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V

*

^

"

NEW SYNAGOGUE
HEBREW AND
RELIGION CLASSES,
N.

STAMFORD HILL,

LIBRARY.

presented

With

the Zionists in Gallipoli

The Shield of David shown on the cover and title-page formed the badge of the Zion Mule Corps.

With
J.

the Zionists in
Lt.- Colonel

H.

^Patterson,
of
::

ns.o.,

Author
the

of

"The Man-Eaters

Tsavo" and "In

Grip of

the

THIRD EDITION

LONDON: HUTCHINSON &
::
::

CO.
:: ::

'PATERNOSTER

ROW

PREFACE
THE
a

narrative of the Zionists in Gallipoli has been

written during the enforced idleness of the past

month

month which has been spent

in

endeavouring to

recover sufficient health and strength to enable me to take a further, and, I trust, a more useful hand in the

Great

Drama now approaching its climax. In the following pages I have " set down nought in
is

malice," neither have I given a
praise

not due

word of praise where and more than due. My relations
I

with those with
cellent,

whom

came

into contact were ex-

and on the very rare occasions when they were otherwise it was not due to any seeking of mine, but,
unfortunately,

my

temperament

is

not such that I

can suffer fools gladly. My story is one of actual happenings, told just as I saw them, with some suggestions thrown in, and if from these a hint is taken here and there by those in the " Seats of the Mighty," then so much the better for
our Cause.

My
the

Hebrew nation
of

chief object in writing this book is to interest in the fortunes of the Zionists and

show them
even

what
the

their

under

command

Russian brothers are capable, of an alien in race and

1762223

vi
religion.

PREFACE

Those who have the patience to follow me these pages will, of course, see that I am not through
alien in

by any means an
for the people
its

sympathy and admiration

given to the world some of greatest men, not to mention The Man who has so

who have

profoundly changed the world's outlook.

J.

H.

PATTERSON.

London, 1916.

CONTENTS
CHAP.
I.

INTRODUCTION
.

.....
.
.

PAGE
i

II.

GENERAL POLICY OF THE DARDANELLES
CAMPAIGN STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF THE DARDANELLES CAMPAIGN FORMATION OF THE ZION MULE CORPS ARRIVAL AT LEMNOS
.
. . .

.17
22
31

III.

IV.

V.
VI.

A STRENUOUS NIGHT A HOMERIC
POLI

VII.

DESCRIPTION OF SOUTHERN GALLIPOLI

VIII.

CONFLICT

.... .....48 ....
.
.

59

73

77

IX.

THE ZION MULE CORPS LANDS

IN GALLI-

X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.

A NIGHT UP THE GULLY RAVINE How ZION MULES UPSET TURKISH PLANS LIFE IN OUR NEW CAMP A MAY BATTLE
GENERAL D'AMADE AND THE CORPS EXPEDITIONNAIRE D'ORIENT VARIOUS BOMBARDMENTS

XIV.

XV.
XVI.
XVII.

THE COMING OF THE GERMAN SUBMARINES TRENCH WARFARE IN GALLIPOLI XVIII. GUNS AND STAFF
.

....
.

XIX.

VISITS TO
FLIES,

XX.

THE TRENCHES DUST AND BATTLE

viii

CONTENTS
CHAP.

PAGE

XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.

WORK
THE

OF THE ZION

MULB CORPS
AND
.

.

203

AUSTRALIANS LANDERS .
.

NEW
. .

ZEA-

VOYAGE TO EGYPT 224 XXIV. RECRUITING IN EGYPT . 231 r XXV. LIFE IN EGYPT t 238 XXVI. RETURN TO GALLIPOLI 249 XXVII. BEELZEBUB 258 .266 XXVIII. A FEAT IN GUNNERY XXIX. THE FINDING OF THE SHIELD OF DAVID 277 286 XXX. BACK TO ENGLAND XXXI. THE EVACUATION . 301
. .
.

....
.
.
.

.211

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

APPENDIX

......
...

.

.

.

307

MAP
The "Handy" sketch
of the

toe of the Peninsula

Facing page 76

MUSIC
Hatikvoh (The Song
Lousdale

.......
of

Hope), arranged

by Eva
page 313

With the

Zionists in Gallipoli

CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION

I

T PROPOSE
*-

in the following pages to

have

on the general policy of the Gallipoli campaign, and also upon the operations of war in execution of that policy.
something
to
say

Now,

in the discussion of these questions, I shall

have some

criticisms

to

make, so

it

may

not

be altogether inappropriate to give the reader some little idea of a few at least of my qualifications for such a role
;

otherwise he might well

be tempted to say
his

"
:

A

fig for this
is

fellow and
a

criticisms.

What

he

but

mere

muleteer

"
?

Perhaps I may remark, to begin with, that when I took over the command of the Zion
i i

Introduction
about soldiering and the art of war, but very little about the muleteer or the artful mule. But that's just
I

Mule Corps,

knew

a great deal

"

a

" way we have in the Army From my boyhood I have either been
!

a soldier

or taken the keenest interest in soldiering, not

only in England but in

all

parts of the world.

My

military experiences extend through

home,

India and South Africa, and have been by no means of a sketchy character. I spent the best
part

commanded

South Africa, where I Yeomanry regiment, and at times Regular troops of all arms, during the Boer War. Those were glorious days days when one
of

three years in
a

could thoroughly enjoy warfare a wild gallop over the veldt, a good fight in the open, and the day won by the best men.

In these days war and romance. It is
job,

is

robbed of
a

all

its

glory

now but
at that
;

and

a dirty

one

dyke-maker's but much as the
of warfare,
it

soldier

may

dislike

this

method

has
of a

come
bad

to stay, and

we must make
as

the best

job, adapt ourselves to the

new conalways

ditions, and by sticking it out, done, wear down the foe.

we have

2

Introduction
In addition to practical experience of soldiers

and soldiering in England, India, and South Africa, I have watched our troops at work and
play
in

many out-of-the-way
the
King's
;

parts
Rifles

of in

the
East

Empire
in

African

Africa and

Uganda
;

South Africa

the Cape Mounted Rifles " " the Waffs in West Africa
;

" " the in Egypt, and the North- West Gippies mounted men of Canada away in the wilds of
the Klondyke.

Nor have

I

confined

my

attention

to

the

Empire's soldiers only. In my various visits to America

I

looked very

keenly into the training and organization of the American Army. I was especially fortunate
in being able to of being Colonel

do

this, as I

had the

privilege

Theodore Roosevelt's guest at the White House, while he was President, and
his letters of introduction
visitor

made me

a

welcome

I saw something of the and Artillery, both East and West. I Cavalry watched their Infantry amidst the snows of

everywhere.

Alaska.

I

also

noted

what

excellent

game

preservers

the

Yellowstone

Cavalry troopers made in the Park that wonderful National
3
i*

Introduction
Reserve,

crammed with
the run of
I

nature's

wonders and

denizens of the wild, where a half-tamed bear

gave
their

me

my

life

!

Whenever
could feel
I

was

with

American

soldiers,
I

methods were

so like our

own

that

never

There

is

was with strangers. only one fault to find with America's
is

not enough of it ; for its size, I should say that it is one of the Never have I seen more finest in the world.
that there
is

Army, and that

efficiency
officers

anywhere, and N.C.O.'s
I

more
;

keenness

among
is

and certainly never in

any army have

eaten such delicious food as

supplied to the American private soldier ; the soldiers' bread, such as I tasted at Fort Riley,

baked in military ovens, cannot be surpassed at *' the "Ritz," Savoy" or "Plaza."
incomprehensible to me why the average American should have such a strong prejudice He seems to imagine that it against the Army.
It
is is

some vague kind not do everything
all

of

monster which,

if

he does and

in his

power to

strangle

chain up, will one day turn and rend him, and
take
his liberties

away.
idea
of

To

give some

little

the feeling of

4

Introduction
Americans towards
relate
at a
little

soldiers or soldiering, I will
I

conversation which
a

overheard
of
in

Davenport,
I

Iowa.
the

town away out in the State had had a very strenuous morning
sun,

watching the jih Cavalry at squadron training and other work, and had got back to the hotel, thoroughly tired out after

hot

my

arduous

day.

In

the

afternoon

I

was

sitting on the shady side of the hotel which was on the main street ; at a table near me were

seated three Americans whose remarks

I

could

not help
various

overhearing
small

;

they were travellers in

articles,
;

one of them

being

a

specialist in neckties

while they were talking
past
;

two men
friend,

of the yth Cavalry walked

my

man, looked after them, and in most contemptuous tones shook his head, " said I suppose we must pay the lazy, useless
necktie
:

the

brutes just for the look of the thing."
speaker

The

was

a

pasty-faced, greasy, fat

hybrid,

about twenty-eight years old. I am afraid he was a type of which there are many in America ;
their

God

is

the almighty dollar, an idol the

blind worship of which will one day surely bring
its

own punishment.
5

Introduction

Of course
in America.

I

do not,
I

for a

moment, wish

it

to

be thought that people of

this

type predominate

am happy

to state that

among

her citizens

I

have met some of the most charm-

ing, hospitable, intellectual, unselfish

and noble

people to be found on the face of the globe. America holds many interests for me,
I

and

to pay our cousins a visit when the opportunity occurs. Perhaps the chief of her attractions, so far as I am concerned, centre in

never

fail

and around the State of Virginia, that beautiful piece of country where most of the great battles
of the Civil

War were
I

fought.
a point of studying

All

my

life

have made

military history

and the campaigns

of the great

Captains of the past. Indeed, I have tramped over many battlefields in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, not at all with the idea that the

knowledge would ever prove of value from a military point of view, but solely because I was
deeply interested in soldierly matters. In Spain and Flanders I have followed the
footsteps of both

In
St.

Napoleon and Wellington. have sailed up the stately Lawrence, and with Wolfe in imagination

Canada

I

6

Introduction
again stormed the Heights of
I

Abraham.

When

heights some hundred and fifty years after the great victory which added Canada to the Empire, I was able to realize,

stood on

those

more
Wolfe

fully

than

I

had ever been able to do from
which General

books, the magnitude of the task

night of the I3th September,

had before him when, on that fateful 1759, he led his

troops up that precipitous road to victory. In the United States I have, on horseback and

on

foot,

followed

Stonewall

down

the

Shenandoah

up and from Harper's Valley,
Jackson

Ferry (over the Potomac) to The Wilderness, where he was seized with such strange inertia,

and on to that
'

fatal Chancellorsville

where an
put an

unlucky

bullet, fired

from

his

own

lines,

end to
South.

his life

and

all

chances of victory for the

When

I

was

at

Washington, General Wather-

spoon, the Chief of the

War

College there, very

kindly supplied he had himself made of the battlefield of Gettys-

me

with maps and notes which
if

burg,

and

I

am

convinced

that,

General

Longstreet had arrived on the field in time, victory would have rested with the South
7

;

Introduction

and

I

am
his

equally convinced that,
alive,

if

Stonewall

Jackson had been

Longstreet would have

been in

What

proper place at the right time. a pity we have no Stonewall Jackson

with us in these days.

How

noble

is

the epitaph
I

on the monument of

only the words from memory, but they are quote
like this
:

this great

soldier.

something

"
saw
the

When
fit

the Almighty in His Omnipotence to give victory to the North over

South,
to

He

found
to

that

it

was

first

necessary

take

Himself

Stonewall

Jackson."

It

was

a great pleasure to

me

to see his wife,

Mrs. Stonewall Jackson, when I was at Washington, but unfortunately I did not have the
chance of speaking to her. I was delighted to meet
several

Miss

Mary Lee

times,

the daughter of the best-loved

General that ever led an
the

Army
of

Commander-in-Chief
Miss Lee gave

Robert E. Lee, the Confederate
pleasure

Forces.

me much

by

recounting

many

anecdotes
8

about her famous

Introduction
father.

she told

Among other interesting reminiscences me that when the war broke out her

youngest brother was a mere boy still at school, but the stirring accounts of the great fights in

which

his

father

commanded and

his

older

brothers took part, so fired his ardour that one

day he disappeared from school, and was not heard of by any of his family for the best part
of
a year. in
a

During

this

time he served

as

a

battery Artillery. day, while a furious battle was raging and the fortunes of war swayed first to the South and then to

soldier

of

One

the North, General Lee observed some of his

guns rapidly retiring from a particularly hot
position.

He

galloped

up

to

them

himself

and ordered them back into the

fight.

The

Commander-in-Chief

was

somewhat

surprised

when
"

a

powder-blackened, mud-grimed young
in
a

soldier,

blood-stained shirt, said to

him

:

What, Dad, back into that hell again ? and back into that hell the General sternly

"

doing won the day for the South. Luckily, his boy came out of the battle unscathed and is alive to this
sent
at
a

them

gallop,

and by

so

day.

9

Introduction
few years ago I received an invitation from the German General Staff to visit Berlin. What
saw then, and on subsequent visits, impressed me very much with the thoroughness of the
I

A

German
also

nation, not only
a civil

from

a military,

but

point of view. captain on the Staff was detailed to be " As bear-leader," while I was in Berlin.

from

A

my
we

were
day,

strolling

down Unter den Linden one
the
youthfulness
of

discussing

senior

the British Army, as compared with those of the German Army, he confided to me
officers of

that

when he was ordered

to conduct an English

Colonel, he fully expected to see an old and grizzled veteran, whereas to his astonishment,

he found

younger than himself, who was only a Captain. I shall never forget how, when I laughingly told him that I had jumped from
Lieutenant to Lieut.-Colonel

me

months
stopped

during
short

the
in

South

about eight African War, he
in of
:

the

middle

ment, saluted
"

me
Of
is

gravely and
course,
in

said

the "

paveare
this

You

Napoleon

!

these

days,

meteoric flight in our Army
!

quite an everyday occurrence
10

Introduction
other interesting things that the Prussian Captain showed me was their Hall of

Among many
the

Glory,

walls

of

which

are

covered

with

pictures of famous battles

and

generals.

While
to

we were
recruits
ture,

there

I

saw

little

parties of Prussian

being

taken

from

picture

pic-

shoulders

eye kindled the enthusiasm of the coming warriors by recounting to them the glorious and daring

guided by and glowing

veterans.

With
the

straightened old soldiers

deeds performed by their forefathers on
a

many

well-fought

field.
is

only one of the numerous carefully thought out schemes of the General Staff to instil into the German nation the spirit
This, no doubt,
of military pride
I

and

glory.

paid another

visit to

Germany
meet
in

shortly before

the present war broke out, and, soon after
return,
I

my

happened

to

London the

Military Attache, Major Renner, who seemed most anxious to hear from me what my
I suppose he wondered if I impressions were. had seen much of the vast preparations, which

German

were even then being made, for the great war into which Germany has plunged the world.
ii

Introduction

Of
to

all

my

observations the only things
as if
I

I

confided

him (which he noted down
!)

great importance

were that

they were of considered the

abominable type used in German newspapers and books responsible for the be-spectacled

German that although their railway stations were wonderfully clean, yet they were without a decent platform, and my insular modesty had
;

been shocked on many occasions by the amount of German leg I saw when the ladies clambered
into and out of the carriages ; and lastly, that I thought the long and handsome cloak worn by

the

officers

a slit at

might be greatly improved by making the side, so that the hilt of the sword

might be outside, instead of inside the cloak, where not only did it make an unsightly lump, but was hard to get at in case of urgent need.

A day or two after war was declared,
to

I

happened

be dining in London with Mr. and Mrs. Walrond. Among the other guests was a Staff
Officer
is

from the War
a

Office,

Major

R.,

who

now

recently in

Hearing that I had been Germany, he asked me what I thought
general.
I

of their chances.

told

him

that

I

felt

sure

that

Germany would have tremendous
12

victories

Introduction
to begin with, and that I believed her armies

would get to the gates of Paris, but did not and think they would capture Paris this time
;

that, although

it

would take us time, we would
for

beat

them

eventually,
of

so

long as

we
to

held
in

command
the end.

the sea

we were bound

win

Some
since
first

of the guests at this dinner party have

complimented

me on

the accuracy of the

part of my prophecy, and I feel absolutely convinced that the remainder of my forecast
will, in spite of all

bungling, prove equally true, the Navy is given a free hand, always provided and allowed to do its work in its own way.

had every opportunity given to me by the General Staff to see their Cavalry at work and while I was in
In poor, brave
little

Belgium

also I

;

Brussels,

Colonel

Fourcault,

commanding the
of

2nd Guides, gave me the freedom barracks, where I could come and go as
I

the

I liked.

became very good friends with the officers of the regiment, and we had discussions about
Cavalry,

equipment and fighting value. On being asked for my opinion on the relative value of the rifle as compared with the lance and sabre,
its

13

Introduction
I

unhesitatingly backed the

rifle.

I

saw that the

Belgian Cavalry were armed with a small, toylike carbine and a heavy sabre, and in the discussions

which we had, I told them that in my humble opinion they would be well advised to scrap both and adopt the infantry rifle and a
;

lighter thrusting-sword

but above

all I

upon them
would be

to be sure about the

rifle,

impressed as the

occasions for the use of the arme blanche in future
rare,

with

all

due deference to General

von Bernhardi.
I

was, of course, looked

upon

as a

Cavalry leper

for expressing such heretical opinions in a Cavalry

mess, but

I

had

Captain Donnay
called

revenge later on, when de Casteau of the 2nd Guides

my

on

me
after

at

my

club
little

during

his

stay

in

London
crushed.

poor

Belgium
to
tell

had

been
that

He came

especially

me

those

who were

left

of

the

regiment

often

talked of the unorthodox views I

had

so strongly

expressed, and he said that every word you told us has proved absolutely true."
:

"

We

all

had to agree

While

I

was

in

Belgium
14

I

went down to the
the guest of the

now famous Mons, and was

Introduction
7th Chasseurs a cheval, where I got a thorough insight into the interior economy of the regiment.

profound mystery to me that our Intelligence did not give Field-Marshal French earlier information while he was at
It has always

been

a

Mons

of the fact that large

German
the

forces

were
of

marching
Tournai.

upon

him

from

direction

Some

strange and

fatal inertia

must

have

fallen

our own, otherwise
for
a

both on the French Intelligence and it would have been impossible

large

German army

to have got into this

threatening position without information having been sent to the Commander-in-Chief.

When

in Spain I

courtesy of the

Madrid War

was privileged, owing to the Office, to see some-

thing of the Spanish Army. I cannot say that I was deeply impressed ; there was too much " Manana " about it, or in other words, " Wait " From what I observed I was not and see
!

at all surprised to find

it

Americans in Cuba.

It

crumple up before the would, however, be a
in the Spanish

glorious thing to be a colonel

Army,
But

as

they seemed to be able to do what was

right in their
this

own

eyes.
I

was some years ago, and
15

understand

Introduction
that the Spanish

Army, now that
Staff,
is

it

has got a

brand-new General
reorganized

to be completely
a

and

made

into

really

efficient

fighting force.

have many times seen the French and Italian armies at work and play so that
I

Of course

altogether

ing is claim to have some
policy,

knowledge of soldiers and soldiersomewhat catholic, and I may therefore

my

little

right to criticize the

the

strategy,

and

the

tactics

of

the

Gallipoli campaign.

16

CHAPTER

II

GENERAL POLICY OF THE DARDANELLES CAMPAIGN
TV
/["

ANY
4

leaders

of

thought

in

England,
certainly

f

whose

convictions

should

carry weight, are of the opinion that the expedition to the Dardanelles was in itself unsound,

and should never have been undertaken.
the
sense

Now

views

of

well-known,

practical,

common-

should not be lightly thrust aside, but perhaps as one who has travelled and read

men

much, and knows the East and the questions bound up with it fairly well, I hope I may not
appear too presumptuous if I venture to disagree with those who condemn the Dardanelles policy.
It

must

be remembered

that

although

we

declared war on Turkey she had already committed several hostile acts on our Russian ally,

and had flouted us most outrageously by allowing the Goeben and Breslau the freedom and
17
2

General Policy of Dardanelles Campaign
protection of her of her arsenals.

waters

and

the

resources

Of course the escape
of the

of these

two

ships

is

one

most extraordinary bungles of the war, which it is to be hoped will be carefully gone into at some future time, and the responsible
rests
I

culprit brought to book, for

head probably the blood of the countless dead in Gallipoli.
his
it
is

on

have reason to think that

more than
activity

doubtful whether the

mischievous

of

Enver Pasha and
sufficient to

his satellites

would have been

induce the Turkish nation to commit

an act of war against either ourselves or Russia, but for the presence at the gates of Constantinople of these powerful

German

warships.

Our
flouted

ally
it

having been attacked and we ourselves

became necessary

for us,

if

we meant

to uphold our prestige in the East, to declare

war on Turkey. A successful war against the Ottoman Empire the way to had immense possibilities in it
;

Russia

would be opened, guns and munitions
in

would have streamed

to

her through

the

Bosphorus, while wheat for ourselves and our but there was a allies would have streamed out
18

General Policy of Dardanelles Campaign
great deal

more than

this

at

stake,

as

I

shall

point out. It was well
unless

known

to the Foreign Office that

we showed

a strong

hand

in the

Near

East,

some

of the Balkan States,

who were even

then

trembling in the balance, would in all probability link their fortunes with those of the enemy.

These wavering States wished to join the
if

Allies

they saw

a

reasonable chance of the Allies'

success.

On

the

other

hand

Austria,

backed

up by the might of Germany, was at their gates, and with Belgium as an object lesson they feared
for their country.

What

therefore could have

been more calculated to gain them to our side than a smashing blow which would crumple up Turkey and give us direct communication with
Russia
?

Had we
it

succeeded (and
is

we ought

to

have succeeded)

certain that Greece

and
;

Rumania would now be fighting on our side the astute Ferdinand would have seen on which
side his

bread was buttered, and have either kept Bulgaria neutral, or made common cause with
;

the Allies

and those unfortunate

little

States,

Serbia and Montenegro,

would not have been
2*

betrayed and ground to dust.
19

General Policy of Dardanelles Campaign

The

fall

of Constantinople
a

would once more
of the world's

have been

great epoch-making event, which

would have changed the course
history,
for

our victorious army, hand in hand with Russia, would have made a
its

with

fall

triumphant march through the Balkans, where every State would then have rallied to our side.
This
allied flood

would number between two
of

and three millions
sistible force

men, and with

this irre-

burst upon the plains of Hungary and on to the heart of the Empire. Such an advance is not new to history, as the

we would have

Turks themselves, when in the zenith of their power, overran Austria-Hungary and were only
denied the domination of Europe under the very
walls of

Vienna

itself,

where,

as

everybody knows,

by John Sobiesky. No modern Sobiesky would have been found strong enough to deprive us of our prey, and with the fall of Vienna Austria would have been crushed, and the war would soon have come to a victorious
they

were

defeated

end.

did not penetrate quite so far, the very fact of such a large army advancing from the south and east would have drawn an immense
if

Even

we

20

General Policy of Dardanelles Campaign

number

of the

and Western
Russians,

enemy's troops from the Eastern fronts, which would have given the

the French and ourselves an opportunity of smashing through on those fronts and

between us crushing Germany.
Yes, undoubtedly the
fall

of Constantinople

was of
ticians

vital

importance, and for once our poliright.

were

In addition to our material gains in Europe, our prestige throughout the East would have
pinnacle such as it has never yet attained, and there would have been no such nuts

reached

a

for

us to

crack

as

the

Egyptian, Persian, or

Mesopotamian questions. Germany would be completely hemmed

in

and

the strangling grip of our Fleet would have been irresistible when this last link with, the outer

world had been severed.

Germany's wheat supply from Rumania, copper from Serbia, cottons, fats and other vital products from Turkey would be cut off, and economic life in the Central Empires would in a very short

time have been made intolerable.

21

CHAPTER
CAMPAIGN
~\ T
*

III

STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF THE DARDANELLES

OW,

^

having recognized the tremendous issues which were involved in the fall of
it

Constantinople,

may be
weapon
?

asked did the Governsufficiently

ment provide
they did,
handled.
if

a

strong to

carry out their policy

opinion the weapon had been rightly only

In

my humble

Of

course,

whoever

is

to

blame

for

the

Bedlamite policy of the

first

disastrous attempts

by the Navy alone bears
all

a

heavy responsibility.
forts

Beyond knocking the entrance
that
this

to pieces,

premature
of

effected was to give the
of

our

intentions,

by the Fleet Turks ample warning which they took full
attack

advantage by making the Gallipoli Peninsula an almost impregnable fortress and the Dardanelles a network of mines.
22

Strategy and Tactics

But even
been

this grave initial

blunder could have

rectified,

adopted attack on the Dardanelles.

in

if only sound strategy had been the combined naval and military

The problem
course, to

before the

strategists

was,

of

get through to Constantinople with the Fleet, and this could only be done by forcing

the Narrows, a strip of the Dardanelles heavily It was therefortified and only a mile wide.
fore necessary to

reduce the forts guarding the

Narrows, and with an army to hold the heights on Gallipoli dominating the Dardanelles, so as
to ensure the safety of the Fleet.

Having command

of

the

seas

gave

us

the

choice of launching the attack at any point we chose on the Turkish coast ; therefore the

Turks were

at the great disadvantage of

having

to divide their forces

into several parts, so as
as

guard such points possibly be attacked.
to
It

they thought might
a

was known that there was

Turkish army

on the

Asiatic side, at the south of Chanak, the

principal Fort
also that

on the Asiatic shore
lines,

of the

Narrows ;

the Bulair

some forty miles from

the extremity of the Peninsula, were strongly
23

Strategy and Tactics
fortified

and held

;

that

a

strong

force
of

was
the

entrenched
Peninsula
Helles

on
in

the

southern

portion
of

the
in

neighbourhood

Cape

; and, addition, that there was yet another Turkish army holding the heights on

the Aegean

at,

or near, a point

now known

as

Anzac.

anyone will take the trouble to study the map, he will see that the key to the Narrows is that portion of the Gallipoli

Now,

if

Peninsula which extends across from Anzac on
the Aegean, through the heights of Sari Bair, to the Dardanelles.
If,

therefore,

instead of dividing the

Medi-

Force (which unExpeditionary fortunately was the plan adopted) and having it held up or destroyed in detail, the whole
terranean
force
point,

had been thrown
and
I

in

its

entirety at this

a

vigorous

sledge-hammer
confident

blow
that
a

delivered,

feel

absolutely

crowning victory would have been gained and the expedition would have been a glorious
success.

Of the four Turkish armies the only one that could have opposed a sudden vigorous thrust
24

Strategy and Tactics
the key position was the one at and near Anzac, and this force we could have swept aside
at

and crumpled up before any of the others could possibly have come to its assistance.

That the .Expeditionary
been landed here
is

Force

could

have

proved by the fact that the two Australian and New Zealand Divisions did
land here, and these dauntless men, by themselves, almost succeeded in taking Sari Bair

and getting astride the Peninsula. For eight months they held their end up, and more than
held
it

up,

against

overwhelming odds.
at the

Had

time of the first " landing on the 25th April, 1915, by the incomparable 29th Division," one of the best the British

they been

backed

up

Army

has ever seen, together with the two French

hundred celebrated .75 guns, and the Royal Naval Division, no Turkish
Divisions,

with

their

troops at that time in the neighbourhood could for a moment have stood up against them,

and with our grip
Peninsula

once

established

on the

not

all

nothing could have shaken us off the soldiers in the Ottoman Empire.

Every Turk on the southern portion of Gallipoli must inevitably have fallen into our hands

Strategy and Tactics
within a few days, for it was well known that they were but ill supplied with ammunition and food. There was no chance of escape for

them, for our Fleet commanded all the waters round Gallipoli up to the very Narrows themselves,

and nothing could possibly have gained
;

the Asiatic shore
to cross at the
evitably sunk

while anything

attempting
in-

Narrows would have been

by the artillery which we would have mounted on the dominating heights of
the Peninsula.
Constantinople,

No

help could reach them from for the same reason, and it
in vain for

would have been

them

to have en-

deavoured to break through our lines, as was proved over and over again in the many deter-

mined but
Gallipoli,

futile

assaults

they

made on

us in

when they were
losses.

invariably

hurled

back with enormous

Once
of front

astride the Peninsula,

where our length
miles,

would be

less

than seven

with

over six

men

to the
off

could have shaken

yard holding it, nothing our strangling hold. It
a question of direct-

would only then have been
ing the
fire of

the heavy naval guns on the Forts in the Narrows, which would, of course, be done
26

Strategy and Tactics
by direct observation, and these strongholds would have been pounded to dust by the Queen Elizabeth and other battleships within a week,
thus leaving open the road to Constantinople. Such might have been the glorious ending of
the Gallipoli campaign
if

only sound strategical
plan of opera-

and
It

tactical
is

methods had been employed.
pities that this

a

thousand

was not adopted, for with such proved commanders as General D'Amade, General
tions

Birdwood and General Hunter-Weston

thrusters

all and with such incomparable men, there would have been no " fatal inertia " to chronicle.

It
this

must be remembered that

at the

time of

landing on April 25th, the Turks had had
little

but
it

time to organize their defences, and
a

would then have been

much

easier task to

have seized the heights of Sari Bair than when the attempt was made with raw troops later on
in August, an attempt which, even with all the drawbacks chronicled against it, came within

an ace of being

a success.

Another great advantage was that the weather, when we landed in April, was much cooler
27

;

there was also an ample rainfall, so that there

Strategy and Tactics

would have been no
water, a lack of

difficulty

about drinking-

which

in

to the attempt made in did not, of course, rely upon a chance rainfall at the time of our landing, for, as I shall show

August proved fatal that hot, dry month.

We

later

ample provision had been made for carrying and supplying water, at all events for
on,

the 29th Division.

Unfortunately, such a plan of campaign as I have outlined was not put into execution.
Instead, the force was split

up into no

less

than

nine parts, and practically destroyed in detail, or brought to a standstill by the Turks.

The

Australian and

New

Zealand Divisions
;

the 29th landed at Anzac, the key position Division beat themselves to death attacking six
different

and almost impregnable positions on
I

the toe of the Peninsula, where,

dare to say,

not a single man ought ever to have been landed ; in addition to the opposition they met with in

were subjected to a rain of shells from Asia, not only at the time of landing but throughout the whole time we wasted in occupyGallipoli they

ing this utterly (from a military point of view) useless end of the Peninsula.
28

Strategy and Tactics

The Royal Naval
effected nothing,

Division was sent somewhere

in the direction of the Bulair Lines,

where

it

and the two French Divisions
Asiatic coast, which,

made an onslaught on the
although
well

conceived

and

most

gallantly

put into execution, helped the main cause not at all. Of course, they were invaluable in preventing the Asiatic guns from firing on the agth Division at the time of the landing, but

then this Division should of course have been
landed at Anzac, where they would have been out of range of those guns. Whatever Turkish
force opposed the French at

Kum

Kale could

never have got across the Dardanelles in time to have opposed our landing at or near Anzac.

had been thought necessary to make demonstrations on the Asiatic coast, at the toe
If
it

of the Peninsula,

and

at the Bulair Lines, this

could have been done equally well by sending the empty transports to those places, escorted

by
in

a

few gunboats, and thus have held the Turks

position

by making

a pretence at

throwing

troops ashore at those points. Of course, it is easy to be wise after the event,

but

I

never did see, and never could

see,

the

Strategy and Tactics
point of dividing our force and landing on the southern part of Gallipoli, for, once we had got astride the Peninsula from Anzac to the

Narrows, all the Turks to the south of us must have fallen into our mouths, like ripe plums.

Napoleon has placed
the
besetting
sin

it

on record that

it

is

of

British

commanders to
be defeated in

fritter

away

their forces

by dividing them and
to

so

laying

themselves open

It would appear that we have not even taken Napoleon's maxim to heart, for if ever yet there was an occasion on which it was absolutely
detail.

vital to

keep the whole force intact for

a

mighty

blow,

it

was on that

fateful

Sunday morning,

April 25th, 1915, when one concentrated thrust from Anzac to the Narrows would have un-

doubtedly placed in our hands the key of the

Ottoman Empire.
Dardanelles campaign will go down to history as the greatest failure sustained by British arms, and yet no more glorious deeds

The

have ever been performed by any army in the
world.

30

CHAPTER

IV

FORMATION OF THE ZION MULE CORPS

T^ROM
their

the days of my youth I have always been a keen student of the Jewish people,
laws

history,

and customs.

Even

as

a

spent the greater part of my leisure hours poring over the Bible, especially that portion of

boy
the

I

Old Testament which chronicles

battles,

murders, and sudden deaths, little thinking that this Biblical knowledge would ever be of any
practical value in after
It
life.

was strange, therefore, that

I,

so

imbued

with Jewish traditions, should have been drawn to the land where the Pharaohs had kept the
Children
of
Israel
;

hundred years
that
I

bondage for over four and it was still more strange
in

should have arrived in Egypt just at the psychological moment when General Sir John

Marwell, the Commander-in-Chief, was looking

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
out for
a a suitable officer to raise

and command

Jewish unit. Now, such a thing as a Jewish unit had been unknown in the annals of the world for some
years
since the days of the

two thousand
and

Maccato

bees, those heroic Sons of Israel
valiantly,

who

fought so

for

a

time

so

successfully,

wrest Jerusalem from the grasp of the
legions.

Roman

had happened that there had come down to Egypt out of Palestine many hundreds of people
It

who had
the

fled

Turks.

from thence to escape the wrath of These people were of Russian
faith,

nationality

but of Jewish

desired to strongly into a fighting host and place their together lives at the disposal of England, whom the Jews

them

and many of band themselves

have recognized as their friend and protector from time immemorial. Indeed, by many it
held that the British people are none other than some of the lost tribes ; moreover, we have
is

taken so

much

of Jewish national life for our

own, mainly owing to our strong Biblical leanings, that the Jews can never feel while with
us that they are

among

entire strangers.

