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Presented at Cukurova University, Animal Science Dept.

Turkey , 30/11/2012

TITLE REVIEW : ENERGY EQUATION IN RUMINANT NURITION Muhamad Nasir Rofiq (Doctorate Student, Anmal Science Departement, Institute of Applied Science, Cukurova University)

Abstract This paper provides summative energy equation of ruminant nutrition and applies it to estimate the energy value of feed. Energy is the primary nutrient contributed by feed (TMR, forage and concentrate feed) . Some equation was developed using chemical compound (proximate analyzed or carbohydrate and protein fraction), digestibility experiment, rumen gas fermentation experiment and combined analyzed. Energy equation also was separated to classes such as forage, concentrate, animal source, fat feed and fatty acid. Specially for this paper is giving information about energy equation in ruminan nutrition by feed proximate fractionation, feed CNCPS fractionation, in vitro rumen gas fermentation, and in vitro rumen digestibility.

INTRODUCTION Feed is generally the major operating cost associated with livestock and ruminant operations. Over feeding situation is wasteful while underfeeding will decrease performance and profitability. Optimum feeding of animals is obtained by good

formulated feed which was contains nutrients enough and bio availabililty. To obtain good formulated feed, nutrient contain of feeding stuff should be meet to animal nutrient requirement. Nutrient in feeding stuff as chemical compound were analyzed at laboratory as procedure. But nutrient requirement f animal should be analyzed by bio research. Recently the result from chemical compound of feed and bio research could be use as mathematic formulation to estimate nutrient requirement and nutrient quality. Feeding stuffs of ruminant has high variety physical and chemical properties. It made high variety nutritive value for some of feeding stuffs (forages, by product, and some animal meals). The variety was caused by agronomic characteristics, sampling, geographic, and processing of feedstuffs. Their data were recorded well in nutrient list feed table. In feeding stuff tables, chemical and nutritive data are reported as well as
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such as meat or milk or as heat. 1980. to do work as biological products. FEED CHEMICAL COMPOUND The nutritive value of a feed is determined by the contribution it is able to make to nutritional requirements (energy. or total mixed rations. results are reported on as fed and dry matter basis. crude fiber. in vitro gas fermentation and in vitro true digestibility. The result can estimate energy value of feed and digestibility. 2012). That is water. 1988. Recently accurate knowledge of the energy content of feeds is central to formulation of rations. the Weende system of Proximate analysis was developed in the 1860s by Henneberg and Stohman at the Weende Experimental station in Germany. The original system for analyzing feeds. grain.e. FAO. protein. Its level energy in formulated ration is the sum of energies in its component feeds. ADF and NDF is recommended when designing diets for ruminant. Crude protein. Furthermore we may wish to identify key mineral or minor nutrient interest. Animal Science Dept. and mineral) of the class of animal. alfalfa hay and concentrate feed using data of chemical of feed. is its energy content. values convert to an as fed basis. 30/11/2012 some brief information to characterize the feed (NRC.Presented at Cukurova University. Chemical nutrient Analyses in feed mostly for proximate analyze and van soest analyze to determine moisture. most commercial laboratories offer standard feed test for forages. Their method was to separate feed into the nutrient components needed by the animal. which will maximize animal output of usable products. Extract ether. It could be estimated by bio experiment which its result is mathematic formulation as an equation to estimate their content. Turkey . 2001. The purpose of this article is to review some energy equation in ruminant nutrition was resulted by some researches and applies to TMR. The fundamental characteristic of formulated rations for ruminant around which all other nutrients are structured. Typically. Feed Analysis. After formulation with dry matter basis for nutrient balanced. INRA. but it cannot be analyzed as it represents the potential of feed. and its components.waste . heat and gas). and minimize output of unused nutrients (i. 1982. 2 . crude fat or ether extract. We should also know gross energy in feed analyzed by bomb calorimeter. crude protein.

