to win battles. Units gradually gain Experience in battle. Units in a Division not only benefit from the advantages just described. or possibly even incompetence. as well as the type of command they may assume (CiC Theater. the leader is deemed inactive and will suffer the following penalties: » Reduced movement (-35% speed) » Combat penalties (35% chance to perform poorly in battle. Likewise. ExAMPLE: The Cavalryman Special Ability only benefits cavalry units and does not apply in mountain terrain. such as morale. denoted by one or more icons. desertions. Selecting a leader displays additional data in the Element Panel on the right. short. over-cautiousness and a general lack of aggressiveness. For instance. as represented by their attributes. exhaustion. stragglers. as every leader does. There are five Experience Levels which are indicated by a range of stars: one star indicates a raw recruit. Note the chart which shows the element’s various values at the different ranges handled by the game (long. and the ability to “March to the Sound of the Guns.ber of elements in the unit (one ribbon for every two elements) and its Experience. It is critical to a unit’s overall efficiency as it impacts almost every aspect of the game. Here. some only apply to certain units while others affect the whole Force. as indicated elsewhere. offensive and Defensive Ratings These ratings are used as a bonus in combat when attacking or defending. It determines the leader’s CmdP. If they fail. Rank Rank is indicated by the number of stars on a leader’s counter.). Corps. disorganization.

Rank 2 naval leaders are called rear admirals. Range is a representation of the consumption of fuel (which was mostly coal during this era) by the naval units. a Force travelling for one day will spend one Cohesion point. Note that movement is severely restricted by the presence of enemy units. Resting Units can recover Cohesion if they don’t move. PRoCEDURE: Drag and drop each Force to move it. but is only delayed in their actions if they fail and are not prevented from setting their Fleet to an Offensive Posture. This means both sides simultaneously plan their orders for the upcoming two-week turn. with Offensive Posture units incurring increased Cohesion loss. a number of activities are automatically carried out in the Hosting Phase.Seniority Seniority differentiates leaders of the same Rank. Movement The default order you issue to your land Forces is to move by land. OrdErs The game is played in simultaneous turn mode. Rank 3 are admirals. you cannot accurately predict what is going to happen during the Resolution Phase.). as exhausted and disorganized units will travel much slower than fully rested ones. Please note. except that Army synchronization rules don’t apply. and Passive Posture units incurring reduced loss. but you will have to trust your general’s judgment to carry out your orders as well as possible during the turn resolution.5 » Land unit in Passive Posture: +1 » Irregular: +0. Fleets Naval Forces are treated in much the same way as land Forces. disease. » Rail and River Movement costs only a minimal amount of Cohesion.. The Tutorial explains in full detail how to manipulate stacks. you can combine this type of movement with river and rail movement. Between turns (i. however. and is very fast. because a new rule defines which resource will be consumed later during the power consumption phase.5 The Base Daily Rate for naval units is two. drag and drop the copy of the unit icon shown at its current destination to the next destination in its movement path. Movement also entails a Cohesion Cost. as well as the type of terrain crossed and the method of transportation (as indicated below): » Regular Land Unit Movement is affected by weather. Seniority is affected by winning and losing battles. They cannot command land Forces (and vice-versa). provided that the Fleet is in a Port (modifiers above are not applicable). However. To add another leg to an existing movement path. Then. especially in inhospitable regions. 22 . » Naval Transport costs only a minimal amount of Cohesion. This is called the Planning Phase. but will then attempt to retreat once it realizes that it is facing a superior enemy.e. Each ship element of a naval unit defines the following variables: » » PoWER USAGE: The amount of power consumed when the unit is moving. except in harsh weather. This will in turn affect their other attributes. press the Delete key. As a consequence. Shallow draft vessels are the only ones allowed to move along rivers. terrain type. We refer to “power” in this case. you can plan your Force’s movement and general behavior (see Postures. In addition. Without any other modifications. after the Resolution Phase of a turn but before the Planning Phase of the next turn). if a Force in an Offensive Posture comes across a larger enemy Force. PoWER StoRE: The maximum amount of power that the element can store.. which varies greatly depending on enemy military presence in the region.5 » Inside of a structure: +1 » Besieged land unit: -1.5 » Besieger (unless in Passive Posture): -0. For instance. Basically. notably Supply distribution and weather-related Attrition. and the level of road infrastructure. if there are any available. The Base Daily Rate for land units is one Cohesion point.e. Naval units face limitations depending on their type: some can enter ocean regions while others are limited to coastal regions. The speed of movement is based on Cohesion.5 » Offensive Posture: -0. that your Forces have a limited ability to dynamically adjust to the enemy’s movements in the form of Interception Orders. It is expressed as a number (with 1 being the most senior) and has a direct impact on promotion. To cancel the entire journey. etc. In order to cancel the last leg of a move. and therefore the autonomy they have with their fuel cargo (i. it will try to engage it as ordered. » Ships lose Cohesion depending on the weather and the ship type. onboard stock).5 » Land unit transported aboard a ship: -0. This rate is further modified by NM. NotE: A Force will not blindly follow your orders. Naval Ranges Naval movement is limited by another factor: Range. units will take a number of hits proportional to Cohesion loss each time they move. Posture also has an impact. drag and drop the Force onto its original region. Note: This simulates the inevitable losses incurred by moving units (deserters. An admiral also makes an Activation Check each turn. The estimated number of days required to move from a region to another is indicated for each leg of the movement path. Experience Leaders gain and lose Experience by winning and losing battles. modified by the following factors: » Entrenched and outside of a structure: +0. Resting also allows a unit to gradually fill its ranks with replacements. the turn’s orders are simultaneously resolved during the Resolution Phase. Forced March greatly increases the Cohesion Cost of movement.

Note that each unit type has different Patrol Values depending on its mobility and size. which provide cover. » If your fleets are in another faction’s Port. and your Army/Fleet will adjust its movement path during the upcoming turn in an attempt to intercept the enemy or join the friendly Force. For this purpose. unless your Force is particularly stealthy and/or the enemy is lacking proper reconnaissance units. Patrol Value This value represents your troops’ ability to block the enemy’s movement. Once the Power Store is depleted. some troops are particularly stealthy and can more easily manage to sneak through to the enemy’s rear. especially mobile units (such as cavalry). but Evasion and Patrol Values will determine the probability of a naval engagement occurring. PLAy NotE: Forts greatly enhance your Patrol Value. ExAMPLE 2: Frigates (high Patrol Value) are fast units which help their Force locate and engage any enemies trying to sneak around them. If this presence is strong enough. also help stop the enemy from infiltrating your territory. your units won’t be able to bypass the defender to penetrate further into an enemy’s rear areas unless they battle and push the enemy back. An enemy Force it is following may also split. it will consume some of its Power Store. Harsh weather and terrain. if it is set to “false” (which may occur through technological advancements later on). based on mobility and size. The total power consumption of all units is divided by 10 before being added to the faction’s power needs (so. Each unit type has different Evasion Values. Finding the Enemy at Sea You cannot directly stop an enemy’s movement through a sea region (or river). During each turn’s Hosting Phase. » RAILRoADS PoWER CoNSUMPtIoN: Railroads consume power based on their levels. The engine will try to consume all the required power from available coal/oil stocks. PLAy NotE: This means that you can fall back on friendly regions but are usually prohibited from moving further into enemy territory. the faction will consume all that power (coal or oil. they will just slow down. the unit will start moving at a reduced speed. 23 . The level of Military Control you exert over the region also comes into play in this calculation. After the consumption process is completed. However. As you will note. then the last step is to consume all the PP needed to pay for the power consumption shortage. by your Evasion Value is greater than your Military Control of the region. If there is not enough Private Capital. All of these sources are summed up in one value that will be the total power consumption of the faction. and the asset consumed will be coal. Power Consumption (Rail and Naval) Railroad and Naval movement consumes power. PLAy NotE: These ‘cat and mouse’ rules allow you to attempt cavalry raids. 4. depending on the current power source in use). ExAMPLE 1: A Raider (high Evasion Value) can reasonably attempt to reach the open sea by outrunning opposing ships. PRoCEDURE: Regions your Force are prohibited from entering will pulse red. Refueling of Naval Units Naval units refuel automatically. while large Forces suffer a penalty. You cannot enter a land region if the enemy’s Patrol Value divided If the intercepting Force can no longer locate the enemy Force.NotE: This new rule is “true” initially. Large numbers of troops. » In that instance. An icon on the Unit Panel provides detailed information. in which case the intercepting Force will usually go after the larger enemy formation. 10 Power Store equals 1 Power added to the faction’s power needs). Small Forces have better Evasion Values. also increase your Evasion Value. Be careful not to fall behind in your Power Stores! 5. then Private Capital will be consumed to pay for that shortage (the missing power is bought elsewhere). but instead want to intercept a moving enemy Force wherever it goes. If there are not enough State Funds. as well as by the Military Control exerted over the region. it will stop moving. you have to be sure that you can enter other factions’ Ports if you are planning to sail your fleets around the world. Patrol and Evasion Values also play a role in avoiding combat. or prevent the enemy from reaching an important city if you are in front of them with enough troops. The consumption process is as follows: 1. The power consumption of each turn is stored at the faction level. Both are handled similarly. if your Force is on Passive Posture or if you have the ‘Evade Fight’ Special Order enabled. then the asset consumed will be oil. based on the following sources: » UNItS’ PoWER CoNSUMPtIoN: Naval units in a Port will try to refuel their power storage. so they will add their needs to the power consumption total. » CoNSUMPtIoN oF RAIL PooL PoINtS: The consumption of Rail Pool points is also a source of power consumption. All of the naval units inside a Port will be able to refuel their power storage. then State Funds will be consumed to pay for the shortage (as the State will buy the missing strategic stocks). Evasion Value This value represents your troops’ ability to infiltrate rear areas and to avoid contact with the enemy. Blocking Movement Enemy presence (especially Forts) inhibits movement in a land region. all of the naval units in port are automatically refueled. the units will NOT stop when there is no power available. you will be the one “paying” the power cost of supplying the units. If there is not enough coal (or oil) in stock. Interception and Combination There will be times when you don’t want to move to a specific region. 3. ExAMPLE 3: Sailing past enemy Forts is always a risky proposition. On the other hand. Functionality of the Naval Range Every time a naval unit is moving. You may also need to join and merge with a friendly Force. PRoCEDURE: Drag and drop your Force onto an enemy or friendly Force. 2. you will need to have a Supply Right or a Passage Right treaty to sail your ships into the other nation’s Harbor. The sum of your units’ Patrol Values is added to any nearby Fort’s Patrol Value. This is represented by the Patrol and Evasion Values of the moving and blocking Forces.

The Force can now benefit from rail movement during the turn. Partisans. and subordinate to. In addition. Special Orders require some kind of check (mostly related to leader and unit attributes) to determine the extent of success/failure. The Force will rebuild a destroyed rail network in its region. etc. Depot construction requires two Game Turns. when the Army HQ moves. There is a nal Command cost associated with doing so. Component parts are henceforth treated as Individual Units. Disband Army Naval Interception If this order is given. Special Order Icon Special Order Brigade Break Down Special Order Description/ Effects This order is used to Break Down a Brigade into its component parts. Hill. and to issue all kinds of non-movement-related orders. an Army and its Commander. Destroy Fortification The Force will expend time to destroy a fortification. This order is also used to merge weak units into a stronger one by merging elements. such as first fire. Unless noted otherwise. A Force containing only leaders and/ or support units may not travel under a forced march. Special Order Icon Special Order Seek Shelter Special Order Description/ Effects A Force that seeks shelter will enter a structure at its destination. and Alpine terrain. Forest. the transported units will be unloaded in the chosen region. A Force that retreats in battle will enter a structure in the current region. The Army is replaced by its Army leader. It will also enter Raiding mode. [not currently in the game] This order instantly removes selected unit(s) from the game. the unit will then carry out its movement order if any has been given. A Naval Force will bombard the first coastal structure or entrenched position it encounters. The Special Orders available to a Force are listed next to the Unit Panel and can be influenced by a number of conditions. Swap Leader This order is used to swap a three-star leader in command of an Army with another one from the same stack. No Naval A Naval Force will not bombard the first coastal Bombardment structure or entrenched position it encounters in order to save ammunition.Special orders Special Orders allow you to fine-tune how your Forces move and react to the enemy during the upcoming turn. Special Orders that need several days to be completed are always executed first during a turn. Attach Corps to Army This order is used to make an Independent Force part of. Destroy Rail Network The Force will destroy the rail network in its region. A Force inside a structure will try to get out. If there is any remaining time. A three-star leader is required. and a land leader is required. Disband Enable Divisio. The leader is promoted to the next highest rank. Combine Units Selected units can be combined into a single unit. Create Army This order is used to create new Army-level commands. The detached Corps is considered an Independent Force upon its removal from the Army. Surrender Rail Movement A Force assigned the “Move by Rail” Special Order(s) will use existing rail lines on its movement path. Wooded Hills. provided a friendly land force is present in the region. If successful. Move by Rail Rebuild Rail Network Synchronized Move Subordinate Corps and Army HQs in the same region will move together at the pace of the slowest Force. Enemy Batteries in fortifications or Entrenchments greater than Level 4 have an opportunity to return fire. Build Fortification The Force will expend two Supply units and four artillery batteries to build a field fortification. all subordinate Corps in the region will automatically synchronize their movement without need for the Special Order. Distant Unload If this order is given. the selected unit is destroyed (removed from game). usually to form a Brigade.This order is used to create a Division.) can try to set up an Ambush in Marsh. Light infantry and cavalry are likely to suffer less Cohesion loss. Ambush Stationary irregular forces (i. Naval Bombard Evade Combat A Force with this order will seek to avoid contact with the enemy during movement. resulting in a much faster move- 24 . and will fight its way out if besieged in the current region. The Depot is destroyed before the Force executes any additional movement orders. and subordinate to. This order is used to disband an Army. Build Depot The Force expends two Supply Wagon units or two Naval Transport units and constructs a Depot. and have an increased chance to withdraw. Note that leaders who are inactive cannot perform all of the available orders. the ship will try to attack any naval unit passing through an adjacent region. Guerillas. Strategic [currently in the game but effect unknown]? Redeployment Ground Plane [not currently in the game] ? Detach Corps from Army This order is used to detach a Corps that is part of. Sortie Destroy Depot The Force must begin the turn in the region with the enemy Depot and be assigned the ‘Destroy Depot’ Special Order. [not currently in the game] If activated. Forced March A Force that is under a forced march is able to move faster but at the cost of an increased loss of Cohesion. Mountainous. Enemy Batteries in fortifications or entrenchments greater than Level 4 have an opportunity to return fire. Promote Leader Demote Leader The leader is demoted to the next lowest rank. provided a friendly land force is present in the region.e. ExAMPLE: The “Ambush” Special Order will only be active for Irregulars in difficult terrain. (Note: Only Level 1 Depots can be destroyed). an Army. The men in units become prisoners. the ambushing units receive combat benefits.

the enemy’s position is withheld unless players are able to ‘detect’ their presence. You can set the desired behavior of your Forces as follows: » Your Forces will automatically capture any Supply stockpiles from enemy structures that fell into their hands during movement. but with combat penalties if you are attacked. River Movement Individual Riverine Transport units are available. but you can buy additional transportation assets to make up for this. except that during a siege your Force will not attempt to storm a Fort/city but continue the siege. that a player’s ability to detect an enemy is somewhat offset by the enemy’s ability to hide. NotE: If left unopposed. a corresponding icon is displayed over the piece as a reminder. You must have at least 25% Military Control in a region to use its rail network. Keep in mind that an enemy Force. Postures The offensive or defensive stance of a Force is called its “Posture. the units automatically disembark when they reach their destination Port. Last but not least. » PASSIVE: This is the same as Defensive Posture. Rail pools are gradually decreased through wear and tear. if any. can build a temporary Entrenchment that will act as a Fort along a river or ocean region. however. PRoCEDURE: First. IMPoRtANt!: Moving by river can be quite hazardous if there is an enemy Fort or Fleet in the way. The possible Postures are: » ASSAULt: Your Force will attack any detected opponent it comes across.ment rate and vastly reduced Cohesion Cost. » To destroy a Depot or Fort. In the turn following your Fleet’s arrival at its destination. Using this order requires that only the landing destination be selected. and Forts they come across. Passive units also won’t increase the Military Control of a region that they are in. Move the transport Fleet and its cargo to a sea zone adjacent to the landing spot as you would for a regular sea transport. your chance of withdrawing from combat is increased. » DEFENSIVE: Your Force won’t engage enemy units. A player will only see enemy units on the map if they are detected. with the remaining Supplies staying on the map as they change ownership. limiting the number of Forces that can simultaneously move this way. a Force must start its move in the target region and use the “Destroy Depot” and/or “Destroy Fort” Special Order. or to increase transportation capacity. » Forces assigned the “Evade Fight” Special Order will burn all Supply stockpiles in their path. split the Force and order the land units to move ashore. This will take some time and will be resolved before any planned movement. Note that the transporting Fleet needs to have enough capacity to hold the troops. if it has time and artillery. Using individual Riverine Transport units with the appropriate escorts is highly recommended in this case. 25 . Also. FOg OF WAr The uncertainty regarding enemy locations and intentions is recreated by presenting players with a condition known as the ‘Fog of War. Depots. they can use the Distant Unload Special Order. In this case. Structures also remain intact and change hands. Once one is selected. Amphibious Landing Landing in an enemy region or a region without a Port (even if it is friendly) is a two-step process: 1. They are used similarly as seagoing transport units (see below). Rail transportation assets are also used to transport Supply down railroads. Rail movement draws upon national pools of trains (depending on the size of the Force to be transported). The probability of successfully carrying out such operations depends on the Pillage Value of the Force. During a siege. Regular Sea Movement You must use individual transport ships to transport troops by sea.’ Essentially. » oFFENSIVE: Same as Assault. As a consequence. Raids Cutting the enemy’s Supply lines and destroying their infrastructure is an important part of military operations. you can further improve your rail network by laying new rails (or lay waste to your opponent’s by destroying them!). Distant Unload Special Order If the player already knows where the land units will disembark. skillful raiders can ruin a Supply network. Keep in mind. » Natives and raiders are unique units identified by their “Pillage” Special Ability icon. Structures remain unharmed and simply change hands. and the naval stack will move automatically to the nearest coastal region and disembark all its land forces. Expect heavy casualties unless the defenses have been breached. The first type of seaborne (or riverine) movement is to transport units from one friendly Port to another.” Four buttons represent the different Postures. marauding raiders block Supply transport through the region they are located in. merge the transporting Fleet and the units to be transported in the Port of departure. They destroy all Supply. your Force will attempt to storm the Fort/city. except for those in their destination region. The Fleet that carried the units can be given a move order and will sail away once disembarkation is complete. However. it will defend with the benefit of the region’s terrain bonus. Also. If attacked. 2. They will replenish their own Supply reserves. then order the combined Force to move to the destination Port. only the transportation capacity not assigned to move units will be available for Supply distribution. don’t forget that at least 25% Military Control in a region is required to let Supplies pass through it. Significant forces can be tied up defending overextended Supply lines.

no structures present) or the enemy units are particularly stealthy.The Hide Value of the enemy units is compared to the friendly Detection Value in the region: if your Detection Value equals the Hide Value of your opponent. Detection Procedure The Detection Value is applied to the enemy’s Hide Value. food.e. » −1DP: Detection Points used to see into adjacent regions Detection also extends to adjacent regions.e. its Hide Value is set to 1 unless it is in a Passive Posture. and is used in comparison with an enemy’s Detection Value to determine if a Force has been spotted. Mountain. the enemy forces are detected and revealed on the game map. “amateurs study tactics and professionals study logistics. For each point of Detection Value over an enemy’s Hide Value. Blizzard) » −1 HP: Force is considered Large Hide Points are cumulative.e.e.” overview of the Supply System The Supply System represents the means by which Supplies are broadcast forward from their point of production through a series of intermediate staging areas to the point of consumption (i. an element belonging to a cavalry Brigade usually has a Detection Rating of 4 DPs. the accuracy of the information received is increased. cannon shot. the enemy forces remain concealed. Units that are unable to satisfy their Ammunition requirements are considered ‘Out of Supply’ for combat purposes and participate in combat at a significant disadvantage. Once determined. If the Detection Value exceeds the enemy’s Hide Value. » Large Force: A Large Force is a Force that contains more than 9 units and/or more than 9 Command Points’ worth of units/elements. modified as follows: » +1 HP: Only leaders are present in the Force » +1 HP: Force is Passive or considered Small » +1 HP: Covered Terrain (Bocage. Otherwise. General Supply represents items used by military units to maintain their manpower in good fighting order (i. A region is grayed out if the Detection Level there is 0. Units lacking Ammunition will incur a severe combat penalty. In regions in which a player does not have friendly Forces: » +2 DPs: Military Control in the region is at least 51% (friendly) » +2 DPs: Population in the region is at least 51% Loyal suppLy One of the most daunting challenges faced by any military leader is keeping an army supplied with all the goods and services that it needs to maintain itself in the field. » Small Force: A Small Force is a Force that contains fewer than 4 units and/or fewer than 4 Command Points’ worth of units/ elements. or HP). a line infantry element usually has 2 DPs. Wooded Hills. a group possesses the Hide Value of the unit with the lowest Hide Value (calculated in Hide Points. unless the region is completely wild (i. They will try to replenish their stockpile each turn. Snow. out-of-Supply Penalties There’s an old saying among veterans that an army travels on its stomach. and then delivered to combat units who are within range. etc. gunpowder. however. There are two types of Supplies: General Supply and Ammunition. HINt: Forces near enemy territory or troops are automatically detected. usually remain unspotted.). Both are produced and distributed in a similar fashion but are accounted for separately. etc. However. Soldiers need adequate food and water to maintain the physical condition necessary for military operations. The ability of friendly Forces to escape detection is determined by the number of Hide Points that a Force generates. Hide Value If a group is in a region with a structure. troops in the field). Units lacking General Supply will start taking hits and lose Cohesion. Detection Points (DP) are generated by the following conditions: » Highest Detection Rating of any friendly unit in the region. Frozen. Supply Points are produced (and accumulated) in various map locations. Ammunition represents the supply of munitions that military units expend in combat (i. This chain of Supply (from production to consumption) is handled automatically and requires no input from players. Ammunition is required only when military units engage in combat. Wilderness. Hover the cursor over a Force’s cauldron or cannonball icon to check how much General Supply and Ammunition it’s carrying. Only the lowest number of Hide Points generated by a single source is used. Alpine) » +1 HP: Harsh Weather (Mud.. Forces in your rear areas. bullets. whether friendly or enemy. Therefore. water. Military units (including naval vessels) require General Supply each turn to maintain their operational efficiency. Only the largest number of Detection Points generated by a single source is used. Extra Detection Points increase the accuracy of the intelligence gathered. small Forces that are kept supplied are usually able to defeat larger 26 . moved as needed to friendly structures and storage units within range. this number of Hide Points is known as the Hide Value. Units that are unable to satisfy their General Supply requirements are considered ‘Out of Supply’ and operate at a reduced level of efficiency. clothing. Once determined. Hills. there are limitations to the amount of Supply Points that can be distributed along a single link in the Supply chain. this number of Detection Points is known as the Detection Value. In game terms. if located in a region with Covered Terrain (+1 HP) and Harsh Weather (+1 HP) it would have a modified Hide Value of 6. and lengthy (or poorly protected) chains are susceptible to enemy interruptions. For example. As the old saying goes. you detect them. Detection Value The ability of friendly Forces to see into a region they occupy (and adjacent regions) is determined by the number of Detection Points that a Force or friendly region is able to generate. Many units normally carry two turns’ worth of General Supply and enough Ammunition to last for two battles. in addition to suffering other ill effects. A Force with a Hide Value of 6 that remains in a Passive Command Posture is practically invisible—perfect for scouting behind enemy lines. For example. albeit with a -1 reduction. Marshes. Forget about strategy for a moment – it’s logistics that wins most battles.). Irregular units are a good choice for both reconnaissance and infiltration. If not. Detection Points are not cumulative. a Small Force (+1 HP) containing only elements of Cossack cavalry (Irregular) has a base Hide Value of 3. They also incur a moderate combat penalty.