32

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps

Now
wishes

these people having made known their to the Commander-in-Chief, he, in a

happy moment of inspiration, saw how much it would benefit England, morally and materially, to have bound up with our fortunes a Jewish
fighting unit.

The
suitable
force,

next thing to be done was to find a
British officer to
at the

command

this

unique

and

time of

my

arrival in Cairo,

" a General Maxwell had already applied for " to be chosen from among the tactful thruster
officers

of

the

Indian

Brigade

then

doing

duty on the Suez Canal.
however, coupled with a strong backing from an old friend, MajorGeneral Sir Alexander Godley, decided him

My

opportune

arrival,

to offer
It

me

the

command.
was curious that the General's have
fallen

certainly

choice
course,

should

upon me,

for,

of

he knew nothing

of

my

knowledge of
for the Jewish

Jewish history, or of
race.

my

sympathy

boy, I eagerly devoured the records of the glorious deeds of Jewish military

When,

as a

captains

such

as

Joshua,
I

Joab,

Gideon
3

and

Judas Maccabseus,

little

dreamt that one day

33

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
would, in a small way, be a host of the Children of Israel
I, myself,
!

a captain of

On the 1 9th March, 1915, to my unique command, and

I

was appointed

on the same day I left Cairo for Alexandria, where all the refugees from Palestine were gathered together as the

guests of the British

Government.

On my
Jewish

arrival there I lost

no time

in getting

into touch with

the leading members of the Community, and I found the Grand

Rabbi

(Professor

Raphael

della

Pergola),

Mr.

Edgard Suares, Mr. Isaac Aghion, Mr. Piccioto and others, all most sympathetic and eager to assist me in every possible way. Nor must I
forget that an impetus was given to the recruit-

ing by the receipt of a heartening cablegram from Mr. Israel Zangwill, whose name is a household

word to

all

Zionists.

the 23rd March, 1915, the young Jewish volunteers were paraded for the purpose of " sworn in " at the refugee camp at being
Gibbari.
It

On

was

a

most imposing ceremony
officiated, stood in a

;

the

Grand
serious

Rabbi,
position

who

commanding
of

overlooking the long rows 34

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
explained to them the meaning of an oath, and the importance of keeping it, and impressed upon them that
lads.

and intelligent-looking

He

the honour of Israel rested in their hands.

He

then asked them to repeat after him, word for word, the oath of military obedience to myself and such officers as should be appointed over

them, and with great solemnity, and in perfect unison, the men, with uplifted hands, repeated
the formula.

The Grand Rabbi then delivered a stirring address to the new soldiers, in which he compared them to their forefathers who had been
led

out of Egypt by Moses, and at the end

he turned to
their

me and

presented
historic

me

to

them

as

modern leader. This memorable and

scene aroused

the greatest

enthusiasm among the throng of

Jewish sympathizers
this interesting

who had come
strength
of

to witness

ceremony.
the

Corps in officers and men was roughly 500, with 20 horses for officers and the senior nonriding commissioned officers, and 750 pack mules for
transport work.
35

The

sanctioned

3*

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps

To
had

assist

me

in

commanding the Corps,
a

I

five British

The

and eight Jewish officers. Grand Rabbi of Alexandria,

most

pious, earnest and learned

man, was appointed
in

our honorary chaplain. I was extremely fortunate
officers,

my

British

for although they

the

Army,
all,

or

had never served in knew anything about military
all

routine, yet they were
after

practical

men, and,
depends

at least in war-time, everything

upon having officers with plenty I had Mr. D. Gye, who was
the

of

common sense. lent to me from
;

Messrs. Egyptian Ministry of Finance Carver and Maclaren, expert bankers and cotton-brokers and the two brothers, Messrs.
;

C. and

I.

Rolo, whose business house

is

known

not only in Egypt, but also in the greater part of the world.
I

was, indeed, lucky in getting such good

men

who

loyally seconded me in everything and quickly mastered the details necessary for the
;

nor did they spare themselves during those four weeks of slavery which we together put in while getting the men ready

running of the Corps

for active service.

36

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
In addition to these British
as
I

officers,

I

had,

have already stated, eight Jewish
of these, Captain
a

officers.

One
been

soldier in

Trumpledor, had already the Russian Army, had been

through the siege of Port Arthur, where he had lost his left arm, and had been given the

Order of
for his
siege.

George (in gold) by the Czar gallantry and zeal during that celebrated
St.

Among
men
to
like

the N.C.O.'s and
;

men

I

had every

conceivable trade and calling

Mr.

Gorodisky,

a

highly educated Professor at the

Lycee in Alexandria, and afterwards promoted rank students of commissioned Law,
;

mechanics of all kinds, Medicine, and Divinity of whom I found the tinsmith the most useful.
;

Even

a

Rabbi was to be found

in the ranks,

who

was able to administer consolation to the dying and burial rites to those who were struck down

when death came amongst
in Gallipoli.
listed
I

us before the

also discovered

enemy among the enmedical

soldiers

a

fully-qualified
I

man,
a

Dr. Levontin,
after

whom

appointed our surgeon
permission
to

having obtained medical unit.
37

form

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
Through the
of

kindness and practical sympathy Ford, the Director of Surgeon-General
I

Medical Services in Egypt, in being, with its tents,
sanitary section.

soon had a hospital
beds,
orderlies

and

Altogether we were a complete within ourselves.
I

little

family

unit

divided the Corps, for purposes of interior economy, into four troops, each with a British

and Jewish officer in command ; each troop was again divided into four sections with a
sergeant in charge, and each section was again subdivided into subsections with a corporal
in

charge

;

and

so

went down to the
the
shades
of

the chain of responsibility and, by lively mule himself

Jehoshaphat, couldn't some of those mules kick Sons of Belial would be
! !

a

very mild name for them. One of the first things to be attended to was
find
a

to

the

men

place upon which to train and mules. I eventually secured an
suitable

Wardian from Brigadier-General then commanding at Alexandria. Here Stanton, we pitched our tents and went into camp on
excellent site at

April 2nd, 1915.
38

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
was no light task to get uniforms, equipment, arms, ammunition, etc., for such a body
It

of
I

men
had

at short notice,
all

but in

a

very few days

my men

under canvas,

my

horses and

hundreds of mules pegged out in lines, and the men marching up and down, drilling to Hebrew

words of command.

Never
had such

since the
sights

days

of

Judas

Maccabaeus

and sounds been seen and heard
;

in a military

camp

indeed, had that redoubtable

General paid us

a surprise visit,

he might have

imagined himself with his own legions, because here he would have found a great camp with
the tents of the Children of Israel pitched round about ; he would have heard the Hebrew tongue

spoken on all sides, and seen a little host of the Sons of Judah drilling to the same words of

command that he himself used to those gallant soldiers who so nobly fought against Rome under
his

banner

;

he would even have heard the

plaintive soul-stirring music of the

Maccabaean

hymn

chanted by the

men

as

they marched

through the camp.

Although Hebrew was the language generally
used, nevertheless
I

drilled

the

men

in English

39

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
also, as it

was

fitting that

they should understand

English words of command. The men were armed with excellent

rifles,

bayonets and ammunition, all captured from the Turks when they made their futile assault

on the Suez Canal.

For our badge we had the " Magin David,"
an exact reproduction of the Shield of David, such as he perhaps used when, as the Champion of Israel, he went out to fight Goliath of Gath.

may, perhaps, be wondered why we were equipped with rifles, bayonets and ammunition,
It

one of the unique things about this unique Corps that, although it was only a Mule Corps, yet it was a fighting unit, and of this,
this
is

but

of course, the

men were

all

very proud.

When we
Cairo, I left

were getting our equipment from Lieutenant Carver there to draw it
in the Citadel

from the Arsenal
Alexandria,

telling

and bring it to him that above all things
if

he must never
did
it

lose sight of the gear, for

he

would
else.

certainly

be

appropriated

by

somebody

Among
saddlery

other
for

he was drawing pack our mules, which I was anxious
things,

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
to obtain quickly in order to

go on with the

training of the men.

Carver saw the pack saddles safely put into the railway wagons at Cairo, saw the wagons
locked, sealed,
dria,
a

and consigned to

me

at

Alexan-

but the

moment

prowling

marauder from

they arrived at Gibbari the Royal Naval

wagons and see what they contained by the ticket on the outside, " induced the " Gippy station-master to deliver
Division, happening to spot the

them
were

to him, and before I even
at the station, all

knew that they
pack saddles

had arrived
safely

my

on board ship and on their way to
!

Suez with the Naval Division
I

tracked

down
the

the culprit,
I

to disgorge but,
transit

not only had understand, to pay for the
back
a

who

of

saddlery

to

Alexandria
for

;

although may buccaneer and might for the future make him " " tread lightly like Agag, yet it did not compensate me for the annoying delay caused by
this

this

have been

lesson

the

unblushing robbery.
of training

The work

went on from dawn to

dark, as officers

and men had to be taught every-

thing from the ground-floor up.
41

Not

a

moment

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
could

be wasted.

Drilling

the order of the day ; be exercised, fed and watered three times a the men had to be taught how to saddle day
;

and parades were horses and mules had to

and unsaddle them, load and unload packs they had also to be instructed in the use of the
;

and bayonet. Camp kitchens had to be constructed. Horse and mule lines had to be
rifle

swept and garnished, tents cleaned out, etc., and a thousand and one things crammed into
the day's work.

Notwithstanding the zeal and energy which we all put forth to get the Corps ready, yet had
it

not been for the sympathy of General Maxwell, and the active help of his Staff Officer,

Captain Holdich,

I

fear

it

would have been

impossible for us to have made the rapid progress we did in such a short space of time. I think it must be, in its way, a record to

form,
tion

equip and train a unit of this descripand have it actually in the firing line,
in
a
little

and doing useful work there,
three weeks
It
!

over

speaks

volumes

for

the

keenness
in

of

the

men, and

for the intelligent

way

which they

42

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
imbibed
into

the

knowledge

which

was

crammed

them

in such feverish haste.

After a
specially

couple of weeks' training we were favoured by a notification that the
of the

Commander-in-Chief
peditionary Force,

Mediterranean ExSir

General
It

Ian Hamilton,

would inspect
that
I

us.

was with mixed feelings
it

received this order, for, of course,

meant

a special parade, and also that the whole of the routine of drills, etc., would have to be knocked

out for one afternoon, and

every was precious this was no light matter.

as

moment

The Commander-in-Chief came and made
his

inspection

a

few

days

before

he

sailed

for

Mudros, and was most complimentary on the workmanlike appearance which the Corps
I

presented.

was delighted to receive about this time a notification that my Corps should be held in
readiness to
date.

embark

for

the front at an early

A
with

few days before we embarked
the

I

had the

privilege of partaking of the Feast of the Passover

Grand

Rabbi

and

his

family

at

Alexandria.

It will readily

be understood with

43

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
what
feelings

of

the various

rites.

deep interest I took part in I seemed to be living again
in this very

in the days of

Moses when,

same

land and not very far distant, the Children of Israel sprinkled their doorposts with the blood
of the lamb,
loins girded, their staves in their hands,

and partook of the Feast with their on the
were
dream.

eve of their departure from the land of bondage.
I

had to

ask myself

if

it

all

a

It

seemed
of the

so

strange that I should be partaking

same Feast four thousand years later on the eve of my departure, with a number of the
Children of
Israel, to

wander and

suffer

anew in

another wilderness.

Every

bit of the

the eating of the drinking of wine and vinegar, each symbolical of the trials to be gone through by the Israelites
before reaching the Promised Land.
All

ceremony was gone through, unleavened bread and bitter herbs,

had

its

charm
with
a

for

me, and when my hostess came round towel and ewer and basin, to wash my
as

hands

at certain

ized to
far

me

times during the Feast, it visualnothing else could have done those

away days when Pharaoh ruled the land. The Grand Rabbi had his three handsome boys
44

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
youngest a living image of one of Murillo's cherubs. He recounted to them in
at his knees, the

Hebrew

the story of their forefathers' sojourn

in Egypt,

and

their subsequent wanderings in
as

the wilderness,

no doubt the same story has
of
Israel

been

told

by the fathers

to

their

children for countless generations.
shalt

"

And thou
:

show thy son
I

in that day, saying

This

is

done

because of that

me when

which the Lord did unto came forth from Egypt."
in

During our training period we were the recipients of many

Alexandria,

acts of kindness

from the community there. The men were given gifts by a committee of ladies, composed
of

the

Baronne

Felix

Rolo,

Madame
had

Israel,

Menasce, Mesdames E. and

de

Madame
J.

Goar,

and

a host of others. a last big parade,

We

and marched from

Wardian Camp
the final
spacious

for

some three miles through the
Synagogue, to receive
of

streets of Alexandria to the

blessing

the

Grand Rabbi.

The

Temple,

in the street of the

Daniel, was on
capacity.

this occasion filled to its

Prophet utmost

The Grand Rabbi
themselves
like

exhorted the
soldiers

men
in

to

bear

good

and

45

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
times of difficulty and danger to call Name of the Lord, who would deliver
of

upon the them out
was

their

adversity.

His

final

benediction

most solemn and impressive, and will never be forgotten by those who were privileged to be
present.

A

couple of days later

we

received orders to

embark for Gallipoli with all possible speed. therefore strained every nerve to get aboard in

We

good time and in ship-shape order. The Corps was divided into two parts the Headquarters and two troops going on H.M.
;

Transport Hymettus, and two troops on

H.M.

Transport Anglo-Egyptian. It was no easy task in so short a time to get

men, mules, horses, forage, equipment, etc., from Wardian camp to the docks, a distance of two or three miles, and we worked practically
all day and all night slinging horses and mules on board, tying them up in their stalls, and storing baggage and equipment, etc., in the

holds.

Thirty days' forage for the animals and rations for the men were also put under the

hatches.

As one

of our duties in Gallipoli

would be to

46

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps
supply the troops in the trenches with water, an Alexandrian firm had been ordered to make some

thousands of kerosine
of

oil

tins,

the manufacture

which

is

a local industry.
fit

Wooden

frames had
saddles,

also

been ordered to

on to the pack

so as to enable the mules to carry the tins.

Each
water,

mule was to carry four of these

full of

equal to sixteen gallons. The tins arrived in good time, but the wooden frames were late in

and held us up over a day and beyond our time in Alexandria Docks.
delivery,

a half

having obtained delivery of the indispensable wooden crates, we joyfully steamed out of harbour en route for Gallipoli on the
last,
1

At

7th April, 1915.

47

CHAPTER V
ARRIVAL AT LEMNOS

T
*

~\

TE were

not the only troops on board the

Hymettus.
of

There were

officers of siege batteries,

some gunner and some officers and
;

a Royal Army Medical Corps the necessary staff of stationary hospital with

men

the

the

R.A.M.C.

men,

as

well

as

some

other

odds and ends for various units of the ExpeI hapditionary Force already at Lemnos.

pened to be the Senior Officer on board, so was Officer Commanding the troops during
the voyage.
I

would

like to

mention here that the captain,

officer, and chief engineer of the Hymettus were most helpful in every possible way, and I am glad to be able to pay this little tribute

chief

to

them

for

all

their kindness to us while

we

were aboard.
48

Arrival at

Lemnos
our fellow

One

of

the most interesting of

voyagers was Captain Edmunds, R.A.M.C., one of the medical officers in charge of the Australian Hospital stores. He had been taken prisoner

by the Germans while attending to the wounded during the retreat from Mons, and he told us many tales of his bad treatment at their hands.

He
but

was kept a prisoner for a considerable time, finally was released owing to some interofficers

change of medical

between England and

Germany.
quite uneventful. the Turkish torpedoWe, boat that tried to sink the Manitou, a transport
fortunately, missed
just

The voyage

to

Lemnos was

ahead of

us.

This troopship had quite an

adventurous time.
her and
the

The

torpedo-boat stopped

Turkish

humanity, called ten minutes to save themselves.
there was a

commander, with rare out that he would give them
I

am

told that

German

officer

on the bridge who was

heard quarrelling with the Turkish commander
for being so lenient.

The Manitou lowered

her boats in a very great

hurry, and unluckily a couple of them tilted up, with the result that some fifty or sixty men were
49

4

Arrival at

Lemnos
of

drowned.

At the end
a
first

the time limit the

Turk discharged
missile
is

torpedo.
it

Now when
a
as

this
it

fired

takes

dive before

steadies
vessels

itself

on
close

its

course, and

the
for

two
the

were

together,

luckily

Manitou, the dive took the torpedo well under her keel; the same thing happened when the second and third torpedoes were launched
;

finally, just as

the

Turk was about
with

to open

fire

and

sink the troopship

his guns, a British

destroyer raced up at full speed and chased the marauder on to the rocks of a Grecian isle,

where the Turkish

vessel

became

a total wreck.

The
still

training

of

the Zionists went

steadily

forward on board ship, for
quite raw
ship a

many

of the

men were
on the

in fact, I recruited several
sailed.

few hours before we

The mules

and horses took up a great deal of time every day, but we never had one sick or sorry and I may
;

say here that we never lost one from sickness all the time we were in Gallipoli, which must, I
think, be a record.

On

April 2oth

we

arrived

at

Lemnos and

anchored just inside the entrance of Mudros harbour in a blinding wind and rain storm. It
50

Arrival at
will

Lemnos
when
the

be

remembered

that

gods

quarrelled, Jove hurled Vulcan out of

Olympus
a

on to Lemnos, where he established
underground. The morning following our

forge

arrival,

one of the transports to windward of us began to drag her anchor, so our captain weighed immediately, fearing a collision,

and we

sailed

right

through the fleet to the opposite end of the Never in all my great land-locked harbour.
life

had

I

seen such a mighty armada of battle-

ships, cruisers, destroyers, transports, etc.

The
the

Queen Elizabeth was there, looking for
world
quaint
to
like a floating fortress.

all

There were some

French battleships, while the Russian

cruiser Askold caused universal attention,

owing

her

five

slim

funnels.

With the

soldier's

customary knack of giving appropriate names, the Askold was known throughout the Fleet as " the packet of Woodbines." Our Zionists, as

we

sailed by, astonished

her crew by bandying

words with them in Russian.

up the harbour was not to end without adventure, for, on turning round to cast
trip

Our

anchor, our ship ran aground on a mud bank. Here we stuck fast, and all the King's horses and
5i

4*

Arrival at
all

Lemnos

the King's men failed to tug us off again. Time after time naval officers came along with tug-boats

and

vessels of various kinds

which strained to

re-

lease us,

but each attempt was

a hopeless failure.

the afternoon of the 23rd, I got somewhat of a shock on being informed that the Zion Mule

On

Corps was to be divided. The half on the Hymettus was to go with the 29th Division, and the other half, those already on board the AngloEgyptian, were to be sent with the Australians and New Zealanders. Of course, this arrange-

ment would have been all Divisions had been landed
but
as
it

right
at

if

these three

the same place ; they were to disembark some dozen miles

apart

would be impossible

for

me
I

to keep an eye

on both halves
vision

of the Corps,

and

greatly feared

that the half away from

my own

personal super-

would not prove a success, for officers, N.C.O.'s and men were entirely new to soldiering, and it was too much to expect that they
could go straight into the firing
line, after

only

some three weeks'

and come through the ordeal triumphantly without an experienced commander.
training,
I,

therefore, after

many
52

vain endeavours to get

Arrival at

Lemnos

away, hailed a passing launch, which, as a great favour, put me on board the staff ship, the Arca-

had an interview with the Deputy Quartermaster-General, and begged of him not
dian,

where

I

to divide the Corps, as

I

feared that those
a

away

from

my

control

would prove but
it

broken reed.

He

told me, however, that

was impossible to

alter matters,

and that the Australians and

New

Zealanders had practically no transport, except what my Corps would supply, and that in any
case

we would not be separated for more than four days, because if we could not crush the Turks in that time, between the two forces, we were
going to give up the attempt and return to our
ships.

Well,

we

did not crush the Turks in the four
it

days, and, having failed,

was not

so easy to get

away, and the result was that, owing to lack of experience, and mismanagement in the handling
of

them, the two troops with the Australians, after a couple of weeks' service with that force,
refer-

were sent back to Alexandria, without any ence to me, and there disbanded.

As there were no boats
greatest
difficulty

available,

I

had the

in

getting
53

away from the

Arrival at
Arcadian, and
it

Lemnos

was only after wasting many valuable hours and meeting with many rebuffs,
that
I

me

a lift

eventually got a kind-hearted sailor to give back to the Hymettus. few steam

A

launches were badly needed to enable commanding officers to go aboard the staff ship to discuss

with the chiefs of the various departments such items as can only be settled satisfactorily at a
personal interview. I must say that I was not at
position
all

pleased with our
all

on the

mud
us,

bank, where, in spite of
still

efforts to

move

we

remained stuck.

In

the

first

place, I feared that
rest of

we would be

unable

to get

the transports on the morning of the 25th, the date fixed for the great attack, and even if by chance another vessel could

away with the

be found for
all

us, it

the men, horses,

would mean transhipping mules, baggage, forage and

equipment, which would be an immense labour in an open harbour like Mudros, where it is often
blowing half each attempt
a

gale.

It

is

no wonder

that, as

the Hymettus failed, I grew more and more anxious as to our ultimate chance of getting away in time to see the start
at hauling off

of the great fight in Gallipoli.

54

Arrival at

Lemnos

At last, on the 24th, the naval officers engaged on the work gave up all further attempts to haul at any us off, and reported the task as hopeless rate until everything was removed from the ship.
In the course of an hour
the
I

received a signal from
to tranship
all

Deputy Quartermaster-General
corps, stores, etc.,

my

Dundrennon, a
away.

from the Hymettus to the transport lying half a mile or more
I

On

receipt of this message

signalled back

and asked for tugs and
effect the transfer,

lighters to enable us to

but, although my signallers endeavoured for hours to attract the attention
of

those on

the

staff ship,

I

entirely failed to

get any reply.
of

I finally

tried to extort a response

some

sort

the effect

by sending an ire-raising message to that, on investigation, I found that

many
But

of the

men and

mules could not swim

!

my

sarcasm was wasted, for the Arcadian

remained dumb.
This failure in the signalling arrangements was
very marked
all

we

spent possible to get any message through, and one felt completely cut off from all communication with
the
staff

at

through the two or three days Lemnos. It was practically im-

ship.

There were no
55

arrangements

Arrival at

Lemnos
The
ship's

for getting about in the harbour.

small boats

heavy
This

sea,

would have been swamped in the and it was practically impossible to
together

secure a launch.
failure,

with

the

wretched

me serious qualms, could not help wondering if the muddle ceased here, or did it extend to other and more
signalling arrangements, gave

and

I

grave matters which would imperil the success of the expedition ? All day long I was anxiously on the look-out
for a tug

and

lighters to enable

me

to tranship

to the Dundrennon, and at
I

last, at

about 6 p.m.,

saw

a little trawler,

towing

a string of half a

dozen

lighters, making her way up the harbour towards us. In a few minutes they were along-

side
I

and made
for us, the

fast to

soon discovered

the Hymettus, but, alas that, although the lighters
!

were

tug was about to

sail

away

again.

The

only order the commander had received was to bring the lighters alongside and make

them
ended.

fast

to the Hymettus,
a

and there

his

task

blow to me, for I felt that, if the little Jessie went off, I and my Corps would be left high and dry on the Lemnos mud, while
This was
56

Arrival at

Lemnos

the rest of the Expedition sailed off next morning on the great adventure Luckily, the com!

mander

of the 'Jessie

was

a friend of

and came on board

for

a

yarn.

the Captain's After a few

moments

I

followed

him

to the Captain's cabin

and, on being introduced, found that he was Mr. A. R. Murley. I soon discovered that he

was

a

most exceptional

a sailor to his finger

man in every way, and He had been Chief tips.
but had resigned

Officer

on board

a large liner,

his post to

for the war, and,

volunteer his services to the Admiralty although the position he now

held as skipper of the 'Jessie was a very small one

compared with his last charge, yet, as he sportingly said, what did it matter so long as he was usefully
doing
his bit
?

and

I believe

he was

as

proud of

the Jessie as
ship.

if

she had been a liner or a battle-

all my eloquence on Mr. Murley, out what a desperate position I was in, pointed and said that if he did not come to my aid we
I

used

would,

indeed,

be

hopelessly

stranded.

The

Captain of the Hymettus, who, by the way, was
naturally
this

very

much

upset

uncharted

mudbank,
57

having struck ably seconded my
at

Arrival at
appeal, and although

Lemnos

Murley had been working
to return to his

from dawn and had intended

depot to lay in stores of coal, water and oil, to enable him to start with the expedition at five o'clock in the morning, he agreed to work for

me

throughout the night.

CHAPTER

VI

A STRENUOUS NIGHT

T_T AVING once
flew off
in reliefs,
lighters,

obtained Murley's consent

I

and got officers and men told off some to work on the loading up of the

others to go with the mules to the Dundrennon and remain there to ship and stow

away each load
night.

as

it

came over during the
and
as

There were
were
filled,

six lighters,

soon

as

three

on and
It

Murley got the little Jessie hitched towed them off to the Dundrennon.
his

was

a joy to

he handled

watch the masterly way in which tug and manoeuvred the tow of where they were Never did

lighters into the exact position

required alongside the Dundrennon.
I see

an error of judgment made, and everything

Murley had to do went like clockwork. He had a clear and pleasant word of command,
that 59

A

Strenuous Night
a
bell,

which rang out like " his was " a hustler
first

men

and although he never resented it ;

because they knew he was top-hole at his job and, secondly, because he was extraTow after tow went back ordinarily tactful.
of
all,

and

forth

lighters

throughout the night three full to the Dundrennon and three empty

ones back to the Hymtttus

and didn't we

just

hustle those mules into the boats,

and didn't

they kick and bite

as

they

felt
!

the slings go
It

round them to hoist them

aloft

would have

at a time, so

taken us too long had we only slung one mule we hoisted them in couples The
!

comical sight the brace of mules presented,

as

they were whipped off their legs and swung up into the gloom, can well be imagined. They
kicked and plunged as they were passed over the side and lowered down into the inky murkiness of the lighters, where they were caught and

secured at
the

much

purpose.

risk by men waiting there for Heaven only knows how they

escaped injury, for they had a very rough time of it before they were comfortably stowed away
in their

quarters on the Dundrennon. quite prepared to hear of several casualties 60

new

I

was

among

A
both
beast,

Strenuous Night
mules, but the mule
is

men and

a

hardy

and the Zionist can stand

a lot of

knocking

about, and we had not
injured.

a single

man

or animal

We

were exceptionally fortunate in finding

on board the Dundrennon part of an Indian Mule Corps for service with the New Zealanders,

commanded

by

Captain

Alexander,

and

I

cannot be sufficiently grateful to him for the way in which he set his men to work and helped
us to put

away and

tie

up our equipment and
for the help given

mules.
I

cannot say so
the

much
of

me

by

Captain

the

Dundrennon, who was

rather a

me

rough customer, and curtly informed that he had orders to sail at five o'clock a.m.

sharp,

and

that,

whether

I

was aboard or not, he

meant to weigh anchor at that hour. All night long we worked feverishly,

slinging

and unslinging with all possible haste, and while I was using everybody up to breaking point
in

my

efforts to get

through in time, Captain
in

Edmunds, who was

charge of

the medical
Zealanders,

stores for the Australians

and

New
of

came up

to

me and

told
61

me

the hopeless

A
plight in

Strenuous Night

which he was placed. The Director of Medical Services had ordered him to get himself,

his

men and

his stores as quickly as possible

on

board the Anglo-Egyptian, but here again no means were supplied to enable the order to be
I can hardly dare appeal to you," " to he continued, get me out of my difficulties, for I can see that you will hardly get your own

carried out.

"

lot

transferred
if

before

five

o'clock."

I

asked

him

was very necessary that he should be put aboard, and he told me that, so far as he knew, his were the only hospital stores available
it

for the Australians

and

New
all

Zealanders.

This was
I

a very grave matter,

and although

was very loth to give up

the transfer of
limit, yet
all

my own

chance of completing Corps within the time

I

felt

that this was a case which, at
fortunes,
gallant

hazards to
so

my own
our

must be seen

through,

that

comrades from

Australia and

New

medical

necessities

Zealand might not lack the which I knew would be
got into action.

required the
I,

moment they

therefore, turned

the hospital stores,

on to loading up and, when all was ready,

my men

Murley towed us

across to the Anglo-Egyptian, 62

A
where
staff of
I

Strenuous Night

eventually saw Captain

Edmunds,

his

R.A.M.C. men and
afterwards

his stores safely

on

board.

Some months

Gye

received a letter

from Captain Edmunds, written from Anzac, " in which he stated Remember me to Colonel
:

Patterson and
to get

tell

him from me that being
to

able

those stores on

the Anglo-Egyptian

what would have been an appalling calamity from a medical point of view, as I do not know what this place would have done
averted

without

So

I

two days." think that Australia and New Zealand

my

stores the first

owe me one
strenuous

for the help I gave

night of April 24th, buried up to the neck in work of
a great strain

them on that when I was

my

own.

It
risk

was

on

my

feelings of

duty to

being left stuck on the mud, but I realized at the time that I was doing not only what was
right,

but what was essential from
of

point

view

;

and when
I felt

I

military read that letter

a

from Edmunds,
Australians and

very glad that I had risen to the occasion and had put the needs of the

New

Zealanders before

my

own.

By

the time that the transfer was completed 63

A
it

Strenuous Night

was 3.30 a.m., and I then knew that I could not possibly get the remainder of my Zionists, stores transferred to mules, equipment and
the Dundrennon by the time she was scheduled to sail. I, therefore, went to the Captain and

my case before him, pointing out that it was impossible to get everything transferred in time and asking him would he delay sailing
laid

until

we were

aboard.

I

have said that he was

rather a rough type of man.

Having been

for

many years master of a tramp steamer, he had spent his life dealing with rough men and doing rough work. I have, therefore, no doubt that
he thought he was answering me in quite a civil and polite way when he told me he would see

me damned
minutes.
I

before

he

delayed

his

ship five

then asked
if

the Jessie

my good friend the skipper of he would run me down to the
hoped to be able to get
a written

staff ship, as I

order from somebody there, to the Captain of the Dundrennon, cancelling the sailing at 5 a.m.
until such time as I

would have

my unit
way

complete

on board.
Off

we

sailed,

threading our
64

in the dark

A

Strenuous Night

through such of the few warships and transport vessels as had not yet sailed, and just before four o'clock I found myself knocking at the cabin
door of
a

Naval

Officer.

time, he called out,

"

After rapping for some Come in," but the door was

locked, so he was obliged to get
in,

up to

let

me

me was
I

I am not surprised that his greeting to not exactly one of brotherly love. When told him of my position and asked him to give

and

an order delaying the departure of the Dundrennon, he flatly refused to do it, and said
that the hours of departure of the ships were fixed and that he was not the man to change

me

the order
of

;

I

would have to go to the Captain
actually
for

H.M.S. Hussar, who was the man
the
sailings.
I I

responsible to him that

by the time
further
off,

pointed out reached the Hussar,
at the Captain,

which wae

still

and got

and then made
it

my way

back to the Dundrennon,

would be long after five o'clock, and there would be no Dundrennon there, for the ship

would have
case of this

sailed

kind

I

urged that in a special hoped he would over-rule the
!

I

Time-table.

He
it

was, however, most obdurate,
useless for

and told me

was

me

to argue with
5

65

A
him any
that
I

Strenuous Night

longer.

When

I

pointed out to him
of transferring

had only received means

Corps late the previous evening, and that we had been working all through the night, he " Why do you make snapped at me and said, such a fuss about having worked all through

my

the night ? That is nothing." him that I had once or twice in
all

I

quietly told
life

my

worked

night and that
that

without
I
it

making any fuss about it, had merely wished to impress upon

him
on

my

was not through any fault or slackness part that the transfer could not be com-

pleted in time.

was not mollified, however, and practically marched me off to the gangway, where he turned about and made for his cabin.

He

But

I

was not to be so

easily also

shaken

off,

so I

promptly turned about
I

and pursued him.

he gave

pointed out to him emphatically that, unless me this order, on him would rest the

entire responsibility of leaving the 29th Division in the lurch, as I remarked that my

Corps was the only one to take them up food and water, and that if they died of thirst he would be entirely to blame. " What is the good of " off the Dundrennon" I
sending
asked,

unless

66

A

Strenuous Night

she has on board the Corps upon which so much depends ? What will be said hereafter if you " let the zgth Division die of thirst ?

This

last

appeal
;

of compassion
office

so

moved the naval man's bowels without more ado he had the

opened up, and wrote out an official order delaying the sailing of the Dundrennon until
eight o'clock.

When

I

told

him

also that the

master of the Dundrennon was not very helpful he at once wrote a curt note to him as follows " I hear that you are not aiding Colonel
:

Patterson in his embarkation as

much

as

you

might.
I

You had

better do so."

kept this note for emergency, in case the master of the Dundrennon might prove obstreperous, but I had no occasion to use it.

was delighted with Murley, who was with
I

my
me

success,
all

and

so
I

was
was

the time

endeavouring to persuade the naval man to order this very necessary delay. It was of course no
light thing to take

upon himself the
I

responsibility

can only say to him, " Well done." We got back to the Dundrennon at a quarter to five and were greeted by the wrathful
of altering the Time-table.
skipper,

who was up and
67

preparing his ship for
5*

a

A

Strenuous Night
:

" punctual start. I shouted up to him an order cancelling your sailing until " "
o'clock.

I

have
eight

Do

you want to
a line

see

it

?

I

do,"
this

was the gruff response.

"

Pass

it

up on

the Jessie. I rope," throwing stuck the order between the strands of the rope

aboard

and the skipper hauled it up, and as he read it he uttered highly flavoured maledictions on all
naval

and

army men,

without
!

showing

any

undue

partiality for either
I

Now
out so

was very glad that things had turned happily, but even if I had not obtained
I

the order for the delay of the Dundrennon, still had a trump card up my sleeve, which

I

had only intended to play

in

the

last

resort,

namely, to have seized the anchor winch and, at all costs, have prevented any sailor from

approaching

it

until

I

gave orders that they

I had might do so. put fifty armed men on board ship, whom I*was prepared to use for this

purpose in case of necessity, as I was determined that I should go to Gallipoli complete, even at
the risk of seizing the ship and being, later on, tried for piracy on the high seas
!

This

reminds

me

of

an

incident

which

68

A
happened
to
resort

Strenuous Night
South African war when
similar
I I

in the

had
was

to

almost

methods.

given orders to entrain
at

my

squadron instantly
of

being sent north we were merely shunted into the station siding, where we had to remain for the best

Bloemfontein,

but

instead

part of twenty-four hours without any chance
of watering

our horses.

We

started

some time

in the night,

daybreak the train was halted at a siding where there was a stream running close by. I looked at my horses and found
at

and

many

of

them down, owing

to fatigue

and want

of water, so I ordered the

men

to

unbox them

and take them to water

at the stream.

When

that
pass

the guard saw this he strongly objected, saying the train that was coming down might

any moment, and that, as soon as it had passed, he would proceed on his way to Johannesburg, whether the horses were back " " in the boxes or not. I said Will and

through

at

:

you

?

" he replied I am in charge of Yes, I will. this train and I am going to push on."
:

thereupon called up the Sergeant-Major, whispered an order to him, and in two seconds that guard found himself a prisoner on the
I

69

A

Strenuous Night

platform with a soldier on each side of him, with orders to hold him fast in case he made

any attempt to get away. The watering was quietly and expeditiously proceeded with, and

meanwhile the down train passed through.

Our engine
to
see

driver

came along the platform
I

what was the matter and

overheard

the guard telling him to proceed at once, even if he, the I asked the guard, were left behind. driver if he meant to carry out the guard's in" structions and he replied Yes." I then said " make this Sergeant-Major, two more men
:
: !

driver a prisoner."

the watering of the horses was over I released my prisoners and told them they could " on.

When

now go
right,

The
I

driver refused.

I said

:

All

then.

will

drive

myself."

The

look

of

astonishment

that

came over the

driver's

face

when he saw me mount the

footplate,

confidently put my hand on the lever and start the train, was something to be remembered.

He

immediately caved in, jumped up and resumed his duties, without more ado. Some
time afterwards
a I

heard that the guard made
of

bitter

complaint

my

high-handedness,

70

A

Strenuous Night

which eventually came before General Tucker, then commanding at Bloemfontein, and it was
a satisfaction to

me

to learn that the General
I

emphasized his approval of what one of his choicest expressions.

had done

in

Even with the extension
I felt

of

the time limit,
if

that

it

would be
so

a close thing

we were
feverish

to get everything on board the Dundrennon by
eight
o'clock,

we

all

worked with

energy, and it was only by a great spurt on the part of the Jessie that we finally got our last three lighters, loaded to their utmost capacity,

made
hour

fast
I

to the Dundrennon just before eight

o'clock.

knew

that

it

would

still

take a good
so,

to

get

everything

Murley

aside, I

drawing he must suggested to him that
aboard,
little

be in need of a

refreshment

after

his

strenuous night, and that if he were to go to the skipper's cabin he could, I felt sure, count

on him to produce a bottle and I added " Make sure that he does not come out until
:

I

give

you the

signal."

Murley laughingly undertook this congenial task, and when, after everything had been stowed away, I eventually joined them at 9.10 a.m.,

A
I

Strenuous Night

found the skipper thoroughly enjoying himself and laughing heartily at one of Murley's im-

promptu
ruler of

yarns.

the

"

Bravo, Murley " King's Navee

!

If I

am

ever

and

stranger

things have happened you may be sure that you will be appointed an Admiral of the Fleet
!

I

don't

lines ever

know how to find you, but come under your eye, remember
if

these

that

dinner that you are to have with me in London, and it shall be of the best, Murley, of the very
best.
I

found, after

all,

that the old skipper's bark
bite.

was worse than

his

He thawed
when
I

towards

me
him
a

to such an extent that,
at Gallipoli,

parted from

he sped

me

on

my way

with

present
!

of

whisky

sign

two precious bottles of his best manual of his having taken me

to his rugged but withal kindly old heart.

72

CHAPTER

VII

DESCRIPTION OF SOUTHERN GALLIPOLI

A

S

I

^*

have to mention several places in Gallipoli, it may be well before proshall

ceeding further to give the reader some idea of the geography of the place.
Gallipoli
is

a

narrow, hilly peninsula, varying

from three to twelve miles wide, running southwestward into the Aegean Sea, with the Dardanelles,
it

from one to four miles wide, separating
its

of

from the Asiatic coast throughout some forty miles. As
I

length

going to speak more particularly of the southern end of the Peninsula, I will only
describe that portion of
it,

am

as it

was here that

the 29th Division landed, and the Zion

Mule
Achi
with

Corps worked.

The dominating

feature

is

the

hill

of

Baba, some seven hundred
73

feet high, which,

Description of Southern Gallipoli
its

shoulders sloping down on the one side to the Aegean and on the other to the Dardanelles, shuts out all further view of the Peninsula to

only two villages in this area, Sedd-el-Bahr at the entrance to
the

northward.

There

are

the Dardanelles, and Krithia, with
windmills,
to

its

quaint

the

south-west

of

Achi

Baba,

somewhat picturesquely situated on the slope of a spur, some five miles north-west of Seddel-Bahr

Achi

Baba

itself

being

between
is

six

and seven miles from Cape Helles, which most southerly point of the Peninsula.

the

A

line

to the Dardanelles
miles, while the

through Achi Baba from the Aegean would be a little over five

width

at Helles

is

only about

one and

a half miles.

A

fairly

good representation

of this tract of

country

will

be obtained by holding the rightslightly hollowed,

hand palm upward and

the

thumb

pressed

a

little

over

the

forefinger.

Imagine the Dardanelles running along by the little finger up the arm, and the Aegean Sea

on the thumb
Dardanelles,
of
a

side.

Morto Bay, an
at

inlet of the

would then be
little

short

finger

;

about the tip Sedd-el-Bahr Castle

74

Description of Southern Gallipoli

V Beach between the third finger the third finger and the middle finger ; Cape
at the tip of
;

Helles the tip of the middle finger

;

W

Beach
;

X

between the middle finger and the forefinger Beach at the base of the nail of the forefinger

;

Gully Beach between the tip of the thumb and the forefinger Gully Ravine running up between the thumb and forefinger towards
;

Krithia village, which the thumb socket ;
of the

is

situated half-way

up to
joint

Y

Beach

at

the

first

thumb

;

and Achi Baba in the centre

of the heel of the

hand where
the

it

joins the wrist.

Anzac, where Zealanders landed,

Australians

and

New

would

be

some
the

distance

above the wrist on the thumb side of the fore-

arm

;

and

the

Narrows

of

Dardanelles

would be on the inner or

little

finger side of

the forearm opposite Anzac. Imagine the sea itself lapping the lower part of the hand on a level with the finger nails,

and then the
rise

cliffs

will

be represented by the
to the balls of the

from the

finger-nails

fingers.

The hollowed hand

gives

a

very good idea

of the appearance of the country,

which gradually

75

Description of Southern Gallipoli

of the hand.

palm on the hand represent the many ravines and watercourses which interslopes

down

to a valley represented by the

The

lines

sect the

ground. Practically the whole of
or

this basin drains into

Morto Bay

the Dardanelles, with the ex-

ception of Gully Ravine and the ravine running down to Y Beach, which drain into the Aegean
Sea.

A

glance

at

the

"

"

handy
but
it

sketch here will

make everything
to strict accuracy.

clear,

does not pretend

z
<o

*

3 a
<</

CHAPTER

VIII

A HOMERIC CONFLICT
1\

* *

yfUDROS
we

HARBOUR

was

deserted

as

sailed

for all the warships
left.

through it on our way out, and transports had alreadythe

Just

beyond

harbour

entrance
the
decks

we
of

passed

the
the

which

Anglo-Egyptian, on other half of the

Zionists

were

crowded.

We

to detain her,

wondered what had happened for she was lying at anchor but
;

we saw nothing

amiss, and lusty cheers were given and received as we steamed past. When we had rounded the land which guards

the entrance

to

the harbour, the Dundrennon

turned her bows North-Eastward and
off

we steamed

towards the land of our hopes and fears, through a calm sea, which sparkled gaily in the
sunshine.

from

zephyr which followed us the South changed suddenly and came
soft

The

77

A

Homeric

Conflict

from the North-East, bringing with it the sound of battle from afar. The dull boom of the
guns could
that

now be

plainly heard

and told us

the

great
all

How we
to

already begun. wished that the Dundrennon were a

adventure had

greyhound
the
alas

of the seas of

and could rush us speedily
epoch-making
events
!

scene
!

such

But,

"

going twelve knots an hour
before

all

she was only a slow old tramp, and " out she could do no more than
;

and

it

seemed an eternity

we

actually

came

anything of the great
enacted.

close enough to see drama which was being

As we ploughed along the calm sea, to the slow beat of the engines, each hour seemed a
century, but at last we were able to distinguish the misty outline of the Asiatic shore and, a
little later

on,

we

saw, coming to meet us like

an outstretched arm and hand, a land fringed

and half-hidden by the fire and smoke which enveloped it as if some great magician had

summoned
defence.

the powers of darkness to aid in

its

and destroyers began to outline themselves, and every few minutes
battleships, cruisers

Soon

78

A
we
sides

Homeric
them

Conflict
in
a

could

see

enveloped

sheet

of flame

and smoke, as they poured their broadThe roar of into the Turkish positions.
heavy guns dwarfed all leviathan launched her
mightier thunderbolts against the foe. Every
shells

the Queen Elizabeth's other sounds, as this

huge

projectiles

surely

than Jove ever hurled now and again one of her

would

strike

crest of Achi Baba, which belched forth flame, smoke and great chunks of the hill itself, vividly recalled to my

and burst on the very
then, as it

mind Vesuvius

in a rage.

The whole

scene was a sight for the gods,
it

and those of us mortals who witnessed

and

survived the day have for ever stamped on our minds the most wonderful spectacle that the

world has ever seen.

Half the nations of the

earth were gathered there in a titanic struggle. England, with her children from Australia and

New

Zealand, and fellow subjects from India sons of France, with their fellow citizens from
; ;

Algeria and Senegal
soldiers
;

Russian

sailors
all

and Russian

Turks and Germans

righting within

our vision, some in Europe and some in Asia. Nor did the wonders end here, for, circling
79

A
the heavens

Homeric

Conflict

like soaring eagles,

were French and
sea,

British aeroplanes, while,

under the

lurked

the deadly submarine.
It this

was altogether in the

fitness of things that
its

Homeric

conflict

should have

setting

within sight of the classic Plains of Troy. Who will be the modern Homer to immortalize
the deeds done this day deeds beside which those performed by Achilles, Hector and the other heroes of Greece and
insignificance
of
?

Troy
a
far

pale into utter

Certainly

greater

feat

arms was enacted in Gallipoli on this 25th of April, 1915, than was ever performed by
those
ancient

heroes

on the Plains

of

Ilium,

which lay calm, green and smiling
sparkling Hellespont.

just across the

Up

the Dardanelles, as far

as

the Narrows,

we could
at

see our ships of war, principally de-

stroyers, blazing

ately

away merrily and indiscriminthe guns, both on the European and

Asiatic shores.

The

sea

was

as

calm

as a mill-

pond round Cape Helles the most southerly the only ripple to be point of the Peninsula seen was that made by the strong current
;

shot out

through

the Straits.
80

All

round the

A

Homeric
shells

Conflict

men-of-war Turkish

were dropping, sending

up
for,

veritable waterspouts as they struck the sea,
luckily,

very few of them hit the ships. It was altogether the most imposing and aweinspiring sight that
I

have ever seen or

am

likely

to see again.

We
of

were under orders to disembark, when our

turn came, at

V

Beach, a

little

cove to the east

As we approached near to our we could see through the haze, landing-place, smoke and dust, the gleam of bayonets, as men swayed and moved hither and thither in the

Cape

Helles.

course of the fight, while the roar of cannon and the rattle of the machine-guns and rifles were
absolutely

deafening.

We

could

well

imagine

what

a veritable hell our brave fellows

who were
facing,

attacking this formidable position
for, in

must be

and machine-gun fire from the surrounding cliffs, they were also at times under a deadly cannonade from the Turkish
addition to
rifle

batteries established

on the Asiatic shore.

warships were slowly moving up and down the coast blazing away fiercely at the Turkish
strongholds, battering such of
into unrecognizable ruins. 81

The

them

as

were
6

left

A
We

Homeric

Conflict

in the transports lay off the shore in four

parallel lines, each successive line going

forward

methodically and disembarking the units on board as the ground was made good by the landing
parties.

We

watched the

line for

from our position in the the whole of that day, and never was
fight

excitement

so

intense
;

during those hours
night tinued
fell

long-sustained as nor was it lessened when

and

upon

us, for

the roll of battle

still

con-

made all the grander by the vivid flashes from the guns which, every few moments, shot

forth great spurts of flame, brilliantly illuminating the inky darkness. Sedd-el-Bahr Castle and the
village nestling

behind

it

were

fiercely ablaze,

and

ruddy glare on the sky. The next day, from a position much
cast a

closer in-

again the terrible struggle of the landing-parties to obtain a grip on the
shore,
coast.

we watched

We

were one

and

all

feverish

with

anxiety to land and do something no matter how little to help the gallant fellows who were
striving so heroically to drive the

Turk from the

strong positions which he had carefully fortified and strengthened in every possible way.
82

A
A most

Homeric

Conflict

bloody battle was taking place, staged in a perfect natural amphitheatre, but never had Imperial Rome, even in the days of Nero himself,

gazed upon such a corpse-strewn, blood-drenched
arena.

This arena was formed partly by the sea, which has here taken a semicircular bite out of the rocky
coast,

and partly by

a

narrow

strip of

beach which
a

extended back for about a dozen yards to

low
feet
this

rampart formed of sand, some three or four Behind high, which ran round the bay.

rampart

the ground rose steeply

tier after tier of grassy slopes,

upwards, in to a height of about
the
this

one hundred
ruined

feet,

where

it

was crowned by some

Turkish

barracks.

On

right,

natural theatre was flanked by the old castle of

Sedd-el-Bahr, whose battlements and towers were

even then crumbling down from the effects of the recent bombardment by the Fleet. To the
left of

the arena, high

cliffs

rose sheer

from the

crowned by a modern redoubt. Barbed wire zig-zagged and criss-crossed through arena
sea,

and

and such barbed wire amphitheatre, It was twice as thick, strong and formidable as any I had ever seen.
!

83

6*

A
The
cliffs

Homeric
galleries

Conflict

and

were trenched and

full

of riflemen, as

were

also the barracks, the ruined

Sedd-el-Bahr Castle. Machine-guns fort, and pom-poms were everywhere, all ready to pour a withering fire on anyone approaching or
attempting to land on the beach.
It
is

and

small

wonder, therefore, that so few
that
is

escaped

from

terrible

arena

of

death.

Indeed, the wonder

that anyone survived that

awful ordeal.

cove was peaceable enough on the morning of the 25th, when the Transport River Clyde steamed in. It was part of the scheme to
little

The

run her ashore
was more
with

at this

beach and,

as it

was known

that the venture would be a desperate one, what
fitting

than that she should be
(the Dublins

filled

Irish soldiers

and Munsters)

regiments with great fighting records ? With them was also half a battalion of the Hampshire

Regiment. Special preparations had been made to disembark the troops as quickly as possible. Great holes had been cut in the iron
sides of the

River Clyde, and from these gangways made of planking, which were of course lashed to the ship,
sloped

down

in tiers to the water's edge.

From

84

A

Homeric

Conflict

the ends of these gangways a string of lighters stretched to the shore to enable the men to rush
quickly to land.

In addition to those on the River Clyde, three companies of the Dublin Fusiliers were towed
to the beach in

steam pinnaces.

open boats and barges by little It had been intended that these

should steal in during the dark hours just before dawn, but, owing to miscalculations of the speed
of the current, or

some other

cause, the boats

did not arrive in time and only reached the shore at the same moment that Commander Unwin,

R.N., of the River Clyde, according to the prearranged plan, coolly ran his vessel aground. This manoeuvre must have greatly astonished the
Turks, but not a sound or

move did they make,
would not

and

it

seemed

at first as if the landing

As soon, however, as the Munsters began to pour from her sides, a perfect hail of lead opened on the unfortunate soldiers, who were
be opposed.
shot

down in scores as they raced down the gangway. Some who were struck in the leg stumbled
and
fell

into the water, where, owing to the weight

of their packs

and ammunition, they went to the bottom and were drowned. For days afterwards
85

A
clear water,
rifles.

Homeric

Conflict

these unfortunate

men
of

could be seen through the

many

them

still

grasping their

The men

in the boats suffered equally heavily
less

and had even

mown
cut a

chance of escape. Many were down by rifle fire and sometimes a shell boat in two and the unfortunate soldiers

went to the bottom, carried down by the weight
of their equipment.

The

sailors

who were

detailed to assist in the

landing performed some heroic deeds. Theirs was the task of fixing the lighters from the gang-

ways of the River Clyde to the shore. Even in ordinary times it would be a very difficult task,

owing to the strong current which sweeps round from the Dardanelles, but to do it practically at
the muzzle of the enemy's rifles demanded men with the hearts of lions. Scores were shot down
as

they tugged and hauled to get the lighters
Scores

into position.

more were ready to jump
the lighters

into their places.

More than once

broke loose and the whole perilous work had to be done over again, but our gallant seamen never " failed. They just carried on." Commander

(now Captain) Unwin was awarded the Victoria
86

A

Homeric

Conflict

Cross for fearlessly risking his life on more than one occasion in endeavouring to keep the lighters
in position

under the

pitiless hail of lead.
it

Those naval men whose duty
to a

was to bring

the Dublins ashore in small boats were shot

down

man,

for there
fire.

that

terrible

was no escape for them from Both boats and crew were

destroyed either on the beach or before they reached it.

In spite of the rain of death some of the Dublins and Munsters succeeded in effecting a landing and making a dash for shelter from the tornado of
fire

under the

little

ridge of sand which, as I

have already mentioned, ran round the beach. Had the Turks taken the precaution of levelling this bank of sand, not a soul could have lived in
that fire-swept

zone.

More than

half

of

the

landing-party were
its

killed before

they could reach

and many others were left writhing in agony on that narrow strip of beach. Brigadier-General Napier and his Brigade Major,
friendly shelter
Captain Costeker, were killed, as was also Lieut. Colonel Carrington Smith, commanding the Hampshires the Adjutants of the Hampshires
;

and of the Munsters were wounded and, indeed,
87

A
wounded

Homeric

Conflict

the great majority of the senior officers were
either

or killed.

anxious eyes were peering out over the protected bulwarks of the River Clyde, and among

Many

them was Father Finn, the Roman Catholic Chaplain of the Dublins. The sight of some
five

hundred

of his brave boys lying

dead or dying
for

on that
him,
so,

terrible strip of

beach was too

heedless of

all risk,

much he plunged down

the

gangway and made
his wrist

for the shore.

On

the

way

was shattered by a bullet, but he went and although lead was spattering all round on, him like hailstones, he administered consolation to the

wounded and

dying, who, alas

!

were

so thickly strewn around.

For

a

time he seemed

to have

had some miraculous form of Divine
he went from one to another
shell

protection, for

through shot and
further injury.

without receiving any

At

last a bullet struck

him near

the hip, and, on seeing this, some of the Dublins rushed out from the protection of the sandbank

and brought him into its shelter. When, howsomewhat recovered from his ever, he had

wound, nothing would induce him to remain in safety while his poor boys were being done to
88

A

Homeric

Conflict

death in the open, so out he crawled again to administer comfort to a poor fellow who was moaning piteously a little way off ; and as he was
in the act of giving consolation to the stricken

man,

this heroic

Chaplain was struck dead by

a

merciful bullet.

Father Finn has, so far, been granted no V.C., but if there is such a thing in heaven, I am sure he is wearing it, and His Holiness Benedict XV.

might do worse than canonize this noble priest, for surely no saint ever died more nobly " Greater love hath no man than this, that a
:

man lay down his life for his friends." The Turkish position was so strong and they were able to pour down such a concentrated fire
from
pit,

box, dress-circle

and gallery of their

natural theatre, that every
Irish regiments

man

of these gallant

who showed

was instantly struck down. was this close range Turkish
discontinued.

himself in the open So hot and accurate
fire

that the dis-

embarkation from the River Clyde

had to be

escaped death and ensconced themselves under the sandbank
little

The

body

of

men who had

kept up a lively

fire

on the Turks
89

as

long

as their

A
ammunition
at

Homeric

Conflict

lasted,

but there they had to remain

for the best part of thirty-six hours,

more

or less

the mercy of the enemy.

An

attempt to

them was, however, easily repelled by from the warships, as well as from the machine-guns on the decks of the River Clyde. It was not until after nightfall that the redislodge
fire

mainder of the Irishmen could disembark, and then all the units had to be reorganized to enable

them

to

make an attack on the

formidable

Turkish trenches on the following morning. Practically every officer of the Dublins and

Munsters was either
few
escaped

killed

or

wounded
Dublins

;

very

scot-free.

The
close

were

particularly unfortunate, for at another landingplace,
village,
left

Camber
midday.

Beach,

out of 125

men

by Sedd-el-Bahr landed, only 25 were
the
pulled

at

Nevertheless,

fragments
together Lieut. -

of

the

two

battalions

were

by Lieut. -Colonel Doughty-Wylie and

Colonel Williams, assisted by Captain Walford, It will be readily underR.A., Brigade Major.
,

stood what an arduous task

it

men who

for over twenty-four hours

was to reorganize had been

subjected to the most murderous and incessant 90

A
fire
is

Homeric

Conflict

that ever troops

had had to
really
it

face

;

but nothing

impossible
their

when

determined

men make

up

minds that

morning of Munsters and some of the Hampshires, Doughty-Wylie and Walford, dashing

must be done, and early the 26th April found the Dublins and
led
at

by
the

Turkish trenches, which they carried at the point of the bayonet. They rushed position after
position,
in

and by noon Sedd-el-Bahr village was our hands, and here the gallant Walford was

killed.

Sedd-el-Bahr Castle yet remained to be taken, and it was while leading the final attack on
the

keep of this stronghold that the heroic Colonel Doughty-Wylie fell, mortally wounded,
at

the

moment

of

victory.

The posthumous

honour of the Victoria Cross was granted to these two officers to commemorate their glorious
deeds.

At the other landing-places the fighting had At Beach the Lancaalso been very fierce.

W

shire

Fusiliers

had

a

terribly

difficult

task

in

storming an almost impregnable position, which had been carefully prepared beforehand by the
Turks.

The

had been strongly

high ground overlooking the beach fortified with trenches land
;

A
mines and
sea

Homeric

Conflict

mines had been

laid

;

wire entanglea

ments extended round the shore and
network had
water.
trap,
also
r

barbed

Like

V

Beach

been placed in the shallow it was a veritable death-

but the brave Lancashires, after suffering terrible losses, succeeded in making good the

landing and drove the Turks out of their trenches. In commemoration of their gallantry this Beach

was afterwards known

as

The 2nd

Battalion

Lancashire Landing. South Wales Borderers
at

under Colonel Casson were able to land
Beach, Morto Bay, and
near
seize

S

the high ground

Tott's Battery, to which they tenaciously held on until the main body had driven the Turks
back,

De

when they

from

V

joined hands with the troops Beach and continued the advance.

Beach was stormed by the 2nd Battalion Royal Fusiliers and part of the Anson Battalion
Royal Naval Division, who drove before them such Turks as they found on the cliffs. They were reinforced by two more Battalions of the
8yth Brigade, and after some heavy slogging they eventually got into touch with the Lancashire
Fusiliers

X

on

V

and Worcesters and so eased the pressure Beach by threatening the Turkish flank.
92

A
The
King's

Homeric

Conflict

landing on

Own

Beach was effected by the Scottish Borderers and the Plymouth

Y

Battalion of the Royal Marines.
fellows forced their

These splendid

way

into Krithia village, but

want

of

them

to

ammunition and reinforcements obliged fall back to the beach, where they were

almost

overwhelmed by the enemy and lost more than half their numbers eventually they were compelled to re-embark, but not before they
;

had done immense damage to the Turks and considerably helped the troops who were forcing
the other landings. Meanwhile, the two Australian-New Zealand
Divisions

were engaged in the perilous enter-

prise of forcing a landing in the face of a large

Turkish force at a place
(this

now known

as

Anzac

of

word being formed from the initial letters Australian-New Zealand Army Corps). In
dark

the

hour before the dawn some

four

thousand of these splendid fighters were towed in silence towards the shore, and here again
it

seemed
;

as if

tion

but

they would meet with no opposinot so the Turk was not to be

caught napping, and, while the boats were still some way from land, thousands of Turkish
93

A
soldiers

Homeric

Conflict

rushed along the strip of beach to intercept the boats, and the heavy fire which they opened caused very severe casualties in the ranks ;
nothing, however, could daunt Colonel Maclagan and the men of the 3rd Australian Brigade ; the moment the boats touched the shore these

leaped into the water and with irresistible fury drove the Turks before them at
dare-devils

Nothing could stand up against their onslaught, and by noon, having " been reinforced, they had " hacked their way some miles inland, put several Krupp guns out
of action,

the point of the bayonet.

they had been supported by even one more Division, the road to the Narrows

and

if

would undoubtedly have been won.
to lack of sufficient

As

it

was,

owing they had made good, they were compelled to retire to the ridges overlooking the sea, and
there
at

men

to

hold what

for

eight

months they held the Turks

bay and hurled back, with frightful losses, every assault made on their position. Oh, if only the 29th Division had also been landed
here,

what
!

a

sweeping victory we would have

won

94

CHAPTER IX
THE ZION MULE CORPS LANDS IN GALLIPOLI

~^HE

beach,

cliffs

and

Castle were

now

in

our hands, and disembarkation for the remainder of the army was possible. While
the great battle for the landing was going on,

we had been
so

fretting

and fuming

at being left

long idle spectators. Thinking that it was high time we should disembark, and finding
that
in

no orders came along
to

for
I

us,

I

felt

that
a

order

get
I

a

move on
therefore

must make
a

personal

effort.

hailed

trawler

which happened to be passing, and got it to take me over to the Cormvallis, on which I knew
General
the

Hunter-Weston, 29th Division, had

the
his

Commander

of

temporary head-

quarters.

The General was
had turned up

glad to see me, and said I just in the very nick of time,
95

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
Zion men were urgently required ashore to take ammunition, food and water to the men in the firing line. He appealed to Admiral
for

my

Wemyss, who was and lighters to get
as

close

by,

to detail trawlers

possible.

Corps ashore as quickly The Admiral very kindly told off

my

a naval officer to

come with me, and he

in his

turn found a trawler and some horse boats which

were soon alongside the Dundrennon.

From two

to six o'clock p.m.

we were
that

busily

employed loading up and sending mules and
equipment ashore.
at his
his
I

noticed

the officer

in charge of our trawler was a bit of a bungler

job

;

time after time he would
;

fail

in

when getting the barges alongjudgment side he had repeatedly to sail round and round
the Dundrennon with his tow before he got near enough for a rope to be cast ; he was not a " dug-out." How I regular naval man just a

longed then for my friend Murley I must say here that in my humble opinion the Navy failed us badly in the matter of
!

tugs, lighters

and horse boats

;

there were not

nearly enough of these, and we could have done with three times the number. My Corps,
96

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
which was most urgently wanted by the General,
took three days to disembark, in spite of our most strenuous efforts to get ashore as quickly as possible. The delay was entirely due to the
lack of tugs, for
a
it

was only

now and then

that

trawler could be spared to haul us inshore.

We were sadly held up and kept waiting for hours after our boats had been loaded up, ready to be towed ashore.
was responsible for this shortage I do not know. It is, of course, quite possible that
the
for

Who

Navy provided

all

the trawlers requisitioned

by the Army. I had taken the precaution while on the ship to fill all my tins with fresh drinking water, and
had to be unloaded by hand from the To do this I arranged my men lighters.
these
in a

of

long line, stretching the whole length the temporary pier from the lighters to
beach,

the

and

in

this

manner the cans
ashore

of

water were
to hand.

rapidly

passed

from hand

While we were engaged on this work the guns from Asia were making very good shooting,
shells

striking the water within a

few yards of
7

97

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
us,

just going over

right

or

a
I

little

our heads, a little to the to the left, but always just

missing.
see

watched

my men

very carefully to

how
I

and

they would stand their baptism of fire, am happy to be able to say that, with

one solitary exception, all appeared quite unconcerned and took not the slightest heed of
the

dangerous

position

they

were

in.

The

one exception was a youth from the Yemen, who trembled and chattered with nervousness
;

but when

went up to him, shook him somewhat ungently, and asked him what was the
I

matter,

he bent

to

his

work and

the

cans

In fact, everybody there, passed merrily along. the naval men who helped us to catch especially

our mules

as

into the sea,
as a joke,

they jumped from the horse boats treated the cannonade from Asia

laugh went up

and every time a shell missed a hearty at the bad shooting of the Turkish It was only a mere fluke, however, gunners. that the shells did not hit the target aimed at,
because, as a matter of fact, the shooting was particularly good and only missed doing a considerable

amount

of

damage by
98

a

few yards

each time.

We

were exceedingly fortunate in

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
not losing a single of disembarkation.

man during
I

the whole period

Practically the first officer

met

as I

stepped
I

ashore was Colonel Moorehouse,

whom

had

not seen for years, and he was most helpful in I found that he was the present emergency.
in charge of the landing operations

on the beach,
Governorship;
his

and
or

I believe

he had given up
billet, in

a

some such
While

West Africa to do

bit in the Dardanelles.

we were disembarking, General d'Amade, who was commanding the French
Corps Expeditionnaire, stepped ashore and soon afterwards the French troops began to pour on
to the beach.

During the great battle which took place on the 25th and 26th for the possession of V Beach, the French battleships and gunboats, together with the Russian cruiser Askold, had been battering

down

the

fortress

of

Kum

Kale on the

Asiatic side of the Dardanelles,
a half miles in a direct line

some two and

from Sedd-el-Bahr.

In

the face of

much

opposition the French

troops forced a landing, and after some heavy fighting defeated the Turks and captured many
99

7*

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
hundreds of prisoners.
this

There

is

no doubt that
the shell
fire

diversion

averted

much

of

which would otherwise have been concentrated

on

those of us landing at

V

Beach.

Having

driven the Turks out and effectively destroyed Kum Kale, the French troops were re-embarked
hurriedly, brought across the Dardanelles, landed
at

V

Beach

in

feverish

the thick of the fight just north of the village of Sedd-el-Bahr.
I

and flung into which was still raging
haste,

watched them disembark, and it was magnificent to see the verve and dash which the French
gunners displayed in getting their
into action.

beloved .755
the

Our
ashore,

naval

Frenchmen got them there they had them away and in action
the

men helped but the moment

to

bring

guns

on the ridge to the north of the amphitheatre in an incredibly short space of time.

As soon

as

we had got
I

a

couple of hundred
off

mules ashore,

was ordered to march them

to Beach, which was on the western side of Cape Helles. Having had some experience of the ways of soldiers on active service, I knew that

W

we should have

to keep a very sharp eye 100

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
on our gear as it came ashore, otherwise it would be appropriated by the first comer. I therefore left Lieutenant Claude Rolo on the beach to
look after the mules, horses and stores as they

were

disembarked, and

incidentally

to

dodge

the shells which more than once covered

him

with sand but did no further damage. I had left Lieutenant Gye on board the Dundrennon
to see to the

work
to

On

the

way

W Beach we were
not
as

of loading

up the

barges.
fired

on by

Turkish riflemen

who had

yet been driven

very far away from the shore, but fortunately

we sustained no damage. The Lancashire Fusiliers,
described,
their

as

I

have already

had

a terribly difficult task in forcing

way on
it

to

W

Beach, and the

moment

I

saw

I

could well realize what an arduous

undertaking it must have been. It looked, like V Beach, an impossibility, but the Lancashire
lads

could
for

not be denied, and
a

all

honour to
there

them
hold.

having stormed such By the time I got

fearsome strongthere

was

already a huge stock of ammunition and supplies piled up on the shore, and these we at once

began to load up on the mules to take out to
101

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
the

men

in the firing line,

who were
them

constantly

driving further from the beach.
I shall

the

Turks

before

further

and

We

never forget my first night in Gallipoli. loaded up a couple of hundred mules, each

mule carrying about two thousand cartridges, and with Major O'Hara (now Lieut. -Colonel
O'Hara),

we

the D.A.Q.M.G., as guide, marched off into the darkness to distribute

who was

ammunition along the front. Major O'Hara came with me, partly because he knew the way, and partly because he wanted
to
of

make
the

sure

what were the most urgent needs
in

men

the

trenches.

We

trudged

together all through that trying night, so it is not much to be wondered at that we almost
quarrelled once that of all the
or

twice
I

but

I will

say here

was not

men one who was

met

in Gallipoli there

so capable at his job, or

worked

so

hard to see that everything for which

he was responsible ran smoothly. Oh, if only our Army could be staffed with O'Haras, what
a

wonderfully
!

efficient

machine
Beach

our

Army
it

would be
Soon

after

we

left

W
102

in the dark

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
began to pour, and it poured and poured about five hours.
solidly

for

squelched through the mud over unknown tracks with the water streaming down our bodies and running in rivulets out of our
boots.