30/11/2012 ash or mineral matter. 3 . Turkey .Presented at Cukurova University. Schematic of detergent system of forage analysis (Van soest. 1996) Inter fractionation of feed chemical nutrient between proximate system and detergent system (van soest) explain relation between their nutrient and substitute nutrient value each other (Figure 2). the indigestible fraction of the carbohydrates present and nitrogen free extract (NFE) the readily digestible carbohydrate fraction. The substantial amount of crude fiber (CF) where as much of the NFE in some feeds is not digested. especially for energy source from carbohydrates estimated by carbohydrates fractionation analysis was supported by data analyzed. Animal Science Dept. This problem prompted van soest in 1963. crude fiber. Figure 1. For further analysis. to develop his system of detergent fiber analysis which determine lignin the totally indigestible fraction of ruminant feeds as separate entity (figure 1).

inter fractionation of chemical feed analysis between proximate and Van soest Figure 3. Classification of forage fraction using van soest method 4 .Presented at Cukurova University. Turkey . Animal Science Dept. 30/11/2012 Figure 2.

ash. Estract ether (EE). Fractionation of plant carbohydrates Recently. The system was classified feed chemical into 8 components : 1. 3. Neutral detergent insoluble CP (NDICP) and Acid detergent insoluble CP (ADICP). Turkey . there is updated system for feed analysis which was used carbohydrate and protein data of feed. Total crude protein (CP). 7. 5 .Presented at Cukurova University. Dry matter (DM). 2. 30/11/2012 Figure 4. 6. The system was the net carbohydrate and protein system (CNCPS) which was developed by Cornell University Nutrient managmen Planning System (UCD). 4. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and Acid detergent Lignin (ADL). 8. Non structural carbohydrate (NSC) The CNCPS feed evaluation system data could be used for energy estimation using some equation which was developed combine with other data (in vitro digestibility or in vivo digestibility). 5. Animal Science Dept. Soluble protein (SCP).

2003 ) 6 . Turkey . The CNCPS scheme for feed carbohydrate fractionation (Modified from Sniffen et al. 2003) Figure 6. 1992 in CNCPS ver 3. Animal Science Dept. The CNCPS scheme for Protein fractionation (Modified from Roe et al.Presented at Cukurova University. 1990 in CNCPS ver 3.. Manual and references. Manual and references.. 30/11/2012 Figure 5.

Sugar molecules of various types are the building blocks of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates. keep condition. 30/11/2012 ENERGY IN RUMINANT FEED The energy in feed is a measure of that feed’s ability to help the animal function and be productive. Carbohydrat. They are digested and used almost instantly by the microbes in the rumen. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for livestock. oils and even protein can provide energy. Some of the gross energy (GE) is lost in feces. The ME is energy available for ruminant as feed quality indicator. The flow and partitioning of dietary energy through the ruminant (Moran. J. Soluble 7 . storage and structural. The ME was used to maintenance.Presented at Cukurova University. Soluble carbohydrates are the simple or individual sugar found in cells of growing plants. Figure 7. pregnancy and growth (Figure 7). Animal Science Dept. All feed have a gross energy value. Turkey . some of them lost in urine. gas and heat to provide metabolisable energy (ME) to animal. activity. The sugar are chemically bound together in different numbers and in variety of ways to form the three types of carbohydrate : soluble. milk production. 2005) Energy can come from various part of the feed. From DE. plant tissue dry matter is about 75% carbohydrates. Some are absorbed by animal as digestibility energy (DE). fats.

This is. Pectin. metabolisable energy(ME) and total digestibility nutrient (TDN). Fat can decrease the palatability of the diet and can coat fiber.. It is not direct measure of energy. The can bind the structural carbohydrates and make them less digestibility. the rumen microbes can use a surplus of protein in the rumen fro energy. Fats and oils include vegetable oils and animal fat and processed fat.Presented at Cukurova University. Protein. the intake of ME is expressed in MJ/day or Mcal/day. Lignin and silica are often associated with structural carbohydrates in plants. only 2% until 3% of forages are fat or oil. It is commonly measured as a percentage. The digestibility of various feed constituents can be determined with Organic Material Digestibility (OMD) as percentage of digestible organic matter per total dry weight. however and inefficient use of protein. 8 . stem and in the bulbous roots of fodder crop. leaf. They give structural support toplants but are indigestible and are not actually carbohydrates. Structural carbohydrates are fibrous components of plant cell walls. Fats and Oils. Energy as feed quality indicator can be measured to three measurement. They provide the structural support that plants need to grow upright. It is a less accurate measurement of energy than ME. or Megacalories per kilogram of dry matter (Mcal/Kg DM). with total digestible nutrients intake expressed in Kg/day. Metabolisable energy content of a feed also called its energy density is measured as megajoules of ME per kilogram of dry matter (MJ /Kg DM).) and urine. TDN expressed as an percentage. hemicelluloses and cellulose are all structural carbohydrates. It does not take into account energy loss via gas (methane. Digestibility relates to the proportion of feed which is not excreted in the feces and so is available for use by ruminant. they are digestibility. It is not used formally in Australia and England. Storage carbohydrates are made up of sugar subunits which are chemically bound together and are found inside plant cells. Storages carbohydrates are digested 5 times faster than structural carbohydrates. Turkey . Total Digestible Energy (TDN) is an older energy system used in USA and some countries. Animal Science Dept. but it does indicate overall feed quality. It is founded in grains. interfering with its digestion by rumen microbes. Starch in example of a storage carbohydrates. (Semua sumber energy diatas dikasih contoh dan berapa jumalh energinya). 30/11/2012 carbohydrates are digested 100 times faster than storage carbohydrates.