However. extraordinary circumstances can occur in which a force will find itself ‘Out of Supply. being forwarded from one structure to another until it reaches the farthest units/structures. NotE: Isolated units. This loss of effectiveness is separate from (and in addition to) combat penalties due to a lack of General Supply. Loss of Unit Cohesion Units that are unable to satisfy their General Supply requirements during a turn (either through regular Supply means or failure to forage) suffer a loss of Cohesion. the amount of Supplies produced by a Supply source is increased by 1%. and once empty. NotE: Controlling rivers and (to a lesser extent) railroads is strategically important. and disease take a significant toll on units. This will trigger a chain reaction. enemy Forts and Fleets along a river line block Supply transport from advancing past their position. » BLoCkADE: Ports that are blockaded by enemy naval vessels do not produce Supply Points. as starvation. For every two NM below 100. However. desertion. Supply Wagons also have the following additional benefits: » They provide a +10% fire bonus during battles (provided they have some ammo left). Loss of Combat Effectiveness Units that are unable to satisfy their General Supply requirements during a turn (either through regular Supply means or failure to forage) suffer a loss of combat effectiveness when in battle. LoyALty: Production is multiplied by [Loyalty + 50 %]. they will need to be refilled from a regular Supply source. » NAtIoNAL MoRALE (NM): For every two NM above 100. as they allow you to transport great quantities of Supply and men compared to overland Supply paths using roads. This process is automated and conducted in three consecutive “push” steps. You can check the total General Supply generated in a region via its tooltip. with Supply 27 . NotE 2: Unprotected Depots are tempting targets for enemy raiders and should be adequately protected. » BESIEGED StRUCtURES: Do not produce Supply Points. production in the region will be multiplied by 1. These will then act as transit points in order to bridge gaps in the Supply lines. the amount of Supplies produced by a Supply source is reduced by 1%. such as units under siege. Supply sources will strive to distribute their surplus to the nearby structures and units that need it. Supply Wagons Supply Wagons are special units which act as moving Supply stockpiles and thus provide limited direct control over Supply. » They protect units from bad weather effects by trading hits for Supply. NotE 1: Building a Depot network every three to five regions is highly recommended. You can build them in critical locations. this will only last for as long as the wagons have Supplies. This loss of effectiveness is separate from (and in addition to) combat penalties amassed due to a lack of Ammunition. NotE: Supply is absolutely critical to military operations. Wagons tend to slow down the Force they accompany and cannot be used by naval units. While a good commander will make every effort to see that his troops remain supplied. extend the reach of the Supply network. if a region is completely loyal to your side (100% Loyalty). Supply Points previously accumulated are unaffected by naval blockades and may be distributed (by land) normally. stance. This occurs during the Hosting Phase. depending on several factors: » Terrain » Weather » Enemy presence » Rail Transport » River Transport » Sea Transport You can directly check on the map how much and where General Supply/Ammunition is stockpiled by using the Supply Filter. They fill up during the Supply Distribution Phase. will begin to suffer from starvation when their General Supply reserves are depleted. For in- Depots Depots are very useful in optimizing Supply lines.5. the trains left unused during the movement phase will be available for Supply distribution. such as Supply bottlenecks or remote areas lacking other structures.’ Attrition due to lack of Supply Units that are unable to satisfy their General Supply requirements during a turn (either through regular Supply means or failure to forage) suffer Attrition hits. A Depot will attract and then push forward more Supplies than Level 1-14 cities. taking many parameters into account. Supply Distribution Each structure and unit in the game will “pull” a certain amount of Supply each turn. Rail transport On each turn. Supply Points previously accumulated are retained and consumed by the friendly Forces being besieged. These will be used to transport Supply over friendly rail lines. The distance covered by the abstracted Supply columns during each step can range from one to five regions. Note: The penalty for participating in combat without adequate Ammunition is quite severe (as you might imagine). The amount of Supply that can be moved through a structure is roughly proportional to its Production Capacity (see above). and increase Supply throughput. and allow you to ensure certain Forces are kept stocked.enemy Forces who are without. Lack of Ammunition and Combat Units that are unable to satisfy their Ammunition requirements during a turn suffer a loss of combat effectiveness when participating in combat. Supply Sources The basic amounts generated are as follows: Structure City Depot Harbor Fort or Outposts General Supply/Level 8 4 4 2 Ammunition/Level 2 1 1 0 This is further modified by: » » INVEStMENt: Depends on the level of Depots you build/improve. even if they operate far from their Supply bases.

The test is done for each Supply Point carried by each element in the region. there is a Level 1 Harbor. the region is considered to have been looted. All factions who are not an enemy of the city’s owner get a SSL bonus in ratio to the total population of the region. the rule doesn’t affect the damage done to troops. harsh weather (+25%). the sum of Colonial Penetration (CP) of non-enemy factions. but they can only replenish Ammunition in Ports. Supply will Decay if it fails the Decay Test (if percentage dice rolls equal or under the Decay percentage) and the various protection chances fail. to avoid needless micromanagement. If all the tests fail. as development level is 25. but the starting Decay percentage is lower to compensate. deadly for troops without some offsetting special abilities or attributes. » The base Decay chance (or lack of) is 25%. However. has only 5 points of population. Starvation is magnified by a pillaged region (+20%). » Base is 5 » Development level gives +50 » CP removes 55 » Population adds up 13 (50 population in a 25 developed region gives +13 bonus) » Harbor gives 20 (Supply Want of 4x5 for the coefficient to this value. Harsh weather. Supply. colonial troops are better protected than European ones. total population is 50. such as a harsh climate. 10 CP. It affects movement. if population is 50 in a 50% developed region. For example. SSL takes into account: » If the region is a land or water region. Naval Transport units can also be used to manually transport General Supply to troops located in adjacent coastal regions. very harsh weather. Please note that the Force does not need to be located within the structure to benefit from its protection: the structure provides shelter to all Forces in the region. Decay also prevents the concentration of large bodies of troops in territories which are not properly developed. Decay can also be present within each element’s Supply stock. » The Decay % is bounded between 0% and 90% in any case. thus no bonus » 5 SSL from the population » Harsh (weather) penalty: -40 » We stay at the bare minimum (5). which happens during the harvest season. with the city being the notable exception. Supply Decay Percentage Once the SSL is known for a given faction (it can vary slightly on a per-faction basis because of FMs). in ratio to the development level. Under this level of Supply. Each out-of-Supply sub-unit will take a test to see if it finds enough Supply. at most. mostly from some Italian missions. Supply Decay is aimed at representing not only the usual wear and tear (spoilage) of Supplies but also loss due to the environment. but CLImATE Weather plays a critical role in the conduct of operations. ExAMPLE 1: An almost terra incognita region that is. NotE: SSL is further modified by the Faction Modifiers (FM) of the faction. All structures raise the SSL by their Supply Want times a coefficient. as shown on the following chart. which will make crossing some areas. both inside and outside the structure. 28 . but as their Supply is destroyed. in 1850: Total CP is 55. A leader with the “Forage” Special Ability also improves his Force’s chances. then the population gives +25 SSL. then we determine the potential percentage of Decay for each Supply possessed (not just above the limit*) in the region. they will begin to starve. It will not provide any more Supply until it recovers. » If a nation has a Colonial Status of Dominion or better in the region. and combat in many ways. Decay can be prevented if some leaders or elements have the necessary abilities to prevent it. ExAMPLE 2: Tripolitania Foraging and Supply Out-of-Supply units located in an enemy region have a chance of finding enough subsistence to momentarily avoid the penalties due to lack of General Supply. Decay test Supply Decay is calculated separately for each element. as indicated by the animated icon of a burning flame (pillage). similar to Supply Wagons. » Level of the region’s development. as soon as a single test is failed. For instance. Naval Units and Supply Fleets at sea can replenish General Supply from adjacent land regions with a stockpile. *: Done to prevent exploits. Supply then Decays and is lost. weather is currently normal (Steppe if fair weather). and the weather is currently harsh (say a monsoon is underway): » Base is 5 » 10 CP means a penalty of 90 to SSL » No development level. Some elements are protected against this better than others. such as large expanses of jungle territory. and pillaged conditions reduce SSL. so 20) » Total 33 » It is possible to maintain one European-sized Corps here with just a little Decay to Supply each turn. and no city. either no Decay or a minimum of Decay occurs. Supply Decay It is possible to lose some General Supply each turn in each region. Any CP under 100 is a small penalty. or very harsh weather (+50%).A Supply Wagon or transport ship is able to supply any land unit with both General Supply and Ammunition if it is in the same or an adjacent region. » The increment in Decay is 10%. has no development level and no structures. IMPoRtANt: Forces in a reasonably controlled region with a friendly structure will ignore Attrition due to bad weather. as well as for those Supplies in structures (all of which is held by the Exclusive Structure Owner). This depends on the terrain and Civilization Level of the region. Safe Supply Limit (SSL) Each region has a Safe Supply Limit (SSL) calculated during hosting. and in the Supply stock of each element. as well as the time of the year. By itself.

Irregulars are also considered stealthy enough to cross/land unopposed. you must be the latest to have occupied it with a combat unit. then the beaten defender will lose a portion of Military Control and either retreat locally. If you manage to push back the enemy from a region and you leave some units to occupy it. Finally. a region’s control ranges from 50/50. to 100/0. with slightly greater losses.9). most casualties during the wars of this period were caused by Attrition (disease. Severe penalty for All Forces suffer the attacker. NotE: When penetrating into enemy territory. Snow Moderate penalty for the attacker. Irregulars. NotE: Armies attempting an amphibious landing or river crossing have no choice but to fight the enemy defending the crossing or beach at a disadvantage. a Force will have to face opposing Forces blocking the main avenues of advance. Monsoon. Battles start at close range. All Forces suffer Attrition (unless sheltered). A Force can also attempt to retreat to its lines through enemy territory. meaning that the enemy will increase its Military Control without having to fight. etc. mILITAry CONTrOL Military Control is represented as a percentage of total control in each region.8). As such. Harsh Weather (Frozen. Note that Forces in Passive Posture. cold. unless they are fast/stealthy enough to attempt infiltrating even deeper. neither may increase Military Control until one side assumes an Offensive Posture in an attempt to increase their control. representing a region that is equally contested by two sides. Forces crossing/landing into a region where a beachhead/ bridgehead has previously been secured (you have more than 10% Military Control) can reinforce it without fighting. will not contest control of a region. swamps. NotE: Engaging in a battle deep within enemy territory is a very risky proposition. your Detection Level will increase if you control at least 51% of a region. » Desert Terrain: Each turn spent in desert terrain results in severe Attrition losses. Attrition is slightly reduced in civilized regions (x 0.9). those where you have less than 5% Military Control. or to an adjacent region if soundly defeated. The following activities will result in units taking hits: » Movement: Hits are proportional to the Cohesion Cost of the move.Weather Rain (Mud) Movement and Supply Transport Moderate (desert or clear) to high (marsh. If two enemies both have troops within a region. or those composed exclusively of support units. Fleets do not get this benefit. Deep Cold. 29 . with even greater losses. in which case it will stay in the region. Bodies Moderate penalty of water may freeze in for the attacker. you cannot retreat from battle into completely hostile re- Controlling Structures To control a structure. » Epidemics: Large concentrations of troops are particularly vulnerable to disease. trying to avoid contact. However. Sand Storm) Very Harsh Weather (Blizzard. jungle) penalty. » Lack of General Supply: Units will take Attrition hits. » Bad Weather: Units lacking shelter will take a number of hits depending on the severity of weather conditions. Severe penalty. except in Arctic areas or terrain (ice field. Supply Wagons in a stack automatically “shield” units from Attrition by negating one Attrition hit/five Supply Points spent. desertion.) rather than direct combat. During amphibious assaults and river crossings into regions where you have 10% or less Military Control. Forces in Passive Posture or those composed entirely of cavalry. depending on the amount of troops you have. Moderate penalty. and the Cohesion Cost incurred by enemy units moving into/through the region. tundra).” In addition. winter. in addition to Cohesion losses and combat penalties. River crossing more difficult. Combat Slight penalty for the Attacker. sheltered). ATTrITION Contrary to popular belief. Storms) Same as above. and support units may move through enemy territory without switching Posture. A Corps on the march can convert a region in a few days! gions—that is. Monsoon. or Equatorial climates suffer higher Attrition. Attrition Mountain and all regions in Tropical. or if units are entrenched (x 0. However. Effects Having Military Control of a region greatly increases both your chances of stopping an enemy Force trying to cross it. as losing it will result in the complete destruction of your Forces for lack of a path of retreat! In regions with 5% or less Military Control (enemy territory). It also affects the chances of a Corps successfully “Marching to the Sound of the Guns. a Force will automatically adopt Offensive Posture in an attempt to gain a foothold. if there is a Supply Wagon present in the stack (x 0. Battles Attrition (unless start at close range. All Forces suffer Attrition (unless sheltered). If the attacker is successful. you will gain complete Military Control in one or two turns. your posture is also automatically set to Offensive (unless the Force is composed entirely of Irregulars). where one side has absolute control. Bodies of water may freeze.

or only British units. in which case an enemy unit will appear and take control of the city. » If a region is very hostile to the occupant (10% or less Loyalty). » The region will produce more Supply. » To enter the Construction sub-mode. and the construction time (in days). you may click on the ALL button(s) to return to the complete list (all units. The only way to truly get a population to stop supporting the enemy is through demoralization by capture of Strategic Cities. men. A tooltip for each unit indicates how many there are on the map. Indians and Partisans will only take control of a city if the population in the area is friendly (51% Loyalty or more).NotE: You don’t necessarily need to leave a unit garrisoning the structure. while the other allows you to filter by sub-nationalities. This is particularly true if a leader with the “Suppress” Special Ability is present. and is independent of Military Control. and how many there are in the white square on the upper-left corner of the unit stamp. and Money. Constructible Units These are listed in the main interface. you can also press ALT-F1 when in Military Mode to switch in and out of Military Construction Mode. you need to be in Military Mode. » If the enemy occupies a region loyal to your side without leaving a sufficiently strong garrison. their name. you could theoretically build the unit there. but winning over its population to your side is a far slower process. and others resources). (Hint: Drop the unit there and an error message will tell you the reason. One set allows you to filter by unit types/ sizes. and their psychological impact is highly influenced by proximity. the Military Construction Mode (overview) This mode allows for the recruiting and training (building) of new units for the nation’s armed forces. or red). LOyALTy (pOpuLATION ALLEgIANCE) Loyalty (short for Population Allegiance) is a measure of the region’s local population’s inclination for one side or the other. » If the region is orange. » The locals will provide some intelligence as to the enemy’s whereabouts. and other resources). the map color changes (green. You may use the different buttons on the left panel to filter by category and sub-type. the costs (in money. You can see all those units that are still available for construction. Effects You can also influence Loyalty by tweaking Domestic Policy at the State level. Of course. to the left of the helmet icon. but the process remains a slow one. such as how many units your nation can field (Force Pool concept). and the location of the build. remote areas are less volatile in their loyalties. High Loyalty within a region offers several benefits.) 30 . They cannot capture Depots or Forts and will instead destroy them. Construction Buttons There are two types of buttons which are used to filter the various construction possibilities. You can quickly occupy an enemy region with your troops. You can also use the flags on top of the Unit Panel to filter by sub-nationality. Martial Law imposed by the occupant will slowly shift a region’s Loyalty in their favor. Where to Build When you select a unit for construction. as it is not always possible to construct all unit types everywhere. money. Conversely. BuILdINg uNITs Construction of military units is done through the Military Mode’s Construction sub-mode. only Indian Army units. In both cases. » You don’t need to garrison Objectives in order to earn Prestige Points. non-garrisoned cities may openly revolt. » Regions in green are the areas where a unit can be built. In this example. orange. » Alternatively. Resources. there are some limitations. Figure 10: Units you can build. but you currently lack one or more of the assets needed to do so. all nationalities). Each time this happens. and there will be a chance that Partisans will appear in the region. the various assets needed to pay for the construction (recruits. the bad news triggers a wave of Loyalty Checks across the map. you could show all British Empire units to be built. Influencing Loyalty Over time. Click on the icon with the three soldiers on it. although it is good practice to do so. depending on the distance: » One check for each Strategic City on the map » One check for each region with a Strategic City in the State » One check for each adjacent region NotE: The news spreads faster in large cities. its Military Control will gradually shift in your favor.

and is used with Iron to produce Steel. The number of officers is the leftmost number below the conscript icon. as they were typically private builds requisitioned by the Navy. It is also possible to see the statistics of the element components of the unit to be built by clicking on the NATO symbols on the bottomright panel when a unit is selected. SIDE NotE: Merchant Fleets and other civilian units that may be used for military transport use private funds. A Military Academy in your country will significantly increase the number of men who achieve an officer rank each year.» Finally. Coal. Possible Causes preventing the Construction of Units Men To build troops. Some possible causes are: » No available units in the Force Pool. Guard) requiring more. there is at least one regional constraint preventing you from building the unit. If the region is in red. if all of a nation’s units are in play. Officers are produced at a greater rate than conscripts.. and so almost all units use some. and its production requires both Coal and Iron. » Insufficient Military Control over the region. » The unit needs soldiers and the region lacks the required population. but you’ll need more raw resources (Coal and Iron) to really augment the production.). from rifles to uniforms. Steel. Gurkhas are recruited in Nepal. you can build the unit there.) Goods are widely used for unit construction.. » The unit can only be built in the capital. steam ships. » A required structure is absent (e. » The region is not playable in the scenario. construction is not allowed in any regions in red. while a major Harbor will do the same for ships. as Private Capital can’t be used to purchase military units.. You can construct more Steel Mills to produce more Steel. eliminated. you could theoretically build there. and a given region can only allow construction of a limited amount of unit weight. in both times of peace and war. not London). when at war. etc. if you had enough resources. The FP is calculated at the unit level. They represent many things. MANUFACtURED GooDS: Manufactured (Mfg. CoNSCRIPtS (RECRUItS): All units need conscripts. Mfg. There are also some rarer causes which might prevent the building of a unit in a given region. a region’s tooltip will indicate why the region is red for the selected unit. with some lowquality units requiring only a few. Finally. and Goods CoAL: Only a few units have Coal as a build requirement. the British player is precluded from building a Warship Squadron in the Midlands. Coal is mostly needed to run factories.g. NotE: Each unit has a certain construction weight. which also require raw resources.g. The bulk of your State Money income will come primarily from taxes. with the amount depending on their size. while some will come from exceptional measures that you can periodically take. In all cases. as it is an inland location. you need men (the same also applies for ships). So choose and plan carefully. then it can’t field more until some are 31 . The number of conscripts is the rightmost number below the conscript icon. » The region’s Loyalty is too low or the region is in Riot. Figure 11: In Military Construction Mode. Some may also be acquired through trade. oFFICERS: Officers are needed by almost all units. In addition. Conscripts are re- ceived each turn from your cities. and others (e. Steel is a refined resource. the region’s tooltip will provide the reason. In this example. and to reflect the reality of ‘overrecruiting’ from the population of one region. Force Pools Each nation can only field a limited number of troops at any time. If the region is in green. so a big city will allow for the parallel recruitment of several land-based units. » The region’s build capacity has been exceeded. Reforms will alter this number. Assets Assets used for the construction of military units come in three varieties. if you recruit one Infantry Corps. then the number available in the Force Pool is reduced by one. Goods are produced by factories. This construction weight is split between land and naval units. » The unit is a ship and there is no Harbor. there are certain situations in which you can access military options ordering mass mobilization. You can augment your Coal production by creating more Coal Mines. Cavalry Corps. a Steel Factory for armored trains).g. » The unit can only be built in some parts of the world (e. but in no way will it reduce another unit type (Infantry Divisions. but the number received is mainly influenced by whether your country is at war or at peace. This is what is called the Force Pool (FP). StEEL: Steel is used intensively by units like artillery and ships. State Funds (Money) The Money needed to produce units is taken from State Funds. If the region is in yellow/orange. For example. Industries will produce these three assets each turn. This is to avoid all of the production occurring in the same location. You can also know before dropping the unit why it can’t be built in a given region by simply hovering the cursor over it.

the structure will be able to slowly repair it. NotE: Ideally. you can buy new replacements by clicking on each NATO symbol. the 1st British Cavalry Division has been ordered to be built in Sussex and is in play. » *NavalRepair* (see P 66): When the ship enters a structure with this attribute. These are all grouped into the term “General Supply” (as opposed to “War Supplies”) and are distributed to your Depots and troops every turn. military decrees and options in the Ministry of War. while cavalry takes quite a while longer to complete. Once you have built units by dropping them onto the map. Special structures can have higher values of this attribute. In essence. the time indicated for the unit is the time of the element that takes the longest to build/recruit. With this new set of structures. etc. You can move them in Passive mode toward their destination. you get the list of units being recruited or built along with the number of turns before they are operational. In this example. you should wait until units have completed their training. For example. which depends on unit type as well as the morale level and some military reforms. etc. This view is ‘read only. when Health and Cohesion are at 100%. which are linked with the model database. with one Strength and one Cohesion point). ExAMPLE: Militia are low-quality troops but have a good build rate. » Their status is indicated by a red label. however. Units Construction overview First. but they start completely depleted (i. Replacements At the bottom-right corner of the screen is a table that allows for you to buy replacements. you’ll get civilian laws and decrees in the National Summary screen. Build Duration The build duration is indicated in the tooltip when you hover the cursor over the unit under construction.e. the various elements will achieve 100% Health at their own construction speed. for example. Building Restrictions for Units Some structures also have their own attributes. Replacements are used for ‘repairing’ units damaged by combat or Attrition. When a particular element has a specific 32 .General Supply Armies and Fleets need food. The label on the unit will gradually change to a white color as the construction process advances. This is the time in days needed for a unit to reach its full Strength and Cohesion.which is tracked separately from General Supply but otherwise follows the same production and distribution mechanisms. Units are color-coded by their State. » New units cannot be moved and are basically defenseless. You can switch between ethnic groups. you will receive additional details about it on the right of the screen. » Their various components are shown in red (depleted) and will gradually fill up as time passes by. Military options You also get a band of icons representing the Military Historical Options at the top-right of the screen. before issuing them combat orders. representing their advanced construction features. Special Structures Attributes for Building A new set of attributes has been added to the Structures database to handle the building and repairing of ships.’ as you have nothing to do but check your units. clothing. very weak. which will allow you to build Indian infantry replacements instead of British ones.. but the troop is still very green). Within the unit. it is very. economic measures in the Ministry of Industry. » After a while. but rushing those green units into combat should be avoided. and they will continue to be completed (all soldiers and equipment are considered to be there. press F2 to view this screen. collecting supplies. a Naval Base usually has a 4x bonus to the building and repairing of ships. another commodity you will need to keep your troops battle ready is Ammunition. Here. If you pass the cursor over a unit. Units Under Construction on the Map Units appear immediately on the map on the same turn as you request them. Ammunition Finally. units under construction gradually lose this ‘special’ status and can be moved. as they are gathering men and training them. Each tab indicates how many units in this category you ordered to be raised this turn (in parentheses). the Harbor is the minimum requirement to build a new ship. These attributes are: » *NavalBuild*: Allows the structure to slowly build a ship (increasing the element Cohesion per turn). the War Ministry Screen (F2) This screen allows you to see what’s going on with your unit construction. Figure 12: Click on the Reinforcements Drawer to display this chart. though. For example. Note that you will receive a message in the message panel when a unit can be moved. and other basic supplies to keep on moving and fighting.

Note: This makes it difficult to drive your enemy’s NM low enough to trigger an Automatic Victory unless they have lost their capital. These thresholds will vary during the course of play. raising Exceptional Taxes) Below a certain level. the Force may have to fight another battle with pursuing Forces. eventually forcing you to peace. You can then use the Army HQ as a sort of reserve. if you manage to raise your NM above a certain value (usually 120-130). This check takes into account distance. depending on the political situation. then your enemy’s morale will quickly crumble until they make peace with you. If it drops beyond a certain level. leader aggressiveness (Offensive Rating). especially in large battles. and the Strategic Rating of the reinforcing Corps leader.building attribute that is found only with certain structures. to full-scale battles lasting more than a day. Army HQs also have a greater chance to reinforce a battle and of getting reinforcements themselves. you can only build the unit in a city that has said structure. the Force withdraws. Units which successfully set an ambush. the will to fight is tracked by their National Morale (NM). Forces attempting to withdraw must then make a check: the chance to successfully withdraw increases each round and is influenced by Force size. The victory and defeat thresholds of both sides are displayed on the Objectives screen (F9) of the Ledger. each side will check to see if it will attempt to withdraw. or dismissing leaders with political favor will lower your NM » In the later years. National Morale (NM) When nations are involved in a conflict. they have the upper hand in the war—see War Conduct below) » Promoting junior officers over senior officers. Engagements range from minor skirmishes involving a few units for a limited time. A Force that decides to withdraw will automatically change its posture to Passive for the rest of the turn. If the attempt succeeds. Current NM is tallied in the upper-left corner of the main screen.. mANAgINg yOur NATION Several key decisions are made at the State level. so you will only be able to build these special units in the regions where the attribute (the Warplane Factory) is present. as different bodies of troops will join the fray at different times. your population will become more and more discontent with how the war is being conducted and troubles will arise. If there is a non-besieged structure in the region and the Force has the “Seek Shelter” Special Order. On the other hand. the commanding leader’s Strategic Rating. Withdrawal Before each round.e. according to the number of enemy units and generals that were eliminated » Your enemy’s NM has exceeded a certain threshold (i. and as a tooltip in the upper-left corner of the screen. Engaging Combat Combat is resolved in a series of one-hour rounds between troops engaged at the sub-unit level. and the presence of fortifications. as they fight to the last man since they cannot retreat. a Corps or Army Headquarters engaged in combat may decide to call for reinforcements. how fast they move and how well they fight) » Economic output (lowered when NM is low. ExAMPLE: A Warplane Factory can have a *Warplane* attribute that you can add to all warplane units. to pack an additional punch if needed. If it does. Units attacking in an amphibious assault are the exception. NM also has an impact on the following: » Unit Cohesion (i. or even the National level. Corps from the same Army located in adjacent regions may answer the call and join the fight if they pass a check.. sion to withdraw is based on relative strength. a test is run to see which units reach the battlefield.e. Impact on War Conduct Should NM fall under a certain value (usually around 60). In addition to Automatic Victory conditions. Reinforcing Corps will return to their original region after the battle. and the presence of cavalry (on both sides). Not all of a Force will necessarily participate in the beginning. it will withdraw to an adjacent region under friendly Military Control. Marching to the Sound of the Guns Depending on the situation. NM is influenced by several factors: » Capturing the Objective Regions set by the current scenario will increase the capturing player’s NM and lower the enemy’s by the values indicated on the Objectives screen » Winning a battle will boost the winner’s NM while reducing the enemy’s. Each hour. If the attempt fails. as indicated elsewhere (for example. The deci- 33 . Here is an overview of the different policies along with explanations for those that are not described in other chapters. Depending on the enemy’s level of Military Control in the region chosen for withdrawal. it will withdraw into the structure. alongside the Prestige Points (PP) (see above). and units commanded by leaders with the “Skirmisher” Special Ability also have a much higher chance to break contact with the enemy should they decide to do so. otherwise. the level of Military Control in both regions. increased if NM reaches high levels) » Number of recruits COmBAT IN ThE FIELd Combat occurs when two enemy Forces meet and at least one of them is in Offensive Posture. A Force that is surrounded (all adjacent regions are 95% or more under enemy control) will keep on fighting instead of withdrawing. war weariness gradually reduces each side’s NM » Some options have an impact on NM. the Force fights one more round with a slight penalty and renews its attempt on the next round. you instantly lose the game. the “Evade Fight” Special Order. a nation will start to regain NM as long as a side retains control of its capital (this is called War Resilience).

even if they lose. ships. This means that. while three-star leaders are immune. and sometimes even gain new Special Abilities. The loser does not gain any. as indicated in the Element Details screen. but a sub-unit’s Assault Value is used instead of its Offensive/Defensive Fire Value and Discipline plays a key role. regular units are quite slow in mountainous terrain and take up significant frontage space as a result. This close-quarters combat is similar to fire combat. and Leader Seniority as follows: » The winner gains PP for losses inflicted on the enemy. and chance to hit. the whole Force is routed. you could engage the enemy with many more Partisans than regular units. for example) The frontage space occupied by a sub-unit depends on its maneuverability on the terrain type. Fire Combat High Initiative provides significant benefits in combat as it is the biggest factor in determining who fires first each round. it will usually rout and flee the battlefield before this happens. Partisans. Leaders are treated differently: they must make a check based on their Rank to see if they were wounded or killed in action. On the other hand. they will pursue the retreating Force and inflict casualties in the process. Range will then decrease every round as troops close the distance. are much faster in mountains and take up less frontage space. A veteran defending Force in such terrain may even force the enemy to break and cancel their assault. In addition. Infantry and cavalry that score a hit inflict one Strength point loss. A sub-unit that suffers losses equal to its Strength Value is eliminated. Successfully firing depends on a sub-unit’s Offensive Fire Value (if the Force is in Offensive Posture) or Defensive Fire Value (if the Force is in Defensive Posture). Range will determine which sub-units are able to fire during each round. it is routed off the field and no longer participates in the battle. If the test fails. Leaders on the losing side suffer from a slight reduction in attributes. Losses can be quite devastating at such a short range. NotE: Fighting in terrain with limited frontage is well suited to delaying tactics. despite their numerical advantage. Artillery causes two losses. The loser’s NM decreases correspondingly. In addition. on the other hand. gain Seniority while their opponent lose some. irrespective of losses). with a minimum of one. » Leaders with a good loss ratio. the unit becomes shaken and has its ROF decreased for the current round. a sub-unit that is hit during combat must make a check based on its current Cohesion level with the following modifiers: » » » » Militia fighting in their own State Trench Level (capped at Level 4) Loss level of sub-unit Fighting over a Symbolic Objective (in one of the capitals. Severe losses will also affect a sub-unit’s chance to break under fire (see below). These losses are much greater if the loser was routed instead of having executed an orderly withdrawal. progressively increasing their attributes. Melee Combat If the range ever reaches 0. If there was a winner (the non-retreating Force. in that it has not taken any losses so far during the battle. NotE: Take on an artillery position with slow-moving infantry in open terrain at your own risk! If it loses this check. and is influenced by the following: » » » » » » » » » » » » » Unit’s Discipline Rating Unit’s Experience Level Leader’s Offensive Fire/Defensive Fire Rating. Sub-units will fire a number of times depending on their Rate of Fire (ROF).) can even cause three losses. Support subunits. do not participate in melee. A onestar leader is the most vulnerable. it withdraws and suffers increased losses during pursuit. In this case. Sub-units unable to deploy will be held in reserve and will relieve weakened frontline troops during the battle. A battle will influence PP. NM. Troops also gain Experience by participating in battles. being those who inflicted more losses than they received (even if they lost and retreated). Morale Each sub-unit must check its Discipline every hour unless it is intact. Combat Range The initial range of a battle depends on local weather and terrain. as appropriate Cover of target unit provided by terrain or fortifications Weather Leader Special Abilities Command Penalties (Out of Command Chain status and/or lack of CmdP) Lack of Ammunition and/or General Supply Friendly Supply Wagon present (+10%) River crossing/Amphibious landing Forced March Failed withdrawal/Passive Posture Trench Level above five (for artillery only) Battle Aftermath A battle can end in a draw if neither side withdraws. in this particular case. However. » The winner gains NM depending on the losses inflicted. ROF. melee combat ensues. etc. and “heavy” units (siege artillery. when the number of routed units becomes too large.Frontage The maximum number of sub-units that can deploy and fight in a battle will vary depending on the region’s terrain. ExAMPLE: On one hand. such as artillery. Being in an Out of Command Chain status and having a lack of Command Points (CmdP) will penalize sub-units in terms of Initiative. winning leaders gain Experience. 34 .

’ then the same procedure applies for a ‘Critical Hit’ (one roll passed) or a ‘Devastating Hit’ (two rolls passed. the procedure is as follows: » There is a 10% chance that a hit is considered a ‘Light Hit. with a 10% chance of occurring. pre-war Forts less so. a Depot.g. ANd rEpAIrs Each basic unit is made up of sub-units (Regiments. as can happen in the late period with heavy artillery regiments bringing extreme firepower against unprotected targets. the shell didn’t explode. Remember to return damaged ships to a Port for repairs. The siege icon will change to indicate that a breach is in progress or achieved. then it is a Normal Hit. especially in Forts. then there is a ‘Dumb Hit.g. The procedure is the same as in regular combat except that the defender benefits from a combat bonus. called the Siege Roll Value (SRV). and individual ships). etc. while permanent fortifications require two breach results to be fully breached. Storming a Structure A Force in Assault Posture will try to storm the structure instead of besieging it. and these are indicated below: Besieging side: » Artillery combat factors » Leader with the “Engineer” Special Ability » Breach achieved (see below) » Defender lacks General Supply Besieged side: » Artillery combat factors » Leader with the “Engineer” or “Fort Defender” Special Ability » Fort Level: These differ based on the level of the Fort.5 times more than normal). these damages will vary according to two criteria: » If the chance to hit the target was greater than 100%.sIEgE COmBAT Sieges occur when a unit defends in a pre-war Fort. In this case. If a Critical Hit is received. Effects of Hits on Ships: The Normal Hit effects are fairly standard: 100% of expected damage and Cohesion loss. then the damage is augmented in relation to the chance to hit (e. LOssEs. Frontage is quite limited in such combat. Damages Done to Elements When an element hits another. Each sub-unit can suffer a limited amount of punishment before being destroyed outright. Cities and pre-war Forts are breached after a single breach result. Two values (one for each side) are randomly generated to resolve the siege. another test is run.’ » If there is no ‘Light Hit’ or ‘Dumb Hit.’ doing half damage. the additional effects are: » Light Hit: 50% of expected damage and Cohesion loss » Dumb Hit: 1 damage and a loss of 1 Cohesion point » Critical Hit: 200% of expected damage and Cohesion loss » Devastating Hit: 400% of expected damage and Cohesion loss These special hits can be shown in battle as Battle Events. All losses are taken by these discrete elements.). but with a few minor twists (no frontage. for a 1% chance final). then damage is 1. Withdrawing Fleets will move to an adjacent sea region/river section. » SRV < 0: » The defender has managed to repair a breach. This is in addition to recovering Cohesion. rEpLACEmENTs. is: 35 . a permanent fortification. HINt: It is usually advised to defend outside in the surrounding terrain rather than in a Depot. Squadrons. The replacement rate per turn. etc. as indicated by a number of red heart symbols in the Unit Panel. The difference between these two values.. NAvAL COmBAT Battles between Fleets are handled similarly to land battles. as they cannot recover while at sea or on a river. If the roll is made. with a 10% chance each). In some special circumstances. it will generally do a number of damage points and Cohesion points equal to what is indicated in the Details of the element (Detail Window in the interface). » SRV > 0: » Five hits are inflicted on the defenders for each point of SRV.). Batteries. Defenders in a Depot or Indian village don’t receive any defensive benefit except limited frontage. only hit a light structure. » If none of these rolls occur. as a percentage of a unit’s full complement. there is always a check to see if the shell or torpedo was a critical hit. or an Indian village. As long as sub-units are not totally destroyed and don’t move during a turn. » SRV >= 3: » A breach is made. in which case the result is ignored. » When ships are hit. If the test is passed (there were two rolls in a row with a 10% chance to happen. or if the ship’s crew got lucky (e.. a city. if the chance to hit was 150%. and cities even less. indicates the result (cumulative): » SRV > Defending units’ average discipline: » Defender surrenders and all units are eliminated unless the defending Force includes a Supply Wagon. The same is true to some extent for cities. Besieged units may only recover hits if they are in a non-blockaded Port. from preIndustrial (obsolete) forts to massive Industrial Age fortification systems. Various bonuses are also added. Permanent Forts provide a great bonus. they will recover hits by filling their ranks with replacements during the Hosting Phase.

Sales on the internal market are the means by which you deliver your stocks of various merchandise to your national population. Middle Class. only Harbors and Naval Bases do. check the section above about Building Units. Controlled regions. Upper Class. Population points should be considered the “population actively participating in the life of the nation. and depend on the mix of social classes. This is limited to a single replacement per turn. severe loss of productivity. while a limited or monotonous diet will maintain the level.000 or more (for the region containing the capital of a major country or a very heavily populated area. because units don’t recover if the appropriate replacements are unavailable. IMPoRtANt!: Make sure you always have some replacements in your Force Pool. lead you to disaster. an elevated satisfaction index can lead to a small increase in productivity as well as the more rapid completion of structures and units under construction or training in the region. 36 . without fail. The number of replacements used up in the process depends on the number of hits recovered plus a random factor. Satisfaction and Militancy of your population.000 people. Example: Thus. The population is also represented by several other values. the parent unit will need to draw a replacement sub-unit from the Replacement Pool. Providing goods (from your stockpile) to the national population fulfills two objectives: » First of all. Peasants. Population satisfaction varies as a result of two factors: sales in the internal market and militarism. Failing to take into account the aspirations of your people or not using your human resources wisely will. with a greater or lesser probability: » Demonstrations (limited decrease in productivity) » Strikes (moderate to severe decrease in productivity) » Riots (moderate to severe decrease in productivity and possible destruction of certain stockpiles) » Revolts (armed uprising of civilians against the oppression of the State. There is one important point about satisfaction that you must always remember: The Satisfaction Index only applies to the population of the national territory. There is no reason to explain the attractiveness of having a wealthy nation! Militancy Militancy is an equally important factor in the management of your national population. not to say fervor. satisfaction less than 50 can have some of the following effects. mANAgINg ThE pOpuLATION General Managing the population that your nation controls is a fundamental task. more or less in proportion to the quantity and quality of the products that you release for sale. Structures for Repairing Ships Only structures with the *NavalRepair* attribute may repair ships. however.» » » » » » Base land unit recovery rate: 5% Irregular: 10% Depot: 20% City: 10% Fort: 10% Naval unit: 5%/Port level Units under siege are unable to recover hits unless they are located in a city with a non-blockaded Port. and so on. even those that you have a claim to. like the productivity of structures. There are six Social Classes in the game: Slaves. the only point present might represent only a few hundred people. Anchorages and Coaling Stations do not provide repairs. You will need to have replacements of the appropriate type available in your Force Pool to recover hits. in some relatively deserted areas. for the United Kingdom. If a sub-unit is completely destroyed. these sales allow your population to be satisfied (their Satisfaction Index will rise). each one relating to a game concept: » Social Class » Satisfaction » Militancy » Education » Nationality » Ethnicity » Religion Social Classes The most important concept is probably the division by Social Class. you do not manage the Satisfaction Index for the population of Canada. Each population point represents around 1. it has no effect on other populations in colonies or controlled areas. Quantities and types of products demanded by the population will vary. » The second reason the internal market is important is because sales mean an increase in Private Capital and taxes for State Funds. while 100 signifies a nearly universal satisfaction. In practice. do not use this concept. Population is represented by population points in each region. An abundant and diverse offering of goods will allow for a significant rise. prosperity of the internal market. To purchase replacements. It varies between 0 and 100. Satisfaction The Satisfaction Index is also an important parameter that must be carefully managed. however. of the men and women of your nation towards their beloved fatherland. and Aristocracy. Workers. with the possibility of armed revolts against the government at 0.” One cannot calculate the real population of a nation by simply adding up the population points of its regions. often between 10 (for a lightly populated region) and up to 5. such as London or Beijing). Militancy represents the social Regional Parameters Representing the Population The population of a region is represented by a numerical value. Social Classes play a role across several parts of the game’s engine. or even loss of control of a region and its structures) On the other hand.

on the other hand. to the extent that the population will revolt against the government in fairly short order if adequate measures are not taken to prevent it. It is possible to limit the negative effects of a high Militancy by providing your population with a large amount of diverse products in the domestic market. in January and June of each year. as there is a 5% chance per point of conscripts called up from a region for it to lose a point of population. trouble can result. When your Nationality reaches 50% of the population of a region. The Education level is linked to the structures in the region as well as the attributes of the nation as a whole. or in other words. without resolving the root of the problem. recruiting units can lead to a loss of population. totalitarian regimes are less efficient than liberal governments. It has an effect on population growth and. There are two principal ways to actually reduce Militancy: » Accede to the social demands of your population by enacting progressive laws and your society puts forward. varying between 0% and 100%. and if that region has a land connection to any area already part of your national territory. it is important to remember that Satisfaction and Militancy only apply to populations in the national territory. education can improve or diminish the chances that one can qualify for a new Social Class. as it varies only over a long period of time through a slow process of assimilation of a minority into your principal nationality. » Up to +1% extra if the level of Education is low (none = +1%). for example). Education Education is a percentage varying between 0% and 100%. The base rate of growth is 1% every six months.3% if the regional Nationality is different from that of your nation. a weak regional education percentage would diminish the chances that a worker could enter the Middle Class. NotE: The State religion is the majority religion of your capital region. the area is immediately declared “claimed” by your State. and Ethnicity Finally. For regions that are merely “claimed. in most cases. Religion. The management of these items is based on the number of the re- 37 . this advantage is balanced by a constant and significant increase in population Militancy. This percentage is nearly impossible for the player to influence. but that isn’t the case when it comes to handling Militancy: their Militancy rises very slowly over time. In addition. This will create strong discontent but diminish the Militancy. The urbanization level of a region is defined on a scale of 1-20. To have a town at Level 20 is generally beneficial because these large cities have many advantages. » Call on the police and the army to control the population. particularly those where fighting occurred. There will normally be an increase. Regional Demography Population changes via demographic rules can be summarized in the following sections: Population Growth Population varies naturally every six months. » -5% if the region has been pillaged as a result of major combat. but the higher it is. » Up to -0. which must be combated by regularly proposing social legislation. on the propensity to change Social Class. Religion and Ethnicity of a region are equally important to consider. the decline in satisfaction. the Education level would have little impact on the chance for an aristocrat to become a businessman. Using force will mean the beginning of the end for a liberal regime. This percentage may be modified by the following factors: » Up to -0. The resulting percentage change is then modified by certain technologies (notably Medical) and national attributes (State Xenophobia. You would like to keep this level as low as possible. because if they are different from that of the majority population of your country. but this is a difficult task. Creation and Growth of Cities Another aspect of demography is the foundation of towns in areas that have been recently inhabited. depending on the tolerance of your country with regard to these factors. this merely treats the obvious effect. » Up to -0. the distribution of Religions and Ethnicities in regions will not vary except by historical events.” States with the national religious attributes of Proselytizer or Fundamentalist will see the distribution of the different religions in the regions they control change slowly over time towards the State religion. In many areas of gameplay. Nonetheless. While liberal governments are more efficient than totalitarian systems in many sectors. Thus.5% if the development level of the region is low. Militancy by itself does not have a direct effect on your population. as there is an assumed presence of missionaries. It represents the literacy rate as well as the proportion of the populace studying at various academic levels. but they do so because of differences in nationality. religion. but in time of war it is possible for some regions to lose population. Once again. If the percentage of the population in any region is at least 10%. it too becomes part of your national territory. In some cases. such as military Supply and supplemental revenue. The urbanization level does not directly equate to the size of the urban population but instead indicates the presence of a wide range of urban services and infrastructure. and it is possible to suppress all public dissent by force at a very low cost compared to a liberal regime. because the population will usually have a reflexive response in the form of a very strong decrease in the popularity of the regime.” you gain the right to declare war (a Casus Belli) at a lower cost if you lose control of one or more. Responding to the degree of xenophobia or the propensity of your nation to assimilate others. Nationality (Loyalty). and not because of their lack of satisfaction with the national government. In all other cases. having control of a region where the ma- jority population is different from your principal nationality can lead to severe problems. no matter how far from your national territory it might be. The differences between a national region and regions that have not attained such status have already been discussed (see the Population Satisfaction Index). Other populations can cause trouble and revolt.3% if the Satisfaction level of the population is low. the faster discontent spreads amongst the people. Any region that has an Ethnicity of 50% or higher and which is also present in any of your national territorial regions will immediately gain the status of “claimed. how rebellious they are. there are three more parameters to consider for the population as a whole: The Nationality rating of a region’s population represents the percentage of the region’s total population that is made up of your own principal national group. or the variation in the size of cities. or ethnicity.

heads of large businesses) » Aristocracy (nobles. and the capitalist leaders at an unprecedented level.000 5. at least for the major powers of the world. Each region of the national territory has an indicator titled “Population Satisfaction. Twice a year. who will principally be city dwellers and thus tend to increase the city level of the region.150 1. In addition.500 5. Increase in productivity of your factories and exploitations of 25%.” which varies between 0 (catastrophic. industrialists. The game categorizes Social Classes as follows. Here are the basics: Possible Effects Regions belonging to your national territory have a value called Population Satisfaction.550 4. strikes.000 » Salaried Workers and the Middle Class (foremen. and a 50% development level has an expected level of urbanization of 9. This market is essential because it allows you to realize substantial profits by selling goods. Construction of military units accelerated by 25%. With them came the middle classes. increase (up to 20). and even revolts. bourgeois. for a total of six: » Serviles (slaves or serfs. nor are there any efforts to extract resources.150. This is the level which ought to exist (the theoretical level) for the urban population of the region in question. depending on the value of this indicator. which translates into increased productivity for your factories and extraction of natural resources (+50% productivity of structures. because ignoring them will lead to declining productivity. there is a bonus to the raw figure if there is a Port in the region (+3% per level of the Port). » NoRMAL: The people are calm and go about their affairs without making trouble or experiencing any particular effects. like the productivity of structures. The 10 possibilities are: » ENtHUSIAStIC: The people acclaim their leaders and congratulate themselves for having such a wise and efficient government. The structures are inactive. » DEMoNStRAtIoNS: A certain dissatisfaction among the people results in demonstrations and discontent in the streets. small businesspeople) » Ruling Class (wealthy bourgeois. a Level 10 Port.gion’s population points that are engaged in urban activities. This value can vary for many reasons. the wealthy) Social Class plays a role that cuts across several areas of the game.850 2. then riots. they are happy and worship you). the population of the national territory is the only one that is taken into account for your internal market. income from your nation’s internal market.150 and 1.100 3. Correct management of the population of your national territory (which you can monitor using one of the filters on the bottom-left of the screen) is particularly important. or be reduced (though a town can never disappear entirely). A penalty is assessed if the development level. divided by 2 because of the low overall level of development.650 3. » StRIkES: Serious problems have not been resolved and the workforce goes on strike in significant numbers. and military units are recruited 50% quicker). like the Russian peasant) » Farmers/Peasants (and farm workers) » Workers (working in factories and mines) 38 . and many other important factors. however. Each region will have an expected level of urbanization. the people experienced not only a rapid population growth but also a profound change in the quality of their lives. Productivity of factories and resource exploitation is reduced by 10%. Productivity is only 50% of normal. then a town could appear (if one does not exist already).499 population. then there is a chance that the level of urbanization will decrease (30% chance per level that urbanization exceeds the expected level) or increase (20% chance per level that the actual urbanization is less than the expected level). an event can take place in the region. capitalists. the Satisfaction and Militancy of your population. gives 1. » SEVERE StRIkE: The entire region is paralyzed by massive strikes affecting all population centers.500 6. If there is a difference. causing a decrease in productivity for factories and resource gathering as people take to the streets. If there is a difference. Conversely. This is derived from the following formula: 2. Thus. You must carefully watch the attitude and satisfaction level of your national population. over time. However. No production takes place in the factories. with tests being performed in January and June.000 points of urban population.500 1. A new social class came into being: the Worker. ExAMPLE: A region with 2. a region with a large population who are primarily farmers will have a small city. The urbanization level can never change more than one point every six months. and a liberal supply of products will ensure the satisfaction of your population. Expected Level 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Urban Population Required 50 100 150 250 350 500 700 900 1. Social Class and Social Mobility During this period of massive industrialization. but the two principal ones are: » Not providing for the needs of your people (not enough merchandise available on the domestic market) » Not satisfying social demands Population Satisfaction Keeping your population satisfied is the best way to get the maximum return from them. is less than 100% (multiplying the raw urban population figure by this percentage).000 4. Morale is very high. » CoNtENt: The people are satisfied with their lives and with the government in general. you pay no maintenance costs until The urban population of a region used for this calculation is not based on the raw number of population points working in urban occupations. This is then compared to the existing urbanization level of the region. establishing factories in a region will. but no other effect is visible. attract workers. that being the general level of infrastructure in the region.000 base + 300 points for a Level 10 Port. which equals Level 9 as it is between 1.250 2. This population has several peculiar characteristics when compared to the population of nonnational territories that you control. the people hate you) to 100 (excellent.

» SEVERE RIotS: Chaos reigns in the region and the police have been overrun. but 50% of the nation’s stock of goods is destroyed. You are not obliged to declare martial law for the military to have an effect on population behavior. there is no longer room for negotiation and you must rout the insurgents by armed force. No production takes place (as with Severe Strike) and a portion of the nation’s merchandise stock is destroyed: 10% divided by the number of national regions (if you have 10 regions. As leader of a liberal regime. and you end up in a vicious cycle. Riots 30 25 18 12 10 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Severe Upris. Ensuring your internal market is well stocked with basic products and consumer goods will also aid in keeping the population satisfied with their government. 39 . 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 12 10 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Partisans are forming in the countryside. For this purpose. barricades have been built in the streets (or Maquis and Satisfaction% 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Enth. When Satisfaction is low. Severe Strike 4 8 12 16 16 12 10 5 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sev. and the people arm themselves with whatever they can find. rioters are present and the streets are controlled only with great difficulty by local police. Population Behavior table Population behavior is summarized in the following chart. or by decreeing martial law if you are an autocratic regime). and a larger number of rebel units form. but if you do so. The effects are the same as for reactivate them manually. To keep it as high as possible. In the case of open rebellion. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 10 15 Cont. you can send armed forces to especially agitated regions as a precaution. you lose 1% of your stock). The effects are the same as for Riots and Severe Strikes. 20 10 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Strikes 2 4 6 6 6 6 8 8 6 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Riots 10 12 15 10 8 8 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Upris. their effect will be greater and will further reduce militancy. » UPRISINGS: Part of the population has risen up against the authorities. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 9 10 12 13 18 20 23 25 20 15 Norm. 20 15 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (Percentage chance of demonstrating the given behavior) Management of Popular Resistance The Population Satisfaction score is the most important parameter governing your national population. but without declaring martial law. and a part of the police force has joined with the insurgents. try to be content with helping out the police by sending troops. you must keep the militancy of your population low (with social reforms. there is a filter for martial law that will indicate regions that are experiencing martial law and those where there are enough military units to reduce the chance of trouble. Pillaging and the destruction of stores and production facilities are common. even if the popular unrest ceases in the meantime. however. if the region is not yet urbanized). but the dissatisfaction will nonetheless still be present. The nation’s merchandise stock is reduced by 35% in the mayhem. and a certain number of Rebel units appear in the region. this will help reduce the probability of having a bad outcome on the above table. A revolt will bring about a consequential decrease in the region’s Militancy. which will have to be defeated in order for you to regain control. » SEVERE UPRISINGS: The vast majority of the population has risen up. but the percentage of goods destroyed is 20%. this will in turn provoke discontentment among populations of liberal regimes. » RIotS: In addition to Strikes. 10 20 30 40 50 60 65 75 80 85 90 90 88 86 84 79 76 73 70 70 70 Demonst.

will occur in non-colonial territories and is strongly tied to the Loyalty (a. and this nation will be the one with the highest base percentage chance. if a full-scale revolt is to trigger. This is the strongest revolt.k. as there is an approximation calculation) that have at least 1% Nationality (a. according to a region list. of course. weaker revolt appears. This revolt only occurs because of a discontent population in the national territory and if the region is still owned by the faction. as a Social Uprising is a result of population behavior. but will not cease even if the capital is liberated. For a Tertiary Revolt. not the faction owning the region! It is also possible. To summarize: » Tribal. each population of each national region operates under one of 10 behaviors. in this case.” but remember that a revolt can only really occur in regions not controlled by the Rebels (except in the case of a Social Uprising). Strength and Behavior There can be three types of revolts in regards to strength and behavior: Primary. and the revolt risk dice indicate there is a new revolt. » PARtISAN GENERAtIoN: A Partisan Generation is much the same as the Nationalist Revolt. this pool gets regenerated when a new full-scale revolt is triggered. » Social Uprisings are Tertiary Revolts. namely: » » tRIBAL REVoLtS: A revolt will be qualified as a Tribal Revolt if it oc- curs in a colonial territory. It is mandatory. In the case of a capital being owned by a friendly nation following a victory. so in the end. if it is only a Social Uprising. in some cases.rEvOLTs There are four types of revolts that can be handled by the game system. Here. the units are given to the REB faction.). all regions at a distance of six regions (on average. Social Uprisings use a special Force Pool of Rebel units (either Urban or Peasants). If the revolt is a Social Uprising but categorized as a ‘light uprising. which means that. Revolts will never “cease. The Rebels count the capital and other regions as owned if a friendly nation also controls them. This means that. not a Secondary. when a revolt occurs. a revolt can grow bigger and bigger until it depletes its Force Pool. IMPoRtANt NotE: Social Uprisings will give units to the Rebel (REB) faction. » From this spot. Region List and Base Revolt Chance A Primary or Secondary Revolt will occur at several places at once.a. For the sake of simplification. In advanced social mode. Nationality) present in the region (from the rebel’s point of view). and the revolt risk dice tell the code that a revolt should happen. the percentage of Loyalty (Nationality) in favor of the Rebels will be an important variable to determine the revolt risk and. to have other revolt types give units to the REBs.k. only one nation per region can revolt. If the faction of the rebelling units is not at war with the nation that owns the region. with results ranging from Enthusiastic to Severe Uprisings. Correlatively. at an approximate distance of six regions. again with at most one nation able to rebel in the region. This revolt also takes place in several regions at once. etc. IRREDENtISt/NAtIoNALISt REVoLtS: An Irredentist/Nationalist Revolt The Force Pool is used in a ‘standard’ way for Primary and Secondary Revolts. This revolt only takes place in one region and is not considered to be in ‘active mode’ in the revolt info (hence the ’discreet’ qualification). and it usually takes place in several regions at once. note that once a revolt is triggered.a Loyalty) in favor of the Rebels can be a part of the revolt. then it will be a Primary one. » SoCIAL UPRISING: A special revolt where the population revolts against their own State. The Discontent Value is a variable only present in national regions. Secondary. the values are refined with the local conditions. Revolt Force Pool The second concept is the Force Pool. all remaining units are removed and the revolt is considered stopped. then only the region where the dice failed will be the region in revolt (so it is also discreet in the sense that it involves only one region). where the units are placed. This revolt is also discreet (see below). 40 . There will be a revolt center. Lastly. A revolt is lost when the Rebels control less than a certain percentage of regions in the region list. and Tertiary. a new. and Partisan Revolts can be either Primary or Secondary Revolts. because revolts could never happen if there were none. A stopped rebellion can restart. Also. Final Revolt Chance Once the base revolt chance is determined for each region on the map. Revolt reinforcement has a 10% chance per turn to trigger. » A Primary Revolt occurs when there is no ongoing revolt within the nation. » If the revolt is a Social Uprising. » A Tertiary Revolt is a special case. many buildings can lower the risk of revolt in colonial regions and elsewhere (Outpost. then there will be no reinforcements. meaning that it can be depleted and no more forces can be raised. which is at war with everybody all the time. Winning and Losing Revolts A revolt will have won when it holds its capital region and possesses a certain minimum percentage of regions within the list of regions around the capital. all Social Uprisings happening on the map will produce units that will be given to the REB faction. the quantity of units raised is not tied to the Loyalty percentage and number of regions included in the list of revolting regions. all control and structures in the region are automatically transferred to the Rebels. because of the risk of Secondary Revolts. An active revolt can be reinforced. which is the region that has failed (or succeeded. Forts. there is no unwanted side effect. there is no Force Pool limitation: the REB faction will receive these units. » A Secondary Revolt occurs when there is already a revolt underway. and an ongoing revolt increases the chance of Secondary Revolts.’ then the chance is divided by two. depending on which side of the equation you’re on) the revolt risk dice roll. and that when it is done. and is only used in the event of a Social Uprising. Nationalist. You can see that it is as if the revolt is tapping into a pool of soldiers. In both cases. However. Theoretically. so the owner of the region is the same nationality as those in rebellion. it is done.

In some cases. hands of private citizens. the relationship with the owner is positive. for example. The second resource type is Minerals. Different regions will be capable of producing different food types. These are the products that are the result of the transformation of one or more natural resources. vegetables. With this functionality. there is a small chance that they will eventually give the region to a nearby friendly nation. you control funds in both the public and private sectors. the conversion is not directly proportional. After all. and some require both. The first resource type is Food. » Certain goods are converted into Supply and Ammunition for military operations.Miscellaneous A Social Uprising will reduce the region’s Militancy by 1% where the revolt appears. » In case of a non-tribal nation. This means that. Resources (or goods) are divided into three types. tropical fruits) and refined food products such as wine. there will be an automatic conversion of merchandise into assets. the appropriate factory and technology types are necessary for the production of Industrial Goods. but the new stock will be dropped onto the capital region so that it can be used by the Supply Distribution system in the following turns. » To pay and maintain armed forces and industries. » To buy Merchant Fleets or combat units. but they remain distinct at all times and have different uses. The asset will be updated with the new stock. We believe that you will find this approach realistic. » To compete with other countries. Special Case of Regionalized Assets There is a special type of asset that is stored in regions. For example. and send them to the front. fruits. This allows for greater player involvement in the important production decisions of Supplies and Ammunition. while others play a lesser role. For example. Some are crucial for a country to function. Gold. and meat. For this special case. without relying solely on Depots and cities.000.g. nor will you produce sugar cane in Sweden. » To profit from trade. the region where they are located must have at least 50 Population Satisfaction.and early 20th-century capitalism. the revolt risk is reduced to zero if: » In case of a tribal nation. As you can imagine. too. For that to happen. Once Rebels units appear for any reason. Money: National and Private Capital It’s important to understand that. as happened with the gold rushes in California during the 1850s and South Africa in the 1880s. For this conversion to take place. Coal. but it can never be higher than the Maximum Conversion Percentage defined in the Merchandise Database for the merchandise. but as you can see. like Ammunition and Supply. In all cases. Sometimes mineral sources will become known only after prospectors discover them. great commercial fleets and powerful factories were not funded by governments but by wealthy industrial corporations..000 population points above 1. all of which are fundamental for a strong nation. Autoconversion of Merchandise into Assets At some point. and precious stones. These are natural products and require farms for production. some use Private Capital. These. these resources are only produced in regions where the minerals are both present and known. The third resource type is Industrial Goods. you can produce Supplies and Ammunition in your factories. You will find that some actions use State Funds. as well as enjoyable. You will never produce fish in landlocked provinces. you manage two types of money: State-controlled funds and capital held in the 41 . Here are just of few of their uses: » To satisfy your national population’s needs. then convert them into assets. This category includes basic cereals. the price can increase the new stock enormously. These include Iron. such as dumping one’s surplus into their markets. governments did not build armies with the profits of private businesses. if they were generated because of a Social Uprising. are natural resources. with some types found only in certain areas. the calculation will be done exactly the same way. they will not suddenly disappear! rEsOurCEs ANd gOOds overview Many different kinds of resources are produced and managed. The number of hits that such a revolt receives increases for each 1. Steel production requires Iron and Coal while automobiles require Steel and Consumer Goods. The conversion is managed automatically at the end of the Hosting Phase. As the player. as the player. Coal is necessary to keep factories functioning. It’s possible to remove all possibilities of a revolt if the Loyalty (Nationality) of the Rebels is not at least a certain value. Using Resources Resources and goods have many uses. or of the further conversion of other Industrial Goods. there is no state of war between the owner and the would-be rebels. the engine will take into account: » Current stock of the merchandise (must be higher than 1 unit) » Price of the merchandise » Conversion percentage of the merchandise (must be higher than 0) The conversion percentage can be changed each turn by using a slider. On the other hand. drop them in your capital. This distinction is fundamental to the gameplay and allows for a more realistic portrayal of 19th. but also exotic imports (e. interesting.

The number is the amount currently stockpiled. The player does not need to manage the Satisfaction and well-being of populations beyond the country’s national territory. their products enter into a single national stockpile of each good type. To a nation with far-flung possessions. as these are tracked region by region. Note that Ammunition and Military Supplies are the exception. B. farms. Your nation’s most important resources are listed along the top bar of the interface. (Top row. where your government is based. 1. you will find your seven most-used resources.NATIONAL sTOCks Location of Resources Although factories. (Top row. There. the maintenance of good railways and commercial fleets will be as important as the maintenance of a powerful army and navy. A pop-up tooltip provides information on the expected shift for the next turn. for the most part your national territory does not grow or shrink. Your national territory has several unique properties: » This is the area whose population must be provided with various foods and other goods. These are your “home provinces. and where the riches of your trade and production are concentrated. While it may vary slightly during a long campaign (think of France and Germany wrestling over Alsace-Lorraine). mines. right window) Total Value: Shows the total value of your stockpiled goods and resources. and other production sites are located in particular areas. Assets Balance Window National territory Your national territory is the core of your nation and the most important area that you control. while the graph indicates whether those stocks are generally rising (green line) or falling (red). However. 3. A pop-up tooltip for each resource provides additional information.” the regions where your most loyal population reside. This window lists all of your nation’s stockpiled goods and resources. Resource Icons: The remainder of the window shows all of your stockpiled goods and resources by type and amount. 4. This makes military logistics more realistic and requires attention to be paid to Supply lines and for the provisioning of units in the field. a more detailed Assets Balance window is available via its hotkey. middle window) Inflation: Shows the amount and tendency of inflation in your economy. » Your national stockpiles of goods and resources are assumed to be located throughout your national territory and not just in your capital province. (Top row. If no land route or maritime connection exists. for simplicity’s sake. Only two resources work differently: Military Supplies and Ammunition. Egyptian cotton for Great Britain) will only be available to the nation (that is. left window) National Satisfaction: Shows the overall satisfaction of the population in your national territories. such as in the production of new military units. which are located in particular regions and must be distributed to military units in order to be effective. will enter the national stockpile) if a connection can be drawn from the foreign region to a Port or city in the national territory. Note that a distant region’s production of resources and goods (for example. those resources and goods are effectively lost. 2. You can identify the regions belonging to your national territory with the National Ownership filter. those that are routinely consumed. 42 .

It will not be possible to establish industries or exploit resources in another country’s national or colonial territory without their permission. » Hotkey Alt-F2 (F2 because the Economic Mode is the second mode available). etc. the Countryside of a single well-developed colonial region might contain five British Iron Mines. A region is a collection point if it has a structure which is: » A national capital » A town of Level 3 or greater » A Port of Level 2 or greater » A “Collection Point” structure 43 . factory. A deactivated structure must be reactivated manually. and Industrial. and the map is overlaid with green or red (showing where construction is possible or impossible). This would be an exceptional location. and mines) have an operating cost. Structures of the third type (Industrial) are located in the region’s Cityscape. note that adjacent regions must be in the same Commercial Zone as the region of the structure for their resources to be accessible. if there is no city.or right-click on the rightmost Mode Change button. one French Cotton Field. There is usually no other limit on the number. you are in the Economic Mode. This could be useful if you are somewhat short of some product and have to give priority to certain factories. Your stock is assumed to be distributed throughout your national territory. which enables you to view and construct your economic structures. Once this is done. » The region possesses eight resources: one Coal. It is not possible for the program to know if the structure must remain inactive because you prefer to conserve your stocks or if it must increase production. Fortresses. most regions will have fewer structures. The region’s Countryside contains two agricultural structures. such as Military Academies. However. Examining. Here is the first Economic sub-mode. You can also switch between active and inactive states by right-clicking on the structure in the lower panel after selecting a structure on the map. Each of these two sites (Countryside and Cityscape) can contain up to 10 economic structures. If this is not paid by the country. farms. for a total of 10 structures. Note the animated factories: » The city of Toulouse (Size 3) has one factory and belongs to France. it is the nation with the highest military control. They all belong to France. Collection Point Even if you have sufficient stock of raw materials. The nation controlling a region may allow (or forbid) the establishment of new economic structures by means of a commercial cooperation agreement. you do not have to do this yourself. Using the Interface The Economic Mode of the main map view. and three Dutch Gold Mines. the structure will deactivate itself during the turn resolution. Continue to click until the factory symbol is visible. or if your supplies are such that you don’t need to stock any more of a product that the structure produces (you should be aware that large stockpiles lose a few percent of their volume from Decay each turn). type. » Selecting either the Cityscape or the Countryside reveals all of the area’s structures: the city. they are the machinery that makes your economy go. Banks. can be accessed three ways: » A left. and two Tobacco. We will see later how to use the Construction sub-mode. It is easy to see which sub-mode you are in as the first sub-mode (for examining existing structures) adds an animation of hard-working factories to the left side of the bottom interface bar. To check availability. which can be imagined as a subset of an individual region. the Colonial Mission. one British Cotton Field. » Clicking on any nation’s economic structures on the map. as indicated by the lightning symbol on the structure turning red. each structure will verify if it is in or adjacent to a region that has a Collection Point. This mode is composed of two sub-modes. and two agricultural structures. Economic structures are divided into three categories: Agricultural. located at the top-right of the screen. and all of the same nationality. it is possible that a given structure will not be able to produce because it does not have access to that stock. It should also be noted that in case of a Strike (see the section on Population Satisfaction).). The construction sub-mode replaces the animated factories with animated gears. The region’s owner is the country that controls its city. in practice. one for examining and manipulating existing structures and one for the construction of new structures. and the map keeps its normal color scheme. For example. You can switch in or out of a sub-mode by either pressing ALT-F2 or by clicking on the leftmost button of the Mode Change buttons. The first two are combined into the Countryside. however. and various non-economic structures. The Cityscape is also the location of the region’s major city and other buildings of importance (such as Ports. five Wines. Cost of operation and Deactivation Most productive structures (factories. or even the nationality of these structures.ECONOmIC sTruCTurEs overview Economic structures are the buildings that produce and manipulate resources and goods within each region. Mining. it is possible to command the resources of a disorganized or tribal country without a commercial agreement. structures will be deactivated during the turn resolution.

and there are many unemployed peasants in the region. » Consider all Commercial Zones connected to the home country. ExAMPLE: Even if Great Britain has cotton fields in Egypt. this would not be sufficient to ensure that the cotton produced reaches Britain’s stock. The fourth case is that of a zone isolated from the home country without access to a Port on a sea zone with a friendly commercial fleet. it can be operational but only if it is possible to get its production to the home country. If the region does not have a sufficiently high population. The status of each Commercial Zone can be verified by using the “Commercial Zone Status” filter. The Social Class makeup of the region’s population will vary over time as a function of the structures’ labor demands. it is assumed for the sake of simplicity that every structure that you possess in that Commercial Zone can also export by sea. If the collection point does not belong to you. it is sufficient for one region in a Commercial Zone to be part of your home nation for all regions in that zone to be considered directly linked to the national territory. If you do not wish to play with these options. A lack of qualified personnel. there is no guarantee that the products will sell. To check. in detail. and also to simplify matters. a bad transportation network. There are thus several possible statuses for these zones: » Part of the national territory. It is also possible that a region will be drained of its unemployed population by an adjacent region which requires more people (the 44 . road. However. It is only in the case where there is no collection point that the turn-end procedure will automatically turn the structures off. Coal. A Steel Mill demands several raw materials (Money. In the other cases. Only a war or revolution can really bring down this system…but these happen fairly often! Outline of the productivity of a factory The productivity of a structure is a percentage of the normal production of a structure. Similarly. By consulting the table on the lower-right of the screen when the structure has been selected. In the example above. In this case. The cotton must be brought back to Britain! ASSoRtED NotES: When a region you control can collect products and has access to the sea. and Iron) to produce Steel. In the latter case. the structure cannot produce. but they also serve to verify that your production can reach your national territory. These two ideas—collection points and Commercial Zones—are complex when first encountered. the majority of scenarios will put you in a situation where factories. shipment is possible by sea. but the game will not do so for you. production at your site is deposited directly into your national stockpiles. and will deactivate itself. and farms are connected and well serviced. click on the Collection Points filter. The quantity of Steel can vary widely. remember that for a Collection Point to permit an adjacent region to export. In addition. or poorly mastered technology can reduce structure profitability—or even eliminate it entirely! Commercial Zones The planet is subdivided into Commercial Zones. and those fields are near a large Egyptian city that can serve as a collection point (and if Egypt and Great Britain have an Investment Rights Treaty). the game will automatically do this for you. it is quite likely that the peasants will become urban workers over time. Similarly. the structures will not be automatically deactivated since you could always sell your production either to nations that have access to that zone. a portion of them will begin work in the factory. you can see. and thus will not require constant adjusting for zones. or to neutral countries that have commercial fleets in adjacent sea areas. there is: » Quality of labor » Satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the population » National attributes and technologies » Level of transportation infrastructure Quality of Labor Each structure requires a certain number of population points to function efficiently. For example. in this case. if a factory normally demands urban workers but you don’t have enough. Among those factors. In this case. they will be lost! You have the choice to deactivate the structures manually. and if nobody buys them. » Zone adjacent to the national territory with a land connection.The Collection Point structure must also not be besieged. Productivity of Structures Structures produce products with highly variable productivity. Each zone will permit you to trade merchandise with other countries. » A region in red does not have an available Collection Point. In this case. the necessary number of population points of each Social Class for a structure to function properly. » Zone isolated from your home country but which has a Port on a sea zone with a friendly commercial fleet. click on the shortcut. It is possible to use a less qualified worker in place of the more qualified one that would be typically required. it is possible to turn them off in the Options screen by checking the following boxes: » Ignore the absence of a Collection Point. in reaction to different factors. you must have an Investment Rights Treaty with the country that possesses it. or rail to your national stockpiles. » An ochre color indicates a region is adjacent to a Collection Point and that the two regions are in the same Commercial Zone (see Commercial Zones in the Economic Structures chapter). mines. It is possible to verify the status of each region and its collection point. but allow for a precise simulation of the production of structures. both regions must be part of the same Commercial Zone. the effectiveness of the workers and employees will be less than 100%. production is considered to move without problem by river. or under blockade (in the case of a Port). if you have collection points. Nonetheless. » A green color signifies that the region is itself a Collection Point.

Level of transportation Infrastructure The final possible modifier is the level of transportation infrastructure in the region that is producing and in the region of the collection point (if the same. productivity will also be higher or lower depending on your population’s level of Satisfaction. there are a total of 10 Coal sites in the United Kingdom (UK). of which two are particularly important (Levels one and four. long-range emigration is handled by historical events. a nation with the sixth level of railroad technology could theoretically have.) 45 . The game recognizes several levels of transportation infrastructure: » Road-less (Efficiency 15%) » Roads (Efficiency 25%) » Major Roads (Efficiency 30%) » Railroads (Efficiency 40%) » Dense Rail Network (Efficiency 50%) Thus. Thus. three. National Attributes and technologies Each structure can potentially be affected by productivity modifiers due to the national attributes of the country that controls it and the technologies possessed by that country. a productivity modifier of 140% for its transportation network (50% for dense rail networks plus +20% bonus for each region). so you’ll get some money in return. These four secondary levels provide a supplementary bonus of +5% to +20% in productivity if the region has a railroad. Many countries have small production facilities for various resources that are added to their stock each turn. you will see that each Coal Mine produces 8 Coal per turn for a grand total of 80 Coal per turn. (The white rectangles are only for emphasis and are not in the actual game. because they enable you to build a rail network on the map) and four secondary (Levels two. This will replace the big military counters to something more discreet. and six). there is a 70% modifier. Understanding the Resource Flow This section will aid in the understanding of the various windows involved in tracking your income and expenses. etc. If. More details on the attitudes of the populace can be found in the chapter Managing the Population. the good thing is that you sell it to them. While the domestic market needs a bit of Coal. Buy and sell merchandise from/to foreign countries. If the region is not national. This system is also here to have “a bit of grease in the cogs. the Efficiency of the transport infrastructure is 50%. Installing refrigeration plants allows cattle ranches to be much more productive (note that there is some simplification as the whole chain of production for meat is represented by a single agricultural structure).” so that economies run much more fluidly. » Commerce Transactions. Thus. on the other hand. Thus.program will check this every turn). If you click on the site and then hover the cursor over the structure. Example: United kingdom. the effect is doubled). a Steel Mill will need Coal (with Iron) to produce Steel. technologies have a great effect on productivity. » Your national and colonial markets also need merchandise.) not represented in-game. at the end of the period. Various Expenses: » Many production structures need merchandise (raw materials) to run. However. This is to represent the various small production structures (or craftsmen. Thus. you can switch to the Industrial Mode by clicking on one of the pit heads (the circle containing the mines is the Countryscape). in an ideal case. Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction of the Population For national regions. you have a major road in the first region and railroads in the other. For example. five. You can receive income from other sources. an enthusiastic population will produce at 125% of normal while a region undergoing strikes will only produce at 50%. Similarly. 1850 In 1850. But this is not your only source of Coal. which are: » Innate National Production. if there are only roads in both regions. To spot them. the productivity of structures is reduced if there is a risk of revolt (-5% per 1% of revolt risk). Railroad technologies are classified in six levels. there is generally a small productivity bonus given to liberal countries when compared to autocratic regimes (see the section National Attributes). the system integrates the losses and degradation of products and the loss of time due to poor-quality transportation.

The final amount for each item of merchandise is displayed here. Also. In the end. almost daunting screen. make sure that you see your Coal by clicking on the correct resource type. then nothing will prevent you from moving the rulers to 100% and getting the precise projection you seek. meaning we estimate that 50% of our efforts to sell and 50% of our efforts to buy will succeed. for example. And expenses are at 18. By default. which are potentially numerous! Here. We have a current stock of 50 Coal. A note of interest is that the updates are done dynamically between the Assets Balance window. 9 being used by industries. and consumption. The market projections are very accurate. Coal has a production of 94. and all income is aggregated into one value. The 9 Coal are being used by Steel Mills and other various factories.Ministry of Industry and Commerce (F4) This is a huge. For example. Great Britain has an initial transaction setup for Coal. The second row centers on structures. as well as what the markets will use up. The aim is not to predict the future but rather make a projection. the tooltips indicate that we produce 80 Coal and use 9 for a net result of 71. if you set up a new transaction. coming from our Innate National Production and -4 Coal. The Assets Balance window is less detailed than the one for the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. production. but merchandise is sorted into three groups. There is another tool available to display the stock of each type of merchandise at a glance. First. and its variation over the turn. except on this screen. and the Transaction window. But transactions are never a sure thing. the fifth and final row focuses on the projected balance. The fourth row covers the various expenses. which is 5 from selling half of 10 Coal. the more diverse and stocked you are with merchandise. so it would not be wise to consider that everything will sell. we find our Innate National Production entry. So here we have: +14 Coal. our 10 Coal are shown as a loss of 5 Coal to our stock. Luxury Goods. the more satisfied the people are. Assets Balance Window Hover the cursor over the various Coal icons. imperfect tool by giving you two sliders to adjust. for example. This means that. you’ll see in real time the change in money and stock in the other windows. The game displays all of the main assets at the top of the screen at all times. which is 80 from our Mines plus 14 from Innate Production. Here. are used up mostly by the Upper Class. similarly. and 4 being used by the National Market. if you are in the market to buy something. the Commerce Ministry window. The third row displays ongoing transactions. The first row is our stock. both rulers are at 50%. If you are only checking for merchandise and know precisely what you’ll sell (say. but not the stocks of the 40+ merchandise items. as are all expenses. The bottom line is that. This is the Assets Balance window. and all three can be open at the same time. 46 . These sliders are there to tell the game that you expect to sell an average percentage of what you offer to other countries. everything). You can bring it up at any time by pressing the B key. The game offers you a little. which is to sell 10 Coal per turn. It features the rest of the budget items. the size of your market and the nature of the Social Classes are huge factors in deciding what is bought. don’t assume that you’ll actually be able buy everything you wish. which is accurate if we sell 50% of it. used up by the market And then. The market likes to buy a bit of everything. There are two rulers for the transaction line for a more accurate projection of what will really happen during the Transaction (Commerce) Phase.

which are cities and Harbors of significant size. so even if there are production sites. You will also note some tan land near the top-left of the screen (the Rocky Mountains) and the top-right (Lake Michigan). In any event (and here comes one abstraction). NATIONAL sOIL ANd TrAdE In this example.) the merchandise finds its way to your stocks by road. you won’t pay its upkeep cost for nothing. you have only one thing to remember: everything which is in or near your country won’t have problems sending resources. the national soil is only a small part of their empire. though they are costly and limited in number. a nearby Exploitation and Collection Center structure can be used. have a look at the color overlay displaying the status of the Trade Areas: Press CTRL-2 to bring up the Trade Areas Status overlay Near the Pacific Coast and around Alabama and Florida. Collection Points A production site will only produce if it is in a region or adjacent to a region which has a Collection Point (CP). Additional concepts to keep in mind include how resource sites produce or fail to produce goods due to not being properly “attached” to their mother nation. they will be disabled. they could produce. as there is no sea commerce. like encircling the capital without capturing it) » We are simplifying things. and is vital in running a strong nation. since everything is okay. sTATus OF TrAdE ArEAs First. it doesn’t prevent the passage of merchandise to the national stockpile. are not besieged by hostiles. It is presumed that if there is no local interference (i. if we had production sites in the green or yellow regions. not a special case of the commerce system. nearby CPs). you can see regions in white. Again. so the region is displayed in green. But here we have one of the two “monster” nations that. as the goods would just rot in a warehouse. (In case you are wondering: yes. river. This means that we don’t check whether each producing region can make a path towards the national capital here. NotE: The red region in Alabama is a mistake in area definition. but there are no maritime facilities. as long as the local conditions are fine and that you are close to or on your national soil.) So. like France or Great Britain. a production site that can’t send its resources to the national stock will be automatically disabled (to cut down on micromanagement). Local conditions are good? Close to national soil? Then it is okay But what about overseas possessions? Here come the Merchant Fleets. etc. » The adjacent regions are shown in yellow. It functions in the same way. Instead. The commerce system thinks (and so should players) in terms of Trade Areas. 47 . there should be a city in the region. With Fleets. For those wanting to create salt mines in Siberia. This is simpler and reduces much of the computing that is required during hosting. This means that everything is okay (national regions. as some are contested by Indians. You have a great expanse of red in the center. But for smaller countries. is spread over a whole continent. As an example. But would they? It depends on whether they can send their resources to your national stock. along with Russia. but the color overlay indicates that you can’t sell merchandise to distant countries. there is a region in red because it is too far from any CP. » Select the USA » Click on the Adrian helmet to go to Industrial Mode (or press ALT-F2) » Activate the color overlay for collection points with CTRL-1 Here is what you should see: » San Francisco has a Harbor of sufficient size to act as a Collection Point. or rail. These regions are part of the national soil but there are no CPs.Collecting and Sending Resources The collection and shipment of resources is a core concept of commerce. You don’t need a route directly to Washington because: » The national stock is in the whole nation. everything is good. you can bring back or buy merchandise from distant countries. » Further.e. not all of the regions in blue are owned by the USA. Except in special cases. trade Areas The second concept is about Trade Areas. or adjacent to it. In the end. you are not missing a CP. This way. not just Washington (this also prevents some exploits. the rule is that you can send production to your country if you are in a Trade Area which is part of your national soil.. let’s take a tour of the USA. Light brown/ tan here means that it is working as the white area below.

but it is not a colonial region. but only by a maritime link. The national stock is everywhere on your national soil. 48 . Consumer Goods. but there are production sites. as that would be awfully complex to manage. depending on the quantity and variety of the goods you are offering for sale. ThE dOmEsTIC mArkET Goals All countries that are not tribal have to manage their populations— their national population in particular. As indicated in the section on Population Satisfaction. Dark orange is a special case named ‘Isolated. » BLUE: Linked by sea to the national soil (overseas production). because it is possible for another country to buy your production. so it is almost included in the domestic market. but you can’t reach national soil by land. to SUMMARIZE: Production sites will only produce if in or nearby a region with a Collection Point (yours or one belonging to a friend). Understanding national regions is also important. is to sell your stock in order to receive the income that is necessary to fund the other operations in the game. and Luxury Goods. linked by land and sea. Goods Name Wheat Rice Tea Coffee Category Food Food Food Food This does not mean that you’re spared the trouble. The revolt risk is calculated differently here but. » tAN: In or near national soil. Great Britain’s Merchant Fleets have been moved away to the Sea Box to the right. Here. The calculation takes two steps: » StEP oNE: Determine which population is concerned. to better create a balanced offering. 6 Tobacco. as they also buy your goods. It is important to think by Trade Area (Status). and the maximum amount. the Goods The chart below summarizes the various goods categories that are desired by your population. which has friendly merchantmen. NotE: There are some hidden safeguard mechanisms in place to avoid exploits. then they will be able to send their production to your national stock. How Does it Work? At the end of every quarter. Only national regions have a Satisfaction level. either. the first goal and aim of the domestic market is to please your population by selling part of your stock to it. unlike sites in red areas. On the other hand. » As a consequence. such as providing your population with only Tea and Coffee. For example. that is. The domestic market takes care of the sale of goods to your population (national and non-colonial). a calculation is made to check the effects of the domestic market on your population—and your finances! In the meantime.’ Your production sites here are not automatically shut down by the system. DARk oRANGE: This makes a total of six possible statuses: » WHItE: In or near national soil. What the population can buy is split into three purchase groups (categories): Food. On the other hand. so that the east side of India is cut off from the rest of the world’s maritime trade. » No CoLoR: You have nothing here. since production sites can’t do anything and they are shut down automatically. on the contrary. Western India is indeed linked to a Sea Trade Box near Madagascar. » The second goal. the region of Ulster on the island of Ireland is not considered a national region. The domestic market therefore positively impacts the Satisfaction level of national regions only. but there is none.ExAmpLE ExAMPLE: Let’s have a look at India from the perspective of Great Britain. which is also quite important. and there are no merchantmen in the Sea Box on which the Trade Areas depend. But the breakdown does not need to be more precise than that. said population does not specifically demand 23 Textiles. Here are two new colors indicating Trade Areas Status: » BLUE: The Trade Area is linked to national soil. » StEP tWo: Determine what said population(s) can buy. NotE: See Population Satisfaction. revolts that will occur are not linked to the Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction mechanism that the domestic market affects. the populace can become unhappy if your government does not provide for their needs. if linked to your national soil. » DARk oRANGE: Requires a sea link. Red can’t be helped because of the lack of a CP. regions that are non-national and non-colonial (Ulster in the example above) will buy products from the market but will not have their Satisfaction altered. because you need Merchant Fleets for structures distant from them. » There are production sites and CPs. you must set the type and quantity of goods you want to sell on the domestic market screen. not just in the capital(s). be able to buy 70 Consumer Goods. the region of Anglia (where the city of London is located) is a national region of Great Britain. you should not completely neglect non-national populations either. in theory. » RED: No CP in the region. and 3 Electrical Parts. If the local conditions are sound. linked by land. ExAMPLE: The French national population should.

tariffs When Tariffs are set. meat) Sugar. and private sector. obviously).. per capita. etc. not what is produced. but is levied mostly on Luxury Goods sold on the market. and depends directly on the size of the population and the various Social Classes (the wealthy contribute more. inheritance.Tropical Fruits Cattle (i. duties. Excise tax This tax works the same as the Corporate Tax. All are set inside the Ministry of Industry and Commerce window. Here is a list of what is available and their basis and/or effects.e.e. The level can be adjusted up to 100%. Rum Wines and Fruits Fish Manufactured Goods (various) Tobacco Cotton and Wool Wood Oil Dyes (natural or chemical) Food Food Food Food Food Consumer Goods Consumer Goods Consumer Goods Consumer Goods Consumer Goods Consumer Goods Textile Chemical Products Electrical Parts and Materials Mechanical Parts and Materials Luxury Goods (various) Silk Opium Gold Diamonds and Gems Automobiles Planes Consumer Goods Consumer Goods Consumer Goods Consumer Goods Luxury Goods Luxury Goods Luxury Goods Luxury Goods Luxury Goods Luxury Goods Luxury Goods TAxEs ANd rEvENuEs taxes The game allows different taxes. and tariffs to be levied on your population. the population will buy the products on the domestic market at a higher price. Corporate tax This tax is levied on the sales made (i. Its maximum is 15%. This represents the higher price paid to import the goods not available locally. country. Census tax This tax is based on private property. as well as the fact that local products are more expensive due to lack of foreign com- 49 . actually executed) in the domestic market: this is what is sold.

export sales) less secure.e. Does not have a CP and is not adjacent to the national territory. you will need a coastline with a merchant fleet. even with Merchant Fleets. under “Game”). its colonies. We have already seen that the productive structures of your country. and in the case of a seaborne export. If this is not possible. This status also presumes that at least one Port on this zone is under your control or that of an ally. A positive aspect of the tax is that it directly alters the competition among commercial fleets for the International Trade (see next section). except in the case of an Isolated Commercial Zone. Not linked to your national territory by sea. the zone moves into category 3. productive structures in foreign countries or in colonies have to be able to reach the national territory in order to put their production into the stockpile. The filter is blue in this case. 50 . relative to your nation and revised each turn. the zone is brown in the filter. also explained in the chapter Economic Structures. it is possible to play without these constraints by unchecking two boxes in the Options menu (on the first menu. This case is special: your structures will produce (and use raw materials) because the goods could potentially be sold to a foreign country which has national territory adjacent or which has a Merchant Fleet that can pick up the goods. via an exchange of resources through the Diplomatic interface (see Diplomacy). but has productive structures that belong to you. 5. Each zone has a status. that is. because these are pivotal concepts that directly relate to commerce and the movement of merchandise. nor adjacent to your territory. We will return to the ideas of national territory and Commercial Zones. for overseas zones. A share of it therefore returns to the State via the above mechanisms. 3. In this case. and commercial concessions that you possess in foreign countries must meet certain conditions in order for production to be effective. this will make your position in the foreign markets (i. If this is not the case. 4. such as Great Britain. If this is not the case. during the US Civil War) and generally not before the later stages of the era. The possibilities are as follows: Therefore. as described below). Here. the merchandise is lost (the structure can also be automatically deactivated. This is the ideal case for you because your structures. you must ensure that all the Commercial Zones where you have structures are in an adequate commercial status. we speak of an Isolated Commercial Zone (from the home nation).petition. and was rarely raised except during wars (i. the more competitive your commercial fleets (and thus the more likely they are to grab overseas markets). which you can see with a filter using CTRL-3. Typically. and this is generally the case for any of the Great Powers. for example). It is part of or is adjacent to your national territory. The remaining zones (where you have no possessions) will not be marked with any color. These regions will be marked in red. etc. Take note that if you find these ideas too complex (for a first game. This chapter only discusses the first case: international trade managed through the Land Trade Boxes. and the second permits you to treat all structures as being able to send their production to your national territory. and via the penetration of the internal market by a third country (see Internal Markets). You must have a Collection Point (CP) close to the structures. 2. The national territory represents a generally cohesive entity (you will not find the regions of your national territory dispersed over the entire planet!). French Algeria is in this status. it is important to maintain at least one Merchant Fleet per maritime box serving the Commercial Zone. make a commercial treaty with a country that has one (see the chapter on Diplomacy). if they have a CP nearby. On the other hand. but has some productive structures that have access to CPs. but any goods not sold will be lost! You should inspect such zones carefully and manually turn off any structures that you find there that you don’t want to operate. NotE: Most nations only implemented it during or immediately after WWI. so long as a French Merchant Fleet (or one that is friendly to France) is present in the Mediterranean. will place their production directly into your stockpile. Income tax Based on the population values and Social Classes. The filter will mark these zones in white. INTErNATIONAL TrAdE General Transactions of products between nations can take place in three different ways: via the commercial transaction windows for each Commercial Zone (also known as Land Trade Boxes). Maritime tax The tax is set by the government and affects the nation’s commercial fleets. Only linked to your national territory by sea. It is therefore important to clearly understand what the CP is (see Economic Structures).e. The region thus described can cover many Commercial Zones. 1. protected as they are by customs and Tariffs. as the other nations will tend to retaliate. In addition. your structures will be automatically turned off because they cannot produce anything. Commercial Zones The planet is subdivided into Commercial Zones. National territory The regions of your national territory (viewable with Filter 8) have a particular importance because your production is stockpiled there from turn to turn. France. One option allows you to consider your productive structures as being always close to a CP. A negative to Tariffs is that they do not please the population and will cause dissatisfaction. The lower the tax. this tax is rather exceptional. the United States.

the whole zone is considered ‘adjacent to the national territory. Once this has been done. that is. 51 . it is theoretically possible for you to purchase and return to your home country all the products served in the zone. are linked to) the sea box.’ The national territory is generally composed of many Commercial Zones. which permits the player to have more information on what is there in the way of Merchant Fleets and what land Commercial Zones they are serving with one click. You may also buy products from other nations in that Commercial Zone. It is in these regions (also called Maritime Commerce Boxes) that you place at least one Merchant Fleet. especially in Merchant Fleets. which will permit the shipping of products from that zone to the national stockpile. as is more common). you only need to ensure that a CP is close for the products to be automatically placed into your stockpile. of the national territory). One click on the red square on the small maps will take you to the land Commercial Zone. where the national territory extends from Poland to the Pacific. Since it is enough for the products to arrive in one region of the national territory for them to be credited to the national stockpile. you place and move Fleets as in any other region. See below for the window opened by that click. we speak of a Commercial Zone adjacent to the national territory (to any region. whether the products are exported by ship or carried by land routes to your national territory. Owners of fleets are represented by an icon whose size is proportional to that of their commercial capacity in that zone. As a matter of simplicity. ASSoRtED NotES: It is only necessary for one region of a Commercial Zone to belong to your national territory for the zone to be considered as being in the national territory. but it is important to realize that they are otherwise normal. any land Commercial Zone linked to that box benefits from the status of overseas exporter (the second Commercial Zone status. but it is important to understand that this capacity does not limit your transportation capacity or ability to buy. This box also indicates the land Commercial Zones that rely on (that is. once you have a commercial fleet in the adjoining Sea Trade Box. it can be seen that the Russian player is helped by this simplification which permits them to have a large number of Commercial Zones adjacent to their national territory. Each is linked to at least one land Commercial Zone (or many. Reading the information in this window will allow for a rapid analysis of the needs. The most extreme case is Russia. Even so. Whenever a part of the zone is adjacent to one region of the national territory. The regions have two notable properties: 1. These regions have certain properties in addition to those of normal regions. A larger commercial capacity gives a country a better chance to win arbitration between two countries that both wish to purchase the same merchandise. These regions have an icon of a chadburn (the device used to command the speed of ships during the era) at their base. 2. above). A Commercial Zone is an entity with one single status. regardless where. Sea trade Boxes The map includes 22 regions with the special status of Sea Trade Boxes. not one with as many different statuses as it has regions. Commerce is only controlled in the Land Trade Boxes. CAREFUL: This box is informative but does not permit management of commerce. This is a simplification to enable the player to think only in terms of zones. Sea combat in these boxes/regions is not managed as in normal sea regions but instead by an abstract system of convoy attacks. Moving your Merchant Fleets into the Sea Trade Boxes is done like all normal naval movement.For structures on your national territory or in a Commercial Zone adjacent to your national territory. the transaction Window Each land Commercial Zone has a transaction box where you decide what is sent to the national stockpile and what is offered on the market to other countries.

For the sake of simplicity. Only those items placed on the market by the selling countries are displayed. Commercial Exchange technologies. Prussia would have to have a Merchant Fleet in one of the Sea Trade Boxes serving a national province of Spain. this is decided in the turn resolution. even if two countries are at war (Merchant Fleets are controlled by private businessmen who are passionate about profits!). several factors affect the chance of becoming the accepted buyer or seller in any transaction: 1. Note that this is a proposal to sell. 52 . if they do not belong to you. many vendors can be in competition to sell the same type of product. Remember: there is always a one-turn delay between placing a product on the market and what is seen as offered. even if your part of the transaction takes place over land routes. click on the (+) button to the right of each product box (Shift-click = +10.1 point. The products do not belong to you. Ctrl-click = +100). by default. Each two points above or below zero in relations give +/. For the additional points. Note that relationships never prevent an exchange. » Principal zone. all of your production will go into your national stockpile each turn. if the Commercial Zone is not isolated. You are shown all production underway in the zone as well as your national stockpile’s total of each product. and you must designate those that you wish to eventually sell. Thus. you will get a list of all nations that can trade there. the price of a product is the same around the world. 3. a ship icon is displayed with the name of the Sea Box. The products belong to you. transactions are permanent until they are deleted. and that there is no guarantee that any country will buy your products. it is possible to purchase products stocked by other countries. This does not mean that losing parties cannot receive products from the vendor as they may be selling more than the first buyer desires. 4. The products belong to you. The Commercial window is divided into several parts: » Name of the Commercial Zone.In Commercial Mode (ALT-F3). For example. If there is no competition and if the selling country doesn’t change its transaction (this could be involuntary. click on the clock icon. If you wish to buy or sell for just one turn. The indicated price is the world price of that product. the total modifier ranges between +50 and -50. all your production is set to be sent back to the national stockpile. If the link is by land. Offering a higher price (up to +100 points). All production underway in the zone is displayed. unless you wish to be generous towards the selling country! An important list at the upper-right of each product box represents the duration of the transaction. These bonuses are on the order of +5 to +15 points per technology. Each parameter is added to give a “purchase strength” for each nation involved in the transaction. In the same way that many buyers can be in competition for the same sale. » Links with a Sea Trade Box (from 0 to 3). If there is competition. a cart or a locomotive is displayed (these images are only for illustration and can’t be clicked). with the proposals having been made the preceding turn. and the Commercial Zone is not part of your national territory. in case there is competition with other countries. 2. but by passing the cursor over any one of the flags. there will be two boxes. Subsequent buyers must be content with the leftovers. the left-hand number represents those units that you wish to send home and add to your national stockpile. » The flags in the box indicate the nation(s) that can trade. Thus. so if you place goods on the market. In addition. if two countries are selling the same product. then the purchase is made and the stocks are adjusted. and you must decide how much will go on the market and how much will go to the national stockpile. countries that have a national region which is part of or adjacent to the zone can also purchase the products. A click on the ship will send you to the Sea Box. By default. and that it is possible to buy a product at a higher price than its world price (up to 25%) by clicking on its icon in the box. and the Commercial Zone is part of your national territory. Thus. and those on sale by foreign countries. divided into 12 boxes. you can open this window by placing the cursor on a region of the zone that you wish to inspect and double-click on a resource (or CTRL-T). Prussia can use land routes to buy products from the Low Countries but not from Spain. The figure to the left is the number of product units proposed for sale. Thus. the program will randomly determine which potential trade partners will participate in the transaction. then you can decline to purchase at the higher price. if you have 400 points. 2. If the box refers to your stock. 3. NotE: The game is simultaneous by turn. if you don’t touch anything in this window. either because they border it (have land access) or because they have at least one Merchant Fleet in one of the Sea Trade Boxes serving the zone. you can use the (+) button to change the asking price. the products can have many different origins. This permits you a much better chance of obtaining the product. As with sales. 1. The list is limited to 10 flags. The icon becomes red as an indication that you are offering a higher price. Having Merchant Fleets in the Sea Trade Boxes serving the Commercial Zone. thus. To do so. Thus. countries controlled by the AI or other human players cannot see your proposal until the following turn. You should be aware that the price fluctuates in response to supply and demand. When a land zone points towards a Sea Trade Box. A better or worse relationship with the trade partner. which give a bonus or penalty both to buyers and sellers. The screen will display the merchandise that you own in that Commercial Zone. this will give you 40 bonus points. Purchases and Sales Your products can be bought by any country that has a Merchant Fleet in one of the Sea Trade Boxes serving the Commercial Zone where they are found. add the square root of the total points of commercial transport times two. due to a structure being destroyed during a revolt or war). Once all of the “purchase strengths” are calculated. If you are the only one in a zone who is buying a given product. » Status of the Commercial Zone. Product Boxes Each product box manages the transactions of a single product for a given country. They are visible for this turn only. To sell a product.

The buttons on the left allow you to interact with the interface in the following way: » The first two light-green buttons will allow you to display Technologies. machineguns. such as the Industrial Revolution.rEsEArCh: TEChNOLOgIEs ANd INvENTIONs overview The Victorian Era was marked by the constant pursuit of new ideas and the development of new technologies. etc. » A Technology. 53 . etc. Dual System: Inventions and technologies The research system is divided into two different categories: Inventions and Technologies. etc. are divided into five different branches: » LAND/ARMy: All items related to the army school. it will appear as “known” and at 0% progress. » The five light-blue buttons are the category filters. You will still have to “master” its development. torpedoes. » When you meet the requirements for a certain Technology. » While you cannot force an Invention. only provide the right conditions for a discovery to occur. For example. such as a new Battleship type or Hull technique. and airplanes are just a few of the new inventions that changed the lives of so many people in the years that would follow. The world as everyone knew it would dramatically change after all of the era’s discoveries. telephones. a certain Commercial tech’s implementation may be dependent on an Industrial tech. etc. female suffrage. aircraft carriers. Technologies and Inventions. You have successfully mastered the theory behind the idea. » NAVAL: All items related to the naval school. Inventions. The Technology will appear as “mastered” when progress reaches 100%. Bigger and better weapons were brought to the battlefield to mercilessly crush the enemy as never before. » You can hold a monopoly over an Invention to make it more difficult to spread to your enemies. » SoCIAL AND CULtURAL: All items related to the era’s socio-cultural theories. The shape of the world would be changed by all of the new discoveries that were made during those years. as progress reaches 100%. mass markets. You have five categories to choose from: § Land/Army § Commercial and Business § Social and Cultural § Industrial and Production § Naval » The last three dark-green buttons allow you to sort the list in three different ways: § By descending date (latest found first) § By categories § By progress The dual system will allow you to speed up a Technology’s research progress by using the button to the left of the research item’s name. submarines. You can’t force an Invention to come about. » A Technology is the application of an Invention or an idea. the higher the chance that every nation will discover it. your allies will benefit from their relationship with you and have a higher chance of receiving the Invention. steam ships. mustard gas is just one example of what a major nation could develop and utilize in order to win a war during the period. currencies. as shown: Research Item Categories Both research items. universal suffrage. stock markets. But not all of the discoveries provided positive social advances. taxations. » INDUStRIAL AND PRoDUCtIoN: All items focused on industrial production. such as defense systems. you can invest in a certain Technology to speed up its implementation. balloons. you know the idea. Automobiles. such as banks. muskets. vulcanization. such as steel ships. signals. mining. Here. flag signaling. you will be able to see all research items (Inventions and Technologies) that have been discovered and are under development. More experience in those fields will allow you to research those Technologies faster. This categorization doesn’t mean that each category is independent of the others. and now you will implement the idea to change your nation. workers insurance. steam-powered machines. departments. genetics. such as anarchism. may require expertise in a certain field in order to be mastered. ironclads. and the differences between the two are as follows: » An Invention is a spontaneous advancement made by your nation’s scientists. Research Interface By pressing F5. » CoMMERCIAL AND BUSINESS: All items related to commercial theories. Each category has its own special characteristics. etc. On the other hand. you will access the Academy of Science. or both. » The more an Invention spreads around the world.

Finally, the details of the selected research item, whether it’s a Technology or Invention, are displayed in the right panel:

On the other hand, Technologies will appear first as “known” with “0% progress.” You will be able to boost the research progress for Technologies by spending resources each turn. The additional investment of money and resources will artificially increase the progress of a certain Technology; however, continuously diverting State resources towards certain projects and ignoring the rest can ruin your nation. Once a Technology has reached 100% progress and is considered “mastered,” you will receive the full benefits associated with it. Both research items can give you different kinds of bonuses, which range from: » Paving the way for new Technologies and Inventions » Increasing the efficiency of your production structures (Coal Mines, Iron Mines, Farms, etc.) » Increasing your troops’ Cohesion value » Increasing the damage inflicted by your troops » Increasing the available Force Pool of certain units » Upgrading old units to new ones » Discovering new units to train and build » Discovering new structures to build » Increasing your population’s permitted max Education value » Increasing the tax base » Increasing production efficiency » Increasing transportation efficiency » And many, many more…

Mastering a Research Item
You can’t directly cause the discovery of an Invention, but you can improve the chance of it occurring by having the right prerequisites. If you cannot meet the requirements of an Invention, whether it is another Invention, a Technology, or a certain parameter, it will be difficult for you to access it. However, all Inventions have a “safeguard check.” After a certain date, Inventions will be considered “old” and will start to appear around the globe. The problem is that it could already be too late for your faction when this happens, as the other nations may already be too advanced. When a new tech is mastered, it will be listed in your Academy of Science with “100% progress.”

One of the key characteristics of the 19th century, and from 1870 onwards in particular, is the colonial race that took place around the globe. Early on in the development of the game, we felt that it should offer a specific environment and mechanics for such a crucial aspect of the era. For the colonial aspect, the game focuses on two key concepts: Colonial Penetration (CP) and Spheres of Influence (SOI). The world map is cut into areas that are called, for the sake of simplification, “colonies.” These areas are present almost everywhere in the world, save for those regions where civilized, stable nations are present (national regions). Each active major nation has a SOI for each colony, as well as a CP rating. Colonizing in your SOI nets you Prestige Points. In each colonial region, your actual success in colonization is measured with CP. Colonial affairs can be accessed directly from the map, and some info is displayed in the Colonial Office window. The Colonial Office summarizes most of the actions conducted in the world in Colonial Mode, such as areas open for colonial action or areas where critical action is pending. Colonial areas are those regions which are not under the rule of a modern State (i.e. owned by a tribal nation, unorganized nation, or simply empty) at the beginning of the game. In game terms, this will lead to a global scramble for the best colonies. Of course, the various colonies’ SOI are not equivalent between nations; for instance, Britain will have a high SOI in Canada while most other nations will have negative ones. In Africa, the Congo will probably end up with high-level SOI for most nations. This is an arbitrary representation of the various nations’ interest in a given region. Nations that did not go after colonies will have negative SOI almost everywhere; thus, they can partake in the colonial game if they wish, but this would just end up costing them Prestige and their efforts would most likely best be directed elsewhere. However, it’s still possible to gain colonies if you just want one. For people who would prefer a more open game, there is always the possibility to check the ‘No SOI penalty’ option. This is our way of pleasing both types of players. The nice thing about SOI is that it can be traded, reduced, or modified by events and diplomacy (regular or a Crisis), so it’s never set in stone, as it takes into account the game’s dynamics. For instance, strong economic activity in a given area may well lead to a change in your colonies’ SOI values in the same region.

Colonial Penetration (CP)
The second concept is CP, measured by a rating between 0 and 100. This is the basic element by which your colonial situation or status is judged in a given ‘colony’ area. There are many options that can be undertaken in Colonial Mode. Each action will grant the player’s nation some CP points. Of course, the CP increase does not come for free: you’ll need to pay for it in money and assets—and sometimes, even in Prestige or blood!

Spheres of Influence (SoI)
Colonies are rated for SOI by a numerical value between -5 and +5. This is the amount of Prestige that the nation will gain (or lose) each turn while holding control of the colony, for each region of said colony.


Colonial Scapes Like ‘normal’ regions, colonial regions will have Cityscapes, Harbors/Anchorages, and Countryscapes. These sites will be used as follows: » CoUNtRySCAPE: Works similar to those in civilized regions, for farms, mines, etc. » HARBoRS: Used to build Coaling Stations. » CItySCAPES: The front part (city) will be used to display the population, as in civilized regions. The back part will hold most colonial buildings (and very rarely, industries, as they are only allowed in a few colonies, such as Dominions). The colonial game is played via the use of colonial actions, which the player drags and drops onto the map in Colonial Mode. The selected actions are then checked during the following Hosting Phase and their results implemented.

Military Outpost Diplomatic type Gunboat Diplomacy Naval Demonstration Local Chief - Bribing Local Chief - Treaty Local Chief - Cede Territory Development type Send Missionary Colonial Merchants Colonial Trade Post

Needs units, reduces RR but can backfire, builds an Outpost on the map

Augment CP but needs ships Same as Gunboat but requires more ships, can give Prestige Costs money, reduces RR, and can backfire Costs 1 Diplomat, reduces RR, and augments CP Costs Money, augments RR, and augments CP

Slowly augments CP every turn, can backfire, and long cooldown Short Duration: gives Money and CP over time, but can backfire Long Duration: gives Money and CP over time, but can backfire – builds a Trade Post on the map Augments Network and CP Augments Development and CP Augments Development and CP, reduces RR, and builds a School on the map Augments Development and CP, reduces RR Augments Development and CP, reduces RR, and requires a city in the region Augments CP and increases metropolitan population, RR Target capital, gives prestige

Definitions: Colonial Actions
They are generally issued directly from the main interface via Colonial Mode by the usual drag-and-drop method (or in some cases, ordered from the Colonial Office interface). These actions include: » Sending Exploration Party (of three different kinds) » Sending Military Expeditions (of three different ‘strengths’) » Making Naval Demonstration » Authorizing Religious Missionaries » Establishing a Coaling Station » Establishing a Consulate (prerequisite for Protectorate or Formal Colony status) » Establishing a Military Outpost » Conducting colonial trade with natives: Trade Posts and Concessions » Installing Governors (transforms Protectorates into Formal Colonies) » Seizing Customs, Railroad, or Excise Concessions » Raising colonial troops Most of the actions above have a 100% chance of success; that is, they always produce the desired effects. A few other actions, particularly the Exploration types, have a success range between 25% and 50%. Each action will consume a certain number of assets (State Funds, Private Capital, Diplomats, Goods, and sometimes Steel and Coal) and/or items. Also, specific units might be required to be stationed in nearby regions or sea zones. types of Actions
Type exploration type Explorer Party Natural Society Expedition Geographic Society Expedition Explore a region if an explorer party is adjacent Can give Prestige, has a low Max CP constraint and cap Can give even more Prestige, can explore a region, and has a low Max CP constraint and cap Can give Prestige, has a low Max CP constraint and cap, and natives can revolt Can reveal an unknown resource (50% chance) Summarized Explanation

Improve Road Network Improve Telegraph Network Colonial School Vaccination Campaign Sanitation Campaign Immigrants to Colony Create Colonial Society Status type Declare Protectorate Declare Formal Colony Declare Dominion Declare Vassal Declare Stake

If conditions met: switches status, adds building, can give Stake to other If conditions met: switches status, adds building, can give Stake to other If conditions met: switches status If conditions met: switches status Can be used on a region if another is changing status to Protectorate, may provoke a Crisis

Investment in Disorganized Minor type Take Over Customs In disorganized capital, must not have the same as any other faction, gives Money and Prestige over time In disorganized capital, must not have the same as any other faction, gives Money and Prestige over time

Rail Concessions

DESIGN NotE: Among the 30 actions available, there will be the options to form
exploration parties to discover the land, military parties to ‘negotiate’ with local chiefs, exploit economic resources (and even native artifacts or treasures), establish military outposts, engage in gunboat diplomacy, send missionaries, engage in sanitation activities, work with infrastructure, develop trade, construct coaling stations, etc. Some decisions may cause the natives to revolt, while others will reduce an opponent’s CP in the same colony. In addition, actions will have a cap in terms of CP gained (on the spot or over long-term periods), so a carefully balanced plan of action is a must.

Anthropological Expedition Prospection Military type Military Expedition: Prosecute Military Expedition: Pacify Military Expedition: Retaliate

Needs units, reduces Revolt Risk (RR) but can backfire Needs units, reduces RR and population but can backfire Needs units, reduces RR but can backfire

The trick is to always keep ahead in CP in colonies of interest, as well as to try and reach critical levels before other countries. When your CP reaches or exceeds 50, you can go after claiming Protectorate (or higher status) on the colony.

Definitions: Colonies, Influence Status, and Benefits
Apart from the national areas of the Great Powers and other civi-


lized nations, the world’s regions are grouped into areas that we call colonies. Such areas may be comprised of a single region, or many. And the most important region in a colony is the capital. Gaining the best benefits from the colonial race in a colony requires that its capital be under your control (see below). A colony is similar to an Area (mostly for colonial game purposes) in that it is a group of individual regions, usually adjacent, that form a more or less homogeneous territory. This territory largely corresponds to those historical colonies of the 19th century.
ExAMPLE: Consider the ‘colony’ (colonial territory) we shall call Senegambia.
Senegambia will be made of the following regions (the first one listed is usually the capital of the colony): 476 Senegal, 477 Dakar, 478 Podor, 479 Kaolack, 480 Kayes, 482 Casamance

Formal Colonies In Formal Colonies, the nation holding the Governor’s Residence is the sole nation allowed to have or place new colonial buildings in said colony. Those of all other nations are removed upon achieving that status and can no longer be placed. All other nations’ CP will be reduced over time to less than a quarter of what the colony’s owner has in CP, in each region. In addition, the controlling nation has access to the territory colonial market (see Economy). If for any reason the Governor’s Residence is destroyed, the Colonial Status will still remain a Formal Colony, and one will be automatically rebuilt (at a cost) in the capital region. Dominions With the Dominion status, the overseas territory will start to gain rights on its own. So don’t be surprised by spontaneous initiatives, generally positive, triggered in Dominions, like the drafting of some forces by the local Governor or the creation of a new economic structure. CP Increase Duration, Caps, and other Effects Most of the above colonial actions will generate a CP increase in the region they are placed. The increase takes place every turn while the action is active on the map, but no longer than that. However, some of these actions also have a CP cap; that is, CP ceases to accumulate once a certain level is reached. Also, some may lead to revolts from the local natives. CP Requirements for Status Changes To achieve a certain Colonial Status, a minimum level of CP must be achieved in the colony. This level is required both at a certain value in the colony’s capital and on average in the colony as a whole as an arithmetic average made of all the CPs of the colony’s regions.
Status Aimed Protectorate Colony Dominion Stake CP in Capital 30 50 95 25 Average CP in Colony (all regions) 25 30 75 – (used to contest another’s status change)

In every colony, the various colonial nations (one, some, all, or none) have a level of clout, with the three main levels being: » Influenced: Average CP of the nation is below 50% in the whole colony (i.e. with all its regions averaged). » Protectorate: Average CP of the concerned nation is higher than 50% and less than 75%, and a Consulate Building of the nation is in the colony’s capital region. » Formal Colony: Average CP of the concerned nation is higher than 75% and a Governor’s Residence (belonging to the nation) is in the colony’s capital region. Don’t mistake the colonial area—those parts of the region of an area that can be under any level of colonial influence (from unexplored to Dominion)—with the Colonial Status of a Formal Colony. However, a Formal Colony, when declared, will use the definition of a colonial area. The first is the potential while the second is a particular, current form. Each status provides a certain degree of action and benefits, as follows: Influenced In Influenced colonies, you can place almost any colonial building or conduct any colonial action, and the same is true for the other nations in the game. In other words, it’s a free-for-all field of action. Please note that only ONE nation may have a Consulate Building in the colony’s capital. If two are placed simultaneously, it will trigger a Crisis (see Diplomacy). In particular, you can see regions with the Military Outposts or Trade Posts of other nations (Trade Posts will compete for economic resources). Also, having a CP of 50% or higher in a colony does not mean it automatically becomes a Protectorate. This will only happen if the relevant action is taken. Protectorate In Protectorate colonies, the nation holding the Consulate Building (usually because it has declared the colonial area as a Protectorate) is the sole nation allowed to have or place new Military Outposts in the colony. Those of all other nations are removed (Decaying over time) once the status has been achieved. Nations can still place other buildings, though, but their effect on CP will be capped, as no other nation than the one holding Protectorate status can have more than half the CP of the Protectorate nation; the Decay in CP will be progressive, allowing you to still take action. If for any reason the Consulate Building is destroyed, the colonial status will still remain a Protectorate, and one will be automatically rebuilt (at a cost) in the capital region.

HINt: You may even play tricks on rivals, such as sending brutal military expeditions to colonies where your opponents have a high CP in the hope that they will cause local revolts and destroy the assets of ALL colonial powers present, hopefully crippling your enemies more than yourself.

Gaining Control of Colonies
A crucial task will be to keep track of your competitors’ actions in critical territories, especially those with high SOI values (or growing potential, such as future British Dominions). The game will display alerts to warn you about regions where there is a potential risk. Once a nation attempts to change the status of an Influenced colony into a Protectorate or a Formal Colony, you can play a Stake. A Stake is an action that allows for the contesting of a status change, if successful. To do so, you must have a minimum of 25 CP in the colony’s capital. The trouble is that playing a Stake may create a Crisis (see Diplomacy).
NotE: This is a game that all nations can play, and it is what Rudyard Kipling called ‘The Great Game,’ as with the jockeying of power between Russia and Britain in Central Asia.


The Relationship Rating is reciprocal. especially on the local resources and markets. this meant building coalitions and alliances to resist their adversaries and survive in an era of huge armies and navies. Nations were judged less on their raw military and economic power than their ability to create lasting relationships between each other. Diplomatic actions such as State Visits do much to improve your diplomatic ties. but they won’t allow the nations to get anywhere because the Protectorate status keeps their status from changing. between your and every other nation. as most key military actions are now prohibited from them. etc. unexpected reason (such as a native revolt. every nation. such as launching a sneak attack before a Declaration of War. but by the other Great Powers for a very long time. All of their current actions in the colony suffer Decay and will ultimately disappear. Other actions (exploration. if theirs is higher) a Casus Belli may be generated. your nation became a Great Power for a reason! 57 . ally with (or against) you. Statehood). Colonies and Diplomacy We have seen above that a Stake may generate a diplomatic Crisis. or possibly an unexpected colonial Crisis which may lead to war if the quarrel degenerates. so if Great Britain is friendly towards Russia. provided they have the required resources and are developed enough to sustain economic structures (there is no option to build in wild. Be warned! If your nation is unfriendly towards another Great Power. ranging from -100 (hate) to +100 (very friendly).and warfare-focused game at its heart. and so it is very difficult to achieve in the game. such as the United States and Great Britain. But depending on the colony’s SOI value for the other nations that are present (in particular. which is calculated and paid automatically from the State treasury. then your nation may achieve a more advanced level of Colonial Status: Statehood (a US-specific action) or Dominion. if the colonial action of “Immigrants to Colony” is combined with sufficient growth of your ethnical population in the colony. after all. a colony may become almost like national territory. DESIGN NotE: Historically. and the resources and goods that you can produce and trade from its market. And this is how we can make an interesting colonial game set in the US ‘Far West’ or Russian Siberia. along with new specific buildings and actions. This allows you to start building even more advanced economic structures in the colony in order to more fully exploit resources and produce goods. or change the status of Britain’s overseas possessions to ultimately create the key Dominions of the Commonwealth. At Protectorate level. Impact of the Relationship Rating on Diplomacy » The Relationship Rating does not “do” anything by itself. and an extreme lack of military conflict. Becoming a diplomatic paragon of virtue will require a heavy investment of time and effort in bettering relations between your country and others. » The Relationship Rating plays a major role in determining whether another GP will agree to your proposed treaties and ultimately. others. However. it was about maintaining a balanced neutrality to enable commerce and colonization to spread and grow without resorting to major conflicts. Protectorate status grants you a good level of control over a colony and prevents others from investing beyond limited levels. Also. even if not ‘colonial’ stricto censu. the costlier it becomes to maintain. Now. Hopefully. your commercial investments in the colonies. whether a GP will go to war with your nation. then they will automatically respond in kind. or not. For others. savage areas). HINt: Opponents may still want to maintain a high CP as in case you may lose Protectorate status via a Crisis or another. this was nearly impossible during the Victorian Era. a few economic structures (mostly Level 1 mining and agricultural) are possible and can be built in the various regions of the colonies. Therefore. can play that part of the game. it is simply a rating of how your Great Power (GP) relates to another. Once this happens. you gain even more benefits. make up for its expense (though the private sector shall benefit from it the most). an event. For example. dEALINg WITh yOur NEIghBOrs: dIpLOmACy overview The Victorian Era was the Golden Age of Great Power diplomacy. will be remembered not only by the object of your aggression. For some nations. Colonial Status can make for a valid diplomatic Agenda. Relationship Rating Each nation has a Relationship Rating towards all others countries. Protectorate Benefits A Protectorate allows you to reach a higher level of control later on. So the more an empire grows. development) are still possible.Higher Colonial Status Higher Colonial Status is quite valuable. so nothing can be considered as permanent since Protectorate status can be removed and colonies traded or freed. It is rare indeed for a Great Power to be loved by all nations. Historically. Colony Population Growth In addition. then Russia will be friendly towards Great Britain. Dominion. most colonial empires cost significant sums to the home country. or visceral hatred. While a colonization. Pride of Nations provides the tools for a Great Power to use diplomacy instead of overt conflict to achieve its goals. Colony Benefits At the higher levels (Formal Colony. at least in regards to the national treasury. the Cost of the Colonial Empire Each colonial building has a maintenance cost. its main purpose is to prevent other nations from acting decisively in the colony. This value reflects the close ties.). ALL enemy colonial actions are totally prohibited. But there is no doubt that colonial exploitation brought great wealth to a good number of private firms and individuals. But the most interesting benefit is that you can now get control of the land from the natives and obtain economic exclusivity.

Now.” Review what you sent at your leisure. with portraits of each country’s rulers.» The Relationship Rating can be viewed with either the Relationship Rating Map filter (ALT-4) or by browsing the topcenter list of countries when checking the Diplomacy window. The Great Powers include the British Empire. Prussia (and later treaties Viewing. The types of replies can be viewed in the category “Treaties/actions pending your reply. that military action. You have just reversed the view. For example. Remember that the era was one of formality and order between countries. and cultural strengths and are able (and willing!) to spread past their current borders to accomplish their strategic goals. diplomatic. In the 19th century. One such example is the “Ask for a State Visit” request. however. there is a delay between your nation’s suggestion of a diplomatic action and another country’s response. These can be broken into several key areas: Treaties. Within this window. Being rude is part of the diplomacy game! Declaring War: Country types and the Casus Belli NotE oN CoUNtRy tyPES: The cultural. This way. say Japan and China even though you are playing as Great Britain. The last thing you do is. is considered a ‘sneak attack’ and will cost your nation a substantial amount of Prestige. only the invention of the telegraph in the mid-century changed that. cultural.. it was not abnormal for a message to take months to travel from one capital to another. Choose to view Japan by clicking on Japan in the list of countries from the topcenter list. you can view all countries or filter them by different criteria for ease of search. The war will be in effect as soon as the turn is processed by the game. and diplomatic actions that defined the Age of Imperialism. Be aware. For actions that are unilateral. and the country initially viewed is Prussia. The creators of Pride of Nations do not. egory to view a list of actions.” This category lists the actions you have in effect with all other countries in the world. the other country can then do two things: respond to your request (by agreeing or rejecting it) or ignore it completely. Consequently. decline. ethnic. the level of social. massacres. After receiving the message. including “Declare War” and “Ask for a State Visit. You can do so just by clicking on one of the country flags to switch them and then choosing another country to view. we have divided the world into four distinct categories for ease of play and understanding: Organized Major Countries (also called Great Powers).” What you sent this turn (new actions or reply to a request) can be viewed in the category “Treaties/actions you sent this turn. and Other Diplomatic Actions Diplomatic time Delay and Bilateral Diplomatic Requests As this is a turn-based game. Issuing Diplomatic Requests As a Great Power. treaty Categories At a given moment you can see one out of four treaty categories (or diplomatic actions): » Treaties/actions in effect » Treaties/actions pending your reply » Treaties/actions you sent this turn » Potential treaties/actions (what you can do) So. Organized Minor Countries. Declarations of War. politicians. if you change your mind. select (from the top-center list) China. simply delete the reply and start again. and other atrocities during the era. The window initially presents you with your country (to the left) and another country (to the right). shortening the process to mere weeks. however. France. Great Britain is checking on Japan. the delay between the sending and receiving of a diplomatic message is an integral part of the diplomatic and gameplay systems. Many Westerners living in the period saw this as their duty. Click on the Japanese flag. and can work at becoming an Organized Major Country. And then there is ‘“Treaties/actions in effect. They possess strong diplomatic. and such behavior was considered to be dishonorable by most civilized nations. and not just the target country as listed to the right of the screen. economic. Japan is looking at China in three clicks. economic. Unorganized Countries. as noted in Rudyard Kipling’s famous poem “The White Man’s Burden” as well as in the writings of philosophers. ThE TrEATy INTErFACE An interesting feature of the interface is that you can change who is viewing (the left country) whom (the right country). later versions may open up the other nations for play. or breaking treaties is also all done through the Diplomacy window (F9). and Tribal Countries. OrgANIzEd mAjOr COuNTry Commonly called “Great Powers. A Declaration of War. then your next action is to reply. you can view what treaties are in effect (or the relationships) between other countries. ExAMPLE: You start as Great Britain. in any way. Responding to Diplomatic Requests If we switch to the receiving side of an action. and other leaders. again. there is no need to wait for the other side’s reply. signing. and military organization based on 19th-century Western concepts of a nation-state is how the game differentiates one country from another. does not require any diplomatic action from the opposing power. if you wish to see the potential dealings you can have with a given country (the one listed to the right). such as an invasion of another country’s territory by your forces before a formal Declaration of War. Only the original Organized Major Countries are playable with the release version. for example.” Here you can accept. political. In an attempt to maintain historical accuracy and the period-specific military.” these are the major nations of the 19th century. or even not bother to reply. Nation types The type of nation that you are playing and trying to relate to has a major impact on gameplay. Diplomatic time Delay and Unilateral Diplomatic Actions Only Bilateral Diplomatic Requests require a time delay. “uncivilized” lands) led to bloody and devastating wars. and voila. from State Visits to Declarations of War. with you being the target of a request (someone sends you an “Ask for A State Visit”). you can list only European Great Powers with whom you have a cordial relationship. military. click on the fourth cat- 58 . and Japan is looking at Great Britain. Simply put. and racial differences between the Western colonial powers in the 19th century and the subjects of imperialism (i. attempt to justify the 19th century’s often racist and horrific attitudes towards the non-Western world. you have the ability to issue a wide variety of diplomatic requests.e. A very large and very old country such as China is considered either an Organized Minor Country or an Unorganized Country at different times of the era.

This will be evident in the diplomatic pull-down boxes—among others—on the game screen. but is at a lower developmental level than an Organized Minor Country. By Right and by Rule: Region types There are several types of regions in the game: National Regions. and both the United States and Mexico can claim parts of Texas. Historical examples include many of the nations of South America.Germany). trying to annex it to your empire. Players can only pick one of the Organized Major Countries. pressing ALT-2 will show the majority national makeup on the map. these areas were often ripe for conquest or exploitation. CAsus BELLI (CB) A CB can be obtained against another country either by an event or by the target country occupying a region that should rightfully belong to you. such as New York for the United States. If relations are negative. and military strength to compete with them. They are where the population as well as the economic. however! You can purposefully instigate a diplomatic Crisis over time to generate a CB. » The National Market is where the population buys what it needs. These are the traditional core areas of the historical powers of the era. it is a source of funds for your nation. You have several filters around the Mini-Map to view the regions that legitimately belong to you. or large tribal confederations that did not meet the Western standard of a nation during the period). and the people recognize themselves as French. » National Regions under your control have a population that you must satisfy via the National Market. but they do 59 . Holding an enemy’s National Region in a war is expected. capable of conducting diplomatic and other relations with Great Powers. your soldiers will not know to open fire! ExAMPLE: Historical examples of this include the British Empire’s forces in the 1879 Zulu War.. Some buildings can only be built in Colonial Regions. do not expect to annex traditional French territories as Germany without a never-ending conflict with France. you can only ask for regions on which you have a claim and that are not colonized by another country. and St. etc. socially.) of the American West. commercial. British. war is much simpler. In addition. Historical examples include the Plains Indians (Lakota Sioux. uNOrgANIzEd COuNTry The region is recognized as a ‘country’ by the Great Powers. Petersburg for Russia. Great Powers and other Nation-States Declaring war is a serious affair when you are a Great Power or other nation-state. For example. China. the Empire of Japan. and to a lesser extent. Russia. TrIBAL COuNTrIEs ANd CB For conflict between Organized Major Countries and Tribal Countries (i. you have to provide the basic needs of the populace in the National Region from your own resources. these items are stored on your soil and not in an abstract ‘pool. it is not possible to make a Declaration of War.’ These stockpiles are scattered throughout your nation and not just in the national capital. then they will protest or rebel against your rule. this is reflected by the national makeup of the region. Comanche. or the scattered tribal communities of sub-Saharan Africa. you can always ask for a colonial region in a peace treaty. It was possible to lose Great Power status (Ottoman Empire. From raw materials to finished goods. Portugal. Spain. Paris for France. which can be seen when you hover the cursor over a region. the Tribal forces will resist the invasion. This has historically led to conflicts (the 1870 Franco-Prussian War and the 1846 US-Mexican War) and will do so in the game as well. however. Nations can declare war on Tribal countries without a CB by simply moving troops into their territory and issuing a Declaration of War. If the population is unhappy. TrIBAL COuNTry This region or group of regions is dominated by organized and semi-organized tribal groups that have yet to reach the point of being a traditional nation-state. » National Regions also serve as stockpiles for the production of your nation. but lacking the industrial. whereas others can only be built in non-Colonial Regions. from a dominant culture to a greater colonial influence than others. Claimed Regions. Colonial Regions. these countries are not open for play.e. and you can always declare war on Tribal Countries. These areas define what your nation is geographically. A key part of successfully playing as a Great Power is wrestling control of strategically important regions from potential adversaries. etc. and military power of your nation rests. Each region allows for only certain diplomatic and economic actions. other than Tribal Countries. Tribal Countries do not require a CB to declare war. National Regions The regions that make up the core of your nation are called National Regions. in the Western sense of the word. Unlike the three other country types. except as a result of a Crisis between you and the other country. and maintaining legal claims over areas that you determine as yours. and other cases of lesser importance. For the imperialists of the day. OrgANIzEd mINOr COuNTry These are small nation-states. however. however. Austria. and the Ottoman Empire. In other words. Consequently. without a declaration. and the “Indian Wars” of the United States. the French occupation of Indochina. politically. Spain). Warmongers should not fear.” Without a CB. Notes on Regions and Gameplay Only some options will be available when dealing with regions. In other words. In game terms. political. and economically. You can’t declare war on any other nation-state if you lack what is called a “Casus Belli” (CB). Expect endless tension and conflict between nations when both sides proclaim ownership over a disputed region as their legal right. kEy FACTOrs OF NATIONAL rEgIONs » An enemy’s possession of one of your National Regions will give you permanent CB for as long as they hold it. There are several reasons for claiming a region. the United States. and for Organized Minor Countries (Japan) to ascend to Great Power status. Be aware. and potentially other Great Powers. would have been seen in the era as an extremely destabilizing act that threatened the legitimacy of all Great Powers. Historical examples include Dai Nam (French Indochina) and the scattered principalities and fiefdoms of the Indian subcontinent absorbed into British India. which are based on the region type. National Regions are defined thusly: » Areas made up of your power’s people. as the population pays tax on the products they buy. » Nations will fight to the end to possess these areas. or “Cause of War. those formed in the Balkans during the era. You must have a CB to declare war on any country. require a Declaration of War. ExAMPLE: Both France and Germany can claim Alsace and Lorraine. like a Trading Post or Military Outpost. unorganized tribal areas. such as a Military Academy or Steel Mill. American. Note that it is possible to develop from an Organized Minor Country to Organized Major Country (and vice-versa). Be aware that an enemy will seize these materials in the National Region if it is captured. that more than one country can legitimately claim a region.

These include a high population loyalty to your nation and a high percentage of your national ethnic group(s) in the region. such as National Regions. but only if the owning country does not consider the region as a National or De Jure Region. but they still own it. Effectively. or cultural ties. An example of such a situation would be if Austria owned the Moscow region as the result of an Austro-Russian war peace settlement (an extremely weird case!). In this case. can move from the regions on the Mississippi River across the Great Plains to California. The United States’ concept of Manifest Destiny. These National Interest Regions are those in which there is no Colonial Penetration by your nation. It is theoretically possible that you own a region that is not a Colonial Region. a region is either Colonial or it is not. such as the USA’s claim to all of North America. regardless of their German ethnicity. ExAMPLE: One historical example is the USA’s attempt to claim what is now British Columbia (“Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!”) due to vague readings of the Louisiana Purchase agreement and treaties with Great Britain. Moscow is definitely not a Colonial Region. You can gain a CB against a country possessing a region you claim. A region can become national if: » The ethnic group of the main population is the same as your other core regions. your troops can move freely without needing a Right of Passage treaty from another country. This results in a standing CB against any nation holding a region in North America. hence the status of Subdued Region. a Dominion of your empire. or one with a very high loyalty to you. we designate this region as a Subdued Region.NEW NATIONAL rEgIONs Gaining new National Regions is not impossible and was in fact a key aspect of expansionism in the era. despite the lack of other requirements. » The region is linked to your capital by a chain of other National Regions. the game doesn’t allow you to make demands on other countries for such regions. or “the Weird Cases” A region can be outside all of these classifications. ExAMPLE: Prussia could claim. or Canada. See the manual section “The Colonial Affairs” for more details. It is not abnormal for most players to never see a Subdued Region. Normally. If it is Colonial. You also have a right to station troops there. led to the country basically claiming all territory between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. then it possesses a value called Colonial Penetration. Consequently. size of your nation’s population in the region. » Through event or game-start settings for your nation. don’t expect Burma to become British in the same way that London is considered British. for example. Claimed Regions A second type of region is the Claimed Region. certain regions can become National Interest Regions if overseas. and Austria has absolutely no claim whatsoever on Moscow. the game reflects this attitude by giving the United States a DJR claim to all North American regions. National Interest Regions A third type is a subtle variation of the National Region as it is not linked by land to your national soil. your troops can also enter some regions even if they are not a DFR. a DJR is a ‘Forced Claim’ or an ‘Artificial Claim’ on a region. This prevents nations from attempting to establish absurd claims that they are unable to enforce. and allowed for the establishment of the United States as the dominant colonizing power in the Hawaiian Islands. ethnic. this prevents players from attempting to “colonize” other nations’ areas. but perhaps you obtained it because of an event or the outcome of a war. etc. with little real legitimacy or international backing but is enough to justify expansion into the region. ExAMPLE: A great historical example is the relationship between Hawaii and the USA: the influx of Americans into the islands destabilized the Kingdom of Hawaii. These regions can be developed over time into Protectorates of your nation. a Formal Colony. » Through the colonization of new regions by your ethnic culture(s). such as Russia. This is a region containing some of your main ethnic groups. but the possibility does exist of such an occurrence. This type of region does not care about international rights: you can have possession of a DFR because of history or victory in war. The result is that overseas regions will mostly be ‘colonial’ to the Great Power — a historically accurate reflection of the era. NotE: Claiming a region is only the first step toward integrating it into your nation or empire. in addition to a small armed uprising by the Americans. A legitimate claim is based upon the penetration of your nation in the region. based on its German ethnicity. ExAMPLE: An example of this is the regions of the American West: US forces Colonial Regions Please refer to the Colonial Affairs chapter for more information on these types of regions. and does not possess part of your National Stock. the United States. presence of military forces. To be precise. Subdued Regions. but meets all other requirements. In all such regions. Only Colonial Regions possess a Colonial Penetration factor. Ultimately. There is a filter around the Mini-Map as well. De Jure Regions Another type of region is the ‘De Jure’ Region (‘By right’ region. and isn’t a Colonial Region. no use of your National Market (for goods) by the population. but is also not a National Region or even a region where you have a valid claim. See National Interest Regions below for details. De Facto Regions All the regions that you control in time of peace are De Facto Regions (DFR). it could not claim areas claimed as National Regions by Austria. large parts of Bavaria and the smaller German principalities. some American jingoists even went as far as to claim all of North America for the United States. abbreviated as DJR). This is a region that your nation claims. However. but does not allow for the expansion of overseas regions. but it does possess other factors that ties your nation to the region. the USA and Great Britain agreed to draw the boundary line farther south (present day Washington State). 60 . Basically. or one of your National Regions. even if this is seen as unfair by other countries and is in violation of all international laws. In other words. regardless of physical presence or long-standing historical. and through the use of some powerful but rare Colonial Decisions and Events. Exceptions to the Region Rules While you can enter all the regions you own (a DFR). This allows for the expansion of countries in areas of adjoining physical terrain.

the only way to get to that desired interior unclaimed region in Africa is to go to war with the power blocking your way. The many possibilities are handled by the Crisis Module. » tHE PREStIGE StASH: This is the amount of Prestige that will be shared among the participants of the Crisis when it ends (one way or another). the movement of troops close to another country or of ships off the disputed territory can themselves create a Crisis. of all your entries. » If the situation degenerates. 61 . and then the game engine will tell you the result in the subsequent turn. etc. Added to this is the skill of the players (Dominance). However. Simply put. The Map filter (CTRL-5) will identify Colonial Regions. as by entering this turn in a region of the country subjected to your declaration. based either on the stats of your ruler or the situation on the map. Also. Regions. On the other hand. CrIsIs ANd AgENdAs A Crisis is solved in two parts. it was expected that other Great Powers would become involved in a Crisis—either to make peace or to ensure their interests were being protected—if they had the slightest of connections to the issue. and a bit from the game engine. If you have a negative relationship with the other country. then they split the “pot” (the Prestige Stash). controlled in one manner or another by the Target. To benefit from the use of some Agendas. To a lesser extent. Opposing nations place their “bets” (Prestige. for the most part. If the region is colonized by another power. The Initiator presents a Stake. in opposition to the Target country.). Colonial Regions and Everything Else. Lastly. a Crisis will see two countries vie for supremacy over an item. some Agendas won’t always be available. Initially. Political status will also determine where you can move forces and what actions you can take. this is also true for third parties. as some have prerequisites. others require that your ruler has a low aggressiveness rating (measured by Imperialism). if they are not formed into a Protectorate or higher status by another nation. The rest of the world is watching your game—if they think it was a fair game (Just Cause). So don’t be surprised if you see Cossacks in Vienna! COLONIAL rEgIONs You can always enter colonial regions freely. For example. usually a region. and Subdued Regions. along with how much was bet (Intensity). The module will check for points of friction and determine the probability of the situation degenerating. try to drop your troops into the region: if you can. Throughout the game. there are two kinds of regions. If Austria acts as a mediator in a Crisis between Germany and Great Britain and the Crisis does not degenerate into war. if you are successful. And the actions you take to play these types of Agendas may directly cause another Crisis.’ The relative size of the countries involved in the Crisis will also play a major role in determining how much Prestige is awarded (Passive-Aggressive Strategy. So be warned. if not the first. so you’ll have to plan your strategy accordingly. your action will be considered a sneak attack and will have severe consequences to your Prestige (as previously noted). your Colonial Regions will evolve. These Agendas are usually very potent and can decide a Crisis by themselves. the Target will try to not lose it. below) Diplomatic Crisis and Diplomatic Agendas overview There will often be points of contention or friction between countries. Russia and Austria form an Alliance and grant each other a Right of Passage for their troops. then work on those alliances and the diplomatic game! A Right of Passage agreement can open up many opportunities to spread your empire! Solving a Crisis: the Agenda The best way to think of how the game handles a Crisis is by thinking of poker. Several concepts are at play during a Crisis: » CRISIS INItIAtoR: The country who is triggering the Crisis. Each agenda can only be picked once per Crisis. it will end up with less Prestige than it had initially.dIpLOmATIC AgrEEmENTs ANd rEgION mOvEmENT A typical example is if you have a military treaty (formal Alliance or Right of Passage agreement) with the target country. Problems can arise in a territory held by a country that is claimed by another. National Interest Regions. as with the Fashoda Incident between France and Great Britain. You plan for a Crisis with Agendas. » If it degenerated into a war. This could also be the closing of your commercial interests in a colonial land because another country declared the whole area as a Protectorate. This Prestige amount comes from the participants themselves. you can evaluate a Crisis’ outcome on three items: » If the Initiator of the Crisis got what they wanted (the Stake). The non-Colonial Regions include National Regions. ExAMPLE: Some powerful Agendas need to have a high diplomacy rating. a Crisis will not appear out of the blue. then all is well. Agendas are items you pick up from the Crisis Planning window. but history also has examples of two countries with cordial relationships having to manage a Crisis. A prudent Great Power will watch the actions of other Great Powers in a disputed area and will act accordingly. generally a region (but not always). In the Victorian Era. you will require a diplomatic agreement to move into the region or a Declaration of War (DOW) against the owning power. War and Peace. An exception to this is if you just prepared a DOW. allowing for greater levels of political and economic development with your home nation. you’ll have to plan how to deal with it. you may need to have troops near the region at stake or close to the national soil of the target country beforehand. then it is authorized. in some cases. If you choose to go the peaceful route. you’ll be presented with a special message in your Message Log which will be in red and one of the first. Let’s see how it works and how you can influence its outcome. Claimed Regions. if more than one player is on a side. If a country clearly shows its supremacy. CrIsIs ELEmENTs We talked about the possible consequences of a Crisis. These third parties can decline to join or enter the debate. informing you that you are involved in a Crisis! » Basically. then they will end up with more Prestige than it had before. In the end. If a country is humiliated. using the “cards” (the Agenda) they have in their hands as they try to win the “pot” (the Stake). In case of doubt. » If one party humiliated the other (gaining much Prestige while the loser lost a significant amount). as well as the tooltip when the cursor is over a region. they are referred to as a Crisis. then Austria will gain Prestige for being the ‘great peacemaker. the probability of the situation worsening is higher. and two forms of political status. When these precarious situations arise. which can result in many of a not-so-cordial country’s troops near the borders of your national soil. some will require you to have troops or ships near the Stake or the target country. All other major nations in the world will also be invited to join in as a third party. The Initiator will try to get the Stake. but there is the risk of a vicious circle occurring.

Peace Treaty) ExAMPLE: Germany decides to start a Crisis against France over Morocco. then the Initiator gets the Stake.2 Treaty 1. while positive values favor the Initiator). This random amount is secretly added by the game engine (but will not initially go above 95%). Being a mediator in a Crisis is a great way to gain Prestige without risking a war yourself! » CRISIS INtENSIty: Each Crisis has an Intensity rating. If it reaches +3. When you add up Prestige in the Stash. You can decide to be very aggressive. knowing you have Just Cause. and this is particularly true if your country initially has less Prestige than the other side. from 1 to 100. If the Dominance attains -3. Treaty. Germany’s Dominance is a bet—the German player is hoping that the gods of random numbers side with the Kaiser on this one! The result is that Germany forces France to back down and humiliates them on the international stage. In all cases. This would mean you end up with a lot of extra Prestige and perhaps even the Stake if you were the Initiator. tools. you’ll have to make a Crisis Intensity Check.1. by type BILATErAL dIpLOmATIC ACTIONs These actions are “bilateral” in nature. This has nothing to do with being right or wrong. such as a loss of relationships or even a war between the two main parties.5 Ask for Supply Rights 1. During the next turn. even at the risk of losing Control. generally with a sound loss of Prestige. you humiliated the other country) and perhaps even the Stake if you were the Initiator. If you fail it. Dominance is rated on a symmetric scale. the Crisis will continue to unfold. the side with more Prestige when a Crisis triggers starts with +1 Dominance. you far less than the other country. even at the risk of losing Control. ranging from -3 to +3 (negative values favor the Target.1. then it can very well mean that the country is no longer viewed as a bully but a rightful claimant to the Stake! » DoMINANCE: Those who appear to have the upper hand in the Crisis. Then the game engine will check your Agendas against the other side. and then determine the outcome. the red indicating that there is a Crisis result to check.1. Third parties who supported a nation get Prestige if their side has ‘won’ the Crisis. You play a lot of Agendas asking to put extra Prestige in the Stash.1. Each time you play an Agenda. if a country comes with a Forge Claim Agenda and succeeds.1. see if third parties are playing the mediator or choosing a side. Having the Just Cause marker is rather important.1. there is a great likelihood that terrible things will happen in the debriefing portion of the Crisis. The goal is not to win the Stake in Morocco. and the Crisis ends. it will be automatically saved when you end the turn. It will cost PASSIVE-AGGRESSIVE StRAtEGy.1. then the Crisis is ‘Out of Control’ and you just slammed the doors shut on all future negotiations. » AGGRESSIVE StRAtEGy.12 Give Supply Rights 1. but not always.1.» JUSt CAUSE: Just Cause is how the world views the whole Crisis. If you pass it.9 Offer Peace Treaty 1. with the potential of achieving Dominance in the Crisis. a new message in red will be in your Message Log. Diplomatic Action. and the nations of Europe could have mobilized their armies to stop the German menace! » Keep or get Just Cause and make the other side pay. 1. meaning that their side has more Dominance than the other (the Crisis did not get out of control because of their side). which means you should expect a massive loss of Prestige! outcome of a Crisis So in the end. This would mean you end up with a lot of extra Prestige (after all. Usually. Had luck gone the other way.4 Alliance 1.11 Declaration of War 1. Crisis Resolution Once you have made your plan for a Crisis. this is not a fixed amount but a percentage of your total Prestige. ExAMPLE: Imagine that powerful Great Britain argues about an issue with Mexico (an Organized Minor). while a -3 Dominance means the Target has 3 points of Dominance. then the Target has so masterfully humiliated the Initiator that the Crisis ends and the Target receives the lion’s share from the Prestige Stash. 1. Other nations will view a Crisis based on who seems to be right or wrong in the ongoing debate and struggle for influence. ExAMPLE: An historical example of this is the role played by the United States in ending the Russo-Japanese War.1. Germany may have lost Control of the situation. but is simply the measure of the supremacy one country has over the other. and if there were side effects to the Crisis occurring. but to humiliate France and gain Prestige.7 Propose State Visit 1. Just Cause is usually given to the target of the Crisis (in opposition to the Initiator). but then Mexico happens to keep Just Cause and gains an advantage in Dominance. and potential objectives? You can decide to be very aggressive. which is not good for a mediating nation as it raises international tension. it went bad and you are seen by the rest of the world as the one who lost Control! In such an event. which would mean that one side is humiliated.8 Ask for State Loan 1. In historical terms.14 Reject an action (Alliance. You will see if the Initiator of the Crisis gets the Stake.3 Give Passage Rights 1.1. You’ll also see who got Prestige from handling the Crisis and who was forced to back down. as you’ll have to commit much less Prestige to the Crisis. it can mean several hundred Prestige points lost by Great Britain that are transferred to Mexico. meaning they require the consent or participation of other nations to take place. 62 . from the international humiliation of your nation to a DOW on the other party without a CB.10 Ask for Mutual Supply Agreement uNILATErAL dIpLOmATIC ACTIONs These actions do not require the consent or cooperation of other nations.1.1. In the end. Mediators Mediators get Prestige if they prevent the Crisis from getting Out of Control and if no nation attains a Dominance of +3.1. but with the potential of gaining Dominance in the Crisis. it would just have been another example of great powers prevailing over smaller nations. Just Cause can be lost to the benefit of the other side through the clever use of some Agendas. For instance. Or perhaps you insulted the other side’s envoys.13 Give Passage Rights 1. the Mexican Golden Eagle has twisted the tail of the British Lion for the entire world to see! Had the results been reversed and Great Britain won. Of the Intensity rating.1.1 Offer Defensive Treaty 1. 80% is known when you plan your Agendas and up to 20% is completely random. what are your means. or threatened to go to war and ordered your nation to mobilize but the other side did not back down. The window will list what has happened during the rounds of debate that ensued. ExAMPLE: A +3 Dominance means the Initiator has 3 points of Dominance.6 Ask for Passage Rights 1.

1.20 1. Irregular/Light units receive Moderate Combat Bonus (Atk) when Ambushing. regardless of actual terrain Cost of movement is 50% of the cost of clear terrain ELEMENt: These are the building blocks of » » » » » » NM: National Morale. StACk: See “Force. or 4 units or less. AIDE DE CAMP: A non-Army commander in an Army Stack that has a Strategic Rating of 5+.16 Promise Local Support End a State Loan CrIsIs COmmANds ANd OpTIONs 1. Leaders are a special kind of unit. Friendly Forces attacking across a river (major or minor) do not incur a penalty if the region has a level of friendly military control greater than 10% Shortcut keys and Commands zOOmINg MoUSE WHEEL: Zoom in/Zoom out CLICk oN MoUSE WHEEL: Alternate between DRAG AND DRoP oN ANotHER REGIoN: Move DRAG AND DRoP oN SAME REGIoN: Cancel move DRAG AND DRoP oN ANotHER FoRCE: Either intercept an enemy or merge with a friendly Force maximum and minimum DRAG AND DRoP oN CIty. You issue orders to Forces. INDEPENDENt FoRCE: Any Stack or unit that is not part of a Corps within an Army. the value of your Great Power’s colonial influence in a region. or 13+ units.17 Delay 1. Irregular/Light units receive Slight Combat Bonus (Atk).1. Other Effects Notes terrain Summary for Land Units Terrain type Roads Major Roads Clear Woods Forest Marshes Wilderness Mountain Major River/ Lake Minor River Ferry/Bridge Shallow Water Coastal Water Ocean Transit Link Slight Penalty Moderate Penalty Severe Penalty Severe Penalty Severe Penalty Severe Penalty Moderate Penalty Moderate Penalty Moderate Penalty Impassable Impassable Travel To and From requires 1 full Turn Atk: None Def: Slight Bonus Atk: None Def: Moderate Bonus Atk: None Def: Moderate Bonus Atk: Severe Penalty Def: None Atk: Severe Penalty Def: None Atk: None Def: Major Bonus Atk: None Def: Minor Bonus Atk: None Def: Minor Bonus Negated if Frozen May freeze during Winter Hide Bonus Hide Bonus Hide Bonus Limited Foraging May freeze during Winter See Note 1 See Note 2 See Note 3 See Note 4 See Note 4 See Note 4 Combat Effects (Atk/Def) Foraging Bonus Notes: 1.1.24 Propose International Congress Silver Tongue Pressure Supporters Call Press Conference Conciliation Contest on Legal Points AppENdICEs » Glossary and Abbreviations » » » » units. PoRt: Enter the structure DRAG AND DRoP oN A tAB: Merge with this Force DEL: Cancel the last leg of an Army or Fleet’s movement path C: Center map on selected Stack [SHIFt] When an Army Stack is selected: see the Army Command Zoom levels END: Alternate between maximum and minimum Zoom levels PAGE UP: Zoom in PAGE DoWN: Zoom out mANIpuLATINg sTACks LEFt-CLICk: Select a Stack RIGHt-CLICk: Deselect (and returns to message display) [CtRL]+CLICk: Cycle through the various region stacks Radius [SHIFt] When a non-Army Stack is selected: see the nearby regions and nature of the links 63 .22 1.1.1. FoRCE: A generic term describing a collection of land or naval unit(s) moving and fighting together.23 1.1. a measure of your side’s will to fight. CMDP: Command Point (CP from AACW and other Paradox France . Irregular/Light units receive Moderate Combat Bonus (Atk) when Ambushing 3.1. » LARGE FoRCE: Consists of 13+ CmdPs’ worth of units.15 1.21 1.1.” UNIt: The smallest Force you can manipulate in the game.1.1. Effect on Movement/Supply Treat as clear terrain. SUPPLy: Both General Supply and Ammunition. They have their own attributes but cannot be manipulated. PP: Prestige Point. CP: Colonial Penetration.1.19 1.AGEOD games). receive Major Combat Bonus when Ambushing 2. » SMALL FoRCE: Consists of 4 or less CmdPs’ worth of units.18 Debate 1. increased movement penalties for wheeled and mounted units 4.

decreases Population Satisfaction. increases native anger and CP) Military Expedition—Pacify Military Expedition—Retaliate Military Outpost Gunboat Diplomacy Naval Demonstration Local Chief—Bribe Local Chief—Treaty Local Chief—Cede Territory (May cause native uprising. +PRES) Geographic Society Expedition (Increases CP. Long duration transfer of Money to province) (Increases CP and increases road network) (Increases CP and increases province development) (Increases CP) (Increases CP and increases province development) (Increases CP and increases province development) (Increase in CP. increase to CP in all nearby provinces over time) (If conditions met) (If conditions met) (If conditions met) (If conditions met) (Can be used to start a Crisis. may find new resources. reduces native anger) Cost: 1 Diplomat (Increases CP. P: Change the Stack to the corresponding posture OpErATIONAL OrdErs (IF AppLICABLE) SHIFt+t: Enter Town upon reaching destination SHIFt+F: Build Fort SHIFt+D: Build depot SHIFt+S: sortie from structure SHIFt+M: Forced march SHIFt+A: Set an Ambush SHIFt+R: raze Fort SHIFt+B: Burn Structure (land units) SHIFt+B: Bombard (naval units) [CtRL]+C: When several units are selected. D. Capitol Province only) (Disorganized Nation. increase to native anger and in CP) (Increases CP) (Increases CP but requires ships next to region) (Increases CP) (Increases CP. +PRES) Archaeological Expedition Prospecting (Increases CP. Short duration transfer of Money to province) (Increases CP. may result in +PRES and increases CP) (Increases CP. o. Offer/Demand Free Nation) specific message window MoUSE WHEEL SCRoLL: To scroll up and down the Message Log WINdOWs: ESC: Close the window sAvEd gAmEs: When you move the mouse over a saved game on the Load Game screen. rename it (Insert key) or delete it (Delete key). for example. increase in relations of Region] Offer Defensive Treaty Cancel Defensive Treaty Declare War War Full War Offer Peace Reject Peace Offer Peace Treaty Ask State Loan State Loan in Effect Repeal State Loan Give Supply Right Cancel Supply Right Supply Right Received Cancel Received Supply Right Propose Mutual Supply Cancel Mutual Supply (Peace Offer Accepted) (Grant of Money from one GP to another. This is used for disembarking on a coastal region without a friendly Port. only available if nearby province changes in status) (Disorganized Nation. COLONIzATION COmmANds Explorer Party Naturalist Society Expedition (Explore an unknown region. increase to native anger and in CP) (May cause organized uprising. Simultaneously press [Ctrl] to skip stationary units S (SENtRy): Selected Force will be skipped when cycling with E/R/T/Y keys [CtRL]+S: Remove all “sentry” orders [CtRL]+ L: Lock/unlock all Stacks (prevents a Stack dropped onto another Stack from merging) RIGHt-CLICk oN A tAB: Lock/unlock this Stack tAB: Switch Map Filter F1: National Summary F2: Force List F3: Military Production F4: Commerce/Economic F5: Transactions List F6: Census and Social F7: Technology F8: Colonies F9: Diplomacy F10: Objectives Military Expedition—Prosecute (Requires friendly units in province. may reduce or increase native anger) Cost: 1 Money (Increases CP each turn) (Increases CP. drop in Money (No terms. may anger natives. A. Simultaneously press [Ctrl] to skip stationary units t/y: Cycle through naval Forces. may anger natives. Capitol Province only) Send Missionary Colonial Merchants Trade Post Improve Road Net Improve Telegraph Net School Vaccination Campaign Sanitation Campaign Immigrants to Colony Create Colonial Society IN ThE uNIT pANEL: CtRL-CLICk: Select/deselect multiple units MoUSE WHEEL SCRoLL: Cycle through the list of units SELECt UNIt(S) tHEN DRAG AND DRoP oN tHE MAP: Create a new Army/Fleet. increase in POP in capital region of colony) (Targets own capitol. combine them. [CtRL]+D: Detach the unit if it consists of several units. boost in Money for receiver.E/R: Cycle through land Forces. obligates to defend. Offer/Demand Reparations. will anger natives. +PRES) (Increases CP and may find new resources) 64 . Money and Prestige per turn to giver) (Ends state loan) (Offer use of your Supply sources) (Ends Supply Right) (Receiver has Supply Right) (Ends Received Supply Right) (Both sides allow for Supply Right) (Cancel Supply Right) Variable Cost (Diplomat) to offeror. increase in relations if accepted (Small cost in relations) (Massive cost in relations) (Allows for mobilization) (Allows for mobilization. Offer/Demand Colony. you can either back up one turn (Home). reduces native anger) Cost: 1 Money (Increases CP. increase in relations for issuer) Money per turn to receiver. mEssAgE LOg: SINGLE-CLICk: Go to region where event occurred (if relevant) DoUBLE-CLICk: Display message content (if message is red) and opens Declare Protectorate Declare Formal Colony Declare Dominion Declare Vassal Declare Stake Take over Customs Rail Concessions dIpLOmACy Propose State Visit State Visit State Visit (Lasting Effect) Improves Relations Improves Relations Improves Relations Promise Local Support [Name Variable cost to offeror (Diplomat).

Examples include non-food commercial goods (toys. W Ni. Airship (Zeppelin) Air Unit. P. P/S Cf. P Sl. also called Manufactured Goods. P/S Output $ Co Rb Ir Mn Nt Fr Sg Ca Fi Tb Ct Wo G. Dy. 4. P/S Ol. Wo. S= Servile. barbed wire. W Rb. as well as single-engine and multiengine aircraft. P/S Te. Heavy Artillery. Bomber Air Recon Air Recon Light Vehicle Heavy Vehicle Heavy Vehicle Air Unit. ST. National Production and Raw Materials (lower case abbv. P/S Wl. MI.). Heavy. engines for autos and aircraft. telephones. ST. W Wl/Ct. hand tools. 2. W Fr. P/S Fr. P=Peasant. W= Worker. whereas Serviles are more focused on unskilled agricultural labor. P/S Ge. P/S Mn. is inclusive of all non-mechanical and non-electric goods of the era. MI. firearms. P/S Rb. Includes all forms of aircraft—blimps. 3. Guard Artillery. Recon Plane (alt. Field Artillery. which includes massive hydroelectric generators. Sl. Recon Plane Air Unit. Electrical Items includes all sizes of industrially produced electrical items. Early Strategic Bomber Air Unit. W G/Ge. 5. Early Naval Plane Air Unit. even at the drilling level. Early Fighter Service Air Strat. W MG. GD. GD. Dy. symbol) Armored Car Armored Unit Armored Unit (Early Tank) Level Bomber Naval Plane Air Strat. Includes all forms of mechanical production. but does not include textiles or advanced industrial equipment. Bomber Service Air Fighter Air Unit None Regiment Army Group (Front) Battalion Army Company Corps uNIT TypE / rEpLACEmENT ChIT: Unit Symbol Unit Type Admiral (one to three anchor symbols) Replacement Chit None 65 . P/S Ri. Artillery. ship engines. W EI. W EI. LX. etc. Peasants are the most able to handle the complexity of oil drilling. W CH. includes third-party intervention) (Prolong the Crisis) (Prolong the Crisis and gain/lose Dominance) (Both an attempt at resolution and increase Dominance) (Attempt to convince others on your side) (Attempt to use coercion to get others on your side) (Can be used to win (or lose) Dominance) (Attempt to resolve the Crisis) (Attempt to prolong the Crisis) NAto Symbols Below is a general description of some of the icons you might encounter when viewing cities on the map. ST. etc. W ST. Coastal 1. W Ni. small electrical engines. W ST SP AM GD WI TX CH EI MI LX AU AC Artillery. Goods (GD). P/S Sg. P/S G. $ Ce Ri Dy Ol Sl Op Ge Te Wl Cf Air Unit. P/S Ir. P/S Ct. as well as household electrical appliances. Fortress Artillery. Early Level Bomber Air Unit. P/S Nt. P/S Fi. machine parts. uNIT sIzE: Section or Squad Brigade Platoon Division kEy: /= either/or. Horse Heavy Artillery Medium Artillery Heavy Artillery Medium Artillery Heavy Artillery Heavy Artillery Light Artillery Armored Train Armored Train Population Coal Resource Rubber Farm Iron Mine Mineral Mine Nitrates Mine Fruit Farm Sugar Mill Cattle Ranch Fishing Harbor Tobacco Plantation Cotton Plantation Lumber Mill Gold Mine Cereals Farm Rice Paddy Dyes Plantation Oil Well Silk Plantation Opium Farm Gems Mine Tea Plantation Sheep Farm Coffee Plantation Raw Materials Taxes Co. Ir. Support (Airfield) Air Unit. P/S Ca. Coastline Tb. replacement parts. nails. Oil production is highly complex. Examples include machine tools. Guard Artillery. zeppelins. P/S Ce. Balloons Air Unit. Ce. P/S Dy.) Requirements Money ($) Coal (Co) Rubber (Rb) Iron (Ir) Minerals (Mn) Nitrates (Nt) Fruits (Fr) Sugar (Sg) Cattle (Ca) Fish (Fi) Tobacco (Tb) Cotton (Ct) Wood (Wo) Gold (G) Cereals (Ce) Rice (Ri) Dyes (Dy) Oil (Ol)1 Silk (Sl) Opium (Op) Gems (Ge) Tea (Te) Wool (Wl) Coffee (Cf) Produced Materials Steel (ST) Supply (SP) Ammo (AM) Goods (GD)2 Wines (WI) Textiles (TX) Chemicals (CH) Electrical Items (EI)3 Mechanical Items (MI)4 Luxury Items (LX) Automobiles (AU) Aircraft (AC)5 Steel Factory Supply Factory Ammo Plant MG Factory Winery Textile Mill Chemical Plant Electric Factory Mech Factory Luxury Factory Auto Factory Aircraft Plant Co. P/S Wo.CrIsIs ACTIONs Crisis Initiator Crisis Target Delay Debate Propose Congress Silver Tongue Pressure Support Call Press Conference Conciliation Contest on Legal Points (The GP who starts a Crisis) (Nation who responds. P/S Op. This list is not intended to be comprehensive but to provide a general idea. dirigibles.

Light Infantry. Light Steel Warship (CA. Mounted Infantry. CL) Naval Unit. Elite Cavalry. BC) Naval Unit. Insurrection.Unit Symbol Unit Type Artillery. Sailors Infantry. Fortress Infantry. Guard Infantry. 66 . Guard Cavalry. some symbols used are not NATO. Heavy Steel Warship (BB. River Transport Naval Unit. symbol) Infantry Infantry. Steamer Transport Naval Unit. Siege Cavalry Cavalry. Horse. Volunteer Replacement Chit Light Artillery Light Artillery Medium Artillery Heavy Artillery Cavalry Cavalry Cavalry Cavalry Cavalry Cavalry Engineer Engineer None Goods HQ Army HQ Army Line Infantry Service Elite Infantry Line Infantry Elite Infantry Light Infantry Elite Infantry Line Infantry Elite Infantry Line Infantry Elite Infantry Line Infantry Militia Unit Symbol Unit Type Irregular Medical Military Advisors Militia (Unorganized) Militia (Organized) Military Police Field Military Police Naval Unit. Submarine Naval Unit. A list is provided in the Pride of Nations’ section on the Paradox Forum. Hover the cursor over a Special Ability’s icon to display a tooltip with useful information. and Striker Supply Replacement Chit Raider Service Service Militia Militia Militia Line Infantry Carrier Ship Transport Ship Light Coastal Ship Heavy Warship Light Warship Transport Ship Transport Ship Light Warship Light Warship Supply Raider Engineer Service Light Infantry Light Artillery Service Militia Supply P. Light Artillery. Light Engineer Engineer. Torpedo Boat Naval Unit. Heavy. Cycle Infantry. Heavy Cavalry. Special Ability Icon Definition There are over 500 special abilities. Guard General (one to three star symbols) Goods Headquarters Headquarters (alt. Marines Infantry. Mountain Artillery. Fluvial Destroyer. Assault Infantry. Motorized Infantry. Kulaks. Flotilla Naval Unit.: Strictly speaking. Early Carrier Naval Unit. Mountain Infantry. Guard Artillery.S. Gunboat. Heavy. and Monitor Naval Unit. Elite Infantry. Transport Partisans Pioneers Political Commissars Skirmishers Machine Gun Signals Company Workers. Guard Cavalry.

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