On we

As soon
set
in,

wind

the rain ceased a biting cold which froze us to the marrow.
as
a

However, the vigorous walking, helping up
fallen

mule, readjusting the loads, getting out

of holes into

which we had tumbled, etc., kept our circulation going, and when we arrived at
a place

to

known as Pink Farm, the furthest point which we had yet advanced, there was a

sudden alarm that the Turks were approaching. Nobody knew then where our front line was,
or whether
it

linked

up
in

across
it

the Peninsula.

There were many gaps Turks, if they had had

through which the

enough, might have forced their way and inflicted a considerable amount of damage upon us before we could

initiative

have organized adequate resistance. On the first alarm of the approaching Turks I sent a man out to reconnoitre, formed my
little

open order, prone on the grass, and asked Major Moore, D.S.O., of the General
escort in 103

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
Staff,

now
as

Brigadier-General

some men from the
them,
to lose

quickly as

Moore, to bring trenches, if he could find possible, for I had no desire
such an early stage of the

my

convoy
could

at

proceedings.

Gongs

plainly

be

heard
it

sounding,

was some prethough arranged signal of the enemy, but whatever the reason we saw nothing of the Turks, and no
apparently close by, as
attack was made, so

we unloaded our ammunition
for

and were then sent back
to

more by Colonel

B.

Landing. Now Colonel B. of the Head-Quarters Staff told me personally on
Lancashire

no account to bring back supplies, but only ammunition, as no supplies were needed at this place for the present. Unluckily O'Hara was
not on the spot
explicit

when Colonel

B. gave

me
so

these

and

reiterated

instructions,

when
up

we got back
supplies, but
specific

to the beach he wished to load
this I refused to
I

orders

had

do owing to the received. O'Hara was

was obdurate, so, of course, we loaded up with ammunition. Back again we trudged steadily through rain and slush towards the Pink Farm. When we
furious

but

I

104

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
had got about half-way, we were met by
Officer
a Staff

who
it

told us

to O'Hara's great satisfac-

tion

that
at
all

was not ammunition which was now

wanted
not at
call

the Pink
sure that

Farm but
I

supplies.

I

am
is

did not overhear O'Hara

me

"

an obstinate

damn

fool," but
it
is

it

as

well to be hard of hearing as blind eye on occasions.

to possess a

The upshot was

that

we had

to return to the

beach, unload the ammunition, load up boxes of tinned beef, cheese, biscuits and jam, and then " " road we back again along the sludgy squdgy trudged once more towards that never-to-be-

forgotten Pink Farm.

Again we got about

half-

way
us,

there,

who

yet another Staff Officer met told us that the supplies were not wanted

when

by the brigade holding the line at the Pink Farm, but by the brigade holding the line on the
extreme
right,

where they were urgently

re-

quired, and he ordered us to take

them

there

without delay. It was now my turn to chuckle, and I observed to O'Hara that there " really

must be
all."

a

damn
a

fool

somewhere about
back

after

Without

murmur we turned
105

once

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
more,
for,

we might bump
to

not knowing the country, nor where into the enemy, we could not

take a short cut across, so were forced to return

W Beach.
V
;

From thence we went

track
of

by the Helles cliff Beach our route then led us through Seddel-Bahr village, where we were warned by a French soldier that we would be sniped by Turks
as

along the which took us to the top

there were

many

still

lurking there.

When we got safely clear of this jumpy place, we found ourselves wending our way through
some Turkish cemeteries, the
headstones,
tall,

white, thin

with

their

carved

headlike

knobs, looking
light.

exactly like ghosts in

top the gloomy

passed through cypress groves, along sandy lanes, and rugged paths, fell into and scrambled out of dug-outs, ditches and dongas,

We

where mules and loads tumbled about
criminately
profanity.

indis-

to

the

accompaniment

of

much

At one spot on this adventurous journey we came upon a Battalion of Zouaves crouching

down for rest and shelter in the lee of a hedge. The sergeant in charge of my escort took them
for Turks,

and only that

I

was happily on the spot

106

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli

when he made

this startling discovery,

he would

undoubtedly have opened fire on the Frenchmen. I must say that they looked exactly like Turks,

owing to their semi-barbaric uniform. When we got the convoy to where we thought
the front line ought to be,

we

failed to find

it,

we were very hazy as to whether we would run into our own men or the Turks, we left the
and
as

convoy under the cover of some trees, and O'Hara and I went off to reconnoitre. I believe

we must have
line.

At

all

passed through a gap in our own events we wandered for some time,

making many pauses to listen for any sound that might guide us, but the weird thing about it
was, that the whole place was

now

still as

death,

though we must have been quite close to both armies. No doubt they were dead beat after
the
recent
terrific

fighting

they

had

come

through.

At

last

we

luckily struck

our

own men,

lining a

shallow trench which had apparently been very hastily thrown up, for it scarcely afforded enough

cover

to

shelter
so

a

decent-sized

terrier.

The

men were
strain

exhausted with

the

continued

and

stress of

the battle, which had been
107

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
continuous since the morning of the 25th, that
they slept they were dead. The sentries, of course, were on the alert, looking out grim and
as if

watchful at the Turkish
just

line,

which we could

struggling moonlight, not more than two hundred yards apparently

make

out

in

the

away.
to

Telling the sentinel in a low voice, so as not draw the Turkish fire, that we had brought
a

convoy of supplies, and that we were about to unload them among some trees a couple of

up

hundred yards further back, we ordered him to pass this information on to the Brigade Headquarters, so that arrangements

might be made

for the distribution of the food before daybreak.

We

then turned back, and taking the mules

out of the shelter of the trees

where we had

left

them, we brought the supplies as close as possible to the firing line, where we stacked them under
cover.

ness to help in

Here again O'Hara's thoroughness and readiall things came out, for he was

one of the busiest
to

men

in the convoy, helping

putting the boxes in order, and removing our pack-ropes from the cases, for, of
unload,
108

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Galllpoli
course, these always

had to be untied and taken

back with the mules.

saw some pathetic sights on our way back to Beach we were obliged to stop every now and again so as not to bump into the

We

W

;

wounded men who were being

carried

down

on stretchers to the ships all night long by the devoted R.A.M.C. orderlies.

When

we
a

W Beach,
felt,

topped

the

crest

overlooking

was coming up out of gleam Asia, telling us of the approach of dawn, and we
of light
as

we

wearily strode

down

the slope to the

beach, that

we had done
I

a

hard and useful night's

work.

Now, when

had disembarked from the Dun-

drennon soon after midday, I had no idea that I would be hustled off to the trenches at an instant's
notice.
I

again for

had expected to go back to the ship at least one more load of mules, and I

had therefore nothing with me except what I stood up in no food or equipment of any kind, and beyond a dry biscuit and some cheese,
I

had had nothing to
it

eat since lunch-time, so
I

that

can be well imagined
I

was

fairly

ravenous

when

had

finished that night's trek.

There

109

Zion Mule Corps Lands in Gallipoli
was no food to be had
any
of
case I
just yet,

however, and in

had to

see to the watering

mules, for they, like without food or drink since the previous midday. This job was finished by about 7 a.m., and soon

my

and feeding myself, had been

after that I joined
fast, after

O'Hara

at

an excellent break-

which

I felt

ready for another strenuous

day.

no

CHAPTER X
A NIGHT UP THE GULLY RAVINE

F^EELING
fast

greatly refreshed after

my

break-

with O'Hara, I went to select a suitable place for our camp, or rather bivouac, for, of course, we had no tents. Finding a snug
little valley

which stood back

yards from the protection of a
us

W

couple of hundred Beach and which ran up under
a

rise in the ground, which gave cover from the Turks, I put all slight hands on to prepare and level the ground for the

some

horse and mule lines.

We

had been rushed to the trenches

in such

haste with the

ammunition and

supplies that

we

had been unable to bring any rope with which to tether the mules, so, seeing some ship's rope
lying on the beach,
I

asked the naval officer in
it

charge to let
only did
this,

me

have

for

my

lines.

but lent

me some in

of his

He not men as

A

Night up the Gully Ravine
it

well to carry

up
it

to

my

little

camp, where they
I

helped
to say
I

me

to fix

in the ground.

am

sorry

name, as he was most helpful to me in many ways, and I never had to appeal in vain to him, or, as a matter of fact, to
forget this officer's

any other naval

officer for assistance.

Throughout the
enough to
lines.

day

there was

more than

off, so as to

The ground had to be levelled make comfortable the mule and horse Ropes had to be pegged down and the
do.

ends of them buried in the ground, tied round sacks filled with clay, drains trenched out, and the
larger stones

thrown out

of the way.

Then

the

mules had to be fed and watered, and I feared the latter was going to be a difficult and dangerous business, for the only water discovered so far

came under Turkish
ever,

fire.

Luckily for me, how-

one of

my men,

Schoub,

my

farrier sergeant,

discovered a deep well carefully hidden at the corner of a demolished building, standing at the head of the little valley where we were camped.
I

feared that

solve

my

might have been poisoned, so to doubts I went to the Provost Marshal,
it

and borrowed from him one of the captured
Turkish prisoners.
I felt

sure that a

Turk coming

112

A

Night up the Gully Ravine

from these parts would know the natural taste of the water, so I took him with me to the well

and asked him to drink.
to do this at
first,

He

was rather loth
with
a little per-

but

at last,

suasion, he took a sip in his mouth, rolled it for a moment on his tongue, then nodding approval, drank freely of the water. As he survived the

ordeal,

I

thought

it

was

all

right to go ahead with

the mules, and later on
for
it

we

used the well ourselves,

was excellent water.

All day long parties were

between

V

and

W Beaches

coming and going
forage, water tins,

;

supplies, etc.

everything had to be brought to us on our pack mules, and the day was all too short to do the many things that landing in a new

country in time of warfare makes necessary. Not much time was wasted over the cooking of food
;

biscuits, jam, cheese, tinned beef, required no fires only a little tea was boiled in our hastily;

made camp

kitchens.

The

only fuel to be had

was obtained by breaking up some of our old the Turks had cleared off everypacking-cases
;

thing not a man, woman, child or beast was left on the place but this did not worry us, as

we were

always able to rustle for ourselves.
113

8

A

Night up the Gully Ravine

Before dark that night we began to load up another big convoy of munitions and supplies
for the trenches.

This proved to be one of the most weird nights of many that we have spent tramping up and

down
Of

the Peninsula.
course,

we had

to

move

off

after

dark,

otherwise the Turks would have concentrated
their artillery

on us and we should

all

have been

to went from Beach, along destroyed. the Aegean shore, falling into trenches and dug-

We

W

X

outs on the way, for the night was very dark, while every now and again we were caught up
in

entanglements. Then from Beach we slowly pioneered our way through the trackless scrub and undergrowth until we came

Turkish

wire

X

to the

cliff

mouth
the

of a

which overlooks Gully Beach, at the huge ravine which here opened into
Sea,

W

Aegean
Beach. the

some

miles

north-west

of

On
own

way we had

to go through

some

of our

guns, which were in action on this side of the Peninsula, and I had to request the Battery

Commander

to cease fire while

we were

filing

past, as I feared

the roar and flash of the guns
114

A

Night up the Gully Ravine

might stampede the mules. He let us through but we had scarcely got fifty yards from the muzzles when out belched the guns
in silence,

again, the roar of

which

at such close range, to

my
I

surprise, did not in the least upset the mules.

shall

sea

from the

never forget our struggling down to the cliffs above the Gully. Of course

there was no road then and

we had

to reconnoitre

ahead in the dark every yard of the way. I had to turn back and call out to the
halt as
I

Often

men

to

the

cliff,

found myself dangling on the edge of holding on to the roots of the gorse,

which fortunately grew there in profusion. After many mishaps, mules and supplies falling about

among the ravines which scored the face cliff, we eventually reached the beach. Then began our march up the bed

of the

of

the

ravine, and although the Gully was very wide and there was ample room to march either to

right or left of the stream, yet
of this, for the

we knew nothing

ground was new to us and everywas pitch dark, so the only sure way of thing getting up the ravine in safety was to walk in
the river bed.
I led
fall

time either to

the way, expecting all the into a water-hole or be shot by
115
8*

A

Night up the Gully Ravine
Cliffs

an ambuscade of Turks.

either side of us to a height of a
feet,

loomed up on hundred or more

and there was nothing to be seen but the
and again
a
I

faint twinkle of the stars overhead.

Now
and
as
it

called a halt to reconnoitre

listen for

was

any suspicious movements ahead, most likely spot in which to be

ambushed by the enemy. So far as I knew the Turks were in possession of the bank to my left,
that part of the country right where the Australians had landed.
all

and

up to Anzac,
For
a

time

everything was quiet as we splashed our way along, there being a lull just then in the fighting
;

all

of a

sudden

it

intensity.

The
its

broke out again with feverish Gully Ravine made a turn at

one part of
the line of

fire of

course which took us right between the two opposing forces. Shells

from our own guns screamed and passed safely over the ravine, but the shells from the Turkish
batteries often burst exactly overhead, scattering

shrapnel all round, at other times plunking into the cliff on our right and smothering us with
clay

and

gravel.

The
roll of

the continuous
ing
all

musketry was like kettledrums, and considerrattle of
fierce fight that

our surroundings, and the
116

A

Night up the Gully Ravine
it

was going on, remembered.

was altogether

a

night to be

At
line
as I
;

last

we reached the troops holding the front there were no supports or reserves, so far
;

could see

every

man had been put

into the

firing line,

owing to the

terrible losses that

had

been sustained.

Here
all

in the dark,

with shot and

shell flying

round,

we unpacked our mules and handed

over the ammunition and food to the brigade. I was right glad to be able to turn back and get

my

convoy

safely

away from the gloomy depths
cliffs

of this

We

uncanny had again to climb the

ravine.

when we got

back to the sea at the gully-mouth, and at the top again to negotiate our guns, which were still
blazing

away

for all they

were worth.
I

by dint of
close

much

shouting when

However, had crawled
fire

enough to be heard, the gunners ceased

just long enough to enable us to slip through. These two nights are fair examples of the work

done
at

by the Zion Mule Corps, that time the only transport corps on the
in those early days

Peninsula at Helles.

117

CHAPTER XI
HOW
i-

2ION MULES UPSET TURKISH PLANS

T
-*

T
it

will

be remembered that

I

left

Claude

Rolo on

V

.as

came

off

Beach to take charge of our gear the Dundrennon, while Gye was
hurry everything was not until the third day that
all

left

aboard that
;

vessel

to

ashore

but

it

we had disembarked

our belongings, the delay being entirely due to the shortage of steam tugs, on which I have already commented.

During the time that our gear was stacked on

V

Beach, with, of course, a guard in charge of it, one of the sentries became the object of suspicion

to the French,
of

who were now
a

in entire control

few minutes, finding he could speak no understandable language (for he only spoke Russian or Hebrew, which, no doubt, sounded
After

V Beach.

Turkish to the French), and seeing that he was armed with a Turkish rifle and bayonet and had
118

How

Zion Mules Upset Turkish Plans
his belt,

Turkish cartridges in

he was taken for

a

daring Turk who had invaded the beach to spy out the land. Without more ado, he was tried by drumhead court-martial and condemned to

be shot out of hand.

He

was actually up against

the walls of Sedd-el-Bahr Castle, and the firing party in position to carry out the execution,

when

the Sergeant in charge of the Zionist

Guard

luckily spied

what was happening, and,

as

he spoke

excellent French, he rapidly explained the situation.

too

The man was released, but the shock was much for him, and when he was unbound he

was found to be paralysed, and it was two months before he was fit for duty again. After this, I
allowed none of

my men

to leave

camp

unless

they could speak English or were accompanied by someone who could act as interpreter.

Gye and Rolo worked hard
equipment
little

to

move

water

tins, forage, etc.,

the pile of etc. to the

the Corps were Beach. already snugly encamped, overlooking
valley
rest of

where the

W

was extremely glad to have these two officers with me again, because, during these three days and nights since the landing, while we were
I

separated,

I

had had

a

very strenuous time.
119

How
I

Zion Mules Upset Turkish Plans
for the first

remember when Gye saw me

time after coming ashore, he got quite a shock, and I believe he must have imagined that I had

been indulging in some frightful orgy, because he observed that the whites of my eyes were as
red as burning coals
;

but

it

was only an orgy of
I

work and want
I

of sleep.

may

say that

when

I

did sleep

slept very

soundly indeed, for a high explosive shell dropped within seven or eight feet of my head, exploded,

blew

a great hole in the
it
!

ground, yet

I

never even

heard

This feat was outdone by a man who, on being roused in the morning, found himself
lame, and then
discovered
that

he had

been

shot through the foot some time in the night,

while asleep

!

Gye and Rolo being with me, was now considerably lightened, as we each
work, owing to
took a convoy out to different parts of the front, and so got the distribution of supplies through

The

much more
to

quickly.

I

was unable
officers,

at that

time

with the exception of Captain Trumpledor, for they were without experience and could not speak English.
use of

make

my Jewish

120

How

Zion Mules Upset Turkish Plans

Later on they were able to take charge of convoys and did the work very well.

Gye, Rolo and I made a cheery little party and never found the time hang heavy on our hands, nor were we ever dull for a moment, even when

we returned from convoy work
in

at

two

o'clock

the morning.

We

would then have dinner
a

together, and
teller,

wonderful storyand Claude Rolo was such a good second,
such an infectious laugh, have often literally fallen from the box on
also possessed
I

Gye was such

and he
that
I

which
I

was

sitting,

convulsed with merriment.

am sure the men of L Battery, R.H.A., who were camped close by, must have wondered what all this unseemly racket was about at such
unearthly hours of the morning.

Gye's

knowledge
It
is

of

colloquial

Arabic

was

profound. Egypt that a Cairo street loafer on one occasion maliciously
in

related of

him

annoyed him, whereupon Gye turned upon him and let loose such a flood of Arabic slang, minutely
vituperating the fellow himself and his ancestors for fourteen generations back, that, despairing of ever

reaching such heights of eloquence, the loafer, out of sheer envy, went straight away and hanged himself
!

121

How
In this

Zion Mules Upset Turkish Plans
first little

bivouac of ours

I

spread

my

ground sheet and blanket in the corner of what had been a house. The guns of the Fleet had evidently got on to it and now nothing was left
standing but some of the walls, which in places were about three or four feet high.

A day or
to

two

after settling in here I

happened

jump down from one of these walls and the ground gave way somewhat under me. We made
an excavation into

away

in

and discovered, hidden an underground chamber, an old green
it
it,

silk flag,

so ancient that a touch rent

an anti-

quated battle-axe, dating, I should say, from the time of the Crusaders, and also some antique
brass

candlesticks
a place.

a

curious

and rare find

in

such
It

must not be supposed that the Turks

left

peace during the day. They constantly dropped shells into our little valley, tearing holes
us
in

in the

ground

all

round

us,

but by great good

fortune while

we were

in this place

we

suffered

no

casualty of any kind, either
1st, after nightfall,

man
I

or mule.

On May

sent Claude Rolo

out in the direction of the Gully Ravine, with ammunition and supplies for one of the Brigades
122

How

Zion Mules Upset Turkish Plans

He got to his destination but while he was unloading the convoy, safely, at about ten o'clock, whether by chance or design
of the 29th Division.
I

know

not, a

tremendous

hail of shrapnel

was

poured upon them from the Turkish guns a couple of miles away. Some forty of the mules

had already been relieved

of

their

loads,

and

many

of these broke

away and galloped

off into

the darkness.

This turned out to be
for they

a providential diversion,

helped to save the British Army that night, in much the same way as the cackling geese once saved Rome, for, all unknown to us, masses
of Turks were at that very

moment
rise

creeping up

in the dark just before the

of the
line

moon.
being

They were

in

three lines, the
as it

first

without ammunition,

was their particular when they got near enough to our business, The trenches, to rush them with the bayonet.
Staff,
!

Turkish General
lated

however, had not calcu-

on Zion mules
our

The

terrified

animals,

scared and

wounded by
trenches

the shrapnel, careered
clattered

over

and

clanking chains on the stealthy foe. undoubtedly took them for charging
123

down with The Turks
cavalry,

How
for they

Zion Mules Upset Turkish Plans
poured
a volley into

them and thus gave
the
trenches

away

their position.

Our men

instantly

lined

and

opened such an intense fire that the Turks were utterly routed, and those of them that were left
alive fled

back to the cover of their

own

trenches.

The
if

battle

was taken up

all

along the line, and,

volume of musketry counts for anything, it was the hottest night fight we had during all the
Claude Rolo had
time collecting
of
all

time we were on the Peninsula.

his

most arduous and perilous men and mules in the midst
a

this turmoil,

but he eventually got them

together and took them down a side track to the Gully, into which they all scrambled helterskelter, for safety.

One

of the

men, Private Groushkousky,

dis-

tinguished himself greatly in this fight, for

when

the hail of shrapnel descended on the convoy and stampeded many of the mules, this plucky boy for he was a mere youth although shot

through both arms, held on to his plunging animals and safely delivered his loads of ammunition to the

men

in the firing line.

I

promoted

Private Groushkousky to the rank of Corporal,
124

How

Zion Mules Upset Turkish Plans

and devotion to duty, and, in addition, recommended him for the D.C.M., which I am glad to say he obtained.
for his pluck

While Rolo and

his

men were
left

strenuous time on the

having such of the line, I took

a a

convoy to the Brigade holding the centre. At about two o'clock in the morning, soon after we

had returned, we were all having a much-needed sleep, for we were worn out with constant coming and going day and night. deep slumber into which
messenger
to
I I

was roused from a

had

fallen

by

a

say ammunition was urgently the Anson Battalion of the Royal required by Naval Division and other units on the right flank of our line. I remember what a difficult task it

was to rouse the men,
ground,
mules.
like
I

who
balls,

lay about
in

on the
of
their

rolled-up
a

front

very effective plan was to shout " " Turks That, coupled loudly in their ear with the roar of the guns and the crackling of the
: !

found

quickly brought them back to realities, and almost in the twinkling of an eye the Zion
rifles,

men were

loading up cartridges with feverish speed at the Ordnance Depot, which was situated not many yards below our lines. I always kept
125

How

Zion Mules Upset Turkish Plans

our mules saddled throughout the day and night, in relays, for I knew that in those strenuous times
likely to get a call at any moment to the firing line with ammunition. supply No matter at what hour of the day or night we
I

would be

went to the ammunition
Jones, the Chief

stack,

Major

Ho well
;

Ordnance Officer of the 29th was always on the spot to issue it and Division, not only was he there, but if there was any " " on, he turned to and helped to load up push the mules with his own hands. He was one of
the hardest-worked

men on

the Peninsula, and

I

sincerely hope that the
all it

29th Division

realizes

energy and foresight. In those early days after the first landing, when we were pressing the Turks so steadily before us,
his

owes to

expected that one final push would drive them over Achi Baba, the Zionists petiall

and we

tioned General Hunter-Weston to be permitted to take part in the assault. After some consideration, the

General refused to

let us go, saying

that

we were performing invaluable services in keeping the men in the trenches supplied with ammunition and food. Although we were denied
officially

the privilege of actually taking part in
126

How

Zion Mules Upset Turkish Plans

the attack, yet unofficially some of the Corps, at least, had the gratification of joining battle with the Turks.
It

suffered terrible losses in those early battles,

must be remembered that our troops had and

the Inniskilling Fusiliers had fared no better than the rest, and they had very few men indeed with

which to man
attack.

their trenches in the event of
it

an

Now

so

happened

that

the Turks

determined onslaught upon them on one occasion, when a party of the Zion Mule Corps

made

a

was close by, unloading
having the lust
seeing

convoy; the Zionists, of battle strong in them, and
a

the Inniskillings were, left their mules to take care of themselves and, under the
leadership of Corporal Hildersheim, leapt into

how weak

the trenches and materially assisted in repelling the Turks.

127

CHAPTER
LIFE IN
TV

XII

OUR NEW CAMP
troops within

*'

yf

ORE

and

more
and

embarking

kept on fourteen

dis-

days

we found

ourselves being

crowded out
sea,

of our little
it

valley that ran

up from the

and

became

a

pressing necessity to look out for fresh quarters

further inland.
a

Nor were we sorry road had been made close to our

to move, for
lines,

which,

owing to the great traffic upon it, was now several inches deep in fine white dust, which blew over
us in choking clouds.

time the whole of the Peninsula, from Cape Helles to Achi Baba, was one expanse of
this

At

green pastures and cultivation, and the country looked exceedingly pretty. Quantities of beautiful flowers

some

fields

grew everywhere, so much so that were a regular blaze of colour, the
itself

western slopes of Achi Baba
128

being beautified

Life in our

New Camp

by gorgeous stretches of blood-red poppies. Groves of trees of various kinds were dotted about,
while the olive and the almond flourished everywhere. Here and there were to be seen round,

masonry-topped
in illustrated

wells,

just

like

those pictured

water

for

Bibles, showing Rebecca drawing Abraham's servant but, alas, here
!

there was no Rebecca

Before

we

left it, this

smiling land
place

became the
that
it
is

most

desolate,

God-forsaken

nothing but row upon row of unsightly trenches, and not a single blade of grass anywhere to meet the eye.
possible to imagine

For our new encampment I chose a green level field, some two miles inland, and into this we

moved on May nth.

A beautiful olive tree grew and threw a

grateful

shade by the edge of our encampment, and here, we excavated a shallow practically under its roots,

dug-out and erected over it a shelter of canvas. Gye, Rolo and I settled ourselves in as comfortably as possible,

merely a

and although we thought it temporary halting-place on the way to

Constantinople,

we never moved camp
it

again, and,

indeed, for over seven months 129

was our home.
9

Life in our

New Camp

I

had occasion to

ride back to

W Beach within

a

couple of hours after quitting our

first encampand I heartily congratulated myself that ment, we had cleared out of it just in the nick of time,

for the

Turks had concentrated their guns on the I counted place immediately after we had left. no less than thirty holes through a piece of canvas
that was stretched over the place where
slept the night before.

we had

Had we
have

still

been there

we must

all
!

inevitably

been

blown to

smithereens

At our new encampment we found, burrowed into the ground about us, the wagon lines of
B,

L

and

Y

Batteries, R.H.A., together
in
fact,
it

with the
joined

ammunition column

our

lines

up with L Battery which, earned such fame, and

will

be remembered,
so

won

many

V.C.s

Lieutenant during the retreat from Mons. Davidson of this Battery was in charge of the wagon lines, and, as it was Gallipoli, and he was

haughty horse gunner did not disdain to join the lowly Muleteers' Mess We were to have him, as he was good, cheery, very glad
all

alone, the

!

sensible

company, -nd he also made a fourth at Bridge, which was our relaxation when nothing
130

Life in our

New Camp
is

else

had to be done.

It

odd,

when one

thinks

of

it

now, that we were

far

more

interested at

times,

when the game got

exciting, as to

who

should make the odd trick than in the Turkish

which flew screaming by a few feet over our heads, especially when one remembers that the
shells,

deflection of the guns

by

a hair's-breadth

tiresome fellows

who were peppering

by those us from

Achi Baba and the plains of Ilium would have meant that, in our peaceful little dug-out, spades

would have been trumps

!

During

the

course

of

our

stay

here

we

gradually excavated and enlarged our dwelling and burrowed down into the ground, making
a cellar into

which we could

retire in case the

shelling became too hot ; but, as a matter of fact, though the bombardment at times was

hot enough to satisfy the most desperate eater, we used our bomb proof entirely pantry, for which we found it most useful.

fire-

as

a

No
us

sooner had

we

settled

down
it

to life in our

new bivouac than
by dropping
our

the Turks began to annoy
into

shells

and disturbing

our peace of
following

mind and body.
arrival,

On

the morning

while
131

we were having
9*

Life in our

New Camp

breakfast under the spreading branches of our
olive tree, a shrapnel burst, sending its bullets
I remarked unpleasantly near. jocularly to the others that if the next shell came any closer

we should have to move. when one went bang just
the arm of

Scarcely had I spoken over us, and a bullet

whizzed between our heads and smashed through

my Orderly-Room
moment was
It
is

Sergeant, Abulafia,

who

at that

standing by

my
it

side

taking some orders.
hitting a
all

a

marvel

how

missed

member

of our little mess, for
close

we were

sitting very together round an upturned box which we were using as a breakfast

table.

The same
besides killing

shell

wounded two other men,
half a

and wounding

dozen mules.

We
so,

decided that the place was too hot for us, after helping our Medical Officer to dress

the wounded, other side of
olive tree.
I

we
a

finished our breakfast

on the

bank which ran along by our must mention here that Sergeant

Abulafia refused to have his

wound

dressed until

the others
first

who were more

severely injured

had

received attention.

Dr.

Levontin was very good
132

in

attending

Life in our
to
aid

New Camp
fire,

wounded men under
to

and he gave
others,

first

these

men and many
;

often

at

great

personal risk

but

at last the continual

battering of high explosive shells so close to his

dug-out was too
went,
as

much

for him,

and

his nerves

did the nerves of

many

others,

and

there was nothing for it From the time of his departure our sick and wounded were ministered to by Captain
to Egypt.

but to send him back

Blandy, R.A.M.C., who was the Medical Officer in charge of the Batteries camped round us,

men, finding Captain Blandy most sympathetic and painstaking, did not fail to
and
the
avail themselves to the full of his able services.

The troublesome Turks
we
had,
after

did

not

allow

us

to keep our animals in the pleasant field

where

ropes and pegs

much trouble, laid down our and made our lines.

the slopes above Krithia they could see us perfectly well, and they rained such a tornado of shells round about us, ploughing up the ground in all directions, that I ordered a hasty evacuation of the field and chose another
site

From Achi Baba and

close by,

somewhat better concealed from
of
olive
trees.

view

by

a

plantation

It

was

133

Life in our
difficult

New Camp
the Turks as
Peninsula.

extremely

to hide from

Achi

Baba
in our

dominated

the

whole

Even
to

new

position

we were not
for

allowed
the

remain

undisturbed,

almost

daily

peppered us with shrapnel and high explosive, both from Achi Baba and the Asiatic

Turks

coast.
I

set

the

men

to

work to dig themselves and

the mules well into the bowels of the earth,

and in

very short time they had done this so effectively that a stranger visiting the place
a
if

would be astonished
hundreds of

he were told that some

men and

mules were concealed right
the
field

under

his very nose.

Soon
which
it

after

we had evacuated

in

the Turks had shelled us so vigorously was taken possession of by the Collingwood

Battalion of the Royal Naval Division. They arrived in the dusk of the evening, and as they

were

apparently
I felt
it

unaware
to be

of

position,

my

dangerous duty to go and

their

warn the Commanding Officer, Captain Spearman, R.N., how exposed the place was, and how they would probably be plastered by high
explosive as soon as the Turks discovered
134

them

Life in our

New Camp

on the following morning. Captain Spearman was very glad to be given this friendly warning
and, in consequence, he
itself

made

his Battalion dig

well
I

in,

and

for

several

hours into the

could hear pick and spade digging and night It was well they did so, for on the delving.
following morning a brisk bombardment opened on them, but, thanks to the precautions which

they had taken, they, on that day at
suffered
It

all

events,

no

casualties.

was very funny to see the
" "

men

sitting in

rows along the banks of earth thrown up out
of their

dug-outs
shell

and watch

them

dive,

like rabbits into their

burrows, at the

sound of

an approaching

;

everyone popped up had been done.

then, after the explosion, again to see what damage

a
a

During the time they were camped there shell would now and again plump right into

dug-out and then, of course, the unfortunate occupants would be blown about in little pieces
all

over
to

the

place.

A

hand was once blown
some hundred and
shell
fifty

down

my

horse

lines,

yards away from where the
shattered a

had burst and

man

to atoms.
135

Life in our

New Camp
time flew over our
before
sunrise,

A German
lines

Taube
morning
all

for a

every

long
for

of

course catching
visits

our airmen napping.
observation

These

were generally

purposes,

but sometimes the Taubes would liven us up by dropping a few bombs. They made several
shots
I

at

saw

the French guns, but always missed. a bomb land among a dozen French

horses

one

day,

and

all

of

the

unfortunate

animals

were terribly wounded. I never saw such a shambles, for the horses were in a dugout close together for safety. The Zion lines

had

several close escapes, as did the Royal

Naval

Division Hospital, which was close to us, and

where

Staff-Surgeon Fleming cheerfully and skilfully attended to our sick and wounded at
all

times of the day and night.

The Taube
machine than

is

a

much more
It

vicious looking

ours.
it,
is

has

a

certain

air

of

arrogance about
of aeroplane.
as

entirely lacking in our type

It

not in the

least like a

dove,

the

German name
like a

me
its

very
prey.

signifies, but appears to hawk, always ready to pounce on

Day by day one

kept missing friendly faces.
136

Life in our
I

New Camp
one

remember such

a nice boy, belonging to

Naval Battalions, who used to pass my camp regularly with his platoon on his way to the Beach to bathe. I never knew the boy's
of the

name, but he interested
cheery,

me

as

he was

a bright,

handsome youngster, who seemed to be on the best of terms with his men. One

day there was a vigorous bombardment of his lines, and when next the platoon went by the young officer was missing. He had been blown
to pieces

by

a shell.

The Royal Naval

Division

were

a

mixed

crowd, and their ways in Gallipoli were somewhat peculiar. Their habits and customs were
"

decidedly

herumphroditish."

They performed
;

military duties as ordinary Infantry

then they

jumped back and were sailors again. time by the chiming of ships' bells ;
;

They kept when they

were wanted out of their dug-outs, the boatswain would pipe, " All hands on deck " when a

company was mustered on parade, the

Com-

mander (when the Commodore came along !) " " All present on the main deck, sir reported, the main deck being along a line of dugouts
;

and

if

" one " herumphrodite wished to
137

Life in our
visit

New Camp

" in a different another " herumphrodite " " shore leave Battalion, he had to apply for The Collingwood Battalion met with a very!

sad end soon after their arrival in

my

neighbour-

hood.
first

They were sent up to take part for the time in an attack on the Turkish trenches,

and they were placed on our extreme right, When the order linking up with the French.
forward most they went little loss, two of the gallantly, capturing, with Turkish lines of trenches, Captain Spearman,
to

came

charge

well

to

the

fore,

leading

his

men.

He

got

shot in the foot, but, ignoring it, dashed along, waving his hat in the air as he cheered his men

Unfortunately, owing to the conspicuous part he and his officers played in the attack (and it was necessary that they should
to

the

assault.

do

so,

owing to the rawness

of the men), he

and

practically all the other officers of the Battalion

were

killed.

Then someone,

possibly a
in the

German,
Turkish

for there

were several of them

round about, shouted out the fatal " Retire." This was carried word along the
trenches
line

and the men turned about and made back,
for

helter-skelter,

their

own

trenches,

but in

138

Life in our

New Camp

to gain them they were practically trying annihilated by machine-gun and rifle fire. I

was

particularly

sorry

for

Captain

Spearman,
occasions,

who had come

to our dug-out on

many

and had drunk an early cup of coffee with us only a few hours before he was killed.
In
this

disastrous

retreat

the

Collingwood

Battalion was practically wiped out. The survivors were transferred to another unit of the

Royal Naval Division and the very this Battalion went out of existence.

name

of

139

CHAPTER
A

XIII
'

MAY BATTLE
big
battle
I

FAURING
'
a

a

-

early in

May,
of

sent

which took place Gye forward with

large

out

convoy later on to

ammunition, and on riding see how things were going I

passed over some of the ground occupied by the French, who were to the right of the
British,

and extended

from thence across the

Peninsula to the Dardanelles.
to the rear of
batteries
of

A
line

the fighting

couple of miles extended the

the

famous

.753

cunningly

con-

cealed
in

among

trees,

the

ground,

branches specially planted I watched the reeds, etc.

gunners serve their guns, and my admiration was aroused at witnessing the ease and celerity

with which they were loaded, their mechanical arrangement for setting the fuse, and, above all,
the
beautifully

smooth
140

recoil

of

the

barrel.

A May

Battle

I might have on the ground behind the placed my finger wheel of the gun and have received no damage. The French Army can give us points on many

This was so nicely adjusted that

things,

but
are

above

all

stands

their

.75

gun.

They

wonderfully
continuous

accurate,

marvellously

quick, and seem able to pour out from their

muzzles

a

stream

of

projectiles.

The French
in

certainly did not starve their gunners

ammunition, and only for those .755 our position in Gallipoli would often have been

somewhat
After while
I

precarious.

I

had watched the guns in action for a passed on, and going down the sandy
village

road

which led from Sedd-el-Bahr
I

to

Krithia

came upon the

first

evidences of the

was now raging. handsome young French artilleryman lay dead by the side of the road some friend had closed his eyes,
fight that
;

A

and he looked
the long sleep
lay

as if

he merely
death.

slept,
little

but

it

was

of

A
as

further

on

some Zouaves, and yet
all

a little

further some
fell,

Senegalese,
their packs

lying

just

they

with
close

on their backs and their

rifles

by, facing the foe

brave French soldiers
141

all.

A May
Turning
the
battle.
a

Battle

corner

I

found myself riding into
his staff, busily directing

General d'Amade and

Almost

at

the

General's

horse's

blown away. The poor fellow had wrapped the end of his puggaree round his ghastly wound. Within a
feet lay a

Turk whose

face was half

or two lay another Turk, his shoulder smashed to pulp by a shell. Both men bore up with the greatest fortitude and never uttered

yard

a

groan.

A

first-aid

dressing station was close

by, where scores of

were

being sights of the uglier and sadder side of war are not pleasing, and any one who has seen the
horrors of
again.
I
it

doctored

wounded, French and Turks, and bandaged. These

can never wish to view such scenes

would

put

all

Foreign

Ministers,

Diplomats and Newspaper Proprietors in the forefront of every battle for which they were
in

any way responsible. However, duty has to be done, even in the midst of horrors, so saluting
General,
I I

the

front,

where

pushed further along to the could see Gye with the mules
I

in the distance.

had cantered up to him all the ammunition had been unloaded, and at the

By the time

142

A May

Battle

spot where I halted I found myself looking over a bank into the midst of a Battalion of cheery
little

Gurkhas
of

(the
their

6th)

and

almost

within
C.

handshake
Bruce,
I

Commander,
in Gallipoli,
after

Colonel

who was an
to

old acquaintance of mine.

had no idea he was

and

it

was

curious

come upon him,

some

years,

in the thick of a battle.
I

stayed for a time chatting with

him while
in fact,

the bullets and shells whizzed round
until

an order came for
fight.

his

Battalion

to

go
a

forward into the
I hill

myself went and took up a close by, where I could see,
of
a
;

position
as if

on

from the
staged
of

gallery

theatre, the whole

fight

before

me
I

where

I

could note the

move

practically every

As
tion,
trees,

looked

man and gun. down from my
green

post of observafull

a

saucer-like

valley

of

olive

vineyards

and

young

corn

spread

out

before

me

for

some

five miles, right

Achi Baba, the dominating hill, or seven hundred feet high. The French, as I have already said, were away on the right,

away up to some six hundred

and

I

watched

their

infantry mass in hollows
143

A May
and
ravines,

Battle
lines

then advance in wavy

under

the pounding shelter of their guns. The latter were served magnificently, and the infantry as they advanced found the ground to their im-

mediate front swept yard by yard by the guns fired by their comrades a couple of miles to their
rear.

It

was

a stirring sight to

watch the
a lead

officers

dash out and give the

men

when

there

was any hesitation or waver of the line. In run like hares, but places I could see the Turks French who were in on the extreme left the
touch with our right could be seen retiring
precipitately over the
hill,

badly slated by the

Turks.

was fascinated by the sight and wondered how that broken line could be again reformed.
I

It

was done, however, in the shelter of a bluff, and once more they charged over the hill and
lost to

were then

my

view.

The 29th Division extended from the French of the saucer, across left, near the right centre
Aegean sea. The front was towards Achi Baba, and our men made headway towards
to

the

it

in the face of fierce opposition.

Our guns

144

A May

Battle

were barking away at the Turks in their trenches, and the great guns of the Fleet were hurling
their high
explosives,

which descended on the
terrific

doomed Turks with
rocks, Turks, in fact,

effect.

One could

see great spurts of flame,

smoke, earth, timbers, everything in the neigh-

bourhood, going up
crater of a volcano.

as

though shot out

of the

To me

it

possibly live

though nothing could under such a rain of death, which
as

seemed

continued with ever increasing intensity for an hour. Nothing could be seen of Achi Baba, or any other part of the Turkish position, owing
to the

smoke and dust which the bombardment

had

and unfortunately the wind was blowing towards us, which brought everything
raised,

into the eyes of our

men

as

they leaped out of
ceased

the trenches to the attack.

The moment
discern,
as

the

guns

one

could

through the haze, the gleam of bayonets the Allies swept forward along the whole
bristling

front like a

wall of steel,

right

into

the leading Turkish trenches. Wherever the bombardment

had

done
10

its

work and smashed down the wire entanglements,
145

A May
our
as

Battle

men found

it

easy to advance.

Such Turks

remained in the trenches were dazed and
shell-fire,

demoralized by the

willing to surrender.
ally

But

in

and were only too some parts, especi-

on the
cut

left of

to

down

the guns had failed the barbed wire, and here our the
line,

men were crumpled up by
rifle

the deadly fire of and machine-gun which was concentrated
at this point.

on them
It

watch, on this great stage, the alternate advance and retreat of our men, and the scuttle of the Turks along

was

a soul-stirring sight to

communication trenches; the charge of the Zouaves; the hurried retirement of the Senegalese when they were met with a terrific
their

the reforming of the line from the Turks behind the friendly crest ; the renewed pounding of the Turkish line by French and British guns ;
fire
;

the charge once more of the Allied infantry into and through the Turkish curtain of fire until

they were swallowed up in the smoke. The heart palpitated with emotion, and one's
imagination was gripped by the sight of these gallant fellows flinging themselves recklessly at
the Turks.
146

A May

Battle

At length human nature could do no more,
and both British and French had to
call a halt.

The

result of the battle

was that we gained

some few hundred yards practically along the whole front except on the extreme left, but it
was
at a considerable cost in killed

and wounded.

CHAPTER XIV
GENERAL D AMADE AND THE CORPS
EXPEDITIONNAIRE D'ORIENT
our camp was in touch with the French lines and, of course, I saw a
of
?

end

great

deal of the

French

soldiers

and

a

little

of their gallant
I

Commander, General d'Amade.

know, therefore, with what feelings of regret his men heard that he was about to return to
France.

He had

endeared himself by his un-

failing courtesy

with

his fine,

and goodwill, and had impressed soldierly qualities all those with

whom

he had in any way come into contact.

During the tenure of his command, the French troops had, at the point of the bayonet,
wrested seemingly impregnable positions from the brave foe. Their losses had been cruel,
terrible,

The

but their deeds are imperishable. military records of France make glorious
148

Gen. d'Amade and Corps Expeditionnaire
reading, but even to these dazzling pages General

d'Amade and
lustre.

his gallant troops

have added fresh

A

sad blow

had

fallen

upon the General while

he was in

reorganizing his Corps Expeditionnaire d'Orient, prior to its departure for Gallipoli. In the midst of his work a

Alexandria

telegram was handed to him announcing that his son had fallen gloriously in France. The
General, having read the heart-breaking message,
for

paused
"

a

moment and

then

remarked

Well, our work for France must go on." It was my good fortune to see the order of

the day of the Journal Officiel du Fevrier, 1915, which recounted the death and gallant deeds
of

n

General

d'Amade's

boy.

He

was

only

eighteen, and had
1

just joined his regiment, the

Infantry, when he went on a perilous mission to obtain information which could night only be got by creeping up into the German
3 ist

trenches.
this

With

just

two men he accomplished

dangerous duty successfully, but at that very moment he was discovered and a volley from the enemy laid him low. Although
grievously

wounded,

his

first

thought was for

149

Gen. d'Amade and Corps Expeditionnaire
France,
so,

him

off,

comrades to carry he told them to fly with all speed to
forbidding his

the French lines with the valuable information

which he had obtained.

Young Gerard d'Amade

died where he had fallen, a noble example of that spirit of self-sacrifice which characterizes
ranks of the French army. framed copy of this order of the day has now a place of honour in the nursery of a little
all

A

who, every night before he goes to bed, stands in front of it at the salute and " I do this in memory of a brave French says
boy
I

know

of

:

officer

who

gave his
as

life

for his country.
I

May

I so live that, if

necessary,

may

be ready to die

for

England

nobly

as

Gerard d'Amade died
aware of what

for France."

The

British

public

is

little

it

owes to General d'Amade.
retreat of

During the terrible our Expeditionary Force from Mons,

when we were outnumbered by five to one, and when the Germans were closing round our small
overwhelming numbers, General Sir John French sent out urgent appeals for assistance in this hour of dire peril to the Generals

army

in

commanding the French armies on
150

his

right

Gen. d'Amade and Corps Expeditionnaire
and
these
as if
left.

For some reason or other none of
to his aid, and for a time
little
it

came

looked

our gallant

army would be engulfed

and annihilated.
Fortunately, there was one French General whom the appeal was not made in vain. This
at

to

was General d'Amade, who,

that time, was

guarding the line in the north-west of France from Dunkerque to Valenciennes. To hold
very important eighty miles of front all the troops he had were four divisions of somethis

what ill-equipped Territorials, with very few It must be remembered that the French guns.
Territorial
is

past his prime and, as a rule,

is

the father of a family, and considers his righting
days over. It can well

be imagined, therefore, what an anxious time General d'Amade had during
those fateful days from

I9th to the 28th August, 1914, when at any moment the German avalanche might burst upon him. On the

the

24th August two Reserve

his

force

was
(the

strengthened
6ist

by
for
in

Divisions

and

62nd),

which only arrived in the nick of time, with these he was able to do something

Gen. d'Amade and Corps Expeditionnaire
answer to General French's despairing appeal.

General d'Amade manoeuvred these two Reserve
Divisions
into
a

position
flank.

which

seriously

threatened von Kluck's

That " hacking "

General, not knowing the strength of General d'Amade's menacing force, became anxious for
his

right flank

and communications,
British

so

turned

aside

from

his pursuit of the

ceeded to crush the French.
sions

and proThese two divi-

such

put up such an heroic fight and offered a stubborn resistance to the German
it

horde that
stricken
selves

took the pressure

off

our sorely

men, enabling them to extricate themand retire, broken, exhausted, tired,
it
is

crushed,

true, but

still

to retire to safety,

where they were able to reorganize and take ample vengeance on the Germans a few days
later.

General d'Amade
force,

lost

practically

his

entire

gained something very he had saved our army from destrucprecious tion, and what is more, he had saved the honour
;

but

he

had

of

nay, even France itself, for if the French generals had stood idly by and allowed

France

our Expeditionary Force to be wiped out of
152

Gen. d'Amade and Corps Expeditionnaire
existence,
I

think

it

is

more than
in
all

likely

that

France

might have

prayed

vain

for

further assistance, in troops at

events,

any from

England.
All honour,
therefore,
to

the General who,
just

without

hesitation,

with

two

Reserve
legions

Divisions, took the shock of the

German

and

sacrificed himself

and

his troops rather

than

see the

honour
and

of France go

down
the

in the dust.

Politicians

may recommend
decorations

bestowal

of

honours

on

their

favourite

Generals, but General d'Amade deserves more than this, he deserves a tribute from the British
people.

He made

our cause, and if a general deserved
nation,

magnificent sacrifice in ever in the history of the world
a a

sword of honour from
deserves

a

General

d'Amade

one

from

England.

153

CHAPTER XV
VARIOUS BOMBARDMENTS

T~?VERY

**
o'clock,

morning regularly the Turks commenced shelling us punctually at eight

presumably after they had had breakfast, and again at tea time. They generally continued for a couple of hours, and these
hours were

was

a

always lively ones for us, and it occurrence to lose men, horses and daily

mules.

6th May, eleven Frenchmen, who happened to be close to our lines, were killed instantly by one shell, on the i/th one of my
the
1

On

horses was

wounded, and on the I9th the second
ribs

was hit in the

by shrapnel.
the road used by wagons,

The

Turks often switched off from us and
a section of

bombarded
to me,

gun-teams and motor

cyclists.

The

latter were,
I

the chief wonder of Gallipoli.
154

ride

Various Bombardments
a

motor cycle myself, and have had

a

fe\v

smashes, so can fully realize its dangers. I was introduced to this convenient form of

locomotion by Dr. Rolleston after a breakdown in health. It is the most wonderful tonic I have yet come across, because the
gets

moment one

on to the bicycle one's attention is so centred on keeping it going, picking out the
bits

smoothest
that
I

of road, avoiding collisions, etc.,

veritably believe the treachery of one's

closest friend

would, for the moment, at

least,

fade from the

memory.

I

am

perfectly certain

that the Gallipoli motor cyclists never gave a thought to absent friends ; they were much too

busy
over

avoiding pitfalls and shells. They flew the most uneven ground, small took
it

trenches as

were

in

their

stride,

and were
I

generally the most dare-devil set of boys

have

ever seen.

Many

a

time we stood and watched

through our glasses this dangerous strip of road which the Turks had got the range of to a yard. As the wagons, gun-teams and cyclists approached
it,

they would get up the pace, and
at top speed.

fly

through

it

The narrow
155

squeaks that

we

constantly witnessed on this bit of road were

Various Bombardments
Yet enough to make one's hair stand on end I am to say I only once saw a man struck glad
!

down.

It

looked so sad
life,
still

the

moment

before

so full of the joy of

huddled heap, lying
roadway.

and then, just a little, and quiet on the dusty

On May
two
five

2Oth, the Turks
;

bombarded

us for

several hours

five of

my men

were wounded,

seriously,

his leg

smashed to atoms.

one of the poor fellows having The same day I had
killed

mules and one horse

and ten mules

wounded.
about
us,

The Horse

Artillery,

camped round
switched
their

also suffered rather

severely, for the

Turks

every

now and
It

again

batteries

on to their
was
a

lines

and caused them

heavy

busy time for Lieutenant Fisher, the Veterinary Surgeon of the Horse Batteries, who kindly came to our aid whenever " the Zion mules got strafed."
losses.

bombardment broke upon us, everybody made a rush to get his horse, mule,
this

When

or himself out of danger, and
curses

many were
gunners,

the

heaped on

the

Turkish

who

were universally consigned to the warmest place It makes me of which we have ever heard.
156

Various Bombardments
laugh even now when I think of a little comedy that took place between Rolo and his groom.

The
a

whose name was Dabani, was a most comical looking little fellow, with bandy legs,
latter,

swarthy

face,

and

little

black beard sprouting

in patches here

and

there.

He

was an

Israelite

from Arabia, and although an excellent fellow in many ways, he was more renowned for his
piety than for his courage.
tell

the intensity of a fervour of Dabani's prayers.

could always bombardment by the

You

On

this occasion,

when

the shells began to burst and spatter the shrapnel all round us, Rolo shouted to Dabani,

whom

he saw scuttling off for safety, to come " back and look after his horse. What, look " " This after your horse now ? cried Dabani. is a time when I must look after myself," and
taking not the slightest notice of Rolo's angry
maledictions, he, with rabbit-like agility, dived
for safety into his

dug-out

!

This bombardment badly shook some of my men, and among them Schoub, my farrier, who,
the

moment he

felt it safe

to emerge from the

nethermost depths of

his

dug-out, came in a

state of abject terror to

Gye, begging piteously

157

Various Bombardments
to be sent back to the

bosom

of his family in
I

Alexandria,

because,

use here now.
deaf.
I

The

he remarked, " shells have made
a

am no me stone

cannot hear
a

word."
"
not a

Gye,
"

in

low voice,

What," said " single word ?
!

"

word," replied Schoub was many months before he returned in safety to Alexandria, and by that time bombarda single

Not
It

ments had become
ceased to terrify. On the 2nd June,
to the

so

common

that they had

was returning with Claude Rolo from an expedition which we had made
I

the

line.

Gurkha trenches on the extreme left of Before we had got very far on our

way heavy howitzers began to bombard the Turks, and as we were just then passing an
artillery

observation

post,

hidden

away

in

a

cross trench,

we turned aside and went into it. From here we could see our high explosive shells
with
terrific

bursting
trench,

effect

on

the

Turkish

which was only about three hundred

yards

away. The Artillery Observation Officer telephoned back to the guns the result of each
shot,

and under

his

guidance the
earthworks,
158

shells

soon

battered

down

the

pulverizing

Various Bombardments
fell. Soon, however, some Turkish gunner spotted our observasharp-eyed

everything where they
tion post
Shells

and began to plug
off

at us pretty rapidly.

the parapet, shrapnel struck the steel shield, fuses and fragments of all kinds

hopped

thudded into the bank behind our

backs,

and

we seemed
little

for the

moment
and
a
:

to be living in a
iron.

tornado

of
for

lead

When

this

had continued
to the gunner

man

few minutes, I remarked " What on earth are the
"

" Hit us, of course," Turks trying to hit ? he somewhat sfiortly replied. Now, so long as we remained here in the deep trench we were comparatively safe, but as I

wanted to get back to camp,

I

thought

I

would

pull the gunner's leg before leaving him ; he had no idea who we were, for we were in our
shirt

sleeves

as

usual,

so

I
:

thoroughly scared, and said "
this
is no place for me the smile of a brave man
!

pretended to be " Good
heavens,

on which he smiled
feels pity for a

who

There were some twenty yards or poltroon. so of open ground to be covered the moment

we
of

left

the shelter of the observation post, and,
this

course,

was

a

really

dangerous

strip,

159

Various Bombardments
was exposed to the fire of the Turks, and had therefore to be covered at top speed.
because
it

The

only

way
it

of accomplishing this in safety

was to do

in

between the

shells,

and

as

there

was only

couple of seconds between each, the plunge out had to be made the instant one burst, so as to be under cover before the next
a

arrived.

Warning Rolo

to follow

me

after the

next explosion, out we darted. We had almost reached safety when I heard coming after us I shouted the scream of an approaching shell. " " and at the out to Rolo, Jump for your life same time threw myself down, and the last
!

thing

I

saw,

amid the dust kicked up by the
bullets,
a

shower of shrapnel head foremost into
a dive
!

was Rolo plunging ditch, as if he were taking

We were neither of
up by the
a
little

us hurt, but a stone

thrown
our-

shell struck

me on
both

the hand and drew

blood.

We

congratulated

selves on our lucky escape and got back to camp with whole skins, none the worse for our close

shave.

160

CHAPTER XVI
THE COMING OF THE GERMAN SUBMARINES
F
-*

N

our nightly journeys back from the trenches we were always guided through

the darkness to our
of

camp by the

brilliant glare

the lights from the warships, hospital ships

and transports, which lay thickly clustered round Cape Helles. It was a most beautiful sight,
like a

veritable floating Venice, but

it

was not

practical

and

it

was not war.

It

showed an
the

arrogance

and utter contempt

of

enemy

who

very moment, stealthily stalking them under the seas with the deadly submarine. At all events, the submarines came, with the

was, at that

and Triumph were sunk with appalling swiftness and great
result that the battleships Goliath
loss of life.

Then, and then only, did the Fleet awaken the battleships and cruisers to its danger ;
161 ii

The Coming

of the

German Submarines

vanished into the unknown, while the transports
disappeared in a night, and

we

felt,

as it

were,

marooned on
which
the

this

inhospitable Peninsula, from

Turks

had

removed

every

living

thing, save only a few dogs,

which were found

to be so dangerous that they had to be shot at
sight.
It

was,

therefore,

with

feelings

of

saw the stately battleship, the Majestic, lying at anchor out in the roadstead, a few cable lengths from

pleasure that, as I rode the evening of the 26th

down
May,

to
I

W

great

Beach on

W

Beach

;

and

as

I

looked

my

heart grew glad

within me, because there lay the ship in the

open sea, exposed to any attack, and I felt that it would be impossible for the ship to lie thus
unless

the

German submarines which had sunk
battleships
a

the

other

few

days

previously

were either disposed of, or else some clever new defence had been designed which made
the Majestic
It

immune from

the deadly torpedo.

cheering thought, and it helped to enhance the beauty of the wondrous panorama

was

a

which

lay spread before

my

eyes.

Away

to

my

left

stood the quaint old ruined
162

The Coming
walls

of the

German Submarines

and towers of Sedd-el-Bahr, thrown into

bold outline against the rippling waters of the further on the eye was Dardanelles, while

caught by the green plains of Ilium,
tangle of hills,

set

in

a

on the picturesque Asiatic

coast.
soft

Ahead
sea,

of

me, to the south, glittered the
it,

with Cape Helles jutting into

like

a

rough brown hand
ing quicksilver.

thrust into a basin of shimmerat

Almost

my
its

feet

lay

Lan-

cashire Landing, busy with

hundreds of

men

and animals going to and
right

fro,

while away on
Isles

my
of

sparkled

the

Aegean, with the

Greece jutting out of it, like rugged giants To crown all, rising from their ocean lair.
the sun was going down in a perfect blaze of crests of Imbros and colour, tipping the

Samothrace with

a

glint
sea.

of
I

gold,

as

it

sank

behind them into the
in

have seen sunsets

many

parts of the world,

but never have

I

seen anything to equal the glorious lights and shades which at sundown are painted on the

Aegean sky. If I were an artist, my ambition would be to go (especially in the lovely autumn days) on a pilgrimage to these shores and humbly
try to put

on

my

canvas the perfectly gorgeous
163

n*

The Coming

of the

German Submarines
rose, pink, scarlet, reda perfect

but harmoniously blended
yellow, purple, green,

amber and blue
colours

intoxication

of

glorious

which

the

unable to grasp, unless they were absolutely thrown on the sky before one's own eyes. The magnificence of the sunsets
seen from Gallipoli were the sum of what an ordinary mortal could conceive as a fitting
setting for the splendour of God's Throne.

imagination would

be

So
of

hoped that the officers and crew the Majestic, which was moored so peaceit is

to be

fully

heavenly surroundings, took a soul-satisfying view of the glory around them, because, alas, for many of the poor fellows it
such
last

amid

was the
their

sunset

that

would ever gladden
27th

eyes,

for

on

the morning of the

the ship was marked

marine and sent to
of being struck.

its

down by a German subdoom within^four minutes

was attending to some routine work in my camp when I heard the terrific explosion and
I

looking up, saw a volume of smoke ascending to Beach. I jumped on my the heavens from

W

which was ready saddled close by, and, galloped over to hear what had happened.
horse, 164

The Coming

of the

German Submarines

topped the rise, all of the Majestic that could see was a couple of dozen feet of its copper keel which projected above the water,
I

When
I

and which

still

to the fact that

remains thus " had

a

mute

witness

someone

blundered."
should

Regrettable

incidents
a

like

these
for

be

unknown
practical

in

Navy renowned

the good
of its

commonsense and thoroughness

captains.

165

CHAPTER
TRENCH WARFARE
"

XVII
IN GALLIPOLI

T"^ROM

forms of trench warfare, pre" serve us, O Lord should be the
all
!

humble prayer

of every soldier, for

it

is

about
dis-

the most unpleasant, tiresome,

humdrum,

agreeable, dangerous, death-without-glory kind of warfare which the evil genius of man could
devise.

As, however,

it

has

come

to stay,

it it

may
was

perhaps be of interest to describe what
like in Gallipoli.

When

after the first battles the

Turks refused

any longer to meet us in the open, and took to the trenches which they had, with great energy,

dug

right across the Peninsula,

it

became necestactics,

sary for us to adopt the

same mole-like

and our advance was brought practically to a standstill. Instead of going ahead a couple of
miles in a day's fight,
it

now became

a

question

166

Trench Warfare
of taking

in Gallipoli

one trench
as

at a time,

and often we did most

not gain as much strenuous battles.

that, even after the

Long
more

lines

of trenches,

from three to

six or

deep, and three or four feet wide, were dug in zig-zags right across the Peninsula, more or less parallel to the Turkish lines, and
feet

behind these were similar support and reserve trenches at the back of these again were second
;

and third

line

defence

trenches

;

while

still

further were the so-called rest trenches, but in

dangerous as the front trenches, owing to the confined space in which the army was cooped up, and also owing to the
Gallipoli these
just as

were

configuration of the ground, which exposed them to fire from Achi Baba as well as from the guns in Asia. Some of our trenches were so deep that

hundreds of scaling ladders were always kept
in

readiness

to

enable the
assault

men

to

swarm out

quickly
lines of

when an

was to be made.

Long

communication trenches ran up and down and to and fro, connecting the various lines of

dug deep and wide enough to give ample cover for enough mules and horses. Various little back alleys were
trenches,
167

and

many

of

these were

Trench Warfare
also

in Gallipoli

dug
of

in different directions, so that the

whole

face

country was transformed into a veritable rabbit warren. These communication
the
trenches were necessary so that
reliefs,

reinforce-

ments, munitions, food and water could be taken up in safety to the firing line.

Where the ground was very hard and deep trenches could not be dug, the necessary cover
was given by building parapets made of sandbags, little canvas bags about two feet long and ten
inches across, which could easily be carried by

one

man when

rilled

with sand or

clay.

These

sandbags should be of different colours, because otherwise when one is taken out to make a loophole the blank space is seen at once and the

enemy's fire is concentrated on it. In Gallipoli our sandbags were all of the same colour drab
coloured canvas.

When

an attack was made

and an enemy's

trench was captured, thousands of these sandbags

were carried forward, and by piling them up a new protective trench was rapidly constructed, for, of
course, the original Turkish trench was always

battered to pieces (or should have been) by high explosive shells before the attack was launched.
168

Trench Warfare
Another great use

in Gallipoli

of the sandbag was to erect an enemy communication trench, otherwise, of course, he could pour his troops down the communication alley and perhaps effect
a barrier across a

surprise.

It

sentry on one

was exceedingly odd to see our side of such a barrier and the

Turkish sentry on the other side, apparently quite friendly in the intervals of bombing each
other
!

One day
played
life

a

man

of the

Inniskilling

Fusiliers

a trick

on the Turkish
he bored
it,

sentry.

Finding
in his tin,

rather monotonous, and being
beef,

somewhat fed

up with bully

a hole

stuck a cartridge into

and hurled the novel

projectile over the sandbag barrier among the Turks, who could be heard flying for their lives

it

away from it along the trench, evidently thinking was some new form of diabolical bomb we had
invented.

Then one man,
at
it,

a little bolder

than
it
;

the

rest,

could be heard cautiously stalking

he even threw stones

and when these

failed

to cause an explosion, he

courage to hook
bayonet.
gation to
It

it

plucked up enough towards him with his fixed

was apparently sent off for investisome German professor in the rear,
169

Trench Warfare
for

in Gallipoli

some few hours
bully beef

later

the Turkish

sentry

shouted out loudly over the parapet "
beef,
little
;

"
:

Bully

throw us more

!

and

this

incident led to

many

friendly exchanges

of bully or cigarettes.

Life in the trenches

when no "

strafe

"

was on

was very monotonous dull, weary watching and waiting, with dust blowing into one's eyes and

mouth and nose
While

all

the time, and

flies

everywhere.

in the trenches food
it

had to be snatched
it.

when

was possible to get

It

was cooked

some considerable distance to the rear and was
then carried up to the trenches in great pots and
there
that
distributed,

and in
it

Gallipoli,

of

course,
flies

meant dividing
of June, July

between men and

the latter getting the lion's share during the

and August. Of course, work was always going on. The trenches had to be carefully drained and sloped
so as to allow the rainfall to flow off.
If

months

this

were not properly done they would inevitably be flooded out in the rains, and life in them would
be impossible. Even when every care was taken they sometimes became raging torrents. Much

ground was made good by digging out from the
170

Trench Warfare

in Gallipoli

trenches towards the Turkish lines and forming
a fresh line of trenches closer to

the

enemy and

in a better position.

Every yard in front of the trenches was guarded by barbed wire, sometimes left unrolled on the
ground, where it naturally goes into coils and traps for the unwary, and sometimes interlaced

on

stakes,

like

a

regular wire fencing, doubled

many
up

times.

this

was very dangerous work putting form of defence, and it was generally done
It

at night,

but even then the enemy could see our

the light of the brilliant flares which were constantly sent up, for these remained in the air
for several seconds,
as
lie

men by

making everything as bright The only chance of escape then was to day. flat down and remain perfectly still until the

flare

went

out.

Then

there

was

the

constant arduous and

dangerous labour of sapping, i.e., tunnelling underground from our trenches underneath the

Turkish trenches, making a huge cavity there, filling it with explosives and blowing the trench and such Turks as were in it sky-high. This was
generally done
to

when an

attack was made, so as

throw the enemy into greater confusion.
171

Trench Warfare
At night
fairly
it

in Gallipoli

was usual to
one third

man the
of

front trenches

strongly,

being

awake

and

on

the

the force always look-out for the

enemy.

Of

course,
to stand

it

was almost certain death for
his

a

man

up and show

head and shoulders
the

above the parapet line, so the watch on enemy was kept by men with periscopes,

who

could see every move in perfect safety. Even the periscopes were often shattered to pieces by the bullets of the Turks, which shows that

some

of

them were good marksmen.

Telephone wires were laid everywhere in the trenches, and telephone operators and observing
officers

were scattered up and down the
first

line.

On

the

sign of an

enemy
a

attack these officers

communicated with
rained
cases,

their Batteries in the rear,

and within two seconds

curtain of
foe,

fire

was

on the advancing
it

which, in most

quite impossible to get through. If he ever succeeded, however, the infantry were
this

he found

by

time lining the parapets, ready to mow down the enemy with rifle and machine-gun fire,
so the only

marvel

is

that any of the assaulting
a

force ever got through

very rare occurrence

172

Trench Warfare

in Gallipoli
line

and those that did pierce the
back to their

never again got

own

trenches.

One day I went up to visit Lieutenant Davidson, who was Forward Observing Officer,
and he, having occasion to fire it was a to the Battery
;

a gun,

telephoned distinctly weird

feeling

to

hear the scream of the shell from

the guns two miles back flying close over our heads into the Turkish trenches in front of us,

At almost before Davidson had ceased speaking on the previous day, that same observation post, another R.H.A. officer, Lieutenant Perceval, who
!

also

was

a

member

of our little mess,

had

a

very

narrow escape.
slightly

A

Turkish

shell

came through,
and
killed

bruised

his

shoulder

his

Bombardier,

who

was, at the

moment, holding

the telephone. In the side of the trench next the
niches were excavated
sit

enemy

little

where men could

lie

and
rain.

fairly

well

sheltered

from wind and

These

were often used by the Turks as burial places for their dead. I remember on one occasion I was walking along a piece of the
recesses
line

which we had
a shell

just

taken

from the Turks

when

exploded close to the trench.
173

The

Trench Warfare

in Gallipoli

concussion shook away some loose earth and out from the side of the trench popped a dead hand

and arm

!

just as

if

a

hand

to stop the traffic.

policeman had put out his The dead Turk seemed

to try, even in death, to bar the

way

to an enemy's

approach.
very disagreeable feature of trench life is the unpleasant odour of the dead, which penetrates

A

everywhere,

for,

of

course,

when an

attack

is

made by one
killed close

hundreds may be to the trenches, and as a rule it is
side or the other

impossible either to rescue the wounded or to bury the dead, because the enemy would inevitably shoot
task.

down anyone attempting such

a

One
is

of the very worst trials of trench warfare

to see the dead

body

of a

comrade lying out

in

the open, gradually fading away before one's eyes, a mummied hand still clutching the rifle, the helmet a
in its
little

way

off,

looking ever so weird

gruesome surroundings. While in the trenches one is,

of course, subject

at all times to shells, rifle fire,

mine

explosions,
dia-

poison gas, bombs, liquid
bolical inventions.

fire,

and other

The

Turks, however, did not

174

Trench Warfare

in Gallipoli

use either poison gas or liquid neither did the British.

fire,

and, of course,

Worst

trial of all is

the trench mortar

!

This

venomous weapon sends a bomb weighing a hundred pounds or more of the most deadly high
explosive

plumb

into the midst of a trench with

marvellous accuracy at any range up to four hundred yards. The vicious thing can be seen
soaring high

up into the

air,

until
it

it

reaches a

point directly overhead, then

hovers for a

moment, like a hawk over its prey, and finally swoops down, pulverizing everybody and everything near which it explodes.

From my own
I

observation of

trench warfare
assault should

would say unhesitatingly that no

be launched against the enemy until his trenches had been thoroughly pounded to pieces by high explosive, his men demoralized by a constant
stream of
wire entanglements or other barriers swept out of the way of the advance. Then, and then only, should the infantry
shells,
all

and

be launched, but before doing so the supports and reserves should be brought up as close as possible to the firing line, because, in these
attack

days especially, the speed with which an assault
175

Trench Warfare in Gallipoli
can be reinforced makes
victory and defeat.
all

the difference between

During the
stantly

assault the

guns should

be conof the

playing on the reserve trenches

enemy, the counter batteries (i.e., those batteries told off to dominate enemy batteries) firing as
fast
as

they possibly can to keep
fire

down enemy

shrapnel
in

and generally supporting the attack
Special

groups should always be told off (not single individuals) with orders to signal back to the batteries the posievery possible way.
tion

which the front
otherwise

line
I

has reached in the
it

assault;

and
our

have seen
will

happen

more than once
playing on our
It
is

own guns

be found

own men.

unwise to trust to telephone wires for passing signals back to the batteries, for they are often cut by shells or broken by passing troops.
Aeroplanes fitted with wireless are most useful. Another good plan is to fasten some very conspicuous object, such as a large tin disc, to the backs of the men, so that the gunners would always be

they were firing. The disc should be tied so that the men could switch it
able to tell at

whom

round to the front

if

they were forced to
176

retire.

Trench Warfare

in Gallipoli

This plan was adopted in Gallipoli towards the end of July with excellent results, for our men
could always be made out by the flashing of the tin, which, of course, the enemy could
not
see.

Bombs should
assaulting

always

be

carried

with

the

columns,

and

the

bomb

throwers

should not be hampered by a rifle, but should only be armed with revolver and bayonet, for

when

expended there are always plenty of rifles lying around belonging to the dead and badly wounded.
their
is

stock of

bombs

When

all

these arrangements have been
a

comshells,

pleted, and

combined attack
rifle

is

made with

machine-guns,
gas, liquid fire,

fire, trench mortars, poison etc., the attack is almost certain

to succeed at

defender's line

some point or other, and once the is broken his whole line is threat-

ened, and

the reserves are brought up and poured quickly enough into the breach, so as to get a wedge in between the enemy's forces, his
if

army can then be smashed up
great victory won.

in detail

and

a

Cavalry

can

then

burst

through and
12

once

more come into

their

own by

playing havoc

177

Trench Warfare in Gallipoli
with
the

enemy's

lines

of

communication.
;

Of

course, in Gallipoli

least,

we had no Cavalry such mounted men as we had came
!

at
as

yeomen from Bucks and Kent the only pity is that we did not have more of them. When we did make a breach
in the

Infantry without horses they fought well, those

and

I

must

say that

enemy's

line,

we never had enough

troops

to push through

and

so ensure a crushing victory.

178

CHAPTER
~^HE
and
it

XVIII

losses

which we suffered

in every attack

on the Turkish trenches were very severe, was painful to see our men frittered away
these

time after time in

hopeless

assaults

on

what had now become an impregnable position
impregnable at all events to such forces as we could launch to the attack. Our casualties
the original landing had reduced the 29th Division to a mere skeleton. Many of the
at

Battalions were not a
scarcely

company strong and had
left,

any
to

officers

and

it

was

found

necessary to join the remnants of

two or three
Battalion.

together

make one rather weak

The Dublins and Munsters were
up together and were
"
Dubsters."
officially

thus

linked
as

known

the

Reinforcements only came in by driblets, and
179
12*

Guns and
as

Staff

they came they were eaten up in futile attacks on the strong trenches which the Turks had

meanwhile, with great energy, dug right across
the Peninsula.

We
take
a

were never
serious

really strong

enough to undernever

offensive,

and our guns

had

ammunition
a

properly by an hour or an hour was usually about all we were able to do in the way of knocking the Turkish trenches about with high explosive,

enough to prepare the way Half devastating bombardment.

whereas these same trenches needed a steady

crumple them up and destroy the scores of machine-guns which bristled everywhere. Trench warfare seemed
rain of shells for several days to

taken us completely by surprise we were without trench mortars, but luckily were
to have
;

able to borrow

some from the French
manufacture

;

neither

had we any bombs or hand grenades, except
such
as

we
!

could

locally

out

of

jam
a

tins

No

Battery

Commander was
his

allowed to

fire

single

round unless he had

first

obtained pera

mission

from
of

Brigadier, and even when
of

couple

Battalions

Turkish

troops

well

180

Guns and
within

Staff

range could be observed marching in column, the Brigadier was compelled to limit the battery to two rounds only, for to such
dire straits

were we reduced owing to lack of
!

ammunition

slight support given by the have seen our gallant fellows time after guns time leap out of their trenches and, in an
I

Even with the

onslaught with the bayonet, sweep over trench upon trench full of Turkish soldiers.
irresistible

Nowhere could the enemy stand up
in the open, as

to our

men

was proved over and over again

in the early days of the fight before they took

to trench warfare. If only we had had enough ammunition and one more Division, equal to the 29th, we would have retrieved the initial

mistake of landing at Helles, and have swept the Turks over Achi Baba from their positions
itself

round the Narrows, and Constantinople would have been in our grip within a

month.
But, alas
!

we hadn't
those

the

we hadn't the ammunition and men and when the Turks took
;

to mole tactics,

and protected
181

their front with

two inventions

of the Evil

One

barbed

Guns and

Staff

wire and machine-guns our case, considering the means at our disposal, was a hopeless one.

During
June
I

a

fierce

battle

was standing close in position, just south of the Pink Farm, and what a contrast it was to see these guns in
action
after
.755
!

which took place in to one of our batteries

having

repeatedly

watched

the

French
recoil,

Here

was

no

smooth

barrel-

clumsy spade stuck in the ground to prevent the piece from kicking. Whenever the gun was fired it jumped back like a bucking
a

but

broncho, necessitating the relaying of the gun after each shot.

We

but with

have better guns than that now, of course, all our mechanical superiority and

should years ago have had a gun equal, or superior, to the French .75. Of course there is no use in having a quick-

mechanical resources

we

gun if you cannot have mountains of ammunition alongside of it, and this point should
firing

never be
it is

lost sight of

by the

Staff,

whose duty

to look after such matters.

As we were very short of high explosive shells the Battery was not doing a great deal of firing,
and
in the lull a Staff Officer rode

up and told

182

Guns and
the Battery

Staff

Commander

to lay his guns on to

some Turks

he pointed out, saying they were threatening our line. Now I had been watching this part of the
battlefield

whom

most carefully through my glasses, and I had seen our own men advance and go into the position which the Staff Officer said
was held by the Turks.
structions to the
I

overheard his inout
:

gunner

officer, so I called

"

Those

are our

men, not Turks

"
!

in spite of

my

warning, a couple of

However, rounds were

loosed off and they were only too well placed,
for they exploded

doing,

among our unfortunate troops, no doubt, a considerable amount of
a

damage, because, in

moment,

a

wrathful tele-

phone message came to the Battery Commander telling him to cease fire instantly, on which the
discreet Staff Officer

made

a

hurried departure.
Staff
Officers,

While we had some excellent

there were others not exactly noted for their brilliancy, and no doubt the Turks saw that

some

of our

"

regrettable incidents

"

were due

to bad Staff work,

Touched
It

for

and the following story was the Peninsula wag. by
that,

had been noted with some surprise
183

Guns and

Staff

though the Turkish sniper exacted
all

his

toll

from

other ranks, the Staff appeared to be immune. At last the mystery was solved when one of
these sharpshooters was captured, for on being asked how it was that the Staff always escaped,

he replied
sergeant, a

"
:

Oh,

well,

you

see, I

get five shillings

for every private I shoot, ten shillings for every

pound

for every officer,

but

if I

were
"
!

to shoot a Staff Officer I
I

would be shot myself

hardly say that these merry quips made at the expense of the Staff by our frolicsome wits should be taken with a grain of salt.

need

So
8th

far

as

my own

experience goes, the

Staff

Officers of the 29th Division, and, later, of the

Corps, were all that could be desired, and at them no such gibe could be levelled.

Army

All those with

whom

I

came

in contact

were

very

much
is

all

There
the

there at their respective jobs. no doubt, however, that there
for

is

some reason
in

the general lack of confidence

Responsible positions are unfortunately too often given to most unsuitable
Staff.

men with

regrettable results.

Glaring instances of jobbery and favouritism
are so universally

known
184

that

it

is

unnecessary

Guns and
to quote examples.

Staff

Puck must be having the
If

time

of

his

life.

administrators

would
!)

only our responsible for the future abjure

and give proved talent a chance, we should, I am convinced, have some" " better to show than
nepotism (vain wish
thing "
strategic retreats

and
I

brilliant evacuations."

am reminded
I

of an incident that occurred

when

was staying with Colonel Roosevelt the time he was President of the United during
States.

An

influential

and well-known Senator
I

came into the room while
on
his

was there, and urged
of
a

the
to a

President
post
as

the

claims

protege

of

Mining Inspector.
impressed

President
:

Roosevelt's

"

very much Well, Senator, if your man is the best Mining Engineer that can be found in the United
reply
States he shall get the job, but not otherwise
;

me

he

will

have the
this,

lives of

men

in his hands."
!

Mark

ye jobbites of England

185

CHAPTER XIX
VISITS

TO THE TRENCHES

"TOURING ^
and
I

one of the hot June days Gye paid a visit to Colonel Bruce and

his

Gurkhas,

who were

holding the

left

of the

line

down by the Aegean Sea. The Gurkhas have done some
the Peninsula.
at

splendid work
their

in

They

are

in

element

night doing reconnoitring work. Bruce told me of the valuable report brought in by one of his N.C.O.'s, on the strength of which he took his men up the side of a cliff

when out

and was able to surprise and drive the Turks out of a very strong position which it was of
prime
troops

importance

we
times

should

hold.

Other

had

several

attempted

this feat,

but failed because they attacked in the open, while the Gurkhas succeeded owing to good
reconnoitring work.
186

Visits to the

Trenches
visit

The

night
a

previous

to our

the Turks

had made

most determined attack on the

Gurkhas, and the Gurkhas asked for no better
sport.
Flares, shot

up by our

officers,

showed

the Turks advancing in regular parade formation in line of columns. As soon as the Turks saw
that

they

yelling

observed, " their war cry Allah,
:

had been

they charged, " Allah The
!

lining the trenches as thickly as they could stand. They allowed the Turks to approach within about fifty yards
of

Gurkhas waited patiently,

them and then opened such
and machine-gun
fire

a

hurricane of

rifle

that the Turks were

absolutely crumpled up in ranks as they stood. The fury of the Gurkhas was now thoroughly

aroused and, the

reserves

having been brought

up, the whole brigade made such an onslaught that practically not a single Turk out of that huge
attacking force ever got back to his

own

trench.

When

Rolo and

I

viewed

the

battlefield

within a few hours of the fight, there were still some wounded to be seen in the intervening groun.fl between the two forces, while in regular
battle array lay line
silent

upon
the
187

line of

Turkish dead,
accurate
fire

witnesses

to

terribly

Visits to the Trenches

poured into them by the Curias.

They
a

are

brave fellows, those Turks, ana. it was sight to see so many gallant meri laid low.

sad

No

doubt in revenge
the

for the; defeat they

had

previous night, ^the Turks were bombarding the Gurkha lines vigorously, and " while I was there they landed a big Black " Maria shell underneath a little fellow who
suffered

was squatting on his heels outside his dug-out. It was an extraordinary sight to see him shoot

down

the

hill

in
in a

this position

forty feet

away

and land some clump of bushes^ from which
the worse
for
his

he emerged not
voluntary
flight.

much
in

in-

one of their previous attacks on the heights occupied by.jethe Turks, were held up by some barbed wire and had to
retire.

The Gurkhas,

A

private

remain

behind,
of
a

however, chose to ensconced under $pr scanty
soldier,

protection

coup^pof

knapsacks,

which

he

pulled together from those strewn round, thinking that he could hold his own until

another assault was delivered by his comrades, No comrades when he join them.
wof|jjr

came, however, so he found himself unable to
188

Visits to the

Trenches

move without being

observed.

He

therefore

pretended to be dead and lay absolutely still for hours, not even daring to move his head,
except

when
so
it

his

neck got very
his

stiff,

and then

only by
inch,
inside
last

pushing that he might slowly twist his head without showing any movement. At
strain

hat up a fraction of an

he could stand the

no longer,

so

he

leaped up, raced in a zigzag to his

own

trenches

and, carefully avoiding a low spot where the Turks had concentrated their fire, expecting him to go in that way, he leaped
a hail of bullets,

amid

over the highest part of the parapet and escaped
scot-free.
I

saw

this "little fellow a

few hours after

his

exploit and he looked

as

though he had thoroughly

enjoyed the adventure. A few days after the big Turkish assault I was again on my way to this part of the line,

when

happened to meet General de Lisle, and, on mentioning that I was going to see Colonel
I

Bruce, he told

me

I

would not

find him, for he
a

had been wounded on the previous night by bomb, while gallantly leading his men.
I

had

several

friends

in

the

Inniskilling

189

Visits to the Trenches

Fusiliers

my
As
the

and frequently I came across them in journeys to and from the Gurkha lines.
they held the trenches to the right of

a rule,
little

brown men from Nepaul. I always made a point, when I was anywhere He near, of looking up Captain Gordon Tillie.

was now practically the only officer left of the Inniskillings who had taken part in the original
landing and had, so far, escaped scot-free. I was hopeful that his luck would see him through, because he had only been married a few days
before he left England for the front, and I knew his wife very well, and had promised her to look

him up whenever

had an opportunity. Just before the 29th Division went to Suvla, Gye and I paid him a visit, while he was holding
I

the front trenches, and, sad to say, this was the last occasion on which I ever saw Gordon Tillie.

He
for

took us along that portion of the trench

which

his

company was
which,
at
this

responsible,

and

showed us the various points
Turkish
line,

of interest in the

particular

place,

was sometimes
at

parallel,

and sometimes almost
and in places When I was leaving

right angles to our trenches,

only a dozen yards distant.
190

Visits to the Trenches

him

he

cautioned

me

to

be

careful

of

a

certain

part of the trench

we should have
it

to

pass through, as

he said

it

was exposed to the
a strafing.

Turkish guns and they often gave My parting remark to him was
:

"

Take care

they don't

'

strafe

'

you."

Of
there

course,
all

dropping here and the time from the Turkish guns, and
shells

were

they were paying some attention to the piece of dangerous trench which Gye and I were bound to go through, so, saying to him " Let's make a bolt for it," we started off at our best
:

pace,
lie

but before

down

got through we had to in the bottom of the trench to escape

we

a

couple of

shells

which burst
the

all

round us
parapet

and knocked to

pieces

sandbag

protecting our heads.

Gordon
saved our

Tillie's
lives,

friendly
it
is

warning may have
a

and

nice thought, for,

soon afterwards, the
to Suvla,

29th
his

Division was
Tillie

sent
killed

and there Captain
leading

was

while

gallantly

company up the

slopes of Sari Bair

a brave soldier, as Sir Ian

Hamilton
I

testifies in his

Suvla Bay Despatch.
visit

often

made an

expedition to
191

a friend,

Visits to the

Trenches

only to find,

when

I

got there, that he had
else

perhaps been killed the day before, or

had

been
it

sent off to hospital badly

wounded, and
buried

was sad to see
thinned
round.
off.

how

one's friends graduallyof

got
all

Many

them

lay

One would suddenly be
a

startled

coming
sheltered

across
little

freshly-dug

grave

in

by some

for the first

nook by the wayside and learn time, from the rude cross erected

over
is

it,

war, and

that one's friend lay there. But war as a shell or bullet may come at

any

moment and
self,
it

to one's

bring sudden death with it one gets used to the idea, and

somehow

does not seem so dreadful.

Many
In

of us often escaped

by the merest chance.

my own

case the turning aside to pluck a flower,
little

from the path to get a better view of a sunset, was the chance that prevented Death from finding me, because more than
or straying a

once

explode and excavate a huge hole on the exact spot where, had I not turned aside, I would undoubtedly have been
I

have seen a

shell

Yes, indeed, in those days one often heard, sounding softly in one's ears, the faint
standing.
rustle of the

wings of the Angel of Death.
192

Visits to the

Trenches

do not know whether the Turks had any particular spite against my Zionists, but they
I

certainly gave us
shells.

more than our
a shell into a

fair

share of

One
Zion

afternoon they began a bombard-

ment and plumped
sat a

bank on which

man,

explosion sent him beyond the bruise

Scorobogaty. The some feet into the air, but,
Private

and shock, he suffered no

damage. The next shell dropped plump in the middle of our little supply of stores, within
six

feet of the

door of our dug-out, and sent

everything flying through space. A third shot plunged into the roots of a tree which stood
close to our lines,

by which the trumpeter

of

R.H.A., was standing. He heard the shell coming, and, without any particular reason, but luckily for him, he made a dive to

L

Battery,

the right instead of to the left, and so escaped for the moment. Next afternoon at tea-time

another shell came, cut the same tree clean in two, wounding the trumpeter and two other

men

of

L

Battery

who were having

their tea

in its shade.

193

13

CHAPTER XX
FLIES,

DUST AND BATTLE

T

ULY
to

was
the
of
I

a

j
a

scorching month, and to add discomfort of heat there was
flies
;

plague

flies,

flies,

flies

every-

where, and
responsible

have no doubt that they were for the serious epidemics which
troops.

broke out

among the

Doubtless

it

was

the self-same pestilence which Homer tells us attacked the Grecian Army camped round Troy,

and which

they

attributed

to

the

anger

of

Apollo, though none of our mules suffered as did those of the Greeks.

These
for they

flies

were

disgusting,
straight

horrible

pests,

would come
of

from the rotting

corpses

hundreds

in front of our trenches,

the Turks, which lay in unburied and blacken

every scrap of food on which they could obtain
a foothold.

The

only

way
194

to get a clean bite

Flies,

Dust and Battle
flies

into one's mouth, without taking the
it,

with

was to blow vigorously all the time until the lips had actually closed on the morsel, and even then these pests would hover round,
waiting for a chance chase it down.

opening to dart in and

The
for the

dust, too, in these days was very trying,

heap,

which

whole peninsula was now one vast dustthe slightest wind would swirl

about in blinding, choking clouds. I noticed that on several occasions our men had to do
battle

with

this

dust

storm
it

in their eyes,

so that

blowing directly was impossible to see

anything in front of them, while the Turks, with their backs to it, could see our men coming
along plainly enough and could slate
their
leisure.
I

them

at

always

found,

as

was to be

when we foolishly attacked on expected, such days as these we effected nothing beyond getting ourselves killed. The Turks must have marvelled at our blind folly. I well remember
that

that

one of

our most

successful

battles

was

fought on a day when the wind carried the dust into the faces of the Turks ; towards the close
of this fight
I

saw

a

couple of battalions go
195

13*

Flies,

Dust and Battle
all

right through

and over

the Turkish trenches

within sight, and then get engulfed in a great ravine on the very slope of Achi Baba itself,

where they were hidden from view, and then I saw thousands of Turks stream down through
communication trenches on each
side

of
as

our

men,

filling

the trenches in their rear,

could

be plainly seen by the bristling bayonets which showed above the parapets.
I

felt

that

these

two
after

battalions

were

lost,

as

indeed they were for two or three days, but
or
other,

somehow
trenches,

some

hide-and-seek

experiences

among

extraordinary the Turkish

they fought their way back again, clearing the Turks out of their path in handto-hand fighting as they hacked their way
back to our
lines.

Captain Braham of the 6th Manchesters, had a narrow escape on one occasion when he made an attempt to lead
friend
of

A

mine,

Being short of ammunition for the guns the Turkish trenches had not Turkish machinebeen properly bombarded
his

men

in

an

assault.

;

guns and riflemen were
to

still

in position, ready

mow

our

men down

the

moment

they leaped

196

Flies,

Dust and Battle
This was the fate which
Manchesters
pieces
a
;

from their trenches.
overtook
practically

the

6th
to

they

were

cut

before

they

had
wiser

advanced more than
lines,

dozen yards from their
it

and the few survivors thought
back to cover
as

to

get

quickly

as

possible.

them Captain Braham, out of the trench again, and at that moment, while standing on the parapet, a bullet struck
however, tried to rally
his

knapsack and cut through the buckle, a box

of chocolate

tin-opener diverted the bullet out through the bottom of the haversack by his heels, but the impact of it
so great that
it

and

a tin-opener.

The

was

knocked him
if

off

the parapet

into the trench, as
a sledge

he had been struck with
told

hammer.
and

He
at the

me

afterwards that

he did not know

time what had knocked

him

over,

it

was not until he had removed

mystery was explained. During one of these dog days Rolo and I went as far forward as it was possible to go, so
his haversack that the

that we might get a close view of a battle which was to begin at n a.m. on the I2th of July. Punctually to the minute our guns crashed

out along the line and pounded away steadily
197

Flies,

Dust and Battle
the
attack,

for

an hour.

Then we watched

and what impressed me in this battle, as it did in others, was the inadequate force with which we attempted to take the offensive.
also

A

line

of

our

men would

dash forward, take
losing perhaps

two or three Turkish trenches,
find itself too

half its effective strength in so doing,

and then

weak to do more than hold on, and very often they could not even do that. There seemed to be no regular system of sending
line

after

line

at

intervals

into

the fight.

I

know
it

that this was arranged for in orders, but

did not always come off, and the men who had, with such gallantry and at such a cost,

taken

the

trenches,

would be forced out

of

them in a counter-attack by overwhelming numbers of Turks, and, in getting back to their own lines, would again lose heavily.

To

obtain

a

view of the battlefield from

a

different point,

we made our way
and here

munication

trench,

along a comour interest in

the fight in the front was abruptly switched off and centred on ourselves, for the Turks had

spotted

a

Battalion

of

Lancashire
firing

Fusiliers
line,

coming along to reinforce the

and

Flies,

Dust and Battle

most deadly and accurate fire upon us from the Turkish guns. Shells hopped from the parapets or broke them in all round
they turned
a

crashed over our heads, and even plumped right into the trench itself, sending men flying
us,

in all directions.

The
halt

Lancashire

Fusiliers

had,

therefore,

to

and take cover under the

lee of the parapet,

and during this time one of the men asked Claude Rolo what his job was in these parts,
for, being in our shirt-sleeves, and pretty grimy with dust and with climbing about the trenches,

he could not make out

who
"
:

or

what we were.
I've

When
to
see

Rolo replied
the

Oh,

only "

come

show,"
"

Lancashire man,
to a
I

show
felt

like this

said the Oh, Hell must be mad to come you on your own."
!

"

finally

marched

very sorry for the poor lads when they off. The day was hot enough
feel

to

make one

that the only

way

to keep

cool was to
of a tree,

sit

in one's bones

under the shade

men
their

loaded
packs

and yet here were these Lancashire down with the whole weight of
food,
rifle

bayonet

and

ammunition, blanket, belts, marching on through this
199

Flies,

Dust and Battle
where they
efforts

infernal heat to a bloody combat,

would have
getting

to

put forth
across

all

their

in

rapidly fire-swept ground, into and out of deep trenches, and, in plunge

the

addition, grapple

hand
are

to

hand with no mean

foe.

Some
can

things

more than human nature

You cannot overload the soldier, and then expect him to pull his full weight in
stand.

battle
throat.

with the broiling sun burning out
Lancashire
lads

his

The

were soon in the thick

of the fight,

and

a great

many

never again needed

the shelter of a friendly trench.

We
battle

few prisoners to the Turks in this owing to exhaustion, and it is a comfort
lost a

that our gallant enemies treat such men of ours as fall into their hands with kindness.
to

know

I

never heard anything but praise for the Turk

and the way he played the game. I only knew of one case of a prisoner being mutilated, and
this

may have been
victim

the work of a German, for
Sikh,

the

was

a

and died before any

evidence could be taken.
^ighter,

The Turk

is

a clean

and more than once they have pointed out to us that they would be glad if we would
200

Flies,

Dust and Battle
from the

move
latter
as

a

hospital ship a little further

transports,

for they feared that in firing at the

they might hit the hospital, and, so far the records go, this is more than would have
the prisoners taken in one of these were some German sailors from the

been done by the Germans.

Among
battles

Goeben,
guns. tion

who had been working

the

machine-

When
left,

their

taken they had no more ammuniofficer and many others had

been

killed,

and their position was quite hopeless,
I

so they gladly surrendered.
fallen

and sullen when

They looked crestsaw them as prisoners

on

their

way

to the beach.

During these hot shells would often set

July days the Turkish fire to the dried-up gorse and bracken near our lines, and, as the wind

usually

came from

the

north,

I

have seen

a

raging line of fire, hundreds of yards long, with flames forty feet high, roaring and crackling down to our trenches.

Our men, however, had of cutting the gorse down
fire

taken the precaution in front, so that the

never actually overwhelmed our lines. The Turks did not lack initiative ;
201

their

Flies,

Dust and Battle
considerable

snipers

gave us a trouble all the time

amount

of

we were on

the Peninsula.

Two
their

of these

men
and

obtained some celebrity by

daring They actually originality. concealed themselves between some of our guns,

and before

they were hunted

down and
several
of

shot

they had killed
officers
all

and wounded

our

and men.
face,

They were
clothes,

painted

green
their

over,

hands,

and even

rifles,

while

little

green bushes, similar to the
in

gorse around, were tied to their heads.

Their sense of humour showed

itself

some

rather quaint ways. Once, when a bomb was thrown over a barricade by a French soldier,
hitting a

Turk on the head without exploding,
!

the

On

" " shouted back, Assassin, assassin another occasion, on the completion of one
latter

of the heaviest

bombardments
trenches
guns,
a

to

which we had
storm of
howitzers

subjected
shells

their
field

perfect

from

siege

guns,

and battleships as soon as the firing ceased and the dust cleared away, a huge placard was slowly raised from the front trench, on which
was printed
in large letters,

"

No

Casualties."

202

,

CHAPTER XXI
OF THE ZION MULE CORPS
all

WORK

"TOURING
steadily
at

these battles in

May, June and

July, the

Zion men and mules were kept work, and wherever they went it
they performed Sometimes little

was gratifying to know that
their

duties

satisfactorily.

parties of

battalions,

them would be attached to different and when their tour of a week or

ten days' duty was over they would invariably bring back a letter from the Transport Officer
to say

how

well the

men had

they had behaved have dozens of such letters, which testify to their good work and how well they got on with their
well
British comrades,

worked, and how when under fire. I

with

whom

they were great

favourites

;

the party

commanded by Corporal
request,
a

Nehemiah Yahuda was always in great as this bright, cheery young N.C.O. had
203

happy

Work

of the Zion Mule Corps

knack of inspiring his men with his own zeal for work and devotion to duty, regardless of all
danger.

Sometimes while away from Headquarters on these detached duties a man would get killed.
comrades always brought the body back to camp and then the whole Corps attended the funeral, which was a very solemn ceremony.
His

Over the grave
Gallipoli

of each hero

whom we
name

buried in

was

erected

a

little

Shield of David, with his
of
his

memorial, the and the date

death

engraved

underneath.

Nothing

brought the old days of the Bible back more vividly to my mind than to see, when one of

Zion men was wounded, how his friends would literally fall on his neck, weep, and embrace him most tenderly. The outward ex-

my

pression of
is

such emotion
impossible

as

I

have

witnessed

of

course
if

for us Westerners,

but

our feelings are not harrowed all the more by the rigid restraint which we perforce place on them.
I

doubt

The
from
I

gallant
his

Captain

Trumpledor

differed

this compatriots in respect, and never once saw him give way to any of these

204

Work
emotions.
to

of the Zion
the

Mule Corps

On

contrary, he would remark
of
!

me
:
!

Zionist
yes
")
I

over "

the

body
ken

a

badly

wounded
for

Ken,
la

A

guerre

Yes, (Hebrew " comme a la guerre !
a bullet

"

And

must say that he himself bore
his
as if

wound through

shoulder with the greatest

fortitude, carrying out his duties

nothing

had happened and absolutely refusing to go into hospital. I am glad to say he made a
speedy and good recovery.
couple of my Zionists were not quite so brave as the Captain, for I observed them one
day,

A

when we were being somewhat

heavily

shelled,

making tracks for the beach for all were worth. they Their flight reminded me of a story which
I

had heard,
the

of an Irish soldier at the Battle

of

Boyne,

who

related to

a

friend

how

his Captain, before leading

them
" "

to the charge,

said

"
:

Now,
and
said

boys, strike for your King, your

country,
fools,"

your

home."
I

Some

of

the
their

the

Irishman,

struck

for
!

King and country, but
I

struck for

home

"

am
of

glad to say that the valour

shown by
it

some

my men made up
205

for

the lack of

Work
shown by

of the Zion

Mule Corps
a

others.

No

one could be

braver

or a better soldier than Nissel Rosenberg, who,

through shot and
loads of

shell, led his

mules with their

ammunition
others,

right into the firing line,

when

all

both were there

both Jewish and British for made a strategic and hurried
rear.
I
it

movement
myself, and,

to

the

was watching
very plucky of

this

as I

considered
his

him
of

to go forward with

much-needed loads

ammunition, while men were being killed all round him, I recommended him for the D.C.M.,
a

distinction he well deserves.
a

He

escaped

all

wounds that day, but
again on his

fortnight later,

when
to

way
a a

to the trenches, he was severely

wounded by say he made

piece of

shell

;

I

am
is

glad

going In appreciation of his gallant services, strong. I promoted him to the rank of sergeant.
It

good recovery and

still

under
us at

must not be supposed that we only came It broke upon fire on specific occasions. all times, night and day, without warning.
"
strafes,"
as

In these

we used
killed
I

to call them,

many men and mules were
see

and wounded.
can even

" strafe," During one such

now

Gye and

myself running across a couple of 206

Work
hundred

of the Zion
of

Mule Corps

ground to the rescue of two stricken men, and I should not like to say the number of times we both had to throw ourselves down and grovel on the ground,
yards
fire-swept

while shells plunged round us, making holes big

enough dirt and

our graves and covering us with We luckily got through without gravel.
for

a scratch

and helped to get the wounded men

removed, as fast as ever we could, out of danger. Both were very badly injured and I never
expected to see either of them alive again ; one, indeed, Corporal Frank Abraham, died soon
after

we

got

him

to the hospital
severely

;

the other,

who seemed even more

two bullets through his smashed to pulp, I was surprised to find in
fair

wounded, with back, and his thigh
a

way to recovery, when I visited my sick and wounded men in hospital during a recruiting The poor fellow, when he trip to Alexandria.
saw me, seized my hand and embarrassed me by covering it with kisses, saying that but for my
lifting

him out
to see

of that dangerous fire-zone

he

would
prised
I

certainly have

been

killed.

I

was surthat

that

the

man remembered
as

had been there to help him,
207

he was

in such

Work

of the Zion

Mule Corps

agony at the time that I did not think he would have remembered or known what was going on

around him.

I

reminded him that he owed

quite as much gratitude to Lieutenant Gye as to me, for we had both helped to get him away.
I

rule,

must mention here, however, that, Gye would take on much greater

as

a

risks

mule than a man, for which on one he was highly commended by General occasion Hunter-Weston.
to rescue a

had thought somewhat lacking in courage showed themselves fearless to a degree when under heavy fire, while

Many

of

the Zionists

whom

I

Trumpledor actually revelled in and the hotter it became the more he liked " and would remark Ah, it is now plus gai !
Captain
:

it, it,

"

It

must not be supposed that

all

the Zionists

were

saints, or that I did not have

my

times of

trouble and difficulty with them, because some

would occasionally murmur and hanker
the

after

"

flesh-pots of

Egypt."
of

They

were, indeed,

true descendants

those forefathers of theirs

who wandered
Moses had
stiff-neckedness.

in

the

wilderness,

and

whom
dealings

so often to chide severely for their

Now

Moses,
208

in

his

Work
with
his

of the Zion

Mule Corps
a

troublesome children, had

tremendous

pull over me, because,

when my men grumbled
could strike no rock and

about lack of water,

I

make

gush forth for them, neither when the meat and food were scarce could I call down
it

from Heaven, nor was there any black cloud to interpose and hide us from
or
quails

manna

the devastating fire of our enemy. Although Moses had these Divine aids, yet his task in

shepherding over half a million of people through a barren wilderness was truly gigantic and could
only be compared to mine as the ocean to a bucket of water with that great example before
;

was up to me not to fail in shepherding through our trials the little host confided to my charge, so, like Father O'Flynn with his
I felt it

me

flock, I

kept

my

children in order by

:

"Checkin' the crazy ones,
Coaxin' unaisy ones,
Liftin' the lazy ones
I

on with the stick."

found that the

racial characteristics of the

Israelite
a

made
it

it

necessary to hold
silk

him

in

with

thread light

cable,

and

and yet strong as a steel required a tremendous amount of
as

209

14

Work
tact

of the Zion

Mule Corps

personal influence to weather the various little storms which sometimes threatened
to wreck our family
life.

and

There
Zionists

was

great
I

excitement

amongst
the

the

when

told

them

that

much-

coveted reward for bravery, the Distinguished

Conduct Medal, had arrived from England for Corporal Groushkousky, and had been forwarded
to me by the Commander -in-Chief. The Corps was paraded in the afternoon and marched to the Headquarters Camp, where General Stopford, the General Officer in of

Temporary Command

Corps, inspected the men, shook hands with all the officers and finally had Corporal Groushkousky out to the front,
the

8th

Army

and,

congratulating him warmly on his gallant action, pinned the medal on his breast.
after

210

CHAPTER XXII
THE AUSTRALIANS AND NEW ZEALANDERS

HTOWARDS
numbers
the

the end of July, owing to the
killed,

wounded and

in hospital,

Corps was reduced to less than half its strength, and as, at that time, we had no depot in Egypt to send us recruits, it was obvious
that, in the course of another couple of
this interesting
exist, if

months,

and useful unit would cease to

The reduced

the present rate of casualties continued. strength of the Corps having come
I

to the knowledge of Sir Ian Hamilton,

was

ordered to proceed to Imbros and report to General Headquarters there. I had an inter-

view with the Commander-in-Chief, and the result was that I was commissioned to go to
Alexandria, and,
if

possible,

recruit

two

fresh

a

troops of Israelites in Egypt, and there establish Recruiting and Base Depot for the Corps.
211
14*

The Australians and New Zealanders
had been created throughout the Jewish world when it became known
considerable
stir

A

that

there

was,

for

the

first

time in British

history, a Jewish unit fighting side

British

soldiers

;

and there

is

by side with no doubt that

the sympathy of Jews for the Allies was considerably fostered by the presence of this unit
fighting in their ranks.

In proof of this
of

I

received letters from Jews,
all

and, indeed, from Gentiles, too, from

parts

the

world,
in,

letters

which

showed
for,

a

deep
Jewish

interest

and

sympathy

this

fighting unit.

Perhaps the most prominent Gentile from I heard was Colonel Roosevelt. I only wish I could publish his heartening letter, but

whom

at least I

know

if

relative

may mention that he was anxious to my men made good soldiers, because a of his was in command of a battery of
one of the Southern States, and he

artillery in

had reported to the Ex-President that, curiously enough, part of it was entirely composed of
Jews, who were among the most efficient soldiers in the whole battery.

During

my

interview with Sir Ian Hamilton,
212

The Australians and New Zealanders
I brought these facts to his knowledge, but I found that he was already well informed of the interest and sympathy which the Zion Mule

Corps had aroused among the neutral Jews of the world, as he himself had received letters from

prominent Israelites in America, and, among others, one from the editor of the New York
Jewish newspaper,
unit really existed.
Sir
in

The Day, asking

if

such

a

Ian

Hamilton's
is

reply,
:

which appeared

The Day,

as follows

" General Headquarters, " Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. "
It

may

interest

have here,
purely
this
is

fighting

you to know that under my orders,

I

a

Jewish unit. As far as I know, the first time in the Christian era

that such a thing has happened. "

The men who compose
out
of

it

were cruelly

Jerusalem by the Turks, and arrived in Egypt, with their families,
driven
absolutely destitute and starving.

complete transport Corps was there raised from them, for voluntary service
213

"

A

The Australians and New Zealanders
with

me

against

the

Turks,

whom

they

naturally detest.

as

" These troops were officially described * the Zion Mule Corps,' and the officers
file

have shown great courage in taking water, supplies and ammunition up to the fighting line under heavy fire.

and rank and

One
duly

of the private soldiers has

recommended by me
received

been specially for gallantry and has
the
Dis-

the King Medal." tinguished Conduct
It will therefore

from

be seen that, in
I

my

endeavours
ally in

to keep the Corps alive,
Sir Ian
I

had

a

powerful

Hamilton.

was the guest of the Headquarters Staff in Imbros for a few days, so that I had an oppor-

ways at close quarters. no slacking here. Work There was certainly seemed to go on day and night, and the food
tunity of studying
its

and drink were almost spartan in their simplicity, practically nothing but the rations which were
served out to the troops, officers and
I

men

alike.

have heard some criticism levelled

at

the

General for being camped away from the Army,
214

The Australians and New Zealanders
on
it

a

secluded island, but, in
far

was by

quarters
because,

opinion, the best position for the HeadStaff and the Commander-in-Chief,

my humble

the

owing to the unfortunate division of Mediterranean Expeditionary Force into two parts, he was more in touch, from Imbros,
with Anzac

and

Helles

than

he could have

been in any other place. Of course, had the Army been
I

all

together,

think to be with

it

would be the
It

right place
suit the

for the

Commander-in-Chief.
of

may

temperament
his

the Japanese soldier to have

chief

field,

hidden miles away from the battlebut I do not think that this plan fits in

with the temperament of the British soldier. He likes to see his General, and he likes to know
him, and realizes from personal contact the nature of the task he is
that
his

General

sees

asking his

men
was

to perform.
at

While

I

Imbros,

I

made an expedition

across the island over hill

and dale to the opposite

shore,

and

it

was curious to see the old-world

way
live

in
in

which the Greeks, who inhabit the island, There I these modern, hustling days.

saw two

women

grinding at the mill, and the
215

The Australians and New Zealanders
oxen treading out the corn, just as they did thousands of years ago throughout all the lands I found the people hospitable and of the East.
kindly, ready to offer the stranger a cool draught
of water

from

a

gushing spring (and

this

was

really delicious after Gallipoli),

or a platter of
in season.

luscious mulberries,

which were then

But what, perhaps, interested me beyond all else was the view which, on my return journey,
I

obtained from the summit of a

hill,

of

the

position of the Turkish guns at the back of

Achi

could see them perfectly plainly, and could actually make out the gunners as they served the guns. With a power-

Baba.

With my

glasses

I

ful

telescope

this

would have

made
all

a

most

excellent observation station, as

the Turkish

movements
plainly seen

at the back of

Achi Baba could be
hill.

from
left

this

Imbros

When

I

Headquarters

at

Imbros

I

took passage on a trawler which called in at Anzac, where the Australian-New Zealand Army

Corps were dug into the
I had, of course, a

ridges.

good view
cliffs

of the position

they held on the precipitous
216

and

hills

which

rose in successive sierra-like ridges

from the very

The Australians and New Zealanders
sea-shore

and

I

could then adequately realize
feat

the

tremendous

they

had performed

in

gaining a footing on these heights against such a brave and well-armed foe as the Turks.
I

when
tic

March, had paid them a visit in their romancamping-ground under the shadow of the
I

had met the Australians before

in

Pyramids, and it was in the same month that I met, on the verandah of Shepheard's Hotel in Cairo, the chief medical officer to the Australian

Army, Surgeon-General Williams, whom met in South Africa and London some
years previously.

I

had

fifteen

Thinking that he would remember me, I sat down beside him and opened the conversation
"

by saying
General
?

:

Any chance
rather

of a billet with you,

"
blankly
at

He
"

looked
a

me and
"
?

said

:

Not
I

ghost of a chance, unless you are an

Australian.

Who

are you,

anyhow

upon which his face lit up with welcome, but he would not believe that I could be the same man, and asked me to
I

then told him

who

was,

headgear so that he might have a good look at me, as he said I had grown ten years younger.

remove

my

217

The Australians and New Zealanders
do you manage to keep your youth he demanded.
" "

How

"
?

Oh,"

I replied,
life

"

it is

easily done.

An

un-

eventful

and no worries,"

at

which the

General, knowing something of my travels and adventures, winked, ordered a couple of whiskies

and

sodas,

and over these we had

a

long talk about

things past, present and to come. General Williams took me round the hospitals and kitchens out at Mena Camp, where we

inspected the ambulances and other things under his charge, and I was much impressed with the

completeness with which Australia had equipped the magnificent fighting force which she had sent
to the aid of England.

a

was a great pleasure to meet Colonel Ryan, senior member of the Australian Medical Staff,
It

served with the Turks as a surgeon in their last war against Russia and was with them
all

who had

through the siege of Plevna. most interesting book describing

I

had read

his

his experiences

in that war,

and altogether
of

had the pleasure
Irish

was delighted to have meeting this most genial
I

Australian.
life at

Camp

Mena,

for the thirty

odd thousand

218

The Australians and New Zealanders
men
in

training

there,

was very dull indeed.
relieve the

There was not much to

monotony

once the Pyramids had been climbed and the Australian colours had been planted on the summits, save an extra dose of sandstorm. It

was no wonder, therefore, that every now and again the troops would invade Cairo in force and
it

paint the city red ; in fact, one night they painted very red indeed, when they held a corroboree

round the blazing ruins of a Cairene Courtesan's Temple, which they had given to the flames, because the Priestess had, in some way or other,
maladministered the
rites
!

The

Staff of the Australian

and

New

Zealand

Expeditionary

Force,

commanded by General

" Birdwood, had their Headquarters at Shepand there I met again young Onslow, heard's," of the Indian Cavalry, the General's A.D.C., and

one of the nicest and handsomest boys that ever buckled on a sabre. He was not only beloved of

men, but the gods loved him,
black day for

too,

and

it

was

a

me when
all

I

heard he was

killed at

Anzac.
I

thought of

little

approached the on the Anzac shore, where, landing-stage
these things as
I

219

The Australians and New Zealanders
as

we dropped anchor

close to the beach,

we got

vigorously shelled by the Turks, whose guns, most artfully concealed, dominated the landing.

In the course of the eight months' sojourn there, these guns were responsible for the deaths
of

hundreds of the Australians and

New

Zea-

while they worked at loading and unloading the stores and ammunition, which were constantly poured into Anzac.
landers,
killed

who were

In spite of this shell-fire, all through the hot weather scores of men might be seen swimming

about and thoroughly enjoying themselves in the water. A look-out man was kept and when he
reported
a

shell

coming

all

dived

until

the

explosion was over.

There are many good stories told lians and their want of reverence
and
their love for the General.

of the Austrafor the Staff,

On
a

one occasion, while

a

portly British Staff Officer,

and very who had been having
dignified

swim, was drying himself, an Australian came by,
:

" Hallo, and, giving him a hearty smack, said old sport, you look about ready for the knife.

Haveyou been

getting into the biscuit-tin ? Whatever the Australians may have lacked in
220

"

The Australians and New Zealanders
know as discipline and etiquette they more than made up for by their fearlessness
what
soldiers

and utter contempt of death in the fight. The very fact that they had gained a footing on these
precipitous
resistance

crags

in

the

face

of

a

desperate

showed that they were

a race of super-

men.
In vain did the Turks, time after time, hurl themselves at them in an attempt to drive them
into the sea.

" Allah

!

The Turks would charge, crying " The Australians would reAllah
!

:

spond by leaping on the parapets of their trenches, " Come on, you blighters, and bring shouting,

him with you."
Death, or Devil

They
!

fear nothing

God, Man,

When we eventually plant our flag triumphantly on Gallipoli, the flag of Australia and New
Zealand must
float in

the place of honour upon

the Anzac peaks, for here, in their shadows, at peace for ever, lie thousands of their bravest
sons.

After

a

few hours

my

trawler weighed anchor
for

and we steamed south

Helles,

which we

reached in a couple of hours.

The

skipper was a

North
221

of Ireland

man, and

The Australians and New Zealanders
he told

me much
the

about the arduous

life

which the

men

in

trawlers

During the first some of these went through
fire,

mine-sweepers led. attack upon the Dardanelles
a perfect hell of shell-

and

in

fact,

right through the Narrows.

For

eight months, scores of

them were constantly on

the perilous work of mine-sweeping round Helles and the islands, or carrying troops- to and fro
;

time they were daily under fire, or, during the night, with all lights out, risking themMore than one sweeper, selves and their vessels.

and

all this

with

all its

crew and

living freight,

came
I

to a sad

and sudden end through collision As we neared the landing-stage

in the dark.

spied a

kind of warship for the first time, passed close to her I saw her elevate the muzzles
of the

new and as we

two great guns with which she was armed
brace of shells at the enemy's batteries This was the coming of the unsinkable

and
on

let fly a

Asia.

Monitor, armed with her terrible fourteen-inch
I don't know how accurate her shots were, guns. but the Turkish gunner who replied was a marvel, for, with his third shot, I saw him strike the deck

of

the

Monitor

plump

amidships.

I

heard
all

afterwards that this shell went through 222

the

The Australians and New Zealanders
decks and stuck in the
piece of good luck
keel
plate.

By

a great
as it

no damage was done,

did

not explode. When I reached the camp of my Zion men I held a parade and told them how interested Sir
Ian Hamilton was in the Corps, and how he wished it to be kept up, and with that view had ordered

me

to proceed to Alexandria to recruit

two new

I asked them all troops of their co-religionists. to be good boys while I was away, and to work as

.well for

Lieutenant Gye,

who would command

they had always worked for me, and in this way keep up the reputation of the Zion Corps.
in

them

my

absence,

as

223

CHAPTER

XXIII

VOYAGE TO EGYPT
r
I

^O

assist

with

me in recruiting, I decided to take me Claude Rolo, Captain Trumple-

At dor, and Corporal Groushkousky, D.C.M. 2 p.m. on the 25th July we steamed away from Cape
Helles
in
a
little

trawler

and without

adventure arrived at Lemnos at about 7 p.m. immediately went on board the Staff Ship the Aragon, in order to get a warrant for our

We

passages to Alexandria.

must say that I was astonished to find such a splendid Royal Mail Line Steamer as the Aragon
I

anchored idly in
provide quarters
Staff.

Mudros harbour, merely to for the Lines of Communication

She must have been costing thousands of pounds per week and might have been doing much more useful work on the high seas, where
there was a shortage of ships of
224
all

kinds.

I

have

Voyage to Egypt
no doubt there were many good men aboard who would prefer to have roughed it on the island in
tents, as did the

members

of Sir Ian Hamilton's

Headquarters

Staff at Imbros,

and there was no

reason, so far as I

know, why they should not have camped on Lemnos. It was twenty-four hours before we could take
ship
for Alexandria,
call

went to
important
to

on

a

during the interval, I naval officer who held an
so,

Staff

appointment,
at

and who hapin

pened
I

be

the

moment

Mudros
about
it

harbour.

found the same old

difficulty of getting

in the

harbour from one ship to another, and

was only due to the courtesy of the Captain

commanding the Aragon, who
boat, cox, and crew at

enabled to
light night

visit

my my friend. It

kindly placed his disposal, that I was

was

a lovely

moon-

as

we skimmed

across the
I

water, and it was not long until " on the quarter-deck of the

shimmering found myself

."

My

naval friend had just finished dinner

when

I got aboard, and was most sympathetic and of the things which helpful when I told him some

were troubling

my mind, and which I had specially
225
15

Voyage to Egypt
come to lay before him. I was anxious to get him to use his influence to send more lighters and more tugs to assist in the disembarkation of
stores at Helles.

The

landing officer there, just

before

my
I

departure, had begged of

me

to

do

could in this respect with somebody in authority, as he said he had made repeated requisitions for more tugs and lighters, but all in

what

was anxious, too, because the pier which had been built by the sappers was of a very flimsy nature, and I knew that the first storm that arose
vain.
I

would wash the whole thing away, and then,
unless

there

was

a

good

store

of

provisions,

ammunition, forage, etc., on shore, it would be a very bad look-out for those of us on the Peninsula.

matter of fact the pier was washed away later on, and for some time the horses and mules were on half rations, and we ourselves
a a

As

were threatened with
mainly

shortage of food, but,
excellent

owing
and

to

the

arrangements

made by Brigadier-General Coe,
Supply

the head of the

Transport Department, Colonel Striedinger, and other members of his efficient
Staff,

no breakdown ever occurred.
naval friend was not over pleased 226

My

when

I

Voyage to Egypt
told

him about

this shortage of boats

and

tugs,

and led
supplied

me

to understand that the

Navy had
had

everything

which

the

Army

demanded.
It
is

of vital importance,

when our Army and
I

Navy work
Staffs
this

together, as so often happens, that the

of

both should pull together.
if

think

could be ensured

a capable naval officer,

having the entire confidence of the Admiral on the spot, were attached to the General's Headquarters,

and

a

capable military officer, in

whom

the General placed implicit reliance, were put on the Admiral's Staff ; these two officers working

together for the
all

friction.

common good would obviate Of course, I am aware that naval

and military officers are interchanged on the Staff, but juniors are not good enough for this ; they should be senior men who could speak with
authority,

and

whose

opinions

would

carry

weight.

The
forty

position of the island of Lemnos, some miles south-west of the Dardanelles,
it

makes

an
as

important
it

strategic
a

point,

more

especially

possesses
little

which,

with very

magnificent harbour trouble and expense,
15*

227

Voyage to Egypt
could be
cerely
this

made

practically impregnable.
will
it

I

sin-

hope that we island for, with

retain
a

possession
base,

of

as

naval

the

Dardanelles can be bottled up at any moment, and the whole of the adjacent seas dominated.

Turkey
should

at present therefore be

still

claims the island.

It

annexed

by

us

as

some

small compensation for the Gallipoli failure.

On
board
Port

the following day at 7 p.m.
a

we

got on
via

transport
I

bound

for

Australia,

found myself the Senior Officer on board, and therefore had to take command of the troops, and among my other charges
Said.

were some
brought to

fifty

nursing

sisters,

who had been
duty to the

Lemnos

direct

from England, and
for

were

now

being transferred

military hospitals in Egypt.

Soon
and
I

after I got aboard we weighed anchor, then put the ship's adjutant to the task

of detailing to their boats every individual

on

the ship for whom I was responsible, as I knew there were hostile submarines six or seven hours

out from Lemnos, and I wished to be as possible in case of an attack.

as

ready

At nine

o'clock I got the captain to sound 228

Voyage to Egypt
the alarm,

by their minute inspection, looked over the
;

when everybody rushed and stood own particular boat I then made a
list

of

names
their

boat by boat, and

by ten o'clock

all

knew

proper places. The night was hot, so laying a blanket on the I was awakened out deck, I slept on it there.
leaped not yet quite wide awake, saying up instantly, to myself, what a funny time for an aeroplane
to drop a
of a

deep sleep by

a

loud explosion.

I

bomb.
at
sea,

The
and

next instant
it

I

realized

that

I

was

flashed through

my

mind
so in

that

we had been
I

torpedoed.
shell
a

As

I

looked

over the side,

saw

a

away, over and beyond the bright moonshine, could just be made out. The report which had roused me was a
shot

explode a mile or submarine which,

which

had
fixed

been

fired

from

our

own
ship.
as

4-7-inch

gun
as

on the stern of the

The

vessel

was instantly swung round so
small
a

to

present

surface

as

possible

to

the

submarine, and
could
steam.

we made

off as fast as

the ship
of

A

British

war-vessel

some

kind came up in a few minutes, and we saw and heard nothing more of the submarine, but
229

Voyage to Egypt
during the few minutes while the alarm lasted, things were pretty lively on board our transport,

and many of the nurses rushed to the side to see what had happened, but there was no sign of
alarm or panic among them ; they took it all as a matter of course, and seemed quite disappointed when we reached Port Said without
further adventure.

CHAPTER XXIV
RECRUITING IN EGYPT
"\

X TE

were detained one night in Port Said, and the following morning made our
rail

way by
esting

to

Alexandria.

It

was an interus

journey Suez Canal as

because

it

took

along

the
all

far as Ismalia,

where we saw

the defences and the troops guarding it, and also the precautions taken by the householders

along the bank,
little

who had turned
forts.

their

homes into
journey

sand-bagged
I

It

was on

this

that

saw,

for

the

first

time, the celebrated

battlefield

of

Tel-el-Kebir

where
and

General
his

army, Wolseley and there the graves of British and Egyptian soldiers who fell in the battle may be seen

crushed

Arabi

Pasha

from the railway
Alexandria
it
is

carriages.
a

This

journey
one,

to
for

is

rather
to

roundabout
to

necessary

go

almost
231

Cairo

before

Recruiting in Egypt
reaching the Cairo to Alexandria line. However, we eventually reached Alexandria in the
afternoon,

and Claude Rolo took
J.

me

to

the

house of his mother, Mrs.
kindest

Rolo, one of the
ever
in
I

and best
fortune
to

ladies

it

has

been
this

my
most

Here, comfortable and luxurious house,

good
to
I,

meet.

was

made
there,

feel

thoroughly

at

home.

While

unfortunately, had a rather severe attack of fever, but thanks to Mrs. Rolo and her nieces, " the angel Gabrielle," I was soon especially
restored to health.

duty was to see General Sir John and get his consent and help in raising new recruits for the Zion Mule Corps.

My

first

Maxwell

at Cairo

When

I

arrived
I

in

Cairo,
I

afternoon,

found that

however, in the could not see the

General until the next morning, so I determined to go and see a friend in hospital, but
in

which hospital ? That was my difficulty. As I was standing in the verandah of Shep-

heard's Hotel, wondering to

could apply for information, up the steps from the street
I

whom

young lady in nurse's tripped a charming " The very thing for me," I said to costume.
232

Recruiting in Egypt
myself,

and without more ado

I

her and explained if she could help.
took
a great deal of

my

difficulty

walked up to and asked her
itself,

She was kindness
trouble to put

and

me

in touch

with
I

my

friend,

and through taking her advice

succeeded in
I

my

quest.

saw Miss

again on several occasions in

the hotel, but not being of a forward nature, I kept out of her way. General Williams told

me

that she was an Australian lady
to

devoting
I

herself

nursing

the

sick

and wounded.

have heard since that she has added beauty to
the British Peerage.

While

I

was in Cairo,
in

I

visited the

Turkish
there,

wounded

the

Red Crescent Hospital
after

very interesting Turkish officer, the son of Djemel Pasha, young with whom I had a long conversation. He had

where they were well looked most comfortable. I met a

and seemed

been

captured by the Indian Lancers when he was reconnoitring for the attack on the Suez Canal. He told me that he was the only survivor of a party of twelve, and that he himself had received fourteen lance wounds. He was

an extremely good type of Turkish
233

officer,

and

Recruiting in Egypt
during the short time

we were

together

we

and on leaving him he in both his and shook it warmly, he hoped we would always be good friends saying no matter what the politicians might do for

became great took my hand

friends,

our respective countries. When I saw General Maxwell he did everything necessary to ensure my success in this

new endeavour
the
leading

to raise recruits

;

he summoned
of

Israelitish

notables

Cairo

to

meet me

in his office,

where he put

my

needs

before them, and requested them to do what was possible in the way of getting suitable men

from their community. Two members of this committee took an interest in raising recruits
for

the corps,

Moise

Cattaui Pasha and Mr.

Jack Mosseri,

the latter a well-known Zionist
scholar, thoroughly

and
with

a

great
all

Hebrew

imbued
race.

the best ideals of the

Hebrew

He

was

a

tower of strength to me, and organized
in

meetings
Cairo.

various

synagogues

throughout
took
I

One
forget.

such

meeting which
walked

place
shall

in the beautiful temple in the

Mousky

never

We

brated and picturesque part
234

through this celeof Cairo to the

Recruiting in Egypt
meeting
lights,

and what
the
sights,

a

walk

!

The

colours, the
all

and the sounds, were

redolent of the very heart of the East ; even Rahab might be seen there looking out of a

the charms of the Mousky, it has many, commend me to its smells There you will find the full fragrance of the
;

window

but of

all

and

!

Threadpower and glory ing our way carefully through the narrow alleyEast in
all its

pristine

!

babies, donkeys, dexterously avoiding mules and camels, we at last reached the Temple. We found it packed with people, and on the

ways,

platform stood the Grand Rabbi of Cairo, a

most imposing and eastern-looking personage, and other notables of the city.
Cattaui Pasha and others,

whom Mr.
among

Mosseri
stirring

had interested

in the

movement, made

addresses to the Jewish youths

the conefforts

gregation.

The

result of

Mr. Mosseri's

was that, in the course of a few weeks, some one hundred and fifty Jewish recruits had been
obtained from Cairo alone, and these I designated " " of the Zion Mule Corps. the Cairo Troop
I

am
know

sure that

Mr. Jack Mosseri
235

will

be glad

to

that the great majority of these

men

Recruiting in Egypt

whom

he took so

much

trouble to

imbue with

the old

Hebrew

fighting spirit of the heroes of

the past, proved courageous and useful soldiers,

when,

after a brief training, they

found them-

selves before the

enemy

in Gallipoli.
I

While

I

was at Alexandria

enough to get my and as it required

was unlucky hand crushed under a motor,
a great deal of attention,
I

used to go to the Greek Hospital every day because it was close to the office where I worked.

This hospital was full of our sick and wounded, where they were carefully attended and nursed by an efficient staff of Greek doctors and Greek
nurses.
I

used to go round the wards talking
all

to the men, and they were

perfectly

happy

and

the gratitude care lavished on them by the Greek ladies of attended to my Petredes Dr. Alexandria.

contented,

expressing

for

wounded hand, and nobody could have been more kind. One of the Greek sisters told me
rather
a
a

pathetic

story

about

an

Australian.
in

He
leg
;

was

young

fellow badly

wounded

the

got worse and worse, and it was seen that he must die. He was told by the the

wound

clergyman

who

came

to

visit

him

that

his

236

Recruiting in Egypt
case was hopeless, but
bit upset

he was not in the

least

sorrow

it

about himself, he only grieved at the would give his mother. Knowing
if

that a photograph would be a comfort to her,

he asked

a

When
insisted

the

latter

photographer could be brought. had arrived, the brave lad
in bed,

on being propped up

and then

requested the photographer not to snap him " until he could get a nice smile on his face, For," " I would like mother to know that he said, my

happy." In a few hours the boy had passed away, but there remained a photograph with a bright, cheery smile as some small consolation for the bereaved mother.
I

am

dying

quite

237

CHAPTER XXV
LIFE IN

EGYPT

A \ THILE
*
*

I

was

in

Egypt

a

few

things
:

struck

me

with particular force

one
;

was the inefficiency of the police of Alexandria

another the appalling callousness of the average Egyptian in his treatment of animals.
It

was an amusing sight in Alexandria to

watch the police trying to regulate the traffic. The drivers would take absolutely no notice of
the policeman's raised hand, and would dash recklessly over the crossing, quite regardless of

what might be coming down the

cross

street.

After being flouted in this way, the policeman would leave his beat, run after the driver and,

on catching him up, engage in a wordy warfare The same performance would for five minutes. be repeated over and over again as each successive

Jehu came furiously along
238

at his best pace.

Life in

Egypt
of the lax

I also

had some experience
office

methods
a

prevailing in the Passport

Department

most
in
a

important

in

war-time,

especially

country like Egypt, which was simply teeming with spies.
couple of my men who had been sent from Gallipoli to the Base Hospital at Alexandria,

A

owing to wounds or illness, wished to resign from the Corps and go to America, as they had

no

desire to return to the Dardanelles.

I,

of

course,

grant their request, so by some means or other (bribery, no doubt) they obtained a false passport, got on board ship and

could

not

gave instructions to some friends of theirs to inform me, three days after they had left, that
they were on their I did not mind
!

way

to America and sure that

hoped
these

To make

were not merely hiding in Alexandria, I carefully investigated the matter and found
rascals

that one, at
I

all

events,

had

really sailed.

have referred to

the
in

cruelty
his

which

the
of
is

average
animals.
a

Egyptian

shows

treatment
:

To
a

give one glaring example

there

steep

incline

over
of

the

railway bridge

near
this

Gibbari,

suburb

Alexandria.
239

Over

Life in
bridge, the slopes of
stones, rolls a

Egypt

which are paved with smooth great part of the immense traffic

which goes to and from the docks. Almost at any hour of the day one may see half a dozen wretched horses hauling overladen carts up this
slippery slope, being unmercifully beaten
drivers,

by

their

and

falling

sometimes two or three times

I before they reach the summit. say, without that such a scandal is a blot on Alexhesitation,

andria, a blot
it,

and

a

on the police officials, who wink at blot on the British rulers in Egypt who

tolerate such a state of affairs.

A couple of should be set aside at once to thousand pounds remedy the grievous sufferings which are daily
inflicted

and hourly

there on our unfortunate

dumb
I

friends.
a Society for the

was told that

Prevention of

Cruelty to Animals flourishes in the country. If a member of it ever goes up and down the

Gibbari Bridge, he must surely turn a blind eye on the cruel sights which are to be seen there
almost at any time, otherwise he must be shamed
for ever.

This

recalls to

my mind

a story

which

Gye once told me about a leading light of this Society who was on a visit to Egypt. He made
240

Life in
a

Egypt

tour of the Provinces, and at each place he visited he was delighted to find that the officials

were most zealous supporters of the Society. As a proof of their keenness for the League, they would conduct him to the public pound and

show him numbers

of

maimed

camels, horses

and donkeys which they assured him was the Of course it was all eyewash, as the day's catch.

had got news of the coming of the great one, and told the police to lock up the wretched animals for just as long as he was in
wily
officials

the place and no longer. While the Arabs show appalling callousness to the sufferings of animals, they often exhibit
intense kindness

and affection

for

each other;

more

especially does the

Arab mother show great

love for her child.

A pretty story has come down
An
a

to us illustrating this maternal solicitude.

Arab youth married

maiden

whom

he came to

love passionately, but he had mother too, and of this the wife was intensely
great love for his
jealous, so

much

so,

that she told

him one day

that she could never love

him

fully while his

mother

and that the only way for him to secure her affections was to kill his mother
lived,

241

16

Life in

Egypt

and bring her heart as a peace-offering. The wretched youth, blinded by passion, committed
this terrible crime, and, concealing his

mother's

heart within his gown, he ran swiftly to present it to his wife. On the way he tripped and fell
heavily, and, in doing so, the heart

dropped to

the ground. On picking it up to replace it, the " heart said to him, poor boy, I hope you did

My

not hurt yourself
I

when you
I will tell

fell."

related this story to a friend in
said

London, and
filial

he

"
:

Now

you

a story of

piety on the part of an English boy.
a

He possessed
Paddy
in the

dog

of

which he was passionately fond, named

Paddy.
street,

One day

a cart ran over

and he was picked up dead. The boy's mother broke the dreadful news to her little
son

while he was

having dinner, saying
tell

how
con-

sorry she was to have to

him
his

that poor

Paddy

was

killed.

The boy was

not very

much

cerned, and

pudding. Later on, however, in the nursery his Nana condoled with him on the loss of his pet, whereupon he

went on eating

tremendous outcry, sobbing and weeping His mother rushed up to see what was bitterly.
raised a

the matter, and on finding he was weeping for the
242

Life in
'

Egypt
I

dog, said,

But, darling,

told

you

at dinner-

time that Paddy was killed, and you didn't seem to mind much.' " ' I thought Oh, mammy,' he sobbed. you said Daddy not Paddy.'
' '

Thinking
little

this
I

would be

a

good story to
well, I

tell a
it

boy that
as

know very
it

related
I

to

him, but

he took

very gravely,
joke,

asked

him

whether he saw the

and he

said,

" No."

Now

he possessed a black kitten, named Mike," for which he had a great affection, so I thought I
could illustrate
tell

"

my

"
story

by saying

:

Well,

now

me which would you
Mike
or

killed

Daddy

rather see run over and "

?

Having given long and serious consideration to this problem, and with a troubled look on his little face, he, after a great inward struggle, at
last said

"
:

I

think Mike."

During the time I was in Alexandria an attempt was made there on the life of the Sultan of
Egypt, not the Now the Sultan
first
is

attempt, by any means.

a kindly,

good-natured

ruler,

having the welfare of Egypt and the Egyptians there is nothing whatever thoroughly at heart
;

of the tyrant about him, and therefore there 16* 243

is

Life in

Egypt
life. I

no excuse

for attempting his

happen to
anxious to

know

that the Sultan was not at

all

accept the dignity which was thrust upon him, but since he has fallen in with the policy of

England, it is the duty of England to protect him and uphold him by every means in her power. Let it be known that in case of any further attempt stern measures will be taken, not
only on the perpetrator of the crime, or the attempted crime, but on the family and relatives of the criminal, and also on the leading members
of any political society to

because, of course, they are

which he belonged all in league with

each other and

on
as

and

if

know perfectly well what is going they knew that they would be punished
would take good him from the crime or
If

well as the criminal they

care

either to dissuade

give
fail

timely warning to the authorities.
to

they

property should be confiscated to the State, and if the crime were perpetrated from a hired house, then the owner of the house,
this, their

do

who had

be severely punished, because in Egypt the only policy that is understood by the criminal agitator is two eyes for one
let
it,

should

eye,

and

a

whole row

of teeth for

one tooth

;

244

Life in

Egypt
politicians

and

the

sooner

our

pusillanimous
it

realize this the better

be for Egypt, the Egyptians, and the continuance of our rule there. As ex-President Roosevelt said in his vigorous and
will
at the Guildhall,

memorable speech
either

we
It

should
is

"

govern Egypt or get out."

im-

possible to govern such a country

on the milk-and-

water policy so loved by invertebrate politicians. I was privileged, while at Alexandria, to meet

on many occasions Prince Fuad, the brother of the Sultan, and it was at one of his many interesting

and hospitable receptions, for which he is famous, that I had the opportunity of being
presented to His Highness the Sultan. When, however, I looked through the windows of the

room where the Sultan was

receiving, I

saw that

he did not appear to be very well (it was soon after the attempt had been made on his life),

and there was such
sented that
save
I

throng waiting to be predetermined that I, at least, would
a

him the

fatigue of a handshake.

There were

compensations for my solicitude for the Sultan, because at that very moment I was talking to a

most charming and interesting lady, whose people had hailed from the famous city of the Caliphs,
245

Life in

Egypt

Baghdad, and although her ancestors came from that dusky neighbourhood, she herself was fair
as a lily, as

had

gloriously red hair,
as
I

and was withal

entertaining

Scheherazade.

At

this

same
eyes

entertainment

saw standing

before

my

and talking to the Sultan a lady whom I took to be Cleopatra herself returned to life. I was

amazed to

see

someone

really alive so like the

picture of the famous

Queen

of Egypt,

there she was within a few feet of

and yet me, carrying on

an animated conversation with the Sultan. I " " to know and her husband very Cleopatra well indeed during my stay in Egypt, and I spent

came

many an
able roof.
!

enjoyable evening under their hospit-

a delightful couple they never forget a little impromptu concert which took place one night as we sat out under the rustling palms in the soft moonlight. Cleopatra's husband melted all our hearts by " Unpeu d* amour." singing, in his low, sweet voice,

And what

were

I

shall

prompted me to make the ungallant remark to Cleopatra that I really did not know which of them I liked the better, and ever afterwards
It

she whimsically pretended
lack of discernment

to

be hurt

at

the

which
246

I

had shown.

Life in

Egypt

Cleopatra, before I bid you good-bye, I will only say that I am glad you did not live in the days of the Pharaohs, because if you had,

Now,

I

am

sure
for

diles,

you would have been given to the crocoyou must know that once a year, in
most lovely and the most
in

those barbarous, far-off times, there was chosen
for that sacrifice the

perfect
It
I

maiden
at

in all Egypt.

was

some reception or other

Egypt that

met, about this time, an officer who had been on the Staff of the 29th Division in Gallipoli.

Riding about the Peninsula

as

we both

did,

we

met

day during two or three months, and although we rode together and were
practically every

quite good friends,
was, and
I

I

never knew what his
as I

name
not

never tried to find out,

am

of an inquisitive nature.

However, one day he

disappeared and no more. I thought

his place in Gallipoli
it

knew him
he had

was very

likely

been

killed,

because his duties often took him

indeed, any and every place At all in Gallipoli was perilous in those days. events, here I met him safe and sound, on which
into perilous places
I

heartily congratulated him.

A

little later

he

asked to be introduced to a friend of mine
347

who

Life in

Egypt

was

also at

confess that I

name

was.

the reception, so I was compelled to had not the least idea what his " B

My

name

is

,"

he replied

;

and on asking him if he was any relation of mentioning a well-known public man in England, with whom a few days before I left home I had
,

" been walking up and down Rotten Row, " " that's my father yes," said he
;
!

Oh

My
Persia

Gallipoli friend was, unfortunately,

on the

when

she was sunk without warning in the

Mediterranean, and went

down with

the ship

;

time was not yet, for he luckily came up again, and was numbered with the saved, for which Allah be praised.

but

his

I

hope the reader

will not

idea that I spent
festivities

my

time in
living.

run away with the Egypt in a round of
It was, as a

and riotous

matter

of fact, very
I

much

the reverse, because even
I

when

went

to these receptions

combined business

with pleasure by getting the people I met there to help me to get recruits and to interest themselves in the

Zion Mule Corps.

248

CHAPTER XXVI
RETURN TO GALLIPOLI

WAS
both by
it

very impatient to get back to Gallipoli and made several applications to the Staff
letter
a

takes
!

and by telegram to do so, but long time for the machine to
I

move
for

At

last

received the anxiously looked

orders

for

myself

and

my new men
member

to

embark.
I

had

a little trouble

with

a

of the Staff

before

I left,

and,

as it illustrates

some men even when
I

the pettiness of great events are at stake,
I

think

it

is

worth recounting.

had sent him

my

officers

embarkation return, showing the number of and other ranks bound for the Darda-

In the meantime a telegram arrived from Gallipoli asking for two of my officers to be sent
nelles.

on

had them on board and I there immediately. their way to the front within four hours of
249

Return to
the time
wards,
I

Gallipoli

read the message.

Two

days after-

when I came to embark, I had with me my men and one other officer, but the red-tape, red-tabbed acting Staff man objected to this
officer going, as

he said

my
;

original application of these,

was for three " Two have

officers only,

and

he

said,

already gone you make the third, the other officer cannot go he must be therefore the men at Wardian left behind to look after
;

Camp." him that
knew the

It

was in vain that

I

pointed out to
of little use at

this officer

would be

Wardian, but that he was invaluable to me, as he
various languages of the
I

did not, and that

men, which I could not very well get on
I

without him.
as I

was obdurate, so must have the officer with me,
see

He

said that,

I

would,

if

necessary, go and

the General and get his On hearing this threat he took counsel sanction. with another red-tab man, whose official designation entitled

him

to write half the letters of the

alphabet after his
I

name, and who, from the
I

little

saw of him, was,

consider, fully entitled to

three or four
privily

more

!

These two

tin gods, having
a

consulted
it

together,

issued

ukase

to

the effect that

would be impossible to allow the
250

Return to
officer

Gallipoli

to

accompany me to
"
;

"
Gallipoli.

All

right, then," I said

there
I

to see the General, as

nothing for it but must have this officer."
is

This meant that

I

had to motor some three miles
time in order to outwit
I

and

lose a lot of precious

these ruddy obstructionists, a thing

was detergot to the
his

mined to do
General's
Officer,

at all costs.
I first

When
of the

I

office,

interviewed

Staff

Major Ainsworth, one
staff

most

sensible

and helpful
to

officers

it

has been

my

luck

come
"
:

across

during

the

whole
I

On my
said

proceeding to tell

him what
about
it.

campaign. wanted, he

Oh,

I

know

all

Major

has already telephoned to

me

that you were on

the way, and has said that, in his opinion, you should not be allowed to embark your extra

remarked to Major Ainsworth that it appeared to me that some of the Staff were only there to obstruct, and I repeated that this
officer."
I

man was

necessary to
it

Corps, and that
to leave

me for the efficiency was much more to the

of

my

point

to have efficient officers in Gallipoli, rather than

them behind

kicking their heels in idleeffect

ness in Alexandria.

This had the desired
like

on

a

sensible

man

Major Ainsworth, who

251

Return to
tactfully told
officer

Gallipoli
that
;

Major

I

must have the
so the incident

with

me that I wanted

and

was closed.

embarking for Gallipoli for the second time I found that I had 1,100 men on board,

On

made up
without

of 102 different units,
officers,
I

many

of

them

and

as I

was again the senior
of the whole,
I

on board
and

had

to take
I

command
know
a

jolly glad

was

to

that

would only

be responsible for such
tion
for

heterogeneous collec-

The first thing aboard was that that I discovered on going for the 1,100 men we had only boat accommodatwo or three
days.

tion for 700 in the event of the ship being sunk.

he usually put to sea in war-time, when submarines were about, with an inadequate supply of boats, and I refused
I

asked the skipper

if

to sign the clearing papers to say that I was
satisfied

arrangements on board The captain fully agreed with me ; he ship. anchored the vessel in the outer harbour, and

with

all

the

we went back

together next morning and interviewed the naval authorities, who were furious
at the delay in sailing

and

at

my demand

for

more boats, but

at the

same time promised to

252

Return to
send

Gallipoli
in

them out
or

to

us
as

the
as

course

of

an

hour

two,

and

soon

they

arrived
sailed

for

and were stowed away on the deck, we Lemnos.
I

very thankful that we dodged the submarines on the way, because with such an over-

am

crowded
most
of

vessel,

with so
without
for

many

different

units,

them standing room

officers,

and

hardly

everybody, and with very

inadequate means of getting boats out, I fear that there would not have been many survivors

had the
all

vessel

been sunk.

I

issued orders

to

as

on board never to part with their life-belts, they would have to depend on them princi-

pally,

and not on the boats,

for their lives.

We
time

were lucky to escape,
the
loss

for just

about

this

transport
of
life.

Ramadan was sunk with heavy
It

passes

my

comprehension that

ship-owners should be allowed to continue the antiquated methods of boat lowering which are
still

in

existence.

How many
lost

hundreds
the

of

lives

have

been
?

owing
blocks

to

stupid

method

in use

Ropes,

and

tackle are

fixed to the

bow and
it

stern of each boat,

and to

ensure that

should reach the sea on an even
*53

Return to
keel

Gallipoli

the

men

lower away
that

using both sets of tackle must at exactly the same rate. What
is

actually happens in any time of excitement

one rope

is

lowered

much more

quickly

than the other, with the result that the unfortunate occupants are tilted into the sea and drowned. It would be a simple matter to lower

by means of one rope only, and method should be made compulsory on
boats

this
all

ship-owners. Captain Williams
ship's

of

the

Munsters was
he

my
only the

adjutant.
officer

I

believe

was

the

surviving

who had landed from
he had

River Clyde on that memorable morning of the

gone through that desperate fight, and had been engaged in every battle on the Peninsula since that date, and yet
25th
of

April

;

had come through it all unscathed. have borne a charmed life, and
his

He must
I

sincerely

him to the end. hope He practically did all the work of the ship more efficient for me, and I never had a
luck
will
stick

to

adjutant.

We

reached

Lemnos

in safety,

and got into

the harbour at dusk, just before the entrance
254

Return to

Gallipoli

was blocked up, because, of course, the harbour mouth was sealed every night from dark to dawn,

owing to the
anchor
all

fear

of

submarines.

We

lay

at

night and most part of the next day, and, as nobody seemed to take the slightest notice
of our arrival,

the captain and I sailed across the harbour in a tiny boat, although the sea was far from calm, and, on reaching the dragon,

reported myself to a gentleman in an eye-glass, whom I had never seen before and never want to see again. He was very " haw haw," and said that I had no business to leave my ship until
I

the
I

landing officer had been aboard. remarked that we had been waiting in the
military

harbour so long that
military landing officer

thought perhaps the was dead, and so I had
I

come myself to report our arrival. With that I left him and returned to the ship, and soon afterwards we were boarded by the landing
officers,

and the
different

1,100

men were
I

drafted

off

to

their
a

units,

going
a

with

mine
calm
with

on
at

trawler

Lancashire

Cape Landing on
and
"
of

to

Helles.

We
received

arrived

beautiful
"

moonlight
joyous

night,

were

shouts

Shalom
255

(the

Hebrew

Return to
form
of

Gallipoli

salutation)

from

the

veterans

of

the face of Lieutenant Gorodisky from among those who greeted me, for, alas, he had died during my absence from an illness

the Corps. I missed

contracted owing to the hardships of the campaign. By his death the Corps suffered a severe
resigned from an important and lucrative post in Alexandria and enlisted as a His private soldier in the Zion Mule Corps.
loss.

He had

ability

and

soldierly

qualities

soon raised him
of

to officer's rank,

and he was one
Like

the best

and most useful

in the Corps.

all Israelites

he was passionately fond of music, and it was he who wrote out for me the Hatikvoh, the
music
of

which

has

been

by
in

Miss
the

Eva

Lonsdale

arranged for me and will be found

Appendix.

He

told

me

once

that,

though the Germans claimed that they were the most musical nation in the world, yet all
musicians were either Jews or had Jewish blood in them. His death was a sad blow to his widowed mother, as he was her
their

best

Madame Gorodisky may, however, be proud to have been the mother of such a
only child.
256

Return to
noble character, and
consolation
to her
it

Gallipoli
will,
I

trust,

be some

to

know

that he was held
officer

in the highest esteem

by every
in the

and man,

not only in the Zion
those

Mule Corps but

who knew him

also by French and British

regiments

among whom we were camped.

257

CHAPTER XXVII
BEELZEBUB

T
*

FOUND,
life

return in September, that on the Peninsula was much less strenu-

on

my

ous than
of July.

when I had left for Egypt at the end The Turks must have been very short
for

of

ammunition,
five

few

shells

were

fired for the
I

first

or six weeks after our arrival.
drills

was

able to have

exposed to the
Krithia
a

full

and parades in the open, view of Achi Baba and

thing which would have been out of the question in the early days. It was quite a pleasure to be able to ride about all over the

few hundred yards of the Turkish trenches without being shelled.
Peninsula even to within
a

Of
of

course,
of

in

the days

when the Turks had

ammunition, they thought nothing wasting half a dozen rounds on a solitary horseman, and many a time have I had to gallop
plenty
258

Beelzebub
at

breakneck speed to avoid the shrapnel which

they peppered me with on many occasions. I was very glad indeed that shells were rather scarce, as it gave my recruits time to get into
shape and get used to the conditions of warfare. The new Cairo men took to the life very
kindly,

and soon burrowed themselves well into
adapted
themselves
to

the

ground and

cave

dwelling as to the manner born. In the evenings, when our

ended, we had

day's toil concerts round our camp
it
;

was
fires

and enjoyed ourselves as much as to do under the circumstances
times
war.

was possible
in
fact,

at at

we used

to

forget

that

we were

The
affairs

camp-fire sing-songs were rather weird

songs in English (Tipperary, for choice), French, Russian, Hebrew and Arabic the two

latter

made
wail
of

rather

melancholy by the plainEast.

tive

the

Some
dancers

of

the

men

were

first-rate

Russian

and

expert

wrestlers, so

we had many

excellent little side-

shows.

"

The God

concerts were always ended by singing

Save

the

King,"
259

the

Marseillaise

(for

17*

Beelzebub

many French
March.

soldiers

would be
last of all

present),

the

Russian Anthem, and

the Maccabean

We
lines
;

had many
a

our quaint polyglot strenuous lieutenant all the way from
visitors to

Canada often
to

called

on

us,

and

I

was indebted
try

him
at

for an invitation to

come and

my

hand

tent-pegging on a beautiful tan track which he had made and at which various officers

used to meet to run a course.

Now
and
I

I

used to be rather good at the game,
I

think

rather

surprised

my

Canadian

friend, Maurice,

when,
"

in answer to his banter-

ing challenge "
it's
!

:

Now,

Colonel, show us

how

I took every peg for which I tried. done was good to find that one could still ride straight and depend on eye, hand and arm, and

It

that the

spear-point could be

made

to

strike

the peg as squarely and as surely as of old. There was not a great deal of work to be

done
of

in these days, as there

was now any amount
of

other Transport
off

which took much
hard
of

the

weight

our shoulders.
of

The

lack

steady
260

work made the

mules very

frisky,

and some

them were

regular

Beelzebub
demons.

We

had one which was
he was indeed

rightly

named

Beelzebub, for

a prince of devils,
all

and

I

veritably believe he

made

the other

mules laugh when he kicked one or other of the N.C.O.'s or men. He had an extraordinary
cat-like faculty of being able to plant fore

and

hind

feet

into

one's

ribs

practically

simul-

taneously, while at the same

moment he would
emitting
all

make
while

a

grab at one's head,
noises

the
!

strange

and

terrifying

squeals

He

pinned

me

in a corner one day, apparently

to the delight of the other mules,

and

I

was

glad to get out of

it

alive

!

In order to make

him pay
up to
water.

a little

more

respect to his
I

commanding

officer for

the future,

ordered him to be tied

a tree

and kept
theory

for a

This,

however,
of

day without food or did not fall in with
so

Beelzebub's

things,

he

gnawed

through the rope in the night and then made for the forage stack, where, to make up for lost
time, he ate about six

mule

rations
!

!

at

which

the other mules did not laugh

one was over-particular about Beelzebub's safety, as he was not what might be called popular, so instead of being put down with the
261

No

Beelzebub
others in a

dug-out, where

indeed he would

have kicked them to

bits, he was generally left himself in about the most exposed position by that could be found for him in the camp, and I

am

quite certain that both Jewish and Gentile prayers went up for his speedy annihilation by a
shell
;

Turkish
life.

but Beelzebub bore
all

a

charmed
in

Shells
trees

him, excavated enormous caverns at his very heels, but the only effect they had on Beelzebub was to rouse his
great
sheltered
ire

hopped which

round him, cut

two

and
last

start
a

him

off

on

a

fresh kicking bout.

At

chunk of

shell hit

to him, bounced

up and

"

ricked

the ground close "
off his ribs,

making
but
still

a

wound, not very serious, it is true, not exactly calculated to improve his

diabolical temper.
I

sent

him

off

to the sick lines to have his

wound

dressed.

Now

I

never could find out

what he actually did to the veterinary surgeon

who

tried to doctor
a polite little

him

there, but this officer

wrote

note requesting

me
for

to be

so very kind as to

remember
sick

in future that his

hospital

was

for

mules

not

Man-

Eaters

!

262

Beelzebub
I

of

have already mentioned that on the night my return to Gallipoli from Egypt a brilliant
shining,
of

moon was
great

and by the
earthworks

light of it I

saw
just
I

mounds

thrown up

to one side of our lines.

On

looking closer,

found that these were the emplacements four heavy French guns of 9.6-inch calibre.
I

for

cannot say that I was over-pleased at the sight, because I knew that the moment they

opened fire their position would be seen from Achi Baba, and the shells which the Turks would
be bound to hurl at them would be more than
likely to miss

the battery and hit

my men

and

my Two
siege

mules.

French

officers

were

in

pieces,

La

Riviere,

Captain Cujol both exceedingly nice
great
friends.
a

charge of the and Lieutenant

whom we made
captain

men with The gallant

horseman, and I often delighted him (for he had no horse with him) by mounting him on one of mine, and together

was

great

riding
Riviere,

over

the

Peninsula.
a

Lieutenant

La

who was
us
in

much-travelled man, often
stories

entertained

with

of

his

and adventures

Arabia,
263

Abyssinia

wanderings and the

Beelzebub
Soudan in the long evenings after we had all dined together in our cosy little dug-out. While I was away recruiting in Egypt the
glamour of the Horse Artillery had Gye, and furthermore Davidson
officers of

fallen

upon
other

and

L

soon after
let

Battery had beguiled him, so that my return he asked me if I would
glad to felt that

him go to the Gunners. I was recommend him for the transfer, for I
with
his

common sense and good horsehe would be of more use to the mastership general cause as a gunner than as a muleteer.
sound
I

had two

British officers

still left

with me, and

here,

too, was a case of good material being wasted on work which could have been equally

well done

by less brainy men. Claude Rolo was an eminent

civil

engineer,

and had constructed some of the most important
public buildings in Egypt, and, of course, his proper place would have been with the Sappers.

His

brother,
in

I.

Rolo,

with
should

his

vast

business

experience

Egypt,

have

been

em-

ployed
his

as

purchasing agent for the Army, where

knowledge of local affairs would undoubtedly have saved us tens of thousands of pounds. His
264

Beelzebub
were wasted merely keeping the records of the Zion Mule Corps Depot at Alexandria.
talents
I

recommended both
still

for

transfer,

but

I

fear

their services are
I

being wasted.
will

wonder when we

wake up to the

fact

plenty of talent if only those in authority would avail themselves of it and use it in the right way.
that

we have

265

CHAPTER XXVIII
A FEAT IN GUNNERY

T3 Y
**-'

this time, after

many weeks and months

and

delving, the efforts of our Engineers other troops to alter the geographical
of

features of the Peninsula began to have effect.

Long
to

lines of

communication trenches were dug

everywhere. Indeed, the amount of earthwork that was excavated in digging trenches and dug-outs, both at Helles and " colossal." If the same Anzac, was simply

and

fro

trenching and dug-outing had been concentrated into one effort, it would
of

amount

digging,

have been possible to make a canal across the narrowest part of the Peninsula, wide enough

and deep enough
without
let

the Queen Elizabeth and the rest of the British Fleet to sail through,
for

One

or hindrance, to Constantinople good thing the diggers did was to make
!

266

A
the

Feat

in

Gunnery
wide
and

deep enough to give ample cover to horses and mules. In consequence of this, it was now possible to
take

communication

trenches

ammunition

and

supplies

to

the

front

during daylight, and so most of our night work ceased. Small detachments of men and mules

were attached to various battalions
work, and
all

for transport

over the Peninsula Zion

men

could

be met cantering along on their mules for they were good horsemen and they invariably rode when they had a chance. They looked very comical as they galloped along, uttering exulting
yells, their faces

grimy, caps
heads,

crammed home on
and with

the

back

of

their

jacketless

torn shirts, perched up on the pack saddles, the chains of which clattered loudly at each stride of the mule. Our soldiers, with their usual

happy knack
the "
Allies

for

nick-names,

christened

them

Cavalry," while a brilliant wit " went even one better and dubbed them Ally " Sloper's Cavalry While the men were out on these detached
!

posts,

I,

of

course,

visited

them

at

regular

intervals to see that they

were keeping up the hear any reputation of the Corps and also to
267

A
It

Feat in Gunnery

reports or complaints they might have to make.

was rarely that

a

day went by without some-

thing odd or amusing, or both, happening at one or other of these detached posts. For

had some men stationed up the Gully Ravine, and just before I visited them, the Turks had given them a vigorous bombardexample
:

I

ment which had

set

fire

to the forage which

was stored close by the mules. The last of it was being burned up just as T arrived on the
scene and, as

my men

were

still

lying low in their

dug-out,

I

shouted for the corporal and angrily

demanded why they had not saved the forage. " He replied Turk he fire shells, plenty
:

shells,

hot,

hot
their

too

showed

that
if

bloody hot," sojourn with the
else,

which
British

Army,
least

it

was

doing nothing
their

was

at

improving
!

knowledge

of

classical

English

Although Gye had by this time joined L Battery for duty, he still lived with me in our
dug-out under the great olive tree, which, by the way, now supplied us with excellent olives. Being with the gunners, he would
little

occasionally

get

early

news

of

an

artillery

268

A
"
strafe,"

Feat in Gunnery
as

which,

a

rule,

we went

together

to

I

watch from some commanding position. was not surprised, therefore, when
he came
in

one

from the battery and told me there was to be a most interesting " " less shoot on in the
afternoon

afternoon, nothing " " of a troublesome Turkish than the strafing redoubt by the huge guns of one of the Monitors.

As

this

promised to be

a

rare

good show, we

sallied

forth on our horses, taking the road by

X
"

Beach and the Gully Ravine. On reaching our observation post and seeing no sign of a

Monitor
but
"

in

the vicinity,
is

I

remarked to Gye
of that
*

:

It certainly
I

a very fine afternoon for a ride,

don't see

much appearance
will

strafe

'

you promised to show me."
I

think
is

it

be

all

right," replied

Gye,

" there

the Monitor away out at sea," pointing to a speck close over to the Imbros shore, some seven or eight miles away a mere cockleshell in the distance.

On
said
:

looking from the speck to the redoubt I

"

It

is

not a
a

'

'

strafe

you have brought
it

me
to

out to see but

miracle," because
little

looked

me

that

it

would be

short of a miracle

269

A
be

Feat in Gunnery

to hit that small redoubt which, of course, could

only

faintly

seen

from

the

tops

of

the

Monitor by However,
wonderful

telescope.
I

hadn't

to

wait

sight.

Punctually

long to the
the

for

the

moment
Monitor

when

it

was expected, we

saw

enveloped in great billows of waving clouds of flame and smoke one of her great 1 4-inch guns

had

been fired. Anxiously redoubt and, incredible as
shell

we watched
it

the
the

may

seem,

only failed

to

strike

it

by thirty yards,
upheaval of watched the
this

for at that distance

from

it

a great

earth

Monitor.

could be seen. " "

Again we

Pouf

!

went her second gun,

time sending the shell plump into the redoubt. The result was extraordinary. Up went Turks,
rocks, timbers, guns, all

mixed up
a

in a cloud of

smoke,

flame

and

earth
in

marvellous

shot

!

Three more followed

quick succession, each one plumping right into the redoubt, pulverizing it absolutely out of existence. It was as if a
steam-roller

gone over the earthworks. A few more shells were dropped into the fort, just to make sure, and one of these, having
struck

had

" some hard substance, " ricked
270

across

A
the
Peninsula,

Feat
over
!

in

Gunnery
the
Dardanelles,

and

exploded
I

in Asia

took off

my

hat to the
If

man behind
is

the

gun on that Monitor.

type of all other gunners in the British Navy, the Germans
a
as well scrap their fleet

he

may

without further ado.

After watching this wonderful feat of gunnery, we were riding back towards camp, when we saw running towards us an old soldier of a
Scottish regiment in a state of great excitement,

apparently having something of importance to I pulled up my horse and asked him impart.

what was the matter.
further

He

told
a

broadest Scotch that there was
a
little

down among

spy the gorse taking

me in German

the

notes

and sketching the position of a heavy battery which was in position close by the sea. I asked the Scotty how he knew the man was
spy,

a

and

he

said

"
:

He's goin'

on verra

suspeecious."
I

got

him

to point out the exact position of

the

arranged with Gye that I would go up and open conversation casually with him, and that if I made a certain

supposed spy and

then

I

signal,

he was to gallop
271

off

for

an

escort.

I

A
of a

Feat

in

Gunnery

" found the " spy dressed in khaki in the uniform
Scottish regiment.
I

opened the conver-

sation

by asking

if

shooting of the Monitor,
I

he had seen the magnificent and carried it on until
was

found out
come.

who he was and from whence he
I

had

knew

that

his
I

regiment
asked

forward in the trenches, so

him why

he was not at the front, and he told me that he was going through a course at the bombing school and so, for the moment, was away from
his

Battalion.

He seemed
Gye

all

right,

but

to

make sure
at the

I sent

over to see the Instructor

bombing
if

school which was close by, to
officer

find out
a course.

such an

was

really there taking

While Gye was away
of the
cliff

now
self

edge with the supposed spy who, I was pretty sure, was what he represented himto be a British officer. Down below us

I

strolled to the

on the shore was the body of a dead horse, half in and half out of the sea, and tearing at it was a good-sized shark which we could see very
plainly, for the

water was beautifully clear. My spy got very keen on seeing this and, borrowing a rifle from a soldier standing near, he made
272

A

Feat

in

Gunnery
it

such good shooting at the shark that gave up
its

speedily

horse-feast and plunged

off to the

depths in terrified haste. In the midst of the fusillade, Gye came back to say all was well, so " " bidding my good-afternoon, we rode off spy to our camp.

no doubt, however, that the Peninsula was alive with spies, and at night, on returning from the trenches, when all the camps would
There
is

have repeatedly seen flashes sent up from the British lines towards Krithia, where they would be answered, but although
be in slumber,
I I

tried

on
I

several

occasions

to

locate

the

never succeeded in doing so. Of signaller, course I reported the matter to Headquarters,

but whether they were more successful than myself I never learned.

On
made
flashed

one occasion,
a

a

night or two before
I

we

big

attack,

distinctly

saw

signals

by

from the neighbourhood of the cliffs the Gully Ravine, where there was the

Headquarters of a Division, to the lines of the Royal Naval Division, from which a signaller

answered back

;

body on the

hill

both then signalled to somewhere the Headquarters Staff
273
18

A
of our
in
his

Feat in Gunnery
established,

Army Corps were
turn

and

this

signaller

flashed
a

Krithia,

where there was

messages up to steady red light

shown

for a considerable time while the signalling
signaller
I

was in progress. I tried to locate the on the Headquarters hill, but failed.
reported
Officer,

then

the

matter to
told

the

Chief

Signalling
I

who

me

that whatever lights

had

seen were not

made by our
were out

the

signallers
I

people, as none of on duty that night.

found the spot from which the daring spy on the Headquarters hill had been signalling. It was most craftily selected, as it was completely

Gye and

sheltered

for three-quarters of the
light

way round,

and

his

could
;

only
I

be seen from the

direction of

Krithia

had not been able to

observe

it

until I

came
hill.

into a direct line between

Krithia and the

The
ful
!

tricks

and daring of the spy are wonder-

It

was

common

gossip

in

the Peninsula

that
sell

a

Greek contractor who was allowed to
foods, etc., to the soldiers,
larger
tins,

some tinned

had

in

some

of the

carrier pigeons,

which he would send

not eatables, but off to the
this

Turks on suitable occasions, but whether
274

A
is

Feat
I

in

Gunnery

cannot say for certain. It was rumoured that he was found out and shot.
true or not

Some

of

our fellows used to do the most
things.

extraordinary

A

sergeant,

bored with
like

life

in the trenches,

thoroughly thought he would
a

to break the

monotony by having
shouldering the enemy
five

look

at

the

Turks,
over

so,

his

rifle,

he

sauntered
looked
in,

to

trenches

and

and there saw

Turks, three sitting
others
lying

together smoking and having a rest. He shot

two

down

all five

and then doubled

back to his
vellous

way Then there was Lieutenant O'Hara Dublins, who was always doing some
feat

trench, escaping in some marthe hail of bullets that came after him.
of

own

the

and showing

his

contempt

of

daring death and

the Turks on every conceivable occasion. He won the D.S.O. before going to Suvla, where,
alas
!

his luck deserted

him, and he was mortally

wounded.
could ever
sitting

O'Hara firmly believed that no Turk
kill

him, for he thought nothing of
the

up

on
while

cigarette,

parapet coolly smoking a bullets rained all round him.
his

When

survey of the Turkish line he would get down, but not before.
275
18*

he had finished

A
Another

Feat

in

Gunnery
of

brave

man

the

Dublins

was

If ever there was a dangerous Sergeant Cooke. he always volunteered for it, and was conjob

stantly out reconnoitring the enemies' position

and bringing in useful information to his officers. he He, too, was very lucky for a long time
;

was one of the few

who

escaped

all

hurt in the

original landing, but at Suvla, Sergeant Cooke, while doing a brave deed, was mortally wounded,

for a couple of hours before

and, although he must have been in great agony he died, he never
:

uttered a groan. Just before the last, he said " " I No dying like a British soldier ? soldier ever died more gamely.

Am

276

CHAPTER XXIX
THE FINDING OF THE SHIELD OF DAVID

OOON
*"r*

after

the

Bulgarians
us,

had thrown

in

their lot

against

the Turks,

to this time
tion, felt, I

had been husbanding their presume, that there was now no need

who up ammuni-

to be so sparing in their use of shells, and they therefore took on a much more aggressive attitude.

Turkish

bombardments

and

trench

strafes

once more became the order of the day. Not to let the enemy have everything his own way,

we

ourselves arranged, late in October, to

make

a

trejnendous onslaught on
their trenches,

the Turks.
12,

One

of

occupied a somewhat commanding position and had been giving It was decided, therefore, us a lot of trouble.
as

known

H.

to batter

it

out of existence.
at

Sharp to time,

three o'clock
277

on

a

very

The Finding
"
"

of the Shield of

David

afternoon, a most terrific cannonade nippy was opened on the doomed trench. Naval

guns, French guns, British howitzers and fieldpieces rained a devastating fire of high explosives

and, as

if

this

were not enough, three huge vol-

canoes spurted out at three points of the trench, denoting that some great mines had been exploded. While the fire lasted, it was terrific, and the dust and smoke speedily hid all the Turkish trenches, as well as Krithia and Achi

Baba, from our view.

The

infantry were then
little

launched and the trench captured with very
loss.

Trench warfare,
under them,
fascination,
is

dull

as

it

is,

for those

who
of

prefer a fight in the open, with a

good horse

and

yet not without I often found

its

moments
in

myself
really

the

thick of a trench strafe

when

I

had no

business whatever to be in the neighbourhood.
I were returning from one of trench fights in mid-October, when we " " strafed at ourselves nearly got Clapham a well-known spot behind the firing Junction,

Gye, Rolo and

these

line

on our right centre.
278

Our

mortars, borrowed

from the French, had thoroughly annoyed the

The Finding of the Shield

of

David

Turks and they retaliated by bombarding our trenches with shell-fire. We were pretty safe
so long as

way back

we remained under cover, but on the to camp we caught it rather badly

and only saved ourselves by our speedy flight over an exposed piece of ground which we had to cross, where the shells were falling
pretty thickly. One of the most annoying things the Turks " somewhere did was to mount a big naval gun " not far from Troy as distances go in in Asia
Asia.

This fiendish weapon had such a high

velocity that the shell arrived

on us before the

report of the

gun was heard.

The

sensation of

hearing the shell screaming a few feet over one's head was most unpleasant, and we all looked for the

moment

that the big French guns in our
shoot, as things were very

lines

would begin to

disagreeable for us while

"

Helen

"

was

in action.

This gun was altogether so troublesome that we " Helen of Troy." had christened it Fortunately, only about one in four of its
shells

burst, otherwise

we

should have suffered

very heavily, because around our lines.

many of them fell in and My men would calmly pick
279

The Finding

of the Shield of

David

up these unexploded shells and struggle off with them on their shoulders to adorn the entrance of
This used to horrify the French gunners, who were close by and knew the danger I am afraid of touching such dangerous toys.
their dug-outs
!

my

Zionists thought

me somewhat
homes

of a tyrant

for abolishing these aesthetic aids to the beautification of their subterranean
!

Now and again, just as a reminder of the rigours
to come,

we were deluged by
life in

a

downpour

of rain,

and then
able, for,

the trenches was almost unbear-

owing to the subsoil being clay, all the water ran on the surface and speedily rilled up and this every trench, dug-out and hollow
;

discomfort, coupled with mud, filth, too little food and sleep, and too much shells and bombs,

made
man.

life

in Gallipoli

more

fit

for a

dog than

a

As the cold weather was coming on, I determined to build a good stone house for my men,

where there would always be keep them warm and to dry

a

big

fire

going to

their clothes

when

they came back wet from the trenches. As it was not in our zone, I had to get the permission
of the Chief

Engineer of the French
280

Army

to

The Finding of the Shield of David
take

some
it

stones

from

Sedd-el-Bahr

village,

because

was only there that building material could be obtained. While we were pulling down
a

house and excavating the foundations, up a slab of marble with a beautiful

we dug
filigree

design carved round the outer edge of it, and in the centre, strange to say, was the Shield of The stone must have been very, very David
!

old,
it

and how

may

got there is a mystery. Perhaps have been taken from Solomon's Temple
it

in Jerusalem.

delighted at the find and brought the stone in triumph to our camp, and it was kept in the new house as a talisman to ward

My

Zion

men were

off

the

fell all

Strange to say, although they round, the building was never touched nor
shells.
its vicinity.

was anyone injured in

Our own dug-out was also greatly improved when the weather became bitterly cold. We made the fireplace and chimney-stack out of old kerosene tins, which made a kind of brasier on
which we burned charcoal obtained from the
heap at the field bakery. Altogