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Masaryk University Faculty of Arts

Department of English and American Studies
English Language and Literature

Mgr. Jarmila Dezortová

Phrasal Verbs and Their Translations into Czech
(A corpus-based study)

Master‟s Diploma Thesis

Supervisor: Mgr. Renata Kamenická, Ph. D.

2010

I declare that I have worked on this thesis independently, using only the primary and secondary sources listed in the bibliography. …………………………………………….. Author‟s signature

Acknowledgement I would like to thank my supervisor , Mgr. Renata Kamenická, Ph.D., for her kind help, valuable advice and encouragement.

............................ 27 Velký anglicko-český slovník (LEDA 2006) by Josef Fronek (Comprehensive English-Czech Dictionary) ...........................................2............ 38 Oxford Corpus of the English Language ..............................2 1............................. 5 1.................................................. 13 3....................................................................................................4 2................. 20 Dictionaries ...................................... 30 Web MetaTrans – Multilingual Meta-Translator.............. 34 Types of Corpora ................... 15 Intransitive Phrasal Verbs ................................. 26 Oxford Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs ........................... 24 Monolingual Dictionaries ................ 15 Phrasal Verbs which are Both Transitive and Intransitive ......................................................................................... 3 1........................................ 39 ....................................................................................................... 27 Lexicon 5 Platinum .................... Prepositions and Adverb-Preposition Words 7 Phrasal Verbs and Their Meanings .............2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 2...2 2.........................3 What is a Corpus? ................................................................................. 5 Characteristic Features of Phrasal Verbs .................................................1 1........................................................1 3........ 18 Frequent Phrasal Verbs .........................................................................................................................3 2..................................................... 32 4.1 2....................................... Phrasal Verbs in English ...........................................................................2 Definitions ................................................................Table of Contents Introduction ...............1 4...................................................................... 34 4.................................................................................. 17 Phrasal Verbs and Style .............................................................................................................. 8 Categories of Phrasal Verbs ....... 24 Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus ......2....5 3................... 38 World English Corpus ............................................................. 16 The Position of the Object in Separable Phrasal Verbs ...................... 35 Corpora Projects ........................... Dictionaries Suitable for Research of Phrasal Verbs ..........1 2................4 2..... Electronic Tools ...... 15 Transitive Phrasal Verbs ........................ 29 Anglicko-český slovník frázových sloves (Lukáš Vodička) ... 13 The Syntactic Behaviour of Phrasal Verbs ........................................................................ Categories of Phrasal Verbs and Their Influence on Syntax ............................3 1...................... 26 2................. 6 Defining Vocabulary–Adverbs..........3 Bilingual Dictionaries .................................................2 4.............3 2........................... 27 3.......................

....... 45 CARRY OUT .......................................... 78 Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................8 5.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 5...................................................................................................... 1 RESUMÉ ...................................................................................................................... 45 Hypotheses .......................................................................................... 45 The Method of Research ...... 81 RESUME .........................4 5...............3 5.......................... 40 Kacenka .......................................................................................................................................................................... 42 Kacenka 2 ... 51 GO ON ......... Practical Part .............. 4 2 ............................... 47 GO BACK.........................................................................................................6 5.............................................................. 62 SET UP .................................................... 2 APPENDICES ..............................................1 5....................................................................................... 43 Other Corpora .......................................................................10 Introduction ............ 56 PICK UP .. 44 5..............................The Czech National Corpus ............... 68 Data Analysis and Conclusions ..................................................................7 5................................................................................................................................................................................................5 5............................................................ 40 The InterCorp Corpus ............2 5.............................................................................................................9 5..................................................... 74 Practical Tips for Translating Phrasal Verbs ......................................................................................................... 76 Conclusion ..............................................................

g. dictionaries and corpora. This is followed by definitions of other related terms which are important for this thesis. The subchapter Phrasal Verbs and Their Meanings explains how phrasal verbs are created. The aim of the present thesis is to introduce the concept of phrasal verbs and examine and assess the suitability of available tools for investigating English phrasal verbs and their translations into Czech. As long as the meaning of the phrasal verb in a sentence is literal they are not considered a problem. The subchapter Frequent Phrasal Verbs is concerned with research on phrasal verbs and their frequency in English and in 1 English as a foreign language 3 .Introduction Phrasal verbs are generally considered one of the areas of the English language which is very hard for non-native speakers to master. It mentions the role of particles in phrasal verbs and how awareness of particle meanings can help EFL1 speakers understand phrasal verbs. The theoretical part is the basis for research in the practical part. e. speakers of English as a foreign language often need assistance with finding the right translations or at least with discovering the meaning of the phrasal verbs in the given context. the differences between particles and prepositions are explained. The thesis is divided into two parts: theoretical and practical. Style and syntax are also taken into account. The theoretical part consists of four chapters. Its aim is to provide information on phrasal verbs. when it comes to their idiomatic and non-literal meanings. However. The first chapter concludes with two subchapters which deal with semantics of phrasal verbs. In the first chapter the term phrasal verb is defined and characteristic features are listed. The syntactic part focuses on the position of the object in separable phrasal verbs. In the second chapter phrasal verbs are divided into categories which are described.

Dictionaries and corpora are used to analyse how some phrasal verbs are translated into Czech. The theoretical part of the thesis serves as a basis for the practical part. It introduces the term corpus and describes important corpora projects. Kacenka and Kacenka 2). The research is carried out using five most frequent phrasal verbs chosen according to a paper published by Gardner and Davies (carry out. In the third chapter differences between monolingual and bilingual dictionaries are dealt with and dictionaries which are available for Czech speakers and can be used for looking up phrasal verbs are described. pick up. The outcome of this research should serve as a source of inspiration for translators from English into Czech and for readers interested in the multitude of potential translations. The translations of the first five most frequent phrasal verbs are then examined in the practical part of this thesis. Translations of these phrasal verbs into Czech were looked up in dictionaries and then compared with translations retrieved from parallel corpora (InterCorp. set up).the English language of EU documents. 4 . These dictionaries are then used in the practical part of the thesis. go back. The last chapter in the theoretical part deals with corpora. go on.

pdf 5 . Both Alexander and Povey state that the term phrasal verb is nowadays used to cover all three categories: phrasal verbs (combining with an adverbial particle e. According to Alexander. put up with).g.g. Greenbaum (1974: 629) defines a phrasal verb as “a multi-word verb in which a verb is combined with an adverb to form an idiomatic unit”. or sometimes both. “one of the most common characteristics of the English verb is that it can combine with prepositions and adverb particles”. unit”.“ Alexander describes a phrasal verb as “any commonly used combination of verb + preposition or verb + adverb particle”.3 define phrasal verbs as “verbs plus one or more particles that behave as a syntactic and semantic.g.1 Definitions According to Alexander (1988: 152). 2 Kraus (2002: 27): „Frázovými slovesy nazýváme slovesa spojená s příslovečnou částicí. come.aaai. which constitutes a single semantic and syntactic unit”. In his Phrasal Verb Organiser Flower (2002: 7) gives a simple definition of phrasal verbs aimed at EFL learners: “A phrasal verb is a verb plus one or two particles. Thus this category of English verbs is worth investigating. in off. Povey (1990: 5) defines the term phrasal verb as “a combination of an ordinary (one-word) verb (e. go off). Phrasal Verbs in English 1. Kraus (2002: 27) defines phrasal verbs as verbs combined with adverbial particles only (not with prepositions)2. come across) and phrasal prepositional verbs (combining with both e.g. up). Dempsey et al. předloţka nikoliv. and often idiomatic. give.“ 3 http://www.1.g. ţe příslovečná částice můţe mít dvoje postavení.org/Papers/FLAIRS/2007/Flairs07-044. put) and an adverbial or prepositional particle (e. prepositional verbs (combining with a prepositional particle e. these verbs are called phrasal verbs. Od sloves spojených s předloţkami se liší tím.

merged verbs. to make up = to invent) Sroka (1972: 13) also mentions several alternative terms used for the category of phrasal verbs.g. the term phrasal verb prevails and many of Sroka‟s terms are not applicable anymore. Occasionally. group-verbs. separable verbs. verb-adverb locution.g. there are certain features that are common to all phrasal verbs. 1. Alexander. For this reason the term phrasal verbs is used throughout this thesis. the term phrasal verb is used in two senses: in the broad sense – verb-combinations with adverbial particles or prepositions in the narrow sense – verb-combinations with adverbial particles only Further on. verb-adverb combination. the terms compound verbs and groupverbs are encountered. to make up – apply cosmetics) 6 . 1. then states 3 types of combinations (1988: 152): essential combinations – e. phrasal verbs. Replaceability by a one-word verb – this criterion is used to include verbs in the category of phrasal verbs as not all phrasal verbs have their one-word synonym (e. poly-word verbs. listen to non-essential combinations – not essential but reinforce the meaning of the verbs (e.g.g.2 Characteristic Features of Phrasal Verbs This chapter attempts to sum up the characteristic features of phrasal verbs as outlined in the book Phrasal Verbs and How to Use Them. According to Povey (1990: 8–11). separable compounds. Currently. These include: compound verbs.To sum up. to drink up) idiomatic combinations – the primary meaning of a verb completely changes and a new verb is formed (e. who defines phrasal verbs in the broad sense.

Rita looked after the children. John called up the man. upon.) 6.g. of. Adverbial particle (unlike an ordinary adverb) in phrasal verbs can usually stand before a noun object (e. 1.) The criteria suggested by Povey show that it is very difficult to distinguish between phrasal verbs on the one hand and verbs with adverbs or prepositions on the other.) 4. Call up the secretary. out Prepositions: at. Increased transport costs will put up prices. Questions formed from phrasal verbs have the pronominal form (who (m) or what and not an adverbial form (e.g. g. This fact distinguishes phrasal verbs from one-word verbs with prepositional phrases (e. back. for. from. with 7 .g.3 Defining Vocabulary – Adverbs. . Sroka (1972: 37) in his work The Syntax of English Phrasal Verbs uses the following three distributional classes of particles for his research: Adverbs: away.g. where). Stress is a criterion that differentiates between adverbial particles and prepositions. forward. Idiomaticity – this criterion does not apply to all combinations because not all phrasal verbs are idiomatic (e. or Call the secretary up.) 3.2. Prepositions and Adverb-Preposition Words This section deals with the difference between adverbs and prepositions. (The differences between adverbial particles and prepositions are explained in the following subchapter. Passivization – or the possibility of passive formation is characteristic of transitive phrasal verbs (e. X John called from the office. Who (m) did John call up? X Where did John call from?) 5. into.The children were looked after. forth.

” (Alexander 1988: 123) According to Quirk et al.g. up According to Alexander (1988: 122). “Certain words. by telling us how. function either as prepositions or as adverb particles. in which one thing is described in terms normally associated with something else” (Anderson. thing. where. pronouns or gerund to express a relationship between one person. Prepositions always have an object. such as in. The prepositional phrase looked at the girl can be regarded as adverbial. event. She sent him away. over. He analyses the example sentence He looked at the girl. etc.e. in. etc. through. they function as prepositions. Corbett 2009: 196). 8 . up. off. but equally valid and complementary ways of looking at the same structure. off. something happens or is done e. by. “The two analyses can be regarded as different. or the sentence can be divided into a phrasal verb looked at and prepositional object the girl. 1974: 818).” (Quirk et al. 1. under. a sentence with a verb with a prepositional phrase can be analyzed in two different ways. along. when there is no object. The fact that phrasal verbs are metaphorical can help translators understand a phrasal verb without knowing the exact translation into Czech. they are adverbial particles: preposition: The children are in the house. around.Adverb-Preposition words: about. round. Metaphorical means “non-literal language use. and another” (Alexander 1988: 144). to. across. adverb: The children have just gone in. “the word adverb (ad-verb) suggests the idea of adding to the meaning of a verb.4 Phrasal Verbs and Their Meanings In her article Metaphor and Phrasal Verbs Moon claims that “many phrasal verbs are metaphorical” (2005: LS5). When such words are followed by an object. (1974: 818). past.” They specify the action in a sentence by modifying a verb i. Prepositions are used “in front of nouns or noun phrases. when. down. on.

or thing) 3. especially something boring or difficult) BACK 1. 220. 290. making someone or something move (make someone or something move farther from a person. 126. continuous action (do something continuously or with a lot of effort. 12. A more detailed review with examples is provided in the dictionary. or without having a clear purpose) 3. move (move in many directions) 2. 284. 486) 9 . 296. returning (return to a place or position) 2. spending time (spend time doing nothing. surrounding (surround someone or something) 5. treating badly (treat someone who has less authority in an unkind way) AWAY 1. 300. place. moving backwards (move away from the front) 3. preventing (prevent someone from moving forwards) 4 Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus (2005: 8. avoiding (avoid a problem or subject) 6.The following list provides a simple overview of the most common particles and the meanings they have in phrasal verbs. including their metaphorical meanings based on Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus4. turning (turn to face the opposite direction) 4. moving (move farther from a person. or thing) 2. Particles and their meanings AROUND 1. 464. 16. place. 226.

preventing. a container etc) 3. preventing from leaving (prevent someone from leaving a room. finishing. train. or start doing something) 4. not outside it) 4. inside. in order to keep it private. putting something into a space (put something into a space. starting (start happening. moving inwards (move inwards towards a certain point) INTO 1. keeping away (separate something from someone or something else. removing (remove or get rid of something) 3. stop people entering it etc) 6. a building etc) 2. a building etc) 5. stopping (finish or complete something) 5. placing something on a surface (set something on a surface) IN 1. getting out (get out of a bus. or let someone do this) 10 . or through a surface) 3. not outside (inside a building or other place. entering (enter a room. hitting (hit someone or something that you are moving towards) OFF 1.DOWN 1. keeping inside. plane etc. moving downwards to a lower position (move to a lower place or position) 2. inserting (put someone inside a room or container. entering a place or space (enter a room. or let someone do this) 2. a building etc. leaving (go away: leave a place or position) 2.

especially for pleasure. continuing (continue to move forward) OUT 1. distribute something) OVER 1. or move into this position 2. starting (start. away from your home. especially so that nothing is left) 3. leaving (leave a place or space) 2. preventing (prevent someone from entering) 4. touching (be supported by the surface of something. moving beyond (flow over the edge and out of a container) 3. or make something start or happen) 3. direction. container etc. moving across (move across an area from one side to the other) 2. or make something fall) 4. not inside your house or a building) 5. outside. moving outwards (move out from the centre in all directions. not inside (not involving people from ininside an organization. give or send things from a central point. THROUGH 1. falling (fall. changing (change to a different position. remove things. activity etc.ON 1. removing (remove something from a room. passing from one side to the other (pass from one side or end of somehing to the other) 11 .

or do something completely) 3. fastening. exist or appear (start happening or existing. moving closer to someone or something (move closer in time or space to someone or something) 12 . or restricting (fasten. cover. block. appear unexpectedly) 5. or restrict someone or something) 4. preventing. moving upwards (move to a higher place. beginning to happen. or make someone or something do this) 2.UP 1. doing something completely (finish something.

I (S) am eating (V).2. TAPO7: John has given up smoking. He looked the word up in the dictionary. The alarm clock went off at 7 o‟clock.) (Greenbaum 1990: 63). I wish you‟d give it up. 5 6 IA – intransitive pattern with an adverbial particle: e. I wish you‟d give up smoking. 13 . Has given it up.g.g. looked the word up. Transitive verbs are verbs that do not have a complement. x I (S) am eating my lunch (O). Categories of Phrasal Verbs and Their Influence on Syntax 2. When a verb has a direct object. phrasal verbs can be: transitive (followed by a noun or pronoun that is the object of the verbs) intransitive (with no object) both transitive and intransitive” (Potter 2005: LS3).g. 7 TAPO – the particle (p) always precedes the object (o). “Like other verbs. A more detailed distribution is provided by Povey (1990: 14) Intransitive with particle Transitive adverbial IA5: The alarm clock went off at TA6: John 7 o‟clock. looked up the word in the dictionary. TA – transitive pattern with an adverbial particle: e.1 Categories of Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs can be divided into categories which affect their syntactic behaviour. Some verbs can function either as transitive or intransitive (e. looked it up. He looked up the word in the dictionary. it is transitive.g. unless the latter is a pronoun: e.

across it put her off it.TAOP8: John got his point across very well. 10 TP – transitive pattern with a prepositional particle: e.g. 11 IAP – intransitive pattern with both an adverbial and a prepositional particle: e.g.g. take it out on them. take it out on the children. 14 . You shouldn‟t take your resentment out on children. She put up with the interruptions cheerfully. with and prepositional particle adverbial IAP11: TAP12: Mary put up with the You shouldn‟t interruptions cheerfully. 12 TAP – transitive pattern with both an adverbial and a prepositional particle: e. The instructor put my sister off driving. yesterday. with prepositional particle IP9: I came across an TP10: The instructor put my sister off interesting yesterday. The lecturer got his point across very well. Table 1 8 9 TAOP – the particle always follows the object: e. take your resentment out on the child. got it across. put her off swimming.g. I came expression swimming. IP – intransitive pattern with a prepositional particle: e.g. I came across that word in a newspaper. Mary put up with them cheerfully.

E. or after the particle. E. We have recorded a new album.1 Intransitive Phrasal Verbs Intransitive phrasal verbs do not have objects and always stay together.g.g. 2. (I could hardly tell apart the two women. it must go between the verb and the particle. The object is placed either between the verb and the particle. (You bring the car round and I‟ll load up it.) 2.2. This information is helpful when identifying phrasal verbs in corpora and is thus instrumental in the practical part of the thesis.2.2 The Syntactic Behaviour of Phrasal Verbs This chapter describes the division of phrasal verbs with regard to their syntactic behaviour. The syntactic behaviour differs following the categories the phrasal verbs are part of (Potter 2005: LS. The two women are so similar that only their husbands can tell them apart.) 15 .g.2. or a pronoun) must go between the verb and the particle. I‟ll load the car up while you lock the door. g. E. 2. You bring the car round and I„ll load it up. Just pack your bags and load up the car. and it‟s coming out in the spring. A group of phrasal verbs where the object (a noun. but I let it slip by. I had the chance to change jobs. E. a noun phrase.2 – LS4).2 Transitive Phrasal Verbs Within the group of transitive phrasal verbs four types of syntactic behaviour can be observed: 1. Separable phrasal verbs form the largest group of transitive phrasal verbs. If the object is a pronoun. I can hardly tell the two women apart.

I have decided to take you up on that job offer. The victim wasn‟t able to put up much resistance. When they are intransitive. E. depending on the context.. She played one boy off against another. or a pronoun) must go after the particle or particles. they behave as described in the section Transitive Phrasal Verbs. That guy at the garage did me out of ₤50. I bumped into her in the city centre. The last group includes three-word phrasal verbs with two objects. This group includes all prepositional and phrasal-prepositional verbs: E. A group of transitive phrasal verbs where the object (a noun. (The victim wasn‟t able to put up it. I‟m not very good at adding up in my head. E.3. If you add all that up.3 Phrasal Verbs which are Both Transitive and Intransitive In this category phrasal verbs behave according to whether they are transitive or intransitive.g. Now add up the number of calories you have eaten. One of the objects goes after the verb and the other after the particle or particles. it comes to about three million. E. 16 . On the contrary. they behave like other intransitive verbs. There is a small number of phrasal verbs in this category where the particle is an adverb.g. a noun phrase.2.g. I bumped into your mother at the supermarket. when they are transitive. but these verbs cannot have a pronoun as an object.g. E.g. 2.) 4.

if the object contains information already known (to the reader or listener) then the object is more likely to be placed between the verb and the particle.) Most transitive phrasal verbs can be used in the passive and some of them even require the passive form.g.) She slipped on some flat sandals and made her way downstairs. There is no difference in meaning or emphasis (Potter 2005: LS. regardless of the fact whether the object has already been mentioned.) An object consisting of more than three or four words usually goes after the particle. the object comes between the verb and the particle. E. Ann slipped the jacked on to see what it looked like.g. You can pick up the number and give me a call. This allows the speaker to put more emphasis on the new information. If the object provides us with new information it is more likely to come after the particle. when it is in the passive the verb and the particle must stay together.3 The Position of the Object in Separable Phrasal Verbs Generally. E. Even if the verb is normally separable.2. E. (The jacket has previously been mentioned. or after the particle.3). Officials are trying to pin down the cause of widespread power cuts in the western states. 17 . I‟ve cleaned the place up a bit. (NOT Officials are trying to pin the cause of widespread power cuts in the western states. The place had been cleaned up. the objects of most transitive verbs can go either between the verb and the particle. However. (Some flat sandals – the object has not been mentioned yet and therefore the object comes after the particle. He picked the phone up and dialled.g.

13 state that phrasal verbs have been identified as a potentially strong indicator of text genre. which lists 16 phrasal verbs: consist of. According to Fletcher (2005: LS14). including formal and technical”. leave out. and wake up. teachers and students of English have to decide when it is appropriate to use phrasal verbs.aaai. stick out. Text type Per million words academic prose 10 fiction 30 newspapers 30 conversation 25 Table 2: This table shows the approximate number of times the verb give up is used per million words of text (Fletcher 2005: LS13) In conclusion it can be said that although in some texts phrasal verbs cannot be encountered as often as in other types of texts. put down (put something on the floor etc). get up (= get out of bed). make up (= invent). It is often claimed that phrasal verbs are used in informal register. He provides the example of the verb give up. give up. This phrasal verb occurs in all the following types of texts.500 English words used for writing the dictionary definitions.pdf The Macmillan Defining Vocabulary is a list of the 2.4 Phrasal Verbs and Style Dempsey et al. put on (= get dressed). On the other hand. 18 . grow up. Fletcher states that phrasal verbs are encountered even in quite formal texts and are the most natural-sounding choice. it should not be maintained that formal texts do not include phrasal verbs at all. Fletcher (2005: LS13) expresses the opinion that apart from resolving meaning and grammar problems. He quotes the Macmillan Defining Vocabulary14. Fletcher (2005: LS14) claims that “these verbs are included in the Macmillan Defining Vocabulary because they are 13 14 http://www. deal with. look for.2. take off (= remove clothes). pick up.org/Papers/FLAIRS/2007/Flairs07-044. slow down. “there is a large number of phrasal verbs that native speakers use in all registers. happen to.

pdf 19 .g. They specifically predicted that phrasal verbs appear more often in spoken text than in written text. They expected that phrasal verbs “would distinguish text genres in terms of degree of formality and spokenness”. The results of their search show that “all categories of phrasal verb forms significantly distinguished spoken from written registers”. Their prediction was that “phrasal verbs frequency would be a sufficient marker to computationally discriminate between spoken and written texts”.15.the most usual and natural ways of expressing these ideas” and that most of their singleword equivalents are much less common than the phrasal verbs (e. all categories of phrasal verb forms also distinguished formal from informal registers and between spoken and written registers.org/Papers/FLAIRS/2007/Flairs07-044. put on – don).aaai. based on the fact that “phrasal verbs have been identified as a potentially strong indicator of text genre and that phrasal verbs are a lexical marker”. With the exception of 3rd person forms. 15 http://www. Another example is the research performed by Dempsey et al.

Davies 2007: 340). materials development and testing and for future studies. The purpose of their study was “to establish a logical rationale for narrowing the scope of phrasal verbs in English language training based on frequencies of actual occurrence in a large representative corpus of English – British National Corpus” (Gardner. Corpora are one of the most suitable tools for identifying the most frequent vocabulary and can provide the researcher with useful data for an analysis.5 Frequent Phrasal Verbs Identifying the frequency of certain vocabulary in English or any other language might have very interesting outcomes for speakers of a foreign language. The first of the two projects is a project aimed at researching phrasal verbs frequency in the British National Corpus by Dee Gardner and Mark Davies (2007). They aimed to provide data for English language teaching. PV Go on Carry out Set up Pick up Go back Come back Go out Point out Find out Come up Make up Take over Come out Come on Come in Senses PV 5 Carry on 2 Go up 15 16 4 5 6 3 4 12 8 8 11 5 5 Get out Take out Come down Put down Put up Turn up Get on Bring up Bring in Look back Look down Bring back Break down Senses PV 4 Put on 7 Bring out 7 14 5 7 8 5 7 8 5 2 5 2 8 Move on Turn back Put back Go round Break up Come along Sit up Turn round Get in Come round Make out Get off Turn down Senses PV 9 Move in 9 Look around 1 Take down 4 Put off 2 Come about 5 Go along 19 2 2 3 5 1 10 11 5 Look round Set about Turn off Give in Move out Come through Move back Break off Senses 3 1 4 5 1 3 0 3 3 2 2 4 1 5 Get through 5 20 . This chapter will introduce two projects that deal with the frequency of phrasal verbs and are corpus-based.2.

Go down Work out Set out Take up Get back Sit down Turn out 8 8 3 13 4 3 12 Take off Go off Bring about Go in Set off Put out Look out 9 6 5 1 7 10 2 Bring down 6 Come over 1 Break out 5 Go over Turn over Go through Hold on 4 9 5 5 2 2 5 7 Give out Come off Take in Give back Set down Move up Turn around 4 3 17 1 6 2 0 Take on 5 Take back 6 Pick out Give up 12 Hold up 7 Sit back Get up 8 Get down 7 Hold back Look up 1 Hold out 5 Put in Table 3: The top Phrasal Verbs in the BNC and their word senses: Note. Consulted Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs (Courtney. call. See turn round. PV = phrasal verb. bring. open) also function as phrasal verb constructions. 16 The Corpus of EU English (CEUE) 21 . She used the following texts and documents to build the corpus (CEUE16): nineteen information booklets (of about 20 pages on average) on different activities of the EU the annual general report on the activities of the EU in 2006 sample test material from recruitment competitions in all subject areas. From the results of her search (Trebits 2009: 476–477) the following should be mentioned: A learner of English will find one phrasal verb construction in approximately 200 words of text. See look around. WordNet = around. Anna Trebits (2009) analysed the most frequent phrasal verbs in English language EU documents. base. make. go.g. Total senses = 559. She aimed to find lexical verbs used in phrasal verb constructions. 11 out of the top 50 lexical verbs in her corpus (e. to determine the number of word-senses associated with the most frequent phrasal verbs and to present the pedagogical relevance of the findings. 1993). to identify the most frequent phrasal verbs.

Top 25 phrasal verbs in the CEUE set up set out base on carry out draw up focus on lay down put forward open up depend on make up report on find out call on move around take up follow up work on break down build on agree on bring about go on point out speed up Table 4 # Of word-senses in the CEUE 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 # Of word-senses in WordNet and LDPV17 15 3 1 2 5 1 2 4 7 3 9 1 4 1 2 13 2 2 8 1 1 2 5 3 2 The differences between the results are worth noting. Harlow. Pearson Education Limited. The top 10 phrasal verbs in her corpus account for over 50 per cent of all phrasal verb combinations while the top 25 phrasal verbs make up more than 60 per cent of all phrasal verbs in the EU corpus. 22 . 17 Longman Phrasal Verbs Dictionary.About half of the 25 most frequent phrasal verbs in her corpus are among the 20 most frequent lexical verbs forming phrasal verb combinations in the British National Corpus. Trebits (2009: 477) mentions. There were considerably fewer word-senses in her corpus than in WordNet and LDPV. 2000.

2 make arrangements for something to happen) and more than ten in general English”.among others. the phrasal verb set up which “has only two different meanings in the CEUE (1 start a business or organization. 23 .

or lexicon. 3. multilingual. Dictionaries Suitable for Research of Phrasal Verbs This section introduces dictionaries that are suitable for research of phrasal verbs. in most languages.74). and use. vocabulary. It begins with general information on dictionaries. and in larger dictionaries the information given is illustrated by quotations from literature. pronunciation.” “Dictionaries are reference books on the vocabulary. a word-book. 45 . the words are arranged in some stated order. As all three hypotheses in the practical part focus on dictionaries (see pp.” (Greenbaum 1990: 432). now. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the term dictionary as follows: “A book dealing with the individual words of a language (or certain specified classes of them). it is necessary to include detailed descriptions of the dictionaries used (both monolingual and bilingual). alphabetical.1 Dictionaries Dictionaries are important companions of translators in their everyday work. signification. bilingual. There are different types of dictionaries. derivation. monolingual for foreign learners 24 . so as to set forth their orthography. pictorial dictionary (usually limited to nouns and noun phrases) language: monolingual. and history. their synonyms. or at least some of these facts: for convenience of reference. According to Greenbaum (1990: 432) they differ in their size organization: they can be arranged alphabetically (from word to meaning) or semantically (from meaning to word).3. In this way the results of the research can be evaluated and suggestions for a more suitable structure of phrasal verb dictionaries provided.

other bilingual. For this reason several general dictionaries which are widely used were chosen to find out whether general dictionaries offer a comparable number of meanings to the meanings provided by monolingual dictionaries of phrasal verbs. Some of them are monolingual. One of the aims of this thesis is to compare and contrast dictionaries which can be used for looking up translations of phrasal verbs. To choose the right dictionary for their needs translators need to compare the dictionaries and consider their suitability for the given purpose. idioms. new words. Spelling 2.) Greenbaum (1990: 432–433) provides a list of types of information that is usually provided by the general dictionary: 1. pronunciation.specialization: general. Usage labels 7. specialized (slang. Textbooks and grammar books do not usually provide us with translations. some are general. Etymology Each year a number of new dictionaries are published by local or international publishers. others specialized etc. Parts of speech 5. others are very extensive. Inflections 4. law etc. but also in various other ways. some are in pocket editions. 25 . Pronunciation 3. It is necessary to mention that there is a considerable lack of bilingual English-Czech dictionaries specializing in phrasal verbs. They do not differ only in the languages they work with. Definitions 6.

This include: „red words‟ „Red words‟ in the dictionary signal the fact that according to the World English Corpus18 they belong among 1. description of their syntactic behaviour and guidance on register). „menus‟ If the word has five or more meanings. For the twelve most common particles special entries are provided to show how their meanings develop from the literal to the figurative.htm 26 .macmillandictionaries.000 most frequent phrasal verbs.g.com/corpus/corpus. It was chosen as a basis of this study as it is well organized and thus helps to structure the research. example sentences in this dictionary are taken from a corpus and thus they represent the real use of phrasal verbs 18 http://www. They are divided into three bands and the words with three stars belong to the 350 most frequent phrasal verbs. it also offers additional information. This helps EFL learners find out how important the phrasal verb is.2 Monolingual Dictionaries Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus (2005) is a monolingual dictionary of phrasal verbs published by Macmillan Education. special explanation of particles. „collocation boxes‟ Collocation boxes provide information about collocations. which helps the translator. explanation of meaning of phrasal verbs. which is common to most dictionaries (e. Oxford. Moreover. Apart from the basic information on phrasal verbs. a menu is provided so that users can find the meaning they are looking for more quickly.3.

every single Czech equivalent”. opposites and related verbs grammatical codes for each entry showing possible sentence patterns lists of typical collocates explanations of unusual features of grammar and usage This dictionary was chosen to provide further meanings for the given phrasal verbs. This is the description given by the dictionary (LEDA 2006): 19 http://www. Comprehensive English-Czech Dictionary) (LEDA) “aims to clearly show the whole range of English meanings and unambiguously define.3 Bilingual Dictionaries Velký anglicko-český slovník (LEDA 2006) by Josef Fronek (Comprehensive EnglishCzech Dictionary) The dictionary developed from its predecessors Anglicko-český slovník s nejnovějšími výrazy.000 references examples of use taken from a wide range of contemporary sources. many drawn from the new Oxford Corpus of the English Language19 synonyms. Oxford Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs Oxford Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs (1993) claims to contain: over 11. This dictionary was chosen for the study to provide a systematic list of meanings which serves as a basis for grouping of phrasal verbs. The electronic Velký anglicko-český slovník (LEDA 2006.com/page/oec 27 . Its target audience are not only Czechs.oxforddictionaries. 3. but also English native speakers.in English texts. as far as possible. For the research it is necessary to observe the structure of verb entries and entries with several meanings. LEDA 1996 and the Comprehensive Czech-English Dictionary (LEDA 2000).

computers) domácí … adv 1 doma … 2 [all the way] drive a nail h. hang [hæŋ] n … v (pt. pp hung [haŋ]) vt … vi … or around vi … vt … vi … hang behind vi … When a word has more than one sense (as a particular part of speech). Each individual subentry is introduced on a new line. byt c) find a h. zatlouct hřebík. b. for sth najít pro co místo 2 [country] domov. intransitive and phrasal. Phrasal verbs are included as the last of the three possible subsections of the respective verb (sub)entry. home 1 a) [C. …” 28 .“Verb entries are further subdivided potentially into transitive. Each phrasal verb is highlighted by a as an individual subentry on a new line. …etc in colour.U] [place where one lives] domov. When phrasal verbs are subdivided into vt and vi. místo výskytu. dům … b) [house] dům. domov … attr adj (cooking. domovina … 3 [institution] ústav. in some cases further subdivisions are marked by letters a. these are marked by colour. domov … 4 (of plants. the different senses are distinguished by bold Arabic numerals (in colour). animals) habitat.

The principal sources of this dictionary include several monolingual and bilingual dictionaries (see Appendix 1) and they allowed the author to list as many meanings as possible. 000 word meanings. and abbreviations. Oxford University Press. unfortunately. 000 entries. 000 translations into Czech. the corpus is not specified. 29 . Figure 1 – search of the phrasal verb carry out in Velký anglicko-český slovník (LEDA 2006) by Josef Fronek (Comprehensive English-Czech Dictionary) Lexicon 5 Platinum Lexicon 5 Platinum is an electronic bilingual dictionary. It includes collocations. 000 phrases and examples and 946. 356. Webster‟s etc. 188. illustrative sentences. Cassell. Lexicon 5 Platinum is a general dictionary but it also includes specialized vocabulary. The main assets of this dictionary are its scope and relevance. In total the dictionary includes: 220. WordNet and Roget‟s Thesaurus can be accessed directly from the electronic dictionary. It claims to have been put together with the help of a corpus of the English language but. Its data is based on monolingual English and American dictionaries published by Harpers‟ Collins. idioms.

Figure 2 – search of the phrasal verb carry out in Lexicon 5 Platinum Anglicko-český slovník frázových sloves (Lukáš Vodička) This dictionary was created to fill up the gap in Czech dictionaries (Vodička 2002: 8). all types of phrasal verbs where at least one is idiomatic 2.338 meanings (from which 13.126 entries. accuse of type which have relatively invariable meanings which are easy to be deducted from meanings of a verb/particle but which must be used only with the preposition given 3. phrasal verbs of depend on. idioms that are based on phrasal verbs (e.543 are idioms). 30 . The dictionary includes the following types of data (Vodička 2002: 14): 1.g. The dictionary includes (Vodička 2002: 14): 12. or any general dictionary which would go into much detail about them. with 46. ruffle someone up the wrong way). According to the author. there is no bilingual English-Czech dictionary which would specialize in phrasal verbs.

g. aţ na další 31 . (Vodička 2005: 120) go far adv 1.Entries in this dictionary are ordered alphabetically – firstly by the main verbs and then by particles. ZÁSOBY. Idioms are listed as last. then phrasal verbs with the adverbial particle are listed first. přispět. jít. pomoci velkou měrou 5. neform. Small numbers are given to meanings which are deductible from meanings of verbs and particles alone. v rámci moţností. prep see with prep seek after prep see for prep‟ Meanings of phrasal verbs are ordered in this way: Each meaning is given a number. vyjít 4. DO PRÁCE 2. jezdit daleko např. být úspěšný 3. as far as it goes neform.g. Non-deductible meanings are listed after deductible meanings. E. (Vodička 2005: 15): „see round1 adv see round2 prep see through1 adv see through2 prep see to prep see up adv. E. chodit. PENÍZE vystačit. If a phrasal verb appears with both types of particles (adverbial and prepositional) and each of them has a different meaning. mít úspěch.

) Figure 3 – search of the phrasal verb carry out in Web MetaTrans 20 http://metatrans.g. The second screenshot shows the search result for the verb carry out. On the right users can choose the languages (from-into) and the online dictionaries they want to use. dovolit si příliš mnoho This dictionary does not provide any illustrative sentences and is not available in electronic form. The first screenshot shows the Web MetaTrans interface. zajít tak daleko a NAPŘ A TVRDIT. go as/so far as neform.fi. WordNet and a morphological analyzer. jít. The coloured squares next to the translations display in which dictionaries the translations were found (e.cz/ 32 . ŢE VŠICHNI OKOLO JSOU LHÁŘI 7.6. On the left there is a search window.muni. Thus the information on the searched term is more complex. Web MetaTrans – Multilingual Meta-Translator20 Web MetaTrans is an online search engine which makes it possible for its users to search several online dictionaries simultaneously. go too far zajít příliš daleko. The translation uskutečnit appears in three dictionaries. The software also uses information from text corpora. Its modular design allows the users to add more online dictionaries to their searches easily.

Figure 4 – the search result for the phrasal verb carry out 33 .

magazines. 22 http://www.onestopenglish. emails. Corpora vary in size. Corbett 194: 2009). of business correspondence. radio. 4. It serves as a basis for linguistic analysis and description of written and spoken languages. soubor. It deals with the types of corpora and differences between them. Jamie Keddie 22 lists the following sources as examples of data for corpora: books. containing anything from tens of thousands to hundreds of millions word. they aim to contain a balanced sample of that language or genre. and constructing tools to search that mass of text. Generally. postava 3. normally held in electronic form. tělo. television. newspapers. Anderson and Corbett (2009: 22) claim that “(B)y presenting a mass of text in digitised form.asp?catid=59862&docid=155104 34 .4. in linguistics a corpus is a set of evidence of authentic use of language. that is. of samples of US written English. -oris = 1. Electronic Tools This chapter introduces the term corpus. Thanks to the development in technology a new course in linguistics appeared – corpus linguistics. Šulc (1999: 9)21 defines a corpus as a collection of all written texts of a given genre or a given person or a collection of information or materials for study purposes. kde znamená jednak sbírku všech psaných textů jednoho určitého druhu nebo jednoho člověka. Corpora are often designed to be representative of a language or genre. corpus linguistics 21 Původem latinské slovo korpus (corpus.com/section. kmen.” (Anderson.1 What is a Corpus? A corpus (plural: corpora) is “a collection of texts designed for linguistic analysis. určených ke studiu. celek. uspořádané těleso. jednak sbírku informací či materiálů. tělo. Further on. legal contracts. some important corpus projects are described. He proposes that some corpora could consist entirely e. old English or children‟s speech.g. corpora nebo corpuses). samples of written British English. sbor) k nám přišlo z angličtiny (corpus pl. conversation etc. těleso hmota 2.

brings to the table a set of data and tools that produce results that seem explicit and objective. in principle. 4. Various areas of language are investigated using data from corpora e. and so we can propose.” Results of corpus search form the basis for quantitative analysis and as Anderson and Corbett (2009: 22) continue “we can count things. qualitative analyses of corpus data. to enable analysis of how language changes over time” (Anderson. in linguistic research. reliable and generalisable statements about how language works”.2 Types of Corpora According to their qualities and to their focus we can distinguish several types of corpora: 1. a diachronic corpus is “a corpus which samples texts from across a period of time. The results of corpus research are applicable in translation. English language teaching etc. lexis. general reference corpora x special purpose corpora “A general reference corpus is one that can be taken as representative of a given language as a whole and can therefore be used to make general observations about that particular language. Corbett 2009: 194). However. On the contrary. which can be quickly and easily assembled” (Anderson and Corbett 2009: 22). Corbett 2009: 199). grammar. identify frequencies and distributions. “Quantitative analysts use corpora not as a source of frequencies but as a source of raw data. discourse or pronunciation. 2. synchronic corpora x diachronic corpora A synchronic corpus is “a corpus which contains texts all from the same or broadly similar time. which allows the user to investigate the state of the language at that time” (Anderson. quantitative analysis is often supplemented by interpretative. On the other hand a special purpose corpus 35 .” (Bowker 2002: 11).g.

The issue of size is important. Anderson and Corbett (2009: 6) state that “for applications in lexicography. a particular subject field. when choosing the right corpora for research size should be just one of the criteria as 36 . large scale corpora are still being produced e. corpora of spoken language x corpora of written language Corpora of spoken language. anything below five million is quite small.” However. Freiburg English Dialect Corpus (FRED). The most commonly used corpora of written language include: British National Corpus (BNC). The Speech Accent Archive. the more representative it is. usually tens if not hundreds of millions of words in size”. it can be said that the larger the corpus. smaller corpora x large scale corpora Even though creating a large corpus takes a lot of time and many copyright issues are involved.g. it is important that corpora should be large. as the term suggests. 4. For corpora of the spoken language. As examples the following projects should be mentioned: British Academic Spoken English corpus (BASE). Intonational Variation in English (IviE). for written corpora. Smaller scale corpora can be created ad hoc to investigate specialized areas of language. it depends on whether it is a spoken or a written corpus and what it is seeking to represent. O´Keefe et al. contain samples of spoken language. 3. the open Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) – 410+ million words (US 1990-2010) created by Mark Davies Professor from Brigham Young University (BYU). anything over a million words is considered to be large. a specific text type). BYU Corpus of Contemporary American English.g. Lexware Culler corpora. (in Anderson and Corbett 2009: 7) on size of corpora mention that: “In terms of what constitutes a large or a small corpus. Generally. TIME Corpus of American English.focuses on a particular aspect of a language (e.

” This type of corpus is often used in lexicography as it is possible to observe current trends in language. 6. teachers.onestopenglish.” 7. In this way. parallel corpora x comparable corpora Despite the fact that both terms refer to multilingual corpora and are closely related to translation studies there are certain differences to be mentioned. On the contrary.researchers might be interested in a special part of language (e. open x closed corpora Bowker (2002: 12) defines an open corpus (or a monitor corpus) as “one that is constantly being expanded.asp?catid=59862&docid=155104 37 . a closed (or finite) 23 http://www.g. Bowker (2002: 13) suggests that “(S)uch corpora can be usefully compared with corpora of texts written by native speakers. spoken language) and then a special corpus with fewer words can be more representative.com/section. 5. Šulc (1999: 82) in his definition mentions the fact that a parallel corpus is often created by an original text and its translation in one or more languages a comparable corpus is a corpus which “contains texts which are functionally equivalent in two or more languages” (Anderson and Corbett 2009: 8). students or researchers can identify the types of errors made by language learners. learner corpora A learner corpus is according to Jamie Keddie “a database of samples of English (or any language) that have been produced by learners”23. They can be defined in this way: a parallel corpus usually contains the same texts in a number of language versions (Anderson and Corbett 2009: 8).

The World English Corpus claims to contain over 220 million words and it was created in the late 1990s. fiction. The corpus contains the following types of texts: academic discourse. an ELT corpus contains examples of English currently found in English language course books and readers. print and broadcast journalism. recorded conversations (including telephone calls). 3. answer phone messages. In this corpus it is possible to find the most common problems of English language students. cultural 38 . World English Corpus The World English Corpus was used by Macmillan Publishers to create the Macmillan English Dictionary as well as the Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus. legal texts. 4. a general corpus which includes examples of real spoken and written English taken from a variety of sources across the English-speaking world 2. academic seminars. a learner corpus with examples of English as it is written by advanced learners from all over the world. The ratio of written to spoken texts is 9:1. The corpus contains data including British English. general non-fiction. recorded business meetings.3 Corpora Projects This subchapter introduces some of the most commonly used corpora and corpora which are related to this research. American English and world English. The corpus was created at the Centre for English Corpus Linguistics at the Université catholique de Louvain in Belgium. The World English Corpus consists of three parts: 1. emails.corpus “is one that does not get augmented once it has been compiled” (Bowker 2002: 13).

blogs. journals. It represents all types of English. as English is a global language. And. The corpus contains 2 billion words of real 21st century English. including essays and examination scripts. most accurate picture of the English language today. used by an estimated one third of the world's population. Oxford Corpus of the English Language This corpus is used to create Oxford University Press dictionaries. fanzines. columns. novels and short stories.studies texts. Figure 5 – a chart representing the topics included in theOxford Corpus of the English Language 39 . magazine articles. personal websites. broadcast interviews. ELT course books.000 onwards. and opinion pieces. corporate websites. technical manuals. newspaper reports. the Oxford English Corpus contains language from all parts of the world. The corpus includes texts from the year 2. message board postings. from novels and specialist journals to everyday newspapers and magazines and from Hansard to the language of blogs. underground and counterculture websites. It claims to give the fullest. radio documentaries. emails. text written by learners of English. and Internet message boards. The corpus consists of the following types of texts: academic papers.

The Czech National Corpus Despite the fact that the Czech National Corpus is primarily aimed at the Czech language, it should be mentioned in the list of corpora because Czech translators can benefit from the range of texts which are available there. The Czech National Corpus (CNC) is an academic project which has been carried out by the Institute of the Czech National Corpus (ICNC), Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague. The Institute was founded in 1994 and in 1996 it got a grant to “create a corpus of the Czech language, i.e. electronically saved, processed and accessed collection of language data in standartised format” (Šulc 1999: 46) 24 . Its results are to be used for creating a large dictionary of the Czech language and for creating other language reference manuals. Currently, the project houses several corpora. Their description is provided Appendix 2. The InterCorp Corpus The InterCorp Corpus is a sub-corpus of the Czech National Corpus (CNC). Its developement is a part of The Czech National Corpus and Corpora of Other Languages research project. “The goal of this project is to build up parallel synchronous corpora for most of the languages taught at the Faculty of Arts.”25 The corpus consists of fiction in Czech and other languages. Recently, political commentaries published at Project Syndicate26 website have been added. Each of the texts has its Czech counterpart and thus Czech is the pivot language. In October 200927 the InterCorp Corpus consisted of materials in 21 languages plus their Czech counterparts. For English the corpus contained 4,041 thousand Czech words (i.e. 4,705 thousand words in English). This number consists of 34 texts and texts

24

„vytvoření korpusu češtiny (tj. elektronicky uloţeného, zpracovávaného a přístupného souboru jazykových dat ve standardizovaném formátu)“ 25 http://www.korpus.cz/intercorp/?lang=en 26 http://www.project-syndicate.org/ 27 http://www.korpus.cz/intercorp/?lang=en

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from the Project Syndicate website. While the InterCorp is an open corpus (Bowker, Pearson 2002: 12) it is being constantly developed and nowadays it contains even more materials. The corpus can be searched in various ways: searching in one or more languages in parallel searching by wordform searching by string of wordforms (a phrase) searching by CQL expression searching by lemma (base form) - for some languages searching by morphosyntactic tag - for some languages regular expressions as an option virtual keyboard to type in foreign characters28. The InterCorp corpus provides its users with a wide range of texts. The interface is an invaluable tool for translators in search of the most adequate translations.

Figure 6 – selecting materials for a search in the InterCorp

28

http://korpus.cz/english/intercorp-info.php

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Figure 7 – search of the phrasal verb carry out in the InterCorp

Figure 8 – the results of the search of the verb carry out in the InterCorp

Kacenka Kacenka (abbreviation for Korpus anglicko-cesky - elektronicky nastroj Katedry anglistiky) was created by the Department of English, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University in 1997. The aim of this project was to “support research and teaching in the field of translation”29.

29

http://www.phil.muni.cz/angl/kacenka/kachna.html

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Most of the texts were retrieved from Internet resources.There are 30 literary texts and 2 non-literary texts available in the corpus. For the contents of the corpus see Appendix 3. This fact has influenced the numbers of retrieved translations. Figure 9 . The search process is identical with the search in Kacenka. both of which do not allow the use of lemma.cz/wkaa/home/sekce-en/translation/k2/view?set_language=en 43 . 30 http://www.the results of the search of the verb carry out in the Kacenka Kacenka 2 “The K2 parallel corpus is an enhancement of the corpus Kacenka. All texts are now available in the Bonito corpus manager.2 (OCR programme). Nearly all the Czech texts were scanned with the use of Pro Lector 1. unlike the InterCorp where lemma was used.” (Rambousek30) For a complete list of texts available in Kacenka 2 see Appendix 4.phil.muni.search of the phrasal verb carry out in the Kacenka Figure 10 .

uk/ or http://corpus. However.byu. translators into English can also benefit from monolingual corpora.ac. Among the most commonly used corpora are the British National Corpus (BNC) 31 or the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA)32. 31 32 available from http://www.ox.org/ 44 .Other Corpora The chapter Electronic Tools introduced the corpora used for the practical part of this thesis and the corpora that provided information for the dictionaries studied.edu/bnc/ http://www.natcorp.americancorpus.

For this study only a set of 5 most frequent phrasal verbs is used in order to facilitate a thorough examination of the 45 . 5. H3: English-Czech dictionaries of phrasal verbs do not provide more meanings or more complete information on phrasal verbs than general bilingual dictionaries.3 The Method of Research The research process is divided into several steps 1. Practical Part 5. The aim is to compare meanings of phrasal verbs with the meanings given by monolingual dictionaries and further on to compare them with translations of phrasal verbs found in parallel corpora. H2: Czech dictionaries do not sort their meanings according to the frequency of phrasal verb meanings.5. 5. These phrasal verbs are chosen according to their frequency. Identifying Phrasal Verbs Suitable for the Research Due to the number of tasks which have to be carried out in this research. only a small set (5) of phrasal verbs is examined. The research is carried out on a set of phrasal verbs.2 Hypotheses H1: Czech dictionaries provide only a small number of phrasal verb meanings. they publish a BNC-based list of 100 most frequent phrasal verbs in English. In their article. The results should help the readers choose the most useful dictionaries for their work. The data used for identifying the most frequent phrasal verbs have been taken from the article Pointing Out Frequent Phrasal Verbs: A Corpus-Based Analysis by Dee Gardner and Mark Davies (2007).1 Introduction The purpose of the practical part of this thesis is to analyse the translations of phrasal verbs from English into Czech and the dictionaries that Czech translators use.

Identifying Possible Meanings of Phrasal Verbs The possible meanings (semantic categories) are taken from the Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus dictionary which lists them in a menu. This list is compared with the meanings given by another monolingual phrasal verb dictionary (Oxford Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs) and forms a basis for the division of the Czech translations retrieved from corpora into categories according to their meanings. Comparing Search Results with Semantic Categories Data retrieved from dictionaries are compared and contrasted with the data retrieved from monolingual dictionaries. The translations from bilingual dictionaries are divided into categories which have been created according to the Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus dictionary. For more information on the dictionaries see pp.meanings given by various monolingual and bilingual dictionaries and an analysis of the Czech translations in the corpora mentioned above. 3. 27–33. 46 . Looking up Translations in Bilingual Dictionaries The following bilingual dictionaries are used to look up the corresponding translations: Velký anglicko-český slovník (LEDA 2006. 2. Comprehensive English-Czech Dictionary by Josef Fronek) Lexicon 5 Platinum Anglicko-český slovník frázových sloves (Lukáš Vodička) Web MetaTrans – Multilingual Meta-Translator. 4.

8. On the other 47 . The translations where the verb was omitted completely are not included either. Analysis of Search Results The data retrieved from corpora are analysed according to the following criteria: Is the search result a phrasal verb? Does it belong to any of the proposed semantic categories (word meanings)? 7. 41–44. The retrieved translations also included modulations and verbs with a shift of meaning which are not shown in the following tables as they are not lexicographic equivalents. Table 4 includes all translations of phrasal verbs by Czech verbs.5. Kacenka and Kacenka 2. The descriptions and screenshots of the search are on pp. 6. After a manual selection 154 corresponding translations of the phrasal verb into Czech were found.4 CARRY OUT Table 4 shows the results of the search for the phrasal verb carry out in the InterCorp. Comparing and Contrasting Search Results Search results from bilingual dictionaries and corpora are compared and analysed. Kacenka and Kacenka 2. this list focuses only on translations by a verb and not by other parts of speech (e. Retrieving Translations of Phrasal Verbs from Parallel Corpora The following parallel corpora are searched in order to retrieve translations of phrasal verbs: InterCorp. adjectives or nouns). As the results are compared with dictionaries.g. The total number of search results was 205. Data Analysis and Conclusions 5.

The same system of analysis is applied with the other phrasal verbs. twice in Kacenka and twice in Kacenka 2.hand. 48 . The first line of the table features the corpora used for the research (InterCorp. 14 in Kacenka and 13 in Kacenka 2. The left column lists the translations into Czech by verbs and the numbers in second. the most common translation of the verb carry out into Czech is the Czech verb provést / provádět.e. Kacenka and Kacenka 2). their presence in corpora can help translators find the most suitable expressions for their texts and can serve as a source of inspiration. The total is 38 occurrences out of 154 translations by a verb ( ca. too. 25 per cent of all translations by verbs into Czech). The number in the last column gives the total number of the translations found in the corpora used. The last line in the table gives the total numbers of translations of phrasal verbs by a Czech verb. third and fourth column indicate the number of their occurrences in the given corpora. The numbers in brackets indicate the number of phrasal verb occurrences (i.g. 178 in InterCorp. It occurs 34 times in the InterCorp. total = 205 occurrences). E.

K1 = Kacenka. vynášet 6 2 1 9 vykonat. K2 = Kacenka 2 It is worth noting that the search showed 34 various translations of the phrasal verb carry out by Czech verbs for 154 occurrences.Translations / Corpora and Total the number of PV IC+K1+K2 occurrences IC (178) K1 (14) K2 (13) (205) provést. provádět 34 2 2 38 uskutečnit. The highlighted verbs are not lexicographic equivalents. Note: IC = InterCorp. uskutečňovat 29 0 4 33 plnit (úkoly. vyplnit 7 1 2 10 vynést. zrealizovat 6 0 1 7 odnést 5 1 1 7 probíhat 4 0 0 4 spáchat 3 0 0 3 prosazovat. 49 . prosadit 3 0 0 3 splnit 1 2 0 3 uplatnit 2 0 0 2 vést 2 0 0 2 odvést práci 2 0 0 2 konat 2 0 0 2 zabavit 2 0 0 2 vyplnit se 2 0 0 2 pořádat 1 0 0 1 splnit se 1 0 0 1 naplňovat 1 0 0 1 páchat 1 0 0 1 dopouštět se 1 0 0 1 zajistit 1 0 0 1 obstarat 1 0 0 1 činit 1 0 0 1 vyvíjet (činnost) 1 0 0 1 zvěstovat 1 0 0 1 dodrţet 1 0 0 1 zvládnout 1 0 0 1 zařídit 1 0 0 1 propracovat 1 0 0 1 přistupovat k 1 0 0 1 hledět si něčeho 1 0 0 1 dopravit 0 1 0 1 Total translations 134 9 11 154 Table 4 – A list of translations of the verb carry out by a Czech verb. Exactly one half of the possible translations occurred only once (17 translations). rozkazy). vykonávat 8 0 0 8 realizovat. whereas the remaining 17 translations account for the remaining 137 findings. The first two most frequent translations then account together for about 46 per cent of all translations.

konat (2). zrealizovat (7). vykonat. divided into semantic categories In Table 6 Czech translations from the dictionaries studied are compared to the translations retrieved from the corpora. obstarávat (1). These two translations were found in the Web MetaTrans dictionary and appear to be more specific than other semantic categories. zařídit (1). provádět. dodržet (1). Semantic category to do a particular piece of work to do something that you have said you will or that you have been told to do Czech translations from dictionaries uskutečnit. vynášet provozovat vyřídit (obchodně) 50 .g. vynášet (9). zajišťovat (1). realizovat vykonat. prosazovat. provádět. splnit. vyvíjet činnost (1). hledět si (1). The monolingual dictionaries showed only two semantic categories and none of them listed the literal meaning of the phrasal verb (vynést. provést. odvést práci (2). dostát. dopravit (1) spáchat (3). uplatnit (2). učinit zadost vynést ven. pořádat (1). uskutečnit. provádět (38). realizovat. vykonávat (8). splňovat. The translations are divided according to semantic categories (as in Table 5). provést. prosadit (3). dostát. The translations which occurred only in corpora are in bold and their frequency is in brackets e. uskutečňovat (33). realizovat. vyplnit se (2). realizovat Translations from corpora provést. vést (2). učinit zadost vynést ven. propracovat (1). splnit se (1). vynášet). vést (4). probíhat (4). splnit. vyplnit. konat. vynášet provozovat vyřídit (obchodně) Table 5 – semantic categories identified in monolingual categories compared to Czech translations from the chosen dictionaries. dopouštět se (1) vykonat. přistupovat (1) plnit. Neither did the monolingual dictionaries list two more meanings: provozovat and vyřídit (obchodně). splnit (3). páchat (1). The analysis of bilingual dictionary entries showed 5 different semantic categories in which the phrasal verb carry out is used. zvládnout (1) vynést. Czech translations from dictionaries uskutečnit. konat. For a complete list see Appendix 5. realizovat. vyplnit (10). naplňovat (1). splňovat.Table 5 shows the semantic categories specified in monolingual dictionaries. their corresponding translations in Czech dictionaries and the translations which could not be added to any of the semantic areas. vyplnit. činit(1). odnést (7). vykonat.

which did not appear in any of the dictionaries. The most common translation was vrátit/ vracet se. The reason for this might either be that the corpora used are not large enough or that the translations are too specific with a shift of meaning and would not be listed in a general dictionary.Table 6 – comparing translations of the verb carry out in the dictionaries and in the corpora.) It is also interesting to note that there were no identical translations in the corpora for the new semantic categories provozovat and vyřídit (obchodně). 2001. The translations which occurred only in the corpora are in bold and their frequency is in brackets. The total number of search results was 711. 51 . Translated in the InterCorp as: Nejhorší teroristický útok ve Spojených státech před 11. zářím 2001 taktéž spáchal americký občan. Kacenka. and Kacenka 2 parallel English-Czech corpora. The translations with more occurrences in which the context is crucial for understanding are for example: jít za – I‟ll go back and tell him about it. Translation into Czech: Půjdu za ním a všechno mu povím (Kacenka 2). Table 1 shows the search results. This category is associated with making an offence (e. After a manual selection 494 corresponding translations of the phrasal verb into Czech by a Czech verb were found. has been created. which accounts for over 68 per cent of the translations. Similarly.g. A new semantic category. The tendency with the translation into Czech jít za is that the speaker concentrates on the person and not on the activity of going back. More than a half of the translations occurred only once (39 translations). an American citizen carried out the worst terrorist attack in the United States before September 11. 5. The total of 65 translations of the phrasal verb go back into Czech by a Czech verb was identified.5 GO BACK Table 7 shows the results of the search for the phrasal verb go back in the InterCorp.

jít k . Translated into Czech in the InterCorp as: Pearson šel ke svému stolu a zvedl sluchátko telefonu. It is worth mentioning that as the person is probably very important in the context the pronoun he is used twice in the target text. Generally. vzniknout – Giustiniana's friendship with Querini went back to the 1750s. In this case the translator used a more general term and did not focus on the meaning of the particle back. but in those days her heart had belonged entirely to Andrea.Although the speaker might be literally going back to somebody in this case it is more important that the speaker will see him and tell him about it. Translated into Czech in the InterCorp as: Giustinianino přátelství s Querinim vzniklo již v padesátých letech. the translators tend to follow two strategies when they have to modulate the exact translation: they concentrate on the motion itself as in jít k or dojít si pro or vyrazit do in cases where they do not consider important the fact that the person is going back somewhere but are interested in the activity itself or they concentrate on the meaning of the particle back and choose a Czech verb according to it together with the Czech verb zpět as in jít zpět or odvézt zpět. ale tenkrát její srdce patřilo zcela Andreovi.Pearson had gone back to his desk and picked up the telephone. letět – Would you rather go back to Bologna? Translated into Czech in Kacenka 2 as: Chtěl byste snad raději letět zase na Boloňu? This translation illustrates the tendency in Czech to specify which means of transport is used during the activity of going back or going again (according to the context). The translation vzniknout substitutes the more exact translation sahat do which in the Czech language does not collocate with the noun přátelství. 52 . when speaking of motion.

Translations / Corpora and the number of PV occurrences IC (510) vrátit/vracet se znovu (zase…) něco dělat sahat (do minulosti) jít zpět jít za odjet jet zpět pokračovat v začít něco dělat něco dál dělat vydat se zpátky vzniknout být zpět letět mít kořeny odlétnout zpět jít zpátky jít do školy jít k odejít zpátky vystoupit dostat se zpět zajít do vytratit se zpět jet s spadat do udělat krok zpět vázat se k uchýlit se k být opřený o zkušenosti zajít do přejít zpátky na zavést dál těkat rozjet se do trvat zajet zpět přehrávat si dostavit se být na cestě zpátky dojít si pro couvnout vyrazit do 243 18 14 0 4 7 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 K1 (93) 52 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 K2 (108) 43 0 0 3 7 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total (711) K1+K2+IC 338 18 14 12 11 9 8 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 53 .The fact that the Czech language allows the speaker to combine many verbs with the adverb zpět thus provides many modulations of the verbs vrátit se or jet zpět.

K1 = Kacenka.). this might be caused by the fact that in the Czech language some more general verbs can be used: e.g. No exact corresponding translations were found in the dictionaries for the following two semantic categories: have known each other for a long time and when classes begin again at school. The highlighted verbs are not lexicographic equivalents. pocházet (z minulosti). However. datovat se od … vrátit se (i do minulosti). K2 = Kacenka 2 ozvat se zmizet v pokoji znát se od odvézt zpět pustit se do odtáhnout být starý doprovodit přejít objevit se dovézt navrátit se zamířit zpět spěchat zpět jít něco dělat pustit někoho domů vzít zpátky přijít pro vypravit se zpátky táhnout zpět jít ještě jednou Table 8 lists semantic categories and corresponding translations from the Czech dictionaries. sahat svými kořeny. In contrast five new groups of translations could not be linked directly with the existing categories. couvnout. jít zpátky. znovu začít něco dělat sahat (do minulosti). ke špatným stravovacím návykům apod. být nařízený dozadu obv. Note: IC = InterCorp. Semantic categories return have existed for a long time have known each other for a long time when classes begin again at school when clocks show an earlier time Czech translations from dictionaries vrátit se.1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 361 67 66 494 Table 7 – A list of translations of the verb go back by a Czech verb. na podzim o jednu hodinu ukončit stávku. vracet se (k bodu jednání. vrátit se do školy to express the meaning when classes begin again at school). mít původ kdy/kde. vrátit se do práce 54 .

vypravit se zpátky (1). odlétnout zpět (2). Four new synonyms were found for the meaning have existed for a long time. jít něco dělat (1). couvnout (1). muset začít znovu od píky porušit slovo. zajet zpět (1). navrátit se (1). spadat do (1). jít zpět (12). mít kořeny (2). začít něco dělat (4). couvnout. pokračovat (4). přehrávat si (1). Surprisingly. táhnout zpět (1). být na cestě zpátky (1). pustit se do (1). jít zpátky (2). trvat (1). Many synonyms were found especially for the first category. ustupovat zabírat prostor. mít původ kdy/kde. Here the translation jít do školy would be possible (in the dictionaries this semantic category is probably included under vrátit se). vytratit se zpět (2). vydat se zpátky (3). přejít zpátky na (1). zamířit zpět (1). ke špatným stravovacím návykům apod.ustoupit. odejít zpátky (2).). odjet (9). být starý (1) znát se od (1) jít do školy (2) 55 . Translations from dictionaries vrátit se. zajít do (1). vracet se (k bodu jednání. Two occurrences were found for the semantic category when classes begin again at school. jít zpátky. znovu/zase něco dělat (18). These include the synonyms for the verb return which includes two more meanings: either to go back or to start doing something again. pocházet (z minulosti). něco dál dělat (3). až k moři) být na tom stejně jako předtím. This semantic category seems to need further research based on more data. zradit koho. rozjet se do (1). jet zpět (8). sahat svými kořeny. sahat (např. nesplnit or nedodržet slib. jít ještě jednou (1) sahat (do minulosti) (14). selhat (paměť) Table 8 – semantic categories identified in monolingual categories compared to Czech translations from dictionaries divided into semantic categories Table 9 compares the translations from the dictionaries with the translations from the corpora. datovat se od … -/ have known each other for a long time -/ when classes begin again at school Translations from corpora vrátit/vracet se (338). a translation znát se od for the meaning have known each other for a long time occurred in the corpora and seems to be specific enough for this semantic category. Regarding the new categories only one occurrence was found for the meaning break word which was vzít zpátky. odvézt zpět (1). být zpět (3). udělat krok zpět (1). octnout se znovu na samém začátku. znovu začít něco dělat sahat (do minulosti).

The most frequent translation pokračovat accounts for 32 per cent of the translations by a Czech verb and the second most frequent translation dít se for 19 per cent. nesplnit or nedodrţet slib. aţ k moři) být na tom stejně jako předtím. The translations which occured only in the corpora are in bold and their frequency is in brackets. Examples of some translations where the choice of the Czech verb depended on the context and thus did not fall into any of the categories in Table 2: zabývat se – e. být nařízený dozadu obv. (InterCorp) In this 56 . Na podzim o jednu hodinu vrátit se (i do minulosti). This corresponds with the dictionary entry in Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus. sahat (např. muset začít znovu od píky porušit slovo. 5. selhala mi paměť Table 9 – comparing translations of the verb go back in the dictionaries and in the corpora. I am talking about what is going on with you in your own life. octnout se znovu na samém začátku. From the total of 1. This dictionary lists the meanings according to the frequency of the semantic category and the first is continue happening (corresponding with the Czech pokračovat) and the second happen corresponding with the Czech dít se). vrátit se do práce ustoupit.323 in total). Translation into Czech: Mám na mysli to.6 GO ON The phrasal verb go on had the highest number of occurrences among the selected phrasal verbs (1. (for the details see p. být nařízený dozadu obv. The phrase go on and on was found in the corpus and the corresponding translation is a translation of the whole phrase. zradit vzít zpátky (1) koho.323 occurrences only 555 were translations by a Czech verb. But.vrátit se (i do minulosti). co právě prožíváte. Mr Sherry went on and on about the 'real' people. which corresponds with the research by Gardner and Davies et al.” (InterCorp). Na podzim o jednu hodinu ukončit stávku. 20).g.g. for too many pages of the biography. prožívat – e. ustupovat zabírat prostor. Translation into Czech: Ale pan Sherry se na příliš mnoha stranách životopisu stále a stále zabýval skutečnými lidmi.

In this sentence is the general translation dít se substituted by působit as in the context a cause of a process is searched. působit – e. co stále plně nechápeme (InterCorp). Mluvím o tom.sentence the translator decided to change the subject of the sentence from 3rd person to 2nd person singular and the sentence is more natural than a literal translation (e. že tu působí ještě něco. Translations / Corpora and the number of PV occurrences pokračovat dít se docházet k probíhat jít na doplnit dovolit si pustit se do trvat začít povídat jít dál fungovat minout postupovat zabývat se kráčet dál vydat se na rozprávět o proţívat putovat do odehrávat se stát se běţet dál působit mluvit o být jít něco dělat potrvat opakovat se zdokonalit se jet dál IC (876) K1(213) 124 109 22 12 19 15 10 8 5 5 0 4 4 4 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0 0 0 K 2 (234) 28 0 13 9 0 0 0 2 1 0 4 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 28 0 4 17 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total IC+K1+K2 (1323) 180 109 40 43 21 15 12 10 7 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 57 .g. co se s vámi děje ve vašem životě. Translation into Czech: Zdá se.g There seems to be something going on here that we still don't fully understand.) would be.

rozsvítit se 0 0 2 2 jít za klientem 1 0 0 1 navštěvovat klienty 1 0 0 1 omílat 1 0 0 1 dodat 1 0 0 1 dopravit se někam 1 0 0 1 bavit se 1 0 0 1 být na nohou 1 0 0 1 jít 1 0 0 1 uplynout 1 0 0 1 chytit se něčeho 1 0 0 1 vykládat 1 0 0 1 jet 1 0 0 1 běţet 1 0 0 1 znamenat 1 0 0 1 nekončit 1 0 0 1 vystoupit v TV 1 0 0 1 předávat 1 0 0 1 přikročit k 1 0 0 1 prohlásit 1 0 0 1 dělat dál 1 0 0 2 nepřestávat něco dělat 1 0 0 1 hovořit 1 0 0 1 vydrţet 1 0 0 1 přesvědčovat 1 0 0 1 svítit 1 0 0 1 nebrat konce 1 0 0 1 konat se 1 0 0 1 dorazit někam 1 0 0 1 šinout se 1 0 0 1 zahájit 1 0 0 1 tvrdit 1 0 0 1 vychloubat se 1 0 0 1 přejít k 1 0 0 1 mlít 1 0 0 1 prostírat se 1 0 0 1 opakovat 0 1 0 1 vypravovat 0 1 0 1 vyvíjet se 0 1 0 1 dojít k 0 1 0 1 vést si 0 1 0 1 nechat na jindy 0 0 1 1 chopit se něčeho 0 0 1 1 provést 0 0 1 1 rozběhnout se 0 0 1 1 přijít dál 0 0 1 1 přistoupit k 0 0 1 1 404 74 67 555 Total translations Table 10 – A list of translations of the verb go on by a Czech verb. K1 = Kacenka. Note: IC = InterCorp. The highlighted verbs are not lexicographic equivalents. K2 = Kacenka 2 58 .

vydrţet dít se. připozdívat se. In the Oxford Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs five more semantic categories were identified. spustit se. vystupovat. rozsvítit se. začít činnost začít brát.g. táhnout. zase jít poté/následně udělat míjet. být zapnutý. táhnout na určitý věk) or they appear to be mere modulations or translations with a shift in meaning (e. pořád ţvanit o čem. There are two semantic categories in the Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus for which there are no translations in the English-Czech dictionaries (go to another place.In Table 11 some interesting facts can be observed: 1. vytrvale a nudně mluvit. konat se. naskočit. stále moc o čem mluvit jít na co (peníze apod. Semantic category continue happening happen begin an activity/state start taking a drug used for encouraging sb electricity etc:start working do sth after time: pass base an opinion on sth go to a place before sb continue travelling begin talking again talk a lot go to another place receive payment from the government be spent on sth begin performing replace another player in sport depart for a certain purpose (holiday…) Czech translations from dictionaries pokračovat (s čím. mít se o co opřít jet. mít své místo). uběhnout. plynout opírat se o co.g. začít téci. jít vpředu (napřed) pokračovat. naběhnout. 2. pokračovat. začít fungovat. probíhat nastoupit do sluţby ap.) vystoupit.. There are many translations from dictionaries which could not be linked with any of the semantic categories proposed by monolingual dictionaries. jít na scénu. utíkat. na závodní dráhu atd. odehrávat se. Do toho!. receive payment from the government). These translations usually have a narrower sense (e. vycházet z čeho. vykládat. rozpovídat se omílat co. trvat. minout. blíţit se. v čem). šňupat spěchat. jít/jet/letět. trvat dál. pořád se opakovat. pospíšit si. vytrvat. 59 . plout dál pokračovat v řeči. No tak! Zkuste to!. vytrvat zapnout se. začít uţívat. nasadit si. jít na. mluvit dál. vysílat nastoupit na hřiště. ubíhat.

natáhnout vycházet např. s tchýní mít své místo jít na co. dosáhnout úspěchu vyjít. přejít k (1). esp as a treat vozit se na (donkey…) continue without change or relief (noise. nemít moc v lásce co/koho. dát se k Table 11 – semantic categories identified in monolingual categories compared to Czech translations from the dictionaries divided into semantic categories Table 12 compares translations from dictionaries with translation retrieved from corpora. rumour) Czech translations retrieved from corpora vydat se na (3) nekončit (1) doplnit (15). vést si. přistoupit k (1) chytit se něčeho (1) 60 . pokročit. affair …) continue by adding some new point to what has already been said or written be helped or guided by sth (eg hearsay. dát se navléci. dařit se. dodat (1). obejít se. interruptions. dosáhnout výsledku.). počínat si. trvat. jít nasadit (bota. affair …) continue by adding some new point to what has already been said or written be helped or guided by sth (eg hearsay. interruptions.mount and travel on (sth). sumě padnout. Many synonyms were found and these are in bold in the right column. hnout se. vést si. víčko atd. nebýt nijak nadšený z čeho stát si. být vydán za co být do koho beznadějně zamilovaný (zblázněný) mít spolu dobré vztahy. Semantic categories without translations in the dictionaries depart for a certain purpose (holiday…) continue without change or relief (noise. dobře spolu vycházet mít úspěch. It is worth noting that some of these synonyms were quite frequent (e.g. pustit se do) and could be interesting for translators. Another outcome of this part of research is that for four semantic categories for which no corresponding translations were found in the dictionaries translations occurred in the corpora studied – see Table 12. rumour) táhnout komu (na určitý věk) nijak nestát o co. jít to. postupovat. pohnout se uspět. poradit si (lidé) stárnout blížit se např.

konat se (1) pustit se do (10). trvat. zase jít poté/následně udělat míjet. začít činnost Translations from corpora pokračovat (180). zahájit (1). many of the translations proposed by the Czech dictionaries have not been found in the corpora. omílat (1). začít téci. No tak! Zkuste to!. vydrţet dít se. rozsvítit se. nebrat konce (1) dít se (109). dodat (1). šinout se (1). dojít k (1) jít dál (4). přikročit k (1). vytrvat. opakovat se (2). Do toho!. vystupovat. pořád se opakovat. jít na scénu. Translations from dictionaries pokračovat (s čím. konat se. hovořit (1).) vystoupit. nasadit si. běžet (1). minout (4). trvat (7). svítit (1) jít na (21). pokračovat. stále moc o čem mluvit fungovat (4). v čem). začít uţívat. běžet dál (2). přesvědčovat (1). uběhnout. depart for a certain purpose (holiday…) vozit se na continue without change or relief (noise.. vycházet z čeho. hnout se. nebýt nijak nadšený z čeho stát si. postupovat. plout dál pokračovat v řeči. jet (1) povídat (5). přistoupit k (1) chytit se něčeho (1) go to another place receive payment from the government jít na co (peníze apod. nemít moc v lásce co/koho. vydržet (1). chopit se (1). blíţit se. odehrávat se (2). začít (5). jít/jet/letět. jít na. trvat dál. ubíhat. interruptions. začít fungovat. přejít k (1). odehrávat se. šňupat spěchat. vytrvale a nudně mluvit. plynout opírat se o co. mlít (1). which could either be caused by a limited size of the corpora used or by the fact that some of the translations in dictionaries are too context-specific. naběhnout. pořád ţvanit o čem. rumour) táhnout komu (na určitý věk) nijak nestát o co. affair …) continue by adding some new point to what has already been said or written be helped or guided by sth (eg hearsay. kráčet dál (3). stát se (4). táhnout. minout. dařit se. naskočit. probíhat nastoupit do sluţby ap. probíhat (43). bavit se (1) rozprávět o (3). mluvit o (2). uplynout (1). rozběhnout se (1) začít brát. vysílat nastoupit na hřiště. jít něco dělat (2). dosáhnout úspěchu postupovat (5). prohlásit (1). dorazit někam (1) dovolit si (12) vystoupit v TV (1) vydat se na (3) nekončit (1) doplnit (15). spustit se. vykládat (1). jet dál (2). na závodní dráhu atd. docházet k (40). jít (1).Table 12 – Czech translations retrieved from corpora linked to semantic categories without translations in the dictionaries On the other hand. potrvat (2). pospíšit si. vést si. být zapnutý. mít se o co opřít jet.. utíkat. vytrvat zapnout se. rozpovídat se omílat co. rozsvítit se (2). vykládat. pohnout se uspět. vést si (1) 61 . jít to. vypravovat (1) putovat do (2). pokročit. mluvit dál. dělat dál (2). připozdívat se. nepřestávat něco dělat (1). jít vpředu (napřed) pokračovat. opakovat (1).

18 per cent of the translations by a Czech verb). aby se mohli vykoupat. dosáhnout výsledku. dobře spolu vycházet mít úspěch. 5. být vydán za co být do koho beznadějně zamilovaný (zblázněný) mít spolu dobré vztahy. These include for example brát (According to one legend. every morning she would pick up a mirror and sit down to draw. uchopit. poradit si (lidé) stárnout blíţit se např. ten největší. s tchýní mít své místo jít na co.” Translated into Czech in the InterCorp as: “Pradědeček byl drezér slonů. jít nasadit (bota. 137 different verbs were used for these translations.). Translated in the InterCorp as: Podle jedné legendy každé ráno brala zrcadlo a usedala k malování. which occurred 111 times (accounting for ca. obejít se. natáhnout vycházet např. and one of them picked him up with its trunk and threw him in the air.7 PICK UP In Table 14 the translations for the phrasal verb pick up by a Czech verb are listed. sumě padnout. a když vzal jednou svoje svěřence k řece. vést si. which is the highest number when compared with other phrasal verbs studied.) or ovinout chobotem (“One day. jmenoval se Caesar.vyjít. The most common translation was zvedat. The translations which occurred only in the corpora are in bold and their frequency is in brackets. A total of 742 occurrences of the phrasal verb pick up were found in the corpora studied which were translated by a Czech verb 615 times. my great-grandpa led his elephants down to the river for a bath. víčko atd. When finding the right Czech expressions for the verb to pick up. dát se k Table 13 – comparing translations of the verb go back in the dictionaries and in the corpora. ho ovinul chobotem a vyhodil 62 . počínat si. translators often choose the following strategies: they follow the meaning of grasping an object similar to the commonly used translation sebrat. dát se navléci.

g. It also corresponds with the meaning of the particle up (for more about the meanings of the particle up see p. Translated into Czech in Kacenka as: Kdyby ta vdova měla jen trochu vkusu. zřejmě se snažila zachytit můj pach.g. Viděl jsem. že se prochází sem a tam. she might surely pick up some better fellow than that. 8).) or they opt for the meaning of the verb choose e. Translated into Czech in the InterCorp as: Samice ho uslyšela a poodešla o kus dál.“ In this case the shift in meaning is obvious but the underlying principle of grasping something is present. zachytit (The wild sow heard his moan and moved away in a new direction. probably trying to pick up my scent. Translated into Czech in Kacenka 2 as: Zdálo se.do vzduchu. kde jste se zastavili. a chvílí prohledávali půdu u místa.) or a more specific vyčenichat (They seemed to pick up some scent. než je tenhle chlap!) More examples of variants are listed in Table 14 which compares translations from dictionaries with the occurrences found in corpora. Translations / Corpora and the number of PV occurrences IC (582) K1 (44) zvedat 111 vyzvednout 53 sebrat 42 vzít 49 uchopit 22 zachytit 23 Total K2 (116) IC+K1+K2(742) 0 111 6 60 16 58 4 57 3 28 0 26 0 1 0 4 3 3 63 . že něco vyčenichali. vybrat si (If the widow had any taste. The description above only illustrated the strategies that the translators might use when translating the phrasal verb pick up. and they searched the ground for a while near the place where you halted. or they follow the meaning of perception e. where I could see her walking back and fourth in the distance. jistě by si dovedla vybrat někoho lepšího.

zvednout nabrat brát pochytit sáhnout po posbírat popadnout sbalit zdvihnout sbírat naloţit (do auta) odvézt vyrazit z zastavit se pro zvyšovat/zvýšit drapnout hradit chopit se chytit něco koupit pokračovat přijít k shýbnout se pro stavit se pro vybrat si vytáhnout zapnout se získat zrychlit dojet pro chytit se něčeho jet pro líznout nakoupit naučit se odnést pozvednout převzít přijít si na přinést přivézt z tahat za ulovit vybírat vzít s sebou vzít si zaznamenat zjistit zvedat zvednout se balit cítit 2 12 7 9 10 9 5 7 0 3 3 3 0 3 4 1 3 3 2 1 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 2 2 2 2 1 1 7 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 2 0 0 0 3 1 7 3 2 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 12 10 10 10 9 8 8 7 6 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 64 .

dát se dohromady dát se po dát věci dohromady dojít si pro dolehnout doplňovat souvislosti dostat dozvědět se drţet hýbat se chápat se něčeho chytat nabalit si nadzvednout najít najít si najít uplatnění natáhnout se pro navázat odebrat odevzdat odjet pro odstranit ohmatat osvojit ovinout chobotem platit podat pojídat postřehnout poznat přejímat přepnout na záznamník přijet pro přijímat přijít si pro přijmout přinášet rozeznávat sebrat se shrábnout schrastit splašit stihnout stisknout příjem uklízet uzvednout vnímat vybrat vyčenichat vydělat vyhmátnout 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 65 .

sebrat někde něco. zvetit se. vzít koho na ruku. Note: IC = InterCorp. svézt pochytit. zastavit se pro koho/co. postavit se. jít lift sb/sth take sb in a vehicle learn/do sth new notice sth start sth after a pause Improve 66 . odpozorovat. For the category put things in a tide place no matching translation was found. osvojit si. povšimnout si. pochytit. dozvědět se. zvednout telefon/sluchátko vyzvednout. oţivnout. zvednout se na nohy. sebrat se. všimnout si čeho. zlepšovat se. na ztracenou stopu. In total twenty semantic categories were identified according to the monolingual dictionaries (left column).). postavit se na nohy. sebrat se. posbírat se. znovu se chytit. napojit se např. oţivovat se. zdvihnout. přijít k informaci. stopu apod. naučit se. postavit se na nohy. trend apod. rozpoznat (rys. K2 = Kacenka 2 vypůjčit vyzvedávat zacálovat začít zadrţet zachycovat zajet pro zakoupit zalátat zaslechnout zatáhnout zatýkat zavětřit zefektivnit zesílit získávat zvolit In Table 15 translations from the Czech dictionaries are linked to semantic categories proposed by the monolingual dictionaries used. motor naskočit. vzmáhat se. zachytit (pach. zvednout se. dovědět se zachytit. zaznamenat. zlepšit se. Five more categories were identified in the Czech dictionaries. zaregistrovat co. auto rozjet se zotavovat se. Semantic Category Translations zvednout se. zaslechnout navázat na. přibírat cestující. pookřát. K1 = Kacenka. pookřát. pokračovat v čem. oţivit se.). The highlighted verbs are not lexicographic equivalents. vyzvednout.1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 486 36 93 615 Table 14 – A list of translations of the verb pick up by a Czech verb. lepšit se. zotavit se.

svézt Translations from corpora vzít (57).). přijít k 67 . postavit se na nohy. taxi najít stopu rozkopat krumpáčem Table 15 – semantic categories identified in monolingual categories compared to Czech translations from dictionaries divided into semantic categories In Table 16 the translations from the dictionaries are compared to the translations from the corpora. zvednout se na nohy. pozvednout (2). Translations from dictionaries zvednout se. nabrat (12). vydělat. signál). posbírat. přijet pro (1). být připravený zaplatit účet. klofnout. naladit (stanici. naučit se. objevit (chybu v textu) chytat. chopit se (3). získat. pasaţéry z ohroţené lodi na záchrannou. zatknout. chytit (zločince) sbalit. be responsible for paying the large-scale debts of a business or country najít. stisknout příjem (1). vzít si např. sehnat. naloţit. posbírat se. dojet pro (2). spřátelit se. přivézt z (2). nakazit se čím. As could be seen in Table 14. postavit se.take sth in your hands put things in a tidy place take sb in your vehicle get an illness buy sth receive an electronic signal wind: become stronger earn money win a prize arrest sb nahoru sebrat. zvednout se (2). vyzvednout. zvedat (2). dostat (nemoc apod. nabalit si. posbírat. odjet pro (1). přijít si pro (1). muset zaplatit útratu try to start a sexual relationship make a place tidy rescue (sb) from the sea pay for meals. nabrat. zvednout. stavit se pro (3). mít se k zaplacení účtu. sebrat. k placení. dát se dohromady s uklízet pokoj po dětech atd. zadrţet. dostat. zatáhnout (účet). naučit se (2). zachytit zvýšit. zastavit se pro (4). přijít k něčemu. uzvednout (1) vyzvednout (60). sesbírat. přibírat cestující. sáhnout po (10). narazit si. zjistit (2). svézt chytit. zdvihnout.vzít do ruky přibírat/nabírat pasaţéry. opravovat koho vyzvednout si. převzít (2). vydělávat shrábnout (ocenění apod. chytnout za slovo. zdvihnout (7). sebrat někde něco. nalodit obv. vzít koho na ruku. sehnat holku/chlapa na noc. nadzvednout (1). jet pro (2). dozvědět se pochytit. drinks. přejímat (1). vyhrát sbalit.). zastavit se pro koho/co. seznámit se. shýbnout se pro (3). sebrat se. koupit chytit. naložit (do auta) (5). získat (podporu). najít opět vydělávat si (ne moc). These alternative translations are in bold. dozvědět se. nabírat rychlost nabýt. levně. sbírat. obv. sbírat (6). hospitality in hotels. there are many alternative translations available for the verb pick up. dojít si pro (1). vyzvedávat (1). uhnat si získat. zachránit zaplatit. zvednout telefon/sluchátko vyzvednout. zajet pro (1) pochytit (10). vzít do ruky. táhnout to s.

k placení. naladit (stanici. nakoupit (2). chytit (zločince) sbalit. zaznamenat. dostat (1). sehnat holku/chlapa na noc. navázat (1). zacálovat (1). dostat. přijít k něčemu. signál). hradit (3). zvednout. všimnout si čeho. sebrat (58). zatáhnout (účet). osvojit si. přijmout (1). postavit se na nohy. chytnout za slovo. chytit něco (3) koupit (3). spřátelit se. napojit se např. zotavit se. získat. vnímat (1). zlepšit se. odpozorovat. rozpoznat (rys. platit (1). oţivnout. chytat (1). drapnout (3). zvolit (1) zapnout se (3) odnést (2) ohmatat (1) Table 16 – comparing translations of the verb pick up in the dictionaries and in the corpora. být připravený zaplatit účet. začít (1) dát se dohromady (1). zaslechnout (1) zachytit (26). zlepšovat se. objevit (chybu v textu). narazit si. sebrat. nabýt opět.). posbírat. zadrţet (1). klofnout. dostat (nemoc apod. vzít si např. zesílit (1) vyrazit z (4). Kacenka. and Kacenka 2 parallel English-Czech corpora. vybrat (1). zachycovat (1) pokračovat (3). 5. na ztracenou stopu. nabírat rychlost nabýt.). nabalit si (1). posbírat (9). lepšit se. táhnout to s. zachytit (pach. pookřát. zrychlit (3). zachránit zaplatit.8 SET UP Table 17 shows the results of the search for the phrasal verb set up in the InterCorp. přijít si na (2). dovědět se zachytit. naloţit. stopu apod. osvojit si (1). zvedat (111). přijít k (3). The total number of search 68 . pochytit. pokračovat v čem. získat (podporu). nabalit si. uchopit (28). zachytit zvýšit. sebrat se (1) zvednout (19).). obv. získat (3). vybírat (2). koupit chytit. zaregistrovat co. dát věci dohromady (1). zaznamenat (2). mít se k zaplacení účtu. svézt chytit. trend apod. dát se dohromady s uklízet pokoj po dětech atd. zatáhnout (1) vzít si (2) dát se po (1) vybrat si (3). uhnat si získat. zvýšit (4). nabrat. vydělávat si (ne moc). vydělat (1). zalátat (1). oţivovat se. motor naskočit. zvetit se. postřehnout (1). sbalit (8). najít chybu chytat. sehnat. levně. auto rozjet se zotavovat se. sebrat se. natáhnout se pro (1) odvézt (4). muset zaplatit útratu najít. nakazit se čím. najít opět. nalodit obv. popadnout (8). vzmáhat se. balit (1).informaci. pookřát. splašit (1) uklízet (1) vytáhnout (3). chápat se (1). znovu se chytit. vydělat. zaslechnout navázat na. opravovat koho vyzvednout si. taxi najít stopu rozkopat krumpáčem (1). zakoupit (1) přijímat (1). zatýkat (1) ulovit (2). sesbírat -/ put things in a tidy place přibírat/nabírat pasaţéry. zvednout se. získat. pasaţéry z ohroţené lodi na záchrannou. získávat (1) shrábnout (1) vyhmátnout (1). vydělávat shrábnout (ocenění apod. rozeznávat (1) zvyšovat. The translations which occurred only in the corpora are in bold and their frequency is in brackets. zatknout. schrastit (1). jít nahoru sebrat. vyhrát sbalit.). seznámit se. oţivit se. zadrţet. povšimnout si.

instalovat připravit vzniknout zakládat zařídit umístit organizovat vybudovat začít (něco dělat) zavést dojednat sestavit Total IC+K1+K2 (333) 22 14 9 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 IC(212) 19 12 8 4 7 7 3 5 6 6 4 5 2 4 1 3 3 1 K1 (89) 1 2 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 K2 (32) 2 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 2 69 . zřizovat zaloţit (si) postavit usadit ustavit vytvořit nainstalovat.g. Other highlighted verbs (which are either modulations or they have a shift in meaning) occurred only once. Here was a perfect opportunity to film. There are several translations by a Czech verb which are worth commenting on. After a manual selection 199 corresponding translations of the phrasal verb into Czech by a verb were found. The translation umístit does not fall into any of the semantic categories retrieved from the dictionaries used (see Table 18) and neither did any of the dictionaries list this translation.results was 333. připravit. There is a shift in meaning in translations from the InterCorp. Translation into Czech: Tahle příhoda nám poskytla vynikající příležitost k filmování. E.) (InterCorp) In this case a more accurate translation could be nainstalovat. This shift in translation might have been caused by the context and by the need for synonyms in the translated text. The Czech translation umístit occurred five times in the Intercorp. so we approached the nest cautiously and John set up the camera about six feet away. Opatrně jsme se přiblížili k hnízdu a John umístil ve vzdálenosti zhruba dvou metrů kameru. Translations / Corpora and the number of PV occurrences zřídit.

propuknout domluvit něco rozbít tábor stát stavět utábořit se zařídit si spustit (křik) upevnit budovat dát do dávat dohromady dělat z dohodnout dopovat dostat se jít na volnou nohu chtít aby naaranţovat naladit na naplánovat narafičit nastavovat na nastolit nastraţit otevřít poloţit poskytnout postarat se posunout se pouţít prostřít provádět provést přetočit (termostat) rozmístit (milice) sestavit seznámit stát se něčím svést dohromady ubytovat udělat ujasnit si něco usídlit se vehnat se do vykonávat vymyslet vypracovat vyvinout vznikat zabývat se zahajovat 0 2 1 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 70 .

etablovat se (v oboru. The meaning in italics was not present in Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus and was only in the Oxford Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. uvést (se). ustanovit. vztyčit. otevřít.zapojit 1 0 0 1 zopakovat 1 0 0 1 vysázet (polygraf. zotavit někoho. rozbít nastavit.) 0 1 0 1 samostatně dělat 0 1 0 1 rozloţit 0 1 0 1 zavýt 0 1 0 1 provolat slávu 0 1 0 1 věnovat se podnikání 0 1 0 1 počnout 0 1 0 1 rozvřeštit se 0 1 0 1 vyjednat 0 0 1 1 dosadit 0 0 1 1 rozloţit 0 0 1 2 způsobit 0 0 1 1 Total 151 26 19 199 Table 17 – A list of translations of the verb set up by a Czech verb. ustavit. dohodnout. poskytnout komu co. posílit. udělat přípravy na co. Thirteen new groups were created based on English-Czech dictionaries. falešně obvinit. uspořádat co. postavit na nohy koho.). K2 = Kacenka 2 In the left column of Table 2 the semantic meanings retrieved from the monolingual dictionaries are listed. nastartovat. nainstalovat. smontovat. oblasti apod. instalovat. The Czech translations in the right column which are in bold do not belong to any of the semantic categories.). zaloţit (si) (podnik apod. pořádat postavit. připravit. svést něco na někoho. The highlighted verbs are not lexicographic equivalents. dát někoho dohromady. K1 = Kacenka. nabudit koho před čím. zřídit. postavit se na vlastní nohy vytvořit. osočit. zaloţit.zbudovat (provozovnu apod. zorganizovat. připravit k provozu. Semantic category start a business etc organize or plan sth build sth make an equipment ready to use make sth happen make sb feel good make people blame sb wrongly give sb money for a business/house help people start a relationship Czech translations usadit se. způsobit Připravit. shodit. sehnat komu co 71 . zařídit. sestavit. pomoci komu zařídit podnik. nalíčit. do pořádku. navodit.). sesadit vytvořit. seřídit. vybavit. postavit někoho na nohy narafičit to na někoho. sloţit. sestavit. vyvolat. falešně koho obvinit zavést do podnikání. hodit. naladit koho na co. způsobit. Note: IC = InterCorp. očernit. nařknout.

zveřejnit. zdvihnout. make a noise spustit např. zaplatit. napnout lana předkládat (spolehlivě) Table 18 – semantic categories identified in monolingual categories compared to Czech translations from dictionaries divided into semantic categories Table 19 compares translations from dictionaries with translations from the corpora studied. distance vytvořit. ustanovit (nový rekord) etc in sporting event ustavit. být při penězích. vydávat hlasitý zvuk. mít zajištěnou existenci zásobit vystavit. považovat se. pokřik (sport) achieve a new record speed. there was no corresponding Czech translation. utáhnout. založit (teorii apod. which could not be included in any of the categories from monolingual dictionaries. přijít se svou teorií zatáhnout.) sázet/vysázet (polygraf. dosadit (do funkce apod. za malíře. vylepit bolest.) živit se (podnikáním). být na tom dobře. mít jisté postavení. navrhnout na kandidáta vypracovat. The verbs in bold in the right column indicate the translations which were found in a corpus but not in any dictionary. považovat se připravit skleničky. pití upravit nám. přitáhnout. time. 72 .vyvolat. infekce napadat. For most of the „new categories‟ (9 out of 13) from the Czech dictionaries. vydat. The translations are divided according to Table 18 for better orientation.). zasahovat část těla vydávat se. The translation prostřít from corpora is a term which is more general and might be more suitable for including in dictionaries than the rather specific připravit skleničky/ pití.). stanovit jako. vzít (rundu apod. mít se např. There are several results which are worth noting: Whereas the Czech dictionaries did not provide any translation with the meaning help people start a relationship there were two translations in the corpora: seznámit and svést dohromady.

vzniknout (2). připravit. umístit (6) způsobit (1) naladit na (1). vzít (rundu apod. vznikat (1). zavýt (1). navrhnout na kandidáta vypracovat. zařídit (6). sestavit. smontovat. dohodnout. naaranžovat (1). nastraţit (1) zavést (4) seznámit (1). naladit koho na co. vypracovat (1). postavit se na vlastní nohy vytvořit. zřizovat (22). hodit. nalíčit. naplánovat (1). vytvořit. očernit. postavit někoho na nohy narafičit to na někoho. přetočit (termostat) (1). považovat se. nařknout. pořádat postavit. zotavit někoho. zařídit. falešně obvinit. vybudovat (4). oblasti apod. nainstalovat. vykonávat (1). dojednat (3). vytvořit (7). udělat přípravy na co. otevřít (1). osočit. zaloţit (si) (podnik apod.). poskytnout komu co. zaloţit (si) (14). stavět (2). sestavit (1). být na tom dobře. stát se někým (1). být při penězích. vztyčit. propuknout (3) dosadit (1) vysázet (1) věnovat se podnikání (1) prostřít (1) 73 . zřídit. falešně koho obvinit zavést do podnikání. uspořádat co. infekce napadat.).) sázet/vysázet (polygraf. zahajovat (1). nastartovat. považovat se připravit skleničky. stát (2). This translation was not present in any of the monolingual dictionaries studied. pokřik vytvořit. rozmístit (1). rozložit (2) instalovat. svést něco na někoho. posílit. nastavovat (1). za malíře. zasahovat část těla vydávat se. budovat (1). stanovit jako. vylepit bolest. The Czech translation sázet/ vysázet is used in polygraphy. ustanovit. dát někoho dohromady. postavit na nohy koho. začít něco dělat (4). mít zajištěnou existenci zásobit vystavit. mít jisté postavení. vyjednat (1) postavit (9). utábořit se (2). usadit se (7). poloţit (2). upevnit (2). připravit (6). organizovat (4). zdvihnout. nainstalovat (6). otevřít. pití Translations from corpora zřídit. sloţit. uvést (se). zveřejnit.).In the Czech resources a new semantic category was identified. vydávat hlasitý zvuk.). navodit.zbudovat (provozovnu apod. vyvinout (1). Czech translations from dictionaries usadit se. zaloţit. rozbít (2). mít se např.) živit se (podnikáním). sesadit vytvořit.). připravit k provozu. etablovat se (v oboru. založit (teorii apod. instalovat. ustavit. vyvolat. zorganizovat. ustanovit (nový rekord) ustavit. dosadit (do funkce apod. sestavit (3). počnout něco dělat (1) ustavit (7). vymyslet (1). sestavit. zakládat (6). rozbít nastavit. ustavit. rozvřeštit se (1). samostatně dělat (1). vybavit. usídlit se (1). postarat se (1) narafičit (1). způsobit připravit. svést dohromady (1) spustit křik (2). domluvit něco (2). zařídit si (2). jít na volnou nohu (1). dohodnout (1). přijít se svou teorií zatáhnout. zaplatit. do pořádku. způsobit. sehnat komu co -/ help people start a relationship vyvolat. zabývat se (1). rozložit (1). dávat dohromady (1). pomoci komu zařídit podnik. provolat slávu (1). seřídit. shodit. nabudit koho před čím. spustit např. vydat.

and 15). The comparisons of the meanings in bilingual English-Czech dictionaries with monolingual dictionaries show that the Czech dictionaries studied usually include most of the semantic categories which are present in the monolingual dictionaries investigated and often add some more (see Tables 5.upravit nám. None of the bilingual dictionaries studied stated that the translations were arranged according to the frequency of meanings of phrasal verbs. Thus. H2: English-Czech dictionaries do not sort their meanings according to the frequency of the meanings of phrasal verbs. In Web MetaTrans it is not possible to observe any rules for ordering the Czech translations. The Velký anglicko-český slovník (LEDA 2006) and Lexicon 5 Platinum dictionaries are more complex and in their entries they follow some kind of division of translations according to the semantic category. this hypothesis was refuted. 8. The translations which occurred only in the corpora are in bold and their frequency is in brackets. 5. This hypothesis was verified. napnout lana předkládat (spolehlivě) Table 19 – comparing translations of the verb pick up in the dictionaries and in the corpora. 11. Two of the three proposed hypotheses were verified. utáhnout. However. one was refuted.9 Data Analysis and Conclusions This subchapter deals with the results of the practical part of the thesis. no sorting rules are mentioned or are observable. H3: English-Czech dictionaries of phrasal verbs do not provide more meanings or more complete information on phrasal verbs than other bilingual dictionaries. H1: English-Czech dictionaries provide only a small number of phrasal verbs meanings. 13. přitáhnout. 74 . The only English-Czech dictionary of phrasal verbs which was studied sorts the meanings alphabetically.

this dictionary does not provide any illustrative sentences for the meanings of phrasal verbs. Web MetaTrans allows translators to click on the searched term and display the semantic categories as proposed by WordNet. This hypothesis was verified. This online tool allows using both tools described in this thesis – a dictionary and a corpus – simultaneously. 75 . which is the major drawback of his dictionary. Moreover. Users of Masaryk University computers may also use word sketches with sentences from the BNC to check the meanings. Although the total number of translations in the dictionaries is still lower than the number of translations retrieved from the corpora.B. according to the article by Gardner and Davies (2007). the number includes all the bilingual dictionaries). the verbs go on and set up feature a bigger number of translations and semantic categories in the dictionaries (N.When comparing the general dictionaries to the Vodička dictionary of phrasal verbs there where no significant differences regarding the number of meanings listed. This fact may be linked to the general frequency of occurrence of the verbs in question. The strikingly lower number of semantic categories in the corpora may be due to the fact that the range of genres in the corpora was limited. Number of translations / occurrences Number of semantic categories Phrasal verbs Corpora Bilingual dictionaries Corpora Bilingual dictionaries carry out 34 / 205 16 4 5 go back 65 / 711 25 5 9 go on 79 / 1323 97 16 31 pick up 137 / 742 116 25 24 set up 84 / 333 98 14 23 Total 399 352 64 92 Table 20 – Overview of total numbers of translations / occurrences and semantic categories Table 20 summarizes the results of the research and pinpoints the differences between the individual phrasal verbs. The general dictionaries (Velký anglicko-český slovník LEDA 2006 and Lexicon 5 Platinum) are more informative.

regarding the use of dictionaries and corpora for translating phrasal verbs. If you do not find a suitable translation in dictionaries.g. Velký anglicko-český slovník LEDA 2006. However. modulations and translations with a shift in meaning. 8-12) or the meaning of the verb. In some dictionaries (e. 2. try to look up the meanings of the phrasal verb in a monolingual dictionary of phrasal verbs (e. try looking up the phrasal verb in parallel corpora (e. If you are looking for a common meaning of the phrasal verb you are very likely to find it in all dictionaries (e.10 Practical Tips for Translating Phrasal Verbs The aim of this subchapter is to help find the most appropriate translation of a phrasal verb.The aim of the practical part of this thesis was also to provide inspiration for translators. vrátit se for the verb go back). InterCorp. Lingea Lexicon 5 Platinum) you can find illustrative sentences which will help you decide whether the translation suits your needs. 3. Try to find the most appropriate translation in an English-Czech dictionary. Kacenka or Kacenka 2).g. You can either check the meaning of the particle (for meanings of particles see pp. You can also encounter many synonyms from which some might be more suitable for your translation than a translation from a dictionary would be. 5. Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus where the meanings are clearly highlighted) and create a new translation. If you do not manage to find the translation in a corpus.g. corpora include various translations (which might not always be absolutely correct). On the basis of the results of the practical part the following strategy is suggested: 1. The tips are given in the following subchapter. This allows you to observe the phrasal verb in various contexts and with various types of texts.g. To see how translators use these strategies read the subchapter on the phrasal verb go back 76 .

You can also choose a verb. which is more specific or more general than the original.(pp. 77 . 51-56).

go on. In the third chapter. Given the fact that the practical part of the thesis included many resources. Kacenka and Kacenka 2 in particular. the most frequent phrasal verbs are listed. parallel corpora InterCorp. The second chapter then goes on to explain the syntactic behaviour of transitive. set up). describes their characteristic features and explains how the meaning of particles can help understand the meaning of the whole verb. pick up. Then the phrasal verbs were looked up in monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. as specified by Gardner and Davies (2007). the term dictionary is introduced. go back. The first chapter defines the term phrasal verb and other commonly used terms. This is especially important for identifying phrasal verbs in texts. it was necessary to provide their description in the theoretical part of the thesis. the term corpus is defined. Monolingual and bilingual dictionaries which are used in the practical part of the thesis are described. Semantic categories were created 78 . intransitive and both transitive and intransitive phrasal verbs. In the second chapter. The study included the five most frequent phrasal verbs according to Gardner and Davies (carry out. Types of corpora are outlined and some corpora projects are presented to help the reader understand the benefits of using various kinds of corpora. In the fourth chapter.Conclusion The aim of this thesis was to introduce the concept of phrasal verbs and examine and assess the suitability of the tools available for investigating English phrasal verbs and their translations into Czech. as well as by Trebits (2009). At first corpora were searched and translations of phrasal verbs by Czech verbs were identified and their frequencies were counted. The practical part of this thesis aims to examine the tools Czech speakers have at their disposal for translating English phrasal verbs.

the general dictionaries Velký anglicko-český slovník LEDA 2006 and Lingea Lexicon 5 Platinum are the most suitable as they usually provide semantic categories of meanings or some context for the translations at the beginning of a line and the verbs are grouped according to their meanings. the idea of the Web MetaTrans project seems to be heading towards “an ideal tool for the translator” which would consist of semantic groups of translations that would be arranged according to their frequency. the Czech translations were compared to the translations retrieved from the corpora. at the same time. especially if a commonly used meaning of a phrasal verb is used in English. The main benefit of parallel corpora is the variety of translations and their synonyms and the possibility to check the context. making it possible to search parallel corpora according to the semantic category of a particular translation. Finally. The bilingual dictionaries are useful. Therefore a subchapter called Practical Tips for Translating Phrasal Verbs is included. Nevertheless.according to the monolingual dictionaries and compared to (or occasionally supplemented by) the meanings of groups of translations found in the bilingual dictionaries. For this reason. In the Web MetaTrans no obvious system in ordering the translations into Czech was found. 79 . and. But developing such a tool would definitely be time-consuming and expensive. The results of the research indicate that Czech translators can benefit from all tools examined. Thus. none of the bilingual dictionaries studied is based on the frequency of phrasal verb meanings and therefore it might take longer to go through the various possible translations. in which a procedure describing the search for the most suitable translations of phrasal verbs is suggested. Vodička lists the meanings according to their deductibility or non-deductibility.

such as including non-verbal equivalents or zero translations should be applied. Further research is necessary to verify the current results since the scope of the present research is not sufficient. which included translations into Czech only. might also be interesting. A comparison of the frequency of phrasal verbs used in texts translated into English as compared with the present study. 80 . there are many tools which can help them find the correct Czech equivalents. Larger parallel corpora and more sophisticated tools and methods in devising search strategies and analysing their results.In conclusion. it can be said that although there is currently no English-Czech dictionary of phrasal verbs best suited for translators.

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The thesis first presents readers with background information on phrasal verbs. bilingual dictionaries and parallel corpora) for translators and for EFL speakers. carry out. Firstly.RESUME The aim of the present thesis is to introduce the concept of phrasal verbs and to assess the suitability of available tools for studying English phrasal verbs and their translations into Czech. the phrasal verbs were looked up in dictionaries (both monolingual and bilingual) and semantic categories were defined. set up. New translations and semantic categories were identified. In the last phase semantic categories with Czech translations from dictionaries were compared with the Czech translations retrieved from corpora. The study deals with five most frequent phrasal verbs which were identified in a study by Gardner and Davies (2007) – go on. The third chapter is devoted to a description of monolingual and bilingual dictionaries which are later used for the practical part of the thesis. Kacenka and Kacenka 2) and were sorted according to their frequency. The main objective of the practical part of the thesis is to compare and contrast data on phrasal verbs retrieved from monolingual and bilingual dictionaries and from corpora. translations of phrasal verbs were retrieved from parallel corpora (InterCorp. Secondly. The following two hypotheses were verified: English-Czech dictionaries do not sort their meanings according to the frequency of the meanings of phrasal verbs . The research revealed the importance of all three types of tools studied (monolingual dictionaries. Similarly. The term phrasal verb is introduced and various aspects of the behaviour of phrasal verbs are described. pick up and go back. in the fourth chapter various corpora are introduced.

suggesting an effective procedure for looking up Czech translations of phrasal verbs. V posledním kroku byly k sémantickým kategoriím s českými překlady . které byly vybrány na základě výzkumu Gardnera a Daviese (2007): go on. One hypothesis was not verified: English-Czech dictionaries provide only a small number of phrasal verb meanings. set up a go back. carry out. které jsou později pouţity ve výzkumné části diplomové práce. Ve třetí kapitole jsou popsány jednojazyčné a dvojjazyčné slovníky. Ve druhé fázi byly vyhledány překlady a významy ve slovnících a určeny sémantické kategorie.English-Czech dictionaries of phrasal verbs do not provide more meanings or more complete information on phrasal verbs than other bilingual dictionaries. Čtvrtá kapitola pak seznamuje čtenáře s korpusy. Úvod práce se zabývá frázovými slovesy a různými aspekty jejich pouţívání v angličtině. RESUMÉ Cílem předkládané diplomové práce je seznámit čtenáře s problematikou frázových sloves v angličtině a zhodnotit. Studie je provedena na pěti nejčastějších frázových slovesech. V první fázi byly v paralelních korpusech (InterCorp. Last but not least. Hlavním cílem praktické části diplomové práce je porovnání výsledků získaných vyhledáním frázových sloves v jednojazyčných a dvojjazyčných slovnících a v paralelních korpusech. Kacenka a Kacenka 2) identifikovány překlady těchto frázových sloves a seřazeny dle frekvence. zda jsou pro jejich studium a překládání k dispozici vhodné nástroje. a subchapter called Practical Tips for Translating Phrasal Verbs was included.

Výsledkem je v některých případech i stanovení nových sémantických kategorií. . Jedna hypotéza nebyla potvrzena: Anglicko-české slovníky uvádějí pouze malý počet významů frázových sloves. Anglicko-české slovníky neposkytují více významů nebo komplexnější informace neţ ostatní dvojjazyčné slovníky. ve které autorka navrhuje postup při vyhledávání českých překladů frázových sloves. Provedený výzkum dokázal důleţitost všech tří typů pouţívaných nástrojů (jednojazyčných slovníků. V závěru práce najdeme podkapitolu Praktické tipy pro překládání frázových sloves. dvojjazyčné slovníků a paralelních korpusů) pro překladatele a uţivatele angličtiny jako cizího jazyka. Byly ověřeny tyto hypotézy: Anglicko-české slovníky neřadí významy frázových sloves dle frekvence.přiřazeny překlady z korpusů a byly srovnávány.

1999 The Oxford Duden English-German Dictionary. New Edition. Cassel. Oxford. H. International Student Edition. 1993 Jonathon Green: The Cassell Dictionary of Slang. Ernst Klett Verlag. Fifth Edition. Oxford University Press. 1986 J. Oxford. Oxford University Press. 2000 Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 2003 Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford. 2000 Collins English Dictionary. 1983 Karel Hais. Pearson ESL. 1982 Ivan Poldauf: Česko-anglický slovník. Düsseldorf. Leipzig. Longman. Bloomsberry & Macmillan Publishers Limited. Praha. Stuttgart. Praha. LEDA. Břetislav Hodek: Velký anglicko-český slovník. Oxford. Third Edition. 2002 Collins English-German Dictionary. Larousse. 2000 Larousse English-French Dictionary. London. 1990 Rosemary Courtney: Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. C. LEDA. Oxford. Adam: Anglicko-český ekonomický slovník. London. Sixth Edition. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. 1999 Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. Longman. 2002 J. Praha. Oxford University Press. Millenium Edition. Fourth Edition. 1995 Marta Chromá: .APPENDICES Appendix 1 – Velký česko-anglický slovník LEDA 2006 HLAVNÍ POUŢITÉ PRAMENY Josef Fronek: Anglicko-český slovník. SPN. London. 1999 Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. 1996 Josef Fronek: Velký česko-anglický slovník. Oxford University Press. Oxford. LEDA. Second Edition. SPN. Paris. Academia/LEDA. 2001 The Oxford Russian Dictionary. Praha. HarperCollins Publishers. London & Glasgow. 1999 The Oxford-Hachette English-French Dictionary. 2003 Jaroslav Peprník: Slovník amerikanismů. Praha. Praha. Oxford University Press.

Academia. 2004 . 1998 Olga Martincová et al: Nová slova v češtině. Praha. Slovník neologizmů 2. LEDA. 1995 Slovník spisovné češtiny pro školu a veřejnost. Academia. 1–4. II.Anglicko-český právnický slovník. Praha. Academia. Praha. Praha. Sv. Praha. Academia. Praha. Nakladatelství Československé akademie věd. 1994 Slovník spisovného jazyka českého. Praha. Ivo Ţelezný. 1995 Patrik Ouředník: Šmírbuch jazyka českého. Academia. 1992 Akademický slovník cizích slov I. 1983–1994 Olga Martincová et al: Nová slova v češtině. 1960–1971 Slovník české frazeologie a idiomatiky. Praha. Slovník neologizmů.

the most of the texts are from 1990 19 99 FSC2000 100 mil. lemmatisation NO NO NO NO lemmatisation NO lemmatisation YES (partial) morphological tags NO NO NO NO morphological tags NO morphological tags YES (partial) short description sociolinguistically balanced corpus of informal spoken Czech corpus of informal spoken Czech Prague spoken corpus Brno spoken corpus short description corpus of the diachronic section of the CNC short description parallel corpus being compiled as a part of the InterCorp project Diachronic corpus Parallel corpus corpus name InterCorp . manually annotated Spoken corpora (synchronic) corpus name ORAL2008 ORAL2006 PMK BMK corpus name DIAKORP size (# of words) 1 mil 1 mil. YES YES balanced corpus. source of the Frequency Dictionary of Czech KSK-DOPISY 800 000 NO NO transcriptions of handwritten correspondence from 1990 . YES YES corpus of newspapers and magazines from 1995 20 07 SYN2006PUB 300 mil. YES NO modified SYN2000.Appendix 2 – The Sources of the Czech National Corpus Written corpora (synchronic) corpus name Size lemmatisation morphological short description (# of words) tags SYN2009PUB 700 mil.2004 ORWELL 80 000 YES YES Orwell's "1984".6 mil. 675 000 490 000 size (# of words) 1. YES YES balanced corpus. size (# of words) 44 mil. YES YES corpus of newspapers and magazines from 1990 20 04 SYN2005 100 mil. the most of the texts are from 2000 20 04 SYN2000 100 mil.

Appendix 3 – The texts available in Kacenka (http://www.phil.muni.cz/angl/kacenka/kachna.html) Literary Texts
Author Title Translator Format (see below) ____________________________________________________________________________ 1. Kipling, The Jungle Book 2. Rudyard Kniha dzungli Maixner 3. Kniha dzungli Skoumal 4. Amis, Lucky Jim 5. Kingsley Stastný Jim Mucha Full

Full

6. Lawrence, Sons and Lovers 7. D. H. Synove a milenci Wellek/Vancura Full 8. Synove a milenci Vancura/Novotna 9. Dickens, The Pickwick Papers 10. Charles Pickwickovci Tilschovi 11. Dickens, Oliver Twist 12. Charles Oliver Twist 13. Hardy, Jude the Obscure 14. Thomas Neblahy Juda Tilschovi Stankova Full Full Full Full Full 2 texts + align (Word)

15. Hardy, Tess of the d'Urbervilles 16. Thomas Tess z d'Urbervillu Stankova 17. Frost, The List of Seven 18. Mark Seznam sedmi Rambousek

19. Grahame, The Wind in the Willows 20. Kenneth Zabakova dobrodruzstvi Grimmichova 21. Fielding Tom Jones 22. Henry Tom Jones

Kondrysova orig. text in HTML, translation in Word 3 texts + an align of all three (Word) Both files for Word

23. Asimov, Reason (a short story) 24. Isaac Rozum Cerny 25. Dedukce Valina 26. Shakespeare Sonnets 27. William Sonety Macek

The following two texts were offered to us from outside. We did not add the KACENKA header or change the filenames; we just included the texts as they had reached us. 28. Everyman Word for Windows 29. Kdokoli (transl. by Pavel Drabek) 30. Orwell, 1984 George (only aligned version)

Non-literary Texts
31. Czech and English versions of a stock-market report Full

32. WHELP English and Czech versions of a SW help file text only

Appendix 4 – Kacenka 2
no. jaz.
2 en 3 cz 4 en 5 cz 6 en 7 cz 8 en 9 cz 10 en 11 cz 12 en 13 cz 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

1 cz Louise Erdrichová

titul Čarování s láskou Louise Erdrich Love Medicine Leslie Marmon Silková Obřad Leslie Marmon Silko Ceremony Toni Morrisonová Milovaná Toni Morrison Beloved N. Scott Momaday Dům z úsvitu N. Scott Momaday House Made of Dawn Ken Kesey Vyhoďme ho z kola ven Ken Kesey One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest Mark Frost Seznam sedmi Mark Frost The List of 7 Joseph Heller Hlava XXII

autor

en cz en cz en cz en cz en cz en cz en cz en cz en cz en

Joseph Heller Catch-22 Ernest Hemingway Fiesta Ernest Hemingway Fiesta John le Carré Smileyho lidé John le Carré Smiley's People Kingsley Amis Šťastný Jim Kingsley Amis Lucky Jim John Kennedy Toole Spolčení hlupců John Kennedy Toole A Confederacy of Dunces F. Scott Fitzgerald Velký Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby Anita Loosová Páni mají radši blondýnky Anita Loos Gentlemen Prefer Blondes Warren Miller Prezydent Krokadýlů Warren Miller The Cool World Ernest Hemingway Komu zvoní hrana Ernest Hemingway For Whom the Bell Tolls J. R. R. Tolkien Společenstvo Prstenu J. R. R. Tolkien The Fellowship of the Ring

Appendix 5 – Translations of phrasal verbs in bilingual dictionaries
CARRY OUT meaning - mac33 to do a particular piece of work ox34 perform, conduct sth (experiment, test lex35 provést, uskutečnit (plán apod) vykonat, splnit (co) web36 vod37 le38

to do something that you make sth a reality, have said you will do or implement (obligations, that you have been told to promises etc) do

uskutečnit, provést, uskutečnit, provést např. testy provést, realizovat, vykonat, provádět, uskutečnit konat, vykonat, realizovat, vyřídit, splnit povinnosti, splnit; (job, duty) vyplnit, splnit, splňovat hrozbu atd. vykonat, (duty) splnit, dostát čemu; učinit čemu zadost; (order) plnit, provést; vyřídit (obchodně) vynést, vynést ven vynést (ven), vynášet vynést provozovat

GO BACK meaning - mac return ox return lex vrátit se, jít zpátky web vrátit se vod vrátit se, jít zpátky např. do postele, vracet se (k bodu jednání, ke špatným stravovacím návykům apod.) sahat do minulosti, sahat svými kořeny le vrátit se, couvnout, znovu začít něco dělat

have existed for a long time

sahat (do minulosti), mít původ kdy/kde, pocházet (z minulosti)

pocházet z …, datovat se od …, sahat (do minulosti) aţ k …

33 34

Macmillan Phrasal Verbs Plus Oxford dictionary of phrasal verbs 35 Lexicon 5 Platinum 36 Web Meta Trans 37 Anglicko-český slovník frázových sloves 38 Velký anglicko-český slovník (LEDA 2006, Comprehensive English-Czech Dictionary

octnout se znovu na samém začátku. na podzim o jednu hodinu ukončit stávku. ustupovat zčernat (go black?) zabírat prostor. vytrvat.have known each other for a long time when classes begin again in school when clocks show an earlier time (of clocks and watches) be vrátit se (i do minulosti) set to an earlier time in order to allow for changing hours of daylight ukončit stávku go back on. go back (to) být nařízený dozadu obv. v čem). pokračovat trvat dál dít se. happen lex web vod pokračovat. probíhat nastoupit do sluţby ap. konat se. nesplnit or nedodrţet slib. progress. selhala mi paměť GO ON meaning -mac continue happening happen begin an activity/state ox continue a career etc. continue (an activity or relationship) take place. aţ k moři) být na tom stejně jako předtím. dít se pokračovat (s čím. occur. odehrávat konat se se. konat se.. zradit koho. vrátit se do práce ustoupit. začít činnost . vydrţet dít se. konat se le [continue] pokračovat. muset začít znovu od píky porušit slovo. ustupovat ustoupit. sahat (např.

připozdívat se. pohybovat se jít. pořád ţvanit o čem. pospíšit si. napřed mít se o co opřít. na desátou). [travel in front] jet/ jít napřed. (GAS) zase jít zapnout se. mluvit dál omílat co. jet dál. pokračovat (např. běţet. jít. týdny. vytrvale a nudně mluvit. pospíšit si [begin taking] (drug) začít uţívat. trvat. naskočit. blíţit se (např. jít/jet/letět. [start to function] (LIGHTS) rozsvítit se. hřebeny hor) ship/ plane) jet/ plout/ letět dál rozpovídat se vykládat. After a short pause . opírat se o co. stále moc o čem mluvit se opakovat begin talking again talk a lot go to another place receive payment from the government be spent on sth continue speaking esp. ubíhat.start taking a drug used for encouraging sb electricity etc:start working be lit začít brát Do toho!. utíkat (čas) do sth after time: pass pass (by) time. následně udělat co míjet. No tak! Zkuste to! vytrvat spěchat. spustit se. utíkat. jít (např. vycházet z čeho. (by vehicle/ (např. jet dál. plout dál pokračovat v řeči. táhnout se dál [walk on] jít dál. zapnout být zapnuté. míjet. vycházet z čeho jet vpředu pokračovat. začít se fungovat poté. (HEATING) zapnout se. být zapnutý. jet vpředu. táhnout. uběhnout. nasadit si. vytrvale mluvit. šňupat [hurry] spěchat. pořád se opakovat continue a journey ahead of others begin to receive money esp from an official source (eg the dole) be spent on jít na co (peníze apod. půlnoc) base an opinion on sth go to a place before sb continue travelling continue a journey opírat se o co. běţet. days … trvat. zapnout se naběhnout. (WATER) začít téci. válka pět let).) jít dál. ubíhat. minout (TIME) plynout např. ubíhat (čas) uběhnout.

poradit si (lidé) stárnout blíţit se např. vystoupit nastoupit na hřiště depart for a certain purpose (holiday…) mount and travel on (sth). chovat se chovat se zvláštně. jít na scénu. stát si. dařit se. pohnout se uspět.. na závodní dráhu atd. neform. rumour) poradit si stát si 5. postupovat. hnout se. Ale jdi! chovat se jak ţít. pokračovat. interruptions. [judge by sth] řídit se čím.begin performing replace another player in sport vystoupit. vystupovat vystoupit na jeviště nastoupit na hřiště. affair …) continue by adding some new point to what has already been said or written be helped or guided by sth (eg hearsay. pokročit. obejít se. vozit se na čem esp as a treat (donkey…) continue without change or relief (noise. dosáhnout úspěchu vyjít. sumě . jít to. vést si. chovat se. s angl. vysílat. výstředně dařit se zvl.

ty si (ze mě) děláš legraci! mít své místo jít na co. to není Nekecej! moţné!. Nekecej! Ale no tak!. obtain a result] vést si. Nesmysl! I don't believe you! táhnout komu (na určitý věk) vycházet např. počínat si. go on! go on with you! ale běţ! To ti tedynevěřím! nepovídej!. nesmysl!. SOCKS) dát se navléci or natáhnout. dát se k . být vydán za co být do koho beznadějně zamilovaný or expr zblázněný mít spolu dobré vztahy. víčko atd. dobře spolu vycházet mít úspěch.padnout jít nasadit (bota. Blbost!.) usu neg [fit] (GLOVES. (SHOES) Ale jdi!. dosáhnout výsledku [succeed in. s tchýní Go on (with you)! Ale jdi s tím. ale jdi!.

pole. Typ připravit stroj k tisku způsobit make an equipment ready to use nastavit. navodit. zaloţit. např. [establish] (school) zaloţit. (commission also) ustavit. připravit.) postavit např.mac start a business etc ox lex web usadit se.). dekoraci 1. vztyčit zátarasy apod. (commission. erect postavit. zorganizovat. vytvořit. vztyčit (dočasně .) cause. vyvolat. zařídit [arrange] (meeting. organisation. etblovat se (v zřídit obchod. (scholarship. ustanovit. zřídit vybavit. uspořádat co. na politickou dráhu atd. zaloţit oboru. zřídit si vlastní podnik.eg infection.). pořádat ustavit. seřídit. udělat přípravy na co připravit. monument also) vztyčit. record) vytvořit. sesadit. vztyčit.) připravit k provozu. zbudovat. club. produce (sth . vytvořit (tribunal) sestavit (např. apparatus) instalovat. rozbít (tábor) 2.) vod uvést (se) do světa obchodu. zaloţit. (experiment) připravit.SET UP meaning .sloţit. otevřít. firm) zřídit. způsobit (problém. naisnstalovat (přístroj apod. sestavit. le 4. stan. visit) dohodnout. návštěvu knihovny. up home] zaloţit si domácnost. zvláštní komisi) build sth place (sth) in an upright position. smontovat. v divadle postavit scénu. [place in position] (building) postavit. zaloţit (podnik apod.zbudovat (provozovnu apod. nastavit make sth happen . [s. etablovat se organize or plan sth estabilish. (tent. swelling) vytvořit. jev apod. vytvořit. ustavit. organize sth (office etc) zřídit. zařídit. zorganizovat. postavit se na vlastní nohy. [install] (machine. zorganizovat. oblasti apod.

zdvihnout. hodit. protest etc. narafičit to na někoho.) přijít se svou teorií . do pořádku.make sb feel good připravit. pokřik obv. falešně obvinit. postavit na nohy koho. naladit koho na co. zaloţit (teorii apod. posílit. distance etc in sporting event vytvořit (nový rekord) vyvolat vydat. swindled etc. time. loudly (sport) achieve a new record speed. vytvořit rekord ustavit. nabudit koho před čím dát někoho dohromady. ve sportu ustanovit. nařknout. osočit. zotavit někoho postavit koho na nohy make people blame sb wrongly prepare sb carefully so that he can be tricked. očernit nalíčit shodit. vydávat hlasitý zvuk. poskytnout komu co. nastartovat. navrhnout apod) na kandidáta vypracovat. sehnat komu co help people start a relationship make a noise begin to shout. svést něco na někoho falešně koho obvinit give sb money for a business/house zavést do podnikání pomoci komu zařídit podnik. dosadit (do funkce stanovit jako. spustit např.

zasahovat část těla povaţovat se vydávat se. být při penězích zásobit vystavit. vysázet text. zaplatit. mít se např. knihu mít jisté postavení. vylepit bolest. mít zajištěnou existenci .) ţivit se (podnikáním). utáhnout. vzít (rundu apod. povaţovat se. za malíře připravit skleničky. přitáhnout. být na tom dobře. infekce napadat. zveřejnit. napnout lana sázet.zatáhnout. pití upravit předkládat (spolehlivě) nám.) vysázet (polygraf.

navázat např.). dozvědět se zachytit naráţku. dozvědět se. zvednout se sebrat se. zaslechnout notice sth start sth after a pause continue telling (a story etc) after an interruption. vstát. po pádu z kola le (papers/ a piece of paper etc: from the floor) posbírat. (book etc) vzít do ruky. (child) vyzvednout. postavit se na nohy. zachytit (pach. všimnout si čeho. zvednout se na nohy vod sebrat. odposlouchávacího zařízení atd. sebrat (ze země). sbírat. zvedout se např. manage to continue following (eg a story) after an interruption). zachytit. pokračovat v čem zachytit smyslovými orgány . auto rozjet se . motor naskočit. postavit se. naučit rumour). trend apod. acquire a se knowledge of or a skill in (sth). pochytit. (news) dovědět se. pokračovat předešlých rozhovorů. acquire ath as one grows and develops vyzvednout přibírat. vzít koho na ruku. na téma navázat.mac lift sb/sth ox take hold of and raise sth lex web zvednout se. posbírat se.PICK UP meaning . sbírat. sebrat se. pochytit zaznamenat. povšimnout si. sebrat. rozpoznat (rys. napojit se např. ze země nebo s nábytku. zvednout obv. zdvihnout. start to function again zachytit. (language) pochytit.přímo nebo pomocí reflektoru. zvednout. zvednout telefon/sluchátko take sb in a vehicle learn/do sth new hear or gather sth (eg story. (skill: by watching) odpozorovat. bad habits) pochytit. sebrat někde něco.) navázat na. na ztracenou stopu. přijít k informaci (skill. osvojit si. nabírat pasaţéry. zaregistrovat co. naučit se. zvednout. stopu apod. usually casually and without special study .

zastavit se pro koho/co chytit. vzmáhat se. postavit se na nohy sebrat. zotavit se. vydělávat získat. nakazit se čím. postavit se na nohy. zvetit se. firma po hluboké krizi pookřát. oţivit lively. chytit signál) přístrojem elektromagnetické vlnění. přijít k něčemu. získat (podporu) nabýt. (TRADE) oţivit se. jít nahoru put things in a tidy place take sb in your vehicle svézt obv. become more zotavovat se. infection) chytit. newspaper …). message) zachytit buy sth receive an electronic signal buy or acquire sth. obchod. earn win. vydělat.). zotavit se. vyhrát . znovu se chytit.improve take sth in your hands get better. wind: become stronger earn money win a prize collect sth as wages. sebrat se. pookřát. získat. postavit se na nohy např. sehnat.) koho/co. najít opět. dostat chytit (nemoc apod. oţivit se (obchod). nabýt opět vydělávat si (ne moc) zvýšit. autostopem get an illness (illness. posbírat. počasí. TV (station) chytit. oţivovat se. zvednout. také sb on board. nabrat. (illness also) uhnat si získat. sehnat. (FIRM) postavit se na nohy. zvuk atd. naladit (stanici.) zlepšit (se) obv. (signal. obv. sesbírat collect sth (eg groceries. levně dostat. zlepšit se. ususally sehnat as a bargain receive or intercept chytat (za)chytit. sebrat se. zotavit se zdravotně. sebrat se. koupit. stop to give a lift to sb be infected by vyzvednout přibírat (cestující apod. (PRICES) zvednout se. improve or recover lepšit se. zachytit. sebrat se. přijít k Rad. secure (sth) in a contest shrábnout (ocenění apod. oţivnout. se zlepšovat se.

drinks.arrest sb try to start a sexual relationship find (sb) and arrest him or sbalit. klofnout. říkat. zaplatit. return to custody zatknout. make a place tidy rescue (sb) from the sea naloţit. spřátelit sbalit. mít se k zaplacení účtu. co se má dělat obv. napomínat.) chytat/chytnout za slovo. kárat být připravený zaplatit muset zaplatit útratu účet. klofnout having sexual relationship koho chytit zločince sbalit. hospitality in hotels. táhnout to s. dát ţenskou/chlapa. sebrat make sb's acquintance. sbalit. dítěti vyzvednout (si). opravovat koho napomínat. pasaţéry z ohroţené lodi na záchrannou znovu nahodit spadlá oka při pletení zachránit nabrat (při pletení) pay for meals. sebrat. zadrţet seznámit se. taxi nabírat rychlost najít stopu (pick up the trail) rozkopat krumpáčem . nalodit obv. be zatáhnout responsible for paying the (účet) large-scale debts of a business or country najít. sbalit narazit si. kárat. k placení najít (chyby) opravovat. nabalit usually with a view of si. se. objevit (chybu v textu apod. vzít si např. nabalit si. sehnat se dohromady s holku/chlapa na noc uklízet pokoj po dětech atd.