Presented at Cukurova University, Animal Science Dept.

Turkey , 30/11/2012

TITLE REVIEW : ENERGY EQUATION IN RUMINANT NURITION Muhamad Nasir Rofiq (Doctorate Student, Anmal Science Departement, Institute of Applied Science, Cukurova University)

Abstract This paper provides summative energy equation of ruminant nutrition and applies it to estimate the energy value of feed. Energy is the primary nutrient contributed by feed (TMR, forage and concentrate feed) . Some equation was developed using chemical compound (proximate analyzed or carbohydrate and protein fraction), digestibility experiment, rumen gas fermentation experiment and combined analyzed. Energy equation also was separated to classes such as forage, concentrate, animal source, fat feed and fatty acid. Specially for this paper is giving information about energy equation in ruminan nutrition by feed proximate fractionation, feed CNCPS fractionation, in vitro rumen gas fermentation, and in vitro rumen digestibility.

INTRODUCTION Feed is generally the major operating cost associated with livestock and ruminant operations. Over feeding situation is wasteful while underfeeding will decrease performance and profitability. Optimum feeding of animals is obtained by good

formulated feed which was contains nutrients enough and bio availabililty. To obtain good formulated feed, nutrient contain of feeding stuff should be meet to animal nutrient requirement. Nutrient in feeding stuff as chemical compound were analyzed at laboratory as procedure. But nutrient requirement f animal should be analyzed by bio research. Recently the result from chemical compound of feed and bio research could be use as mathematic formulation to estimate nutrient requirement and nutrient quality. Feeding stuffs of ruminant has high variety physical and chemical properties. It made high variety nutritive value for some of feeding stuffs (forages, by product, and some animal meals). The variety was caused by agronomic characteristics, sampling, geographic, and processing of feedstuffs. Their data were recorded well in nutrient list feed table. In feeding stuff tables, chemical and nutritive data are reported as well as
1

2001. most commercial laboratories offer standard feed test for forages. The result can estimate energy value of feed and digestibility.waste . in vitro gas fermentation and in vitro true digestibility. results are reported on as fed and dry matter basis. protein. Its level energy in formulated ration is the sum of energies in its component feeds. or total mixed rations. and its components. Extract ether. crude fat or ether extract. After formulation with dry matter basis for nutrient balanced.e. and minimize output of unused nutrients (i. grain. It could be estimated by bio experiment which its result is mathematic formulation as an equation to estimate their content. Animal Science Dept. Furthermore we may wish to identify key mineral or minor nutrient interest. 30/11/2012 some brief information to characterize the feed (NRC. Chemical nutrient Analyses in feed mostly for proximate analyze and van soest analyze to determine moisture. but it cannot be analyzed as it represents the potential of feed. such as meat or milk or as heat. That is water. FEED CHEMICAL COMPOUND The nutritive value of a feed is determined by the contribution it is able to make to nutritional requirements (energy. alfalfa hay and concentrate feed using data of chemical of feed. Crude protein. is its energy content. values convert to an as fed basis. 1980. heat and gas). which will maximize animal output of usable products. ADF and NDF is recommended when designing diets for ruminant. FAO. The fundamental characteristic of formulated rations for ruminant around which all other nutrients are structured. Typically. Their method was to separate feed into the nutrient components needed by the animal. The original system for analyzing feeds. Turkey . Recently accurate knowledge of the energy content of feeds is central to formulation of rations. crude protein. 1982. INRA. to do work as biological products. We should also know gross energy in feed analyzed by bomb calorimeter. 2012). The purpose of this article is to review some energy equation in ruminant nutrition was resulted by some researches and applies to TMR. and mineral) of the class of animal. Feed Analysis. the Weende system of Proximate analysis was developed in the 1860s by Henneberg and Stohman at the Weende Experimental station in Germany. 1988.Presented at Cukurova University. 2 . crude fiber.

the indigestible fraction of the carbohydrates present and nitrogen free extract (NFE) the readily digestible carbohydrate fraction. Animal Science Dept. Turkey . 3 . 30/11/2012 ash or mineral matter. This problem prompted van soest in 1963. crude fiber. For further analysis. especially for energy source from carbohydrates estimated by carbohydrates fractionation analysis was supported by data analyzed. Figure 1.Presented at Cukurova University. to develop his system of detergent fiber analysis which determine lignin the totally indigestible fraction of ruminant feeds as separate entity (figure 1). 1996) Inter fractionation of feed chemical nutrient between proximate system and detergent system (van soest) explain relation between their nutrient and substitute nutrient value each other (Figure 2). The substantial amount of crude fiber (CF) where as much of the NFE in some feeds is not digested. Schematic of detergent system of forage analysis (Van soest.

Classification of forage fraction using van soest method 4 . inter fractionation of chemical feed analysis between proximate and Van soest Figure 3. Animal Science Dept. 30/11/2012 Figure 2. Turkey .Presented at Cukurova University.

Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and Acid detergent Lignin (ADL). Total crude protein (CP). Estract ether (EE). 3. Animal Science Dept.Presented at Cukurova University. 4. Fractionation of plant carbohydrates Recently. 8. The system was the net carbohydrate and protein system (CNCPS) which was developed by Cornell University Nutrient managmen Planning System (UCD). 2. The system was classified feed chemical into 8 components : 1. Soluble protein (SCP). Neutral detergent insoluble CP (NDICP) and Acid detergent insoluble CP (ADICP). there is updated system for feed analysis which was used carbohydrate and protein data of feed. Dry matter (DM). 5 . Non structural carbohydrate (NSC) The CNCPS feed evaluation system data could be used for energy estimation using some equation which was developed combine with other data (in vitro digestibility or in vivo digestibility). 7. 5. Turkey . ash. 6. 30/11/2012 Figure 4.

2003) Figure 6. Animal Science Dept. The CNCPS scheme for feed carbohydrate fractionation (Modified from Sniffen et al. 1992 in CNCPS ver 3. Manual and references.. The CNCPS scheme for Protein fractionation (Modified from Roe et al. 2003 ) 6 . 30/11/2012 Figure 5. Turkey . Manual and references.Presented at Cukurova University. 1990 in CNCPS ver 3..

fats. The ME was used to maintenance. Sugar molecules of various types are the building blocks of carbohydrates. J. The flow and partitioning of dietary energy through the ruminant (Moran. 2005) Energy can come from various part of the feed. storage and structural.Presented at Cukurova University. The ME is energy available for ruminant as feed quality indicator. Turkey . They are digested and used almost instantly by the microbes in the rumen. keep condition. The sugar are chemically bound together in different numbers and in variety of ways to form the three types of carbohydrate : soluble. some of them lost in urine. All feed have a gross energy value. oils and even protein can provide energy. Animal Science Dept. Soluble 7 . activity. gas and heat to provide metabolisable energy (ME) to animal. Figure 7. Carbohydrates. Some are absorbed by animal as digestibility energy (DE). Carbohydrat. From DE. 30/11/2012 ENERGY IN RUMINANT FEED The energy in feed is a measure of that feed’s ability to help the animal function and be productive. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for livestock. Some of the gross energy (GE) is lost in feces. milk production. plant tissue dry matter is about 75% carbohydrates. pregnancy and growth (Figure 7). Soluble carbohydrates are the simple or individual sugar found in cells of growing plants.

The digestibility of various feed constituents can be determined with Organic Material Digestibility (OMD) as percentage of digestible organic matter per total dry weight. Protein. Structural carbohydrates are fibrous components of plant cell walls. Turkey . It does not take into account energy loss via gas (methane. only 2% until 3% of forages are fat or oil. 30/11/2012 carbohydrates are digested 100 times faster than storage carbohydrates. Fat can decrease the palatability of the diet and can coat fiber. (Semua sumber energy diatas dikasih contoh dan berapa jumalh energinya). This is. Digestibility relates to the proportion of feed which is not excreted in the feces and so is available for use by ruminant. they are digestibility. interfering with its digestion by rumen microbes. with total digestible nutrients intake expressed in Kg/day. 8 . The can bind the structural carbohydrates and make them less digestibility. Animal Science Dept. Starch in example of a storage carbohydrates. Fats and oils include vegetable oils and animal fat and processed fat. the rumen microbes can use a surplus of protein in the rumen fro energy. Fats and Oils. stem and in the bulbous roots of fodder crop. TDN expressed as an percentage. but it does indicate overall feed quality. leaf.Presented at Cukurova University.) and urine. It is commonly measured as a percentage. hemicelluloses and cellulose are all structural carbohydrates. Storage carbohydrates are made up of sugar subunits which are chemically bound together and are found inside plant cells. It is not direct measure of energy. metabolisable energy(ME) and total digestibility nutrient (TDN). Storages carbohydrates are digested 5 times faster than structural carbohydrates.. It is not used formally in Australia and England. Metabolisable energy content of a feed also called its energy density is measured as megajoules of ME per kilogram of dry matter (MJ /Kg DM). or Megacalories per kilogram of dry matter (Mcal/Kg DM). the intake of ME is expressed in MJ/day or Mcal/day. It is a less accurate measurement of energy than ME. They give structural support toplants but are indigestible and are not actually carbohydrates. It is founded in grains. Energy as feed quality indicator can be measured to three measurement. however and inefficient use of protein. Lignin and silica are often associated with structural carbohydrates in plants. They provide the structural support that plants need to grow upright. Pectin. Total Digestible Energy (TDN) is an older energy system used in USA and some countries.

They have difference nutrient value. The traditional and still most common.Presented at Cukurova University. There were two factors that determine the energy value of feedstuff for ruminant are its content of fat. Major variable affecting the measurement of digestibility is the amount of selection allowed by the animal. Cattle. so that they have difference equation for estimation energy availability. In addition. The accuracy of energy estimation is a function of the accuracy of laboratory analyses and the accuracy of the bio experimentation used to develop estimation equation. However. approach to estimating the energy value of feedstuff has been to calculate its total digestible nutrient (TDN) level using a factorial equation based upon analyzable component of feedstuffs. Many equation calculate TDN 9 . sheep and dairy cows will obtain different digestibility for the same feed. and the digestibility of its structural fibre (i. Others problem is that the botanical description of feedstuffs and time of year that it was harvested for forage. Animal Science Dept. Type of feed processing was obtained from industrial waste or agricultural industrial also effect on feed nutrient value and digestibility. ESTIMATION ENERGY IN RUMINANT NUTRITION Basic Principle for estimation of available energy and digestibility is estimated from chemical composition and bio experiment.e. Digestibility and energy value can be measured under a variety of conditions that influence the resulted values. Most energy values are predicted from fiber analyses because fiber is negatively related to the animal’s ability to digest and use nutrient in the feed. due to its generally high content in forage. 30/11/2012 THE PROBLEM FOR ENERGY ESTIMATION Prediction of energy availability from laboratory analyses usually requires specific equations for each type of feed. NDF). They have difference feed preferences. most scientist measure ad libitum intake and digestibility in the same trial by offering the animals 5 – 15 % more than they consume. due to its high energy value.the level of feed intake has a significant effect on digestibility and the utilization of its energy. Turkey .

( 0. Table 1. TSE(9610) Variables are in g/Kg OM 5. Nitrogen free extract (NFE) + Dig.0113 x ADF ) Grasses %TDNm= 105. CF(0. TDN .R.( 0.0098 x NDF ) %TDNm= 84.0159 x ADF ) 2 Moran.513 x NDF ) NEL(Mcal/lb)= 1. Jhon TDN(%)=5. metabolisable energy (ME) and/or NEl values of individual feedstuffs.2.054 .517EE .974 x ADF ) NEL(Mcal/lb)= 1.412 CP% + 0.249 CF% + 1. 25.46%EE .667 x NDF ) NEL(Mcal/lb)= 1.12 .( 0. digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and digestible non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) all corrected for a metabolic cost of digestion by the animal.( 0.78 + 0.2 .00414EE) – 0.6 .937 NFE% 2005 TDN (%)= 5.CF + Dig.037CF 4.4. TDN% = Digestible CP + Dig. Animal Science Dept. NEl.35. The some of variables used in the equation was indicate the correlation between the variable and energy balue (ME. Turkey .4 ME + 10. Page 29) 3 1985 Variables are in %DM ME (Kcal/kg OM) = 3260+0. digestible fat (multipled by 2.185 TDN – 1. 30/11/2012 as the sum of digestible crude protein (CP).0118A (UI eq.85%Ash 10 .000665EE) 2 – Alderman.598 x ADF ) NEL(Mcal/lb)= 1.00654CP + (0.85%ADF + 33.2 ME (Mcal. Some energy estimation equation for feed evaluation using chemical components of feed 1 D.2 . etc).( 0.89 ME (MJ/kg DM) = 11. MAFF (84) ME (Mcal/kg DM) = 3227 .Martens Legumes %TDNm= 86.25).( 0.fat x 2.011 .444 EE% + 0.455CP + 3.35.297 .119 x NDF ) %TDNm= 97.Presented at Cukurova University.2 .kg DM) = 0.( 0.5 Some Estimation Energy from Chemical compound of Feed Some energy estimation were approached using chemical compound (Table ). The estimated of TDN can be used to estimate the digestible energy (DE).( 0.31 + 0.

(25 UI)) resulted from Alderman (1985) was selected for legislation for estimate ME values. The effect of the over is the energy concentration in diets can be increased by feeding higher protein diets. ADICP. NDF. the digestibility discount may be too aggressive. lignin. crude protein. The NDF digestibility equation does not consider feed type. 11 . P. Animal Science Dept. et al. 30/11/2012 Energy estimation (eq. NRC (2001) Energy Estimation Energy estimation approached by NRC (2001) equation was mostly used for feed evaluation. but implies non-linearity of the ME of fat when added to diets. Equation (25) (UI) has a square term for EE. reproductive status and activity of the animal (linn. NDF. Fiber length of feed or particle size is not accounted for in the model ad this will impact DMI. crude protein. PAF. Turkey . The NRC-2001 energy equation system was evaluated by VandeHaar (2002) which was reported by Linn J (2003) that found some legitimate concerns with the energy system when it is applied to formulation of diets. the chemical component requirements and in vitro assay : dNDF48 : Ash. ADICP. 2003). lactation. The dietary energy requirements in NRC (2001) consider feedstuff digestion dynamics as well as the energy requirements for maintenance.H. 1999) For high energy feed or diet. Other energy estimation using chemical such as MAFF (1984). fat.Presented at Cukurova University. which improves the fit with high energy (high fat) feeds. PAF Lignin : Ash. growth. 48h NDF. Variable effect of feed type due to affect of lignin contain and in vitro digestibility of NDF after 48 hour does not substitute directly for the calculated NDF digestibility value (Wisconsin research). This agrees with what is known about the metabolism of fat. These were : Energy value of protein feed may be over evaluated.. J. TSE(9621) and Moran J (2005) using different chemical compound of feed. The approach used in the NRC (2001) is to calculate the enrgy value of feeds and diest directly from their nutrient composition. and the in vitro dNDF48 h was founded had higher value than in sacco NDF digestion (Robinson. fat.

2 + (tdNDF/100)*4.04*ADICP/CP)]*CP tdNFC(%) = 0.3 TDN1x (%) = DE/0. fat.2 + (tdCP/100)*5. Animal Science Dept.18*TDN1x0-10. if EE>1  FA = EE – 1 tdNDF (%) = [0. (3 -1) for cow 3x maintanenace for above maintenance DEp (MCal/kg) = DE1x*Discount MEp (Mcal/Kg) = [1.0122ME3 – 1.65 NRC (20010) UCD Energy Estimation UCD energy estimation was tried to correction the weakness of NRC (2001) energy system with different time NDF digestibility (dNDF 30 h) and considered the protein soluble contain of feeds. if EE > 3 MEp(Mcal/Kg) = 1. ADICP.703**MEp)] – 0.3)] * intake)]/TDN1x Intake = 2. soluble CP.04409 If TDN = < 60%.0046*(EE-3) .45] + 0.6 + (FA/100)*9.Presented at Cukurova University. here the equation for most feed from NRC (2001) : tdCPf (%) = [(CP*exp(-0. UCD energy estimation used chemical component of feed and in vitro gas production test. crude protein.4 – 0.75 * ((NDF-NDICP) – Lignin)* (1-(lignin/(NDF-NDICP))0. the discount for diets was set to 1.98*(100-[(NDF – NDICP) + CP + EE + Ash])*PAF tdFA (%) = FA. DE1x should be corrected with discount for productive level DEp Discount = [(TDN1x – [(0.012*ADICP/CP))] tdCPc (% ) = [(1. 12 . if EE < 3 NELp (Mcal/kg) = [0.37ME – 0.(0.45. note : if EE < 0  Fa = 0. Turkey .12 NEg (Mcal/kg) = 1.19 NEm (Mcal/kg) = 1.138 ME2 + 0.16 DE1x (MCal/kg DM) = (tdNDF/100)*4. The equation for calculating could be started from true digestible (td) of feed fraction then estimated DE1x or TDN1x.174 ME2 + 0. 30/11/2012 The NRC-2001 equation can be found on page 13 to 17 of nutrient requirements of dairy cattle in NRC (2001). The chemical components requirements were : dNDF30 : Ash.01*(DEp) – 0.0105ME3 – 1. The estimation from 24 hour gas production was a modification of the method of Menke and Steingass (1988) as well as estimates of the feed’s level of CP and Fat.01*DEp – 0.0 (no discount) If TDN > 60%. NDF and 30 h NDF Gas : 24 h gas production in vitro.42ME – 0.667 or = tdNDF 48 hour or = tdNDF30 h * 1.

The energy content of a feedstuff is not constant value.80) + ((EE-1)*0.132*NDF(%DM))) – (0. 3x).12 Discount = ((0.42*(DE1x)*0.05) NEL3x (MCal/KgDM) = NEL1x – ((NEL1x)*Discount energy/100)*intake)) Intake = 2 .82)). Turkey .98*2. A discount energy factor was formulated based on NDF and NSC content of feedstuff and NEl(1xM) values as % per unit of energy intake (M). from (3x maintenance – 1) NEm(MCal/KgDM)= ((1.98)+((CP–ADICP)*(1-(FT/5))*0. its energy content tends to decline.138*(DE1x*0. 30/11/2012 TDN1x (%) = ((CP-ADICP)*(FT/5)*0. As its intake by the animal increase.Presented at Cukurova University. Because NEL1x at maintenance is not representative of the energy value of feed or diet at production level.01) – 0.12 NEG(MCal/KgDM)= ((1. In UCD factorial approach to estimate feed energy levels.H.82)^3)) – 1.25) + (NDF*dNDF) + (0.04409 x TDN1x) ME1x (Mcal/Kg) = ((DE1x)*1.0122*(DE1x*0.174*(DE1x)*0.((0.Mcal/Kg))) + (NSC(%DM)*0. (2001) TDN1x is the TDN value of a feed or diet at maintenance intake (NRC.82)^3)) – 1.82)).37*(DE1x*0.033 + (0. To 13 .0105*(DE1x)*0.45 NEL 1x (MCal/Kg) = (TDN1x*0. Net energy values for lactation at level production (NEl 3xM). since it passes through the intestine faster allowing rumen microorganism and intestinal enzymes less time to digest available nutrient.65 Where : CP = crude protein (% of DM) ADICP = acid detergent insoluble CP (% of DM) FT = feed type (1=silage. Animal Science Dept.0266) – 0.2 =wet by-product. 3 = others) EE = ether extract (% of DM) NDF = ash-free NDF assayed with sodium sulphite and amylase (% of DM) dNDF = in vitro NDF digestibility at 30 hours (% of NDF) Ash = ash (% DM) NE1 = energy value at 1xM intake NSC = non-fibre carbohydrate calculated as 100-ASH-EE-NDF-CP DE1x= Digestible energy at maintenance level NEL1x = Net energy lactation at maintenance level NEL3x = Net energy lactation at production level NEm = Net energy maintenance at production level NEG = Net energy gain at production level Robinson P.82)^2)) + ((0.98*(100-ASH-EE-NDF-CP))) DE1x (Mcal/Kg) = (0. a discount factor was developed to correct for decrease net energy level at production (NEl.((0.033*NEL1x.82)^2)) + ((0. 2001).

0756 + 0. Animal Science Dept.25 + (0.01114 EUDOM + 0.0147 Ash – 0. complete diet for ruminant was less predicted by equation and have so far not beed developed. while it had higher value for UCD30 (0.50) .Presented at Cukurova University. 30/11/2012 extent of the change.0.9695 + 0. 14 .02459CP – 0. The equation no. and TMR can only be evaluated if the composition and the energy value of the ingredients ae known. gas production and enzymatically degraded organic matter (EDOM). 2003). ME (MJ/kg DM) = 1.83) ME (MJ/kg DM) = 8.82) Where : GP = gas production in ml/200 mg DM.19123EE + 0.002139 EE. others variable in g/kg DM EUDOM = enzumatic undegraded organic matter The equation was determined from 30 TMR which was analyzed for nutrients. Boguhn J. refer to as the energy discount or simply discount. (2003) reported prediction of ME in TMR using chemical feed data. ME (MJ/kg DM) = 6.0143 c (CP-ADICP)) Where : gas24 is gas production in 24 hour (ml/g DM) and others variable are in g/kg DM The UCD equation evaluation result in low value of precision of prediction value (r2) for UCD gas (0..83) ME (MJ/kg DM) = 13.3 and 8 from table 4 pages 263 was recommended (Boguhn J. et al. et al. gas production and enzymatic degraded or undegraded organic matter.04108EE + 0.04095GP .CP ( r = 0.83) than NRC48 or NRClig. and it can be calculated as % per unit of energy intake . Turkey . et. quantity the extent of this change.EE – 0.903 – 0.01267CF + 0.00387CP + 0.00234CP (r = 0. The discount is a reflection of the NDF and NSC content of the feedstuff.000038CF.0292*gas24) +(2. al 2003) Total mixed ration.CF 0.46*fat) + (0.00508Ash ( r = 0. Energy Equation in TMR (Boguhn J.000060 CP.

Animal Science Dept. Article. T. Prediction of the energy value of compound feeds : In Haresign W and D. Sci. Peterhansel and M.J.. However the UCD30 was resulted in some correction for it. tylutki. Pell. Acknowledgements The authors thanks Professor Murat Gorgulu and Professor Hasan Rustu Kutlu for literature sources and attention. RUMİNANT YEMLERİNDE SE.. Using chemical component analyze only was considered for some type of feed which clearly information known..E. Univ of Nottingham. M. Best estimation of energy value of feed is using combination between chemical component of feed and digestibility data (in vitro or in vivo).tr/altekran.Presented at Cukurova University. L.A Cole. http://muratgorgulu. Kluth. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition – 1985 .E. H. ME. L. M. Nutr. Overton and J.P. The net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion. 30/11/2012 RESUME Estimation energy value of feed by some equation raised overestimated or underestimated value from truly energy value. O. NRC-2001 system for energy estimation which was commonly used and recorded in NRC table still not enough precision for some feed. Chase. TDN. Anim. UK. Arch. Stenhofel. Gorgulu.com. Mimeo Model Doc. 57(4) : 253-266. G.N.B. REFFERENCES Alderman. Cornell University. 2010-2011.asp?id=97 15 . NEM. 1985. M. 2003. NEL DEĞERLERİNİN HAM BESIN MADDELERİNDEN HESAPLANMASI. Tedeschi. Boguhn J. Fox. Rodehutscord.R. NEG. 2003. It should be considered four using selected equation depend on available data.O. Russell. T. A. Turkey . G. Nutrient digestibility and prediction metabolizable energy in total mixed ration for ruminants. Anim. D. van Amburgh.

Energy and protein in the 2001 dairy NRC : challenges for a ration formulation program. Ed. Turkey . 2005. Influence of storage time and temperature on in vitro digestion of neutral detergent fibre at 48 h.J.312 National Research Council.. Univ. Fadel.. C. MI. Energy allowances and feeding systems for ruminants. 30/11/2012 Linn.I. 1548-1558 Moran. J. M. 1987. 2004. Feed and Tech. MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture. Anim. UC Davis and ADA approaches to estimates the metabolizable energy values of feeds at maintenance energy intake from equation utilizing chemical assays and in vitro determinations. Estimating the energy value of corn silage and other forages. Washington DC National Research Council. Ed. Getachew.Presented at Cukurova University.G. J. Anim. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle.H. EEnergy in the 2001 Dairy NRC : understanding the system. 2002. pages 81-98 16 . Tropical dairy farming : feeding management for small holder dairy farmer in the humid tropics. Predicting intake and digestibility using mathematical models of ruminal function. 2003.H. Washington DC. National Academy of Sciences. Givens. Mathews. 1999. 1989. Landlink press. Tri-State (IN. Anim. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 2001. and Tech. Feed Sci. Sci. G. Robinsonp. Minesota. Robinson. Reference Book 433. P. D. J. Martens. Fisheries and Food). London.R. 6th rev. 85 pp. 80 : 257-266 Robinson. Evaluation of NRC. Animal Science Dept. 1984. and comparison to 48 h in sacco neutral detergent fiber digestion. 2001. IN. P. OH) dairy nutrition Conf.H. UCD. D. P. M. Proceeding of the Mnnesota Dairy Health Conference. UK. Proceeding 31st California Alfalfa and Forage symposium. J. Fort Wayne. 114: 75-90 VandeHarr. 7th rev. National Academy of Sciences. HMSO (Her Majesty's Stationery Office). 64.

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