and the digestibility of its structural fibre (i. 30/11/2012 THE PROBLEM FOR ENERGY ESTIMATION Prediction of energy availability from laboratory analyses usually requires specific equations for each type of feed. Cattle. Major variable affecting the measurement of digestibility is the amount of selection allowed by the animal. due to its high energy value. Type of feed processing was obtained from industrial waste or agricultural industrial also effect on feed nutrient value and digestibility. Most energy values are predicted from fiber analyses because fiber is negatively related to the animal’s ability to digest and use nutrient in the feed. so that they have difference equation for estimation energy availability. There were two factors that determine the energy value of feedstuff for ruminant are its content of fat. Digestibility and energy value can be measured under a variety of conditions that influence the resulted values. However. Many equation calculate TDN 9 . They have difference nutrient value. Turkey . due to its generally high content in forage. most scientist measure ad libitum intake and digestibility in the same trial by offering the animals 5 – 15 % more than they consume. NDF). ESTIMATION ENERGY IN RUMINANT NUTRITION Basic Principle for estimation of available energy and digestibility is estimated from chemical composition and bio experiment. The accuracy of energy estimation is a function of the accuracy of laboratory analyses and the accuracy of the bio experimentation used to develop estimation equation. They have difference feed preferences. In addition. sheep and dairy cows will obtain different digestibility for the same feed. The traditional and still most common. approach to estimating the energy value of feedstuff has been to calculate its total digestible nutrient (TDN) level using a factorial equation based upon analyzable component of feedstuffs.Presented at Cukurova University.e. Others problem is that the botanical description of feedstuffs and time of year that it was harvested for forage.the level of feed intake has a significant effect on digestibility and the utilization of its energy. Animal Science Dept.

Jhon TDN(%)=5. MAFF (84) ME (Mcal/kg DM) = 3227 .517EE .0118A (UI eq. digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and digestible non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) all corrected for a metabolic cost of digestion by the animal. TDN% = Digestible CP + Dig. Turkey .( 0.185 TDN – 1. Nitrogen free extract (NFE) + Dig.78 + 0. Table 1.25). Animal Science Dept.( 0.46%EE .2 .444 EE% + 0.937 NFE% 2005 TDN (%)= 5.119 x NDF ) %TDNm= 97.( 0.455CP + 3.Presented at Cukurova University.037CF 4.( 0. metabolisable energy (ME) and/or NEl values of individual feedstuffs. etc). 25.297 .0113 x ADF ) Grasses %TDNm= 105.000665EE) 2 – Alderman.412 CP% + 0.2 .0159 x ADF ) 2 Moran. The estimated of TDN can be used to estimate the digestible energy (DE).12 .89 ME (MJ/kg DM) = 11.5 Some Estimation Energy from Chemical compound of Feed Some energy estimation were approached using chemical compound (Table ).85%Ash 10 .00654CP + (0.598 x ADF ) NEL(Mcal/lb)= 1.kg DM) = 0.fat x 2.00414EE) – 0.513 x NDF ) NEL(Mcal/lb)= 1. TDN .( 0.974 x ADF ) NEL(Mcal/lb)= 1.R.2.667 x NDF ) NEL(Mcal/lb)= 1.6 .( 0.4 ME + 10.( 0.2 ME (Mcal. TSE(9610) Variables are in g/Kg OM 5. Some energy estimation equation for feed evaluation using chemical components of feed 1 D.85%ADF + 33.( 0.35.CF + Dig.4. The some of variables used in the equation was indicate the correlation between the variable and energy balue (ME. Page 29) 3 1985 Variables are in %DM ME (Kcal/kg OM) = 3260+0.31 + 0.35. 30/11/2012 as the sum of digestible crude protein (CP).Martens Legumes %TDNm= 86. CF(0. NEl.054 .2 . digestible fat (multipled by 2.011 .249 CF% + 1.0098 x NDF ) %TDNm= 84.

TSE(9621) and Moran J (2005) using different chemical compound of feed. 2003). which improves the fit with high energy (high fat) feeds. 11 . The effect of the over is the energy concentration in diets can be increased by feeding higher protein diets. 30/11/2012 Energy estimation (eq. fat. NDF. fat.. 48h NDF. Other energy estimation using chemical such as MAFF (1984).H. The dietary energy requirements in NRC (2001) consider feedstuff digestion dynamics as well as the energy requirements for maintenance. but implies non-linearity of the ME of fat when added to diets. Animal Science Dept. The NRC-2001 energy equation system was evaluated by VandeHaar (2002) which was reported by Linn J (2003) that found some legitimate concerns with the energy system when it is applied to formulation of diets. PAF Lignin : Ash. NRC (2001) Energy Estimation Energy estimation approached by NRC (2001) equation was mostly used for feed evaluation. 1999) For high energy feed or diet. et al. PAF. Fiber length of feed or particle size is not accounted for in the model ad this will impact DMI. This agrees with what is known about the metabolism of fat. These were : Energy value of protein feed may be over evaluated. (25 UI)) resulted from Alderman (1985) was selected for legislation for estimate ME values. lignin. P. ADICP. Variable effect of feed type due to affect of lignin contain and in vitro digestibility of NDF after 48 hour does not substitute directly for the calculated NDF digestibility value (Wisconsin research). J. Turkey . The NDF digestibility equation does not consider feed type. crude protein. Equation (25) (UI) has a square term for EE. NDF. the chemical component requirements and in vitro assay : dNDF48 : Ash.Presented at Cukurova University. lactation. ADICP. growth. The approach used in the NRC (2001) is to calculate the enrgy value of feeds and diest directly from their nutrient composition. and the in vitro dNDF48 h was founded had higher value than in sacco NDF digestion (Robinson. crude protein. reproductive status and activity of the animal (linn. the digestibility discount may be too aggressive.

if EE > 3 MEp(Mcal/Kg) = 1.Presented at Cukurova University. (3 -1) for cow 3x maintanenace for above maintenance DEp (MCal/kg) = DE1x*Discount MEp (Mcal/Kg) = [1. DE1x should be corrected with discount for productive level DEp Discount = [(TDN1x – [(0.16 DE1x (MCal/kg DM) = (tdNDF/100)*4.(0.37ME – 0. Turkey . ADICP. NDF and 30 h NDF Gas : 24 h gas production in vitro.138 ME2 + 0. UCD energy estimation used chemical component of feed and in vitro gas production test.01*DEp – 0. if EE>1  FA = EE – 1 tdNDF (%) = [0. The chemical components requirements were : dNDF30 : Ash. note : if EE < 0  Fa = 0. here the equation for most feed from NRC (2001) : tdCPf (%) = [(CP*exp(-0.174 ME2 + 0. crude protein.04*ADICP/CP)]*CP tdNFC(%) = 0.0 (no discount) If TDN > 60%. The estimation from 24 hour gas production was a modification of the method of Menke and Steingass (1988) as well as estimates of the feed’s level of CP and Fat.6 + (FA/100)*9.3 TDN1x (%) = DE/0.19 NEm (Mcal/kg) = 1.98*(100-[(NDF – NDICP) + CP + EE + Ash])*PAF tdFA (%) = FA. 30/11/2012 The NRC-2001 equation can be found on page 13 to 17 of nutrient requirements of dairy cattle in NRC (2001).12 NEg (Mcal/kg) = 1.3)] * intake)]/TDN1x Intake = 2. fat. The equation for calculating could be started from true digestible (td) of feed fraction then estimated DE1x or TDN1x. if EE < 3 NELp (Mcal/kg) = [0.45. 12 .01*(DEp) – 0.703**MEp)] – 0.0046*(EE-3) .0105ME3 – 1.04409 If TDN = < 60%.2 + (tdCP/100)*5.45] + 0.2 + (tdNDF/100)*4.012*ADICP/CP))] tdCPc (% ) = [(1.42ME – 0.18*TDN1x0-10. soluble CP.667 or = tdNDF 48 hour or = tdNDF30 h * 1.65 NRC (20010) UCD Energy Estimation UCD energy estimation was tried to correction the weakness of NRC (2001) energy system with different time NDF digestibility (dNDF 30 h) and considered the protein soluble contain of feeds. the discount for diets was set to 1.0122ME3 – 1.75 * ((NDF-NDICP) – Lignin)* (1-(lignin/(NDF-NDICP))0.4 – 0. Animal Science Dept.

82)^3)) – 1.80) + ((EE-1)*0.05) NEL3x (MCal/KgDM) = NEL1x – ((NEL1x)*Discount energy/100)*intake)) Intake = 2 .82)).H.033 + (0.98)+((CP–ADICP)*(1-(FT/5))*0.25) + (NDF*dNDF) + (0. To 13 .138*(DE1x*0.174*(DE1x)*0. In UCD factorial approach to estimate feed energy levels.12 Discount = ((0. 2001).04409 x TDN1x) ME1x (Mcal/Kg) = ((DE1x)*1.98*(100-ASH-EE-NDF-CP))) DE1x (Mcal/Kg) = (0.45 NEL 1x (MCal/Kg) = (TDN1x*0. The energy content of a feedstuff is not constant value. (2001) TDN1x is the TDN value of a feed or diet at maintenance intake (NRC. a discount factor was developed to correct for decrease net energy level at production (NEl.((0. Animal Science Dept.98*2.82)^3)) – 1. since it passes through the intestine faster allowing rumen microorganism and intestinal enzymes less time to digest available nutrient. 30/11/2012 TDN1x (%) = ((CP-ADICP)*(FT/5)*0.2 =wet by-product.82)^2)) + ((0.01) – 0. As its intake by the animal increase.((0. Because NEL1x at maintenance is not representative of the energy value of feed or diet at production level.42*(DE1x)*0.Mcal/Kg))) + (NSC(%DM)*0.132*NDF(%DM))) – (0.37*(DE1x*0. A discount energy factor was formulated based on NDF and NSC content of feedstuff and NEl(1xM) values as % per unit of energy intake (M). 3x).82)).65 Where : CP = crude protein (% of DM) ADICP = acid detergent insoluble CP (% of DM) FT = feed type (1=silage.82)^2)) + ((0.0105*(DE1x)*0. its energy content tends to decline.12 NEG(MCal/KgDM)= ((1. Net energy values for lactation at level production (NEl 3xM).0266) – 0.0122*(DE1x*0.Presented at Cukurova University. 3 = others) EE = ether extract (% of DM) NDF = ash-free NDF assayed with sodium sulphite and amylase (% of DM) dNDF = in vitro NDF digestibility at 30 hours (% of NDF) Ash = ash (% DM) NE1 = energy value at 1xM intake NSC = non-fibre carbohydrate calculated as 100-ASH-EE-NDF-CP DE1x= Digestible energy at maintenance level NEL1x = Net energy lactation at maintenance level NEL3x = Net energy lactation at production level NEm = Net energy maintenance at production level NEG = Net energy gain at production level Robinson P.033*NEL1x. from (3x maintenance – 1) NEm(MCal/KgDM)= ((1. Turkey .

Presented at Cukurova University.EE – 0.00508Ash ( r = 0.002139 EE.CP ( r = 0.50) .02459CP – 0.9695 + 0.000038CF. quantity the extent of this change. others variable in g/kg DM EUDOM = enzumatic undegraded organic matter The equation was determined from 30 TMR which was analyzed for nutrients.000060 CP.46*fat) + (0.25 + (0. and TMR can only be evaluated if the composition and the energy value of the ingredients ae known. refer to as the energy discount or simply discount.19123EE + 0.00234CP (r = 0.04095GP . and it can be calculated as % per unit of energy intake . Boguhn J.01267CF + 0. 2003).0292*gas24) +(2. (2003) reported prediction of ME in TMR using chemical feed data.83) ME (MJ/kg DM) = 8. Turkey . while it had higher value for UCD30 (0.83) ME (MJ/kg DM) = 13.0756 + 0. The discount is a reflection of the NDF and NSC content of the feedstuff. gas production and enzymatically degraded organic matter (EDOM).0.0147 Ash – 0.01114 EUDOM + 0. gas production and enzymatic degraded or undegraded organic matter.903 – 0. et al. al 2003) Total mixed ration.. The equation no.04108EE + 0. Animal Science Dept. et.0143 c (CP-ADICP)) Where : gas24 is gas production in 24 hour (ml/g DM) and others variable are in g/kg DM The UCD equation evaluation result in low value of precision of prediction value (r2) for UCD gas (0. Energy Equation in TMR (Boguhn J.82) Where : GP = gas production in ml/200 mg DM. ME (MJ/kg DM) = 1. ME (MJ/kg DM) = 6. complete diet for ruminant was less predicted by equation and have so far not beed developed.3 and 8 from table 4 pages 263 was recommended (Boguhn J. 14 .CF 0. et al.83) than NRC48 or NRClig.00387CP + 0. 30/11/2012 extent of the change.

REFFERENCES Alderman.J. Fox. 2003. TDN. Nutrient digestibility and prediction metabolizable energy in total mixed ration for ruminants. RUMİNANT YEMLERİNDE SE. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition – 1985 .B. NEL DEĞERLERİNİN HAM BESIN MADDELERİNDEN HESAPLANMASI. D. L. Gorgulu. 57(4) : 253-266. However the UCD30 was resulted in some correction for it..A Cole. It should be considered four using selected equation depend on available data. Boguhn J. http://muratgorgulu. ME. Peterhansel and M. Pell. G.. O. Anim. M.P. 1985.Presented at Cukurova University. UK. Animal Science Dept. Univ of Nottingham. Cornell University. Turkey . Chase.. Rodehutscord.E. 2010-2011. van Amburgh. NEG. Article. Russell. 2003. NEM. G.asp?id=97 15 .E. Sci. T. M.O. L. Overton and J.tr/altekran. A. 30/11/2012 RESUME Estimation energy value of feed by some equation raised overestimated or underestimated value from truly energy value. M. Kluth.com. Anim. Nutr.R. Acknowledgements The authors thanks Professor Murat Gorgulu and Professor Hasan Rustu Kutlu for literature sources and attention. Using chemical component analyze only was considered for some type of feed which clearly information known. Arch. Mimeo Model Doc. H. Prediction of the energy value of compound feeds : In Haresign W and D. Tedeschi. tylutki. The net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion. NRC-2001 system for energy estimation which was commonly used and recorded in NRC table still not enough precision for some feed. T. Best estimation of energy value of feed is using combination between chemical component of feed and digestibility data (in vitro or in vivo). Stenhofel.N.

2001. Influence of storage time and temperature on in vitro digestion of neutral detergent fibre at 48 h. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle.I. UCD. 80 : 257-266 Robinson. Washington DC. P. Energy allowances and feeding systems for ruminants. Fisheries and Food). National Academy of Sciences. Tri-State (IN. D. 6th rev. UK. Ed. Animal Science Dept.H. J. 7th rev. P. 30/11/2012 Linn. Anim. Reference Book 433. 1987. M. Univ. 1548-1558 Moran.J.Presented at Cukurova University. 1999.H. Feed and Tech. Sci. C. 114: 75-90 VandeHarr. 2002. Estimating the energy value of corn silage and other forages. 64. pages 81-98 16 . Proceeding of the Mnnesota Dairy Health Conference. Givens.. J. Energy and protein in the 2001 dairy NRC : challenges for a ration formulation program. 1989. Tropical dairy farming : feeding management for small holder dairy farmer in the humid tropics. Proceeding 31st California Alfalfa and Forage symposium. Getachew. Landlink press. Minesota. Fadel. HMSO (Her Majesty's Stationery Office). UC Davis and ADA approaches to estimates the metabolizable energy values of feeds at maintenance energy intake from equation utilizing chemical assays and in vitro determinations.G. 85 pp. G. Mathews. P. J.. MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture. Fort Wayne. IN.H. Washington DC National Research Council. Turkey . OH) dairy nutrition Conf. Evaluation of NRC. and Tech. Anim. 2004. M. Robinson.R. D. MI. J. National Academy of Sciences. Predicting intake and digestibility using mathematical models of ruminal function. Martens. Feed Sci. 1984. Anim. and comparison to 48 h in sacco neutral detergent fiber digestion. Ed. EEnergy in the 2001 Dairy NRC : understanding the system. 2005. 2001. Robinsonp. 2003. London.312 National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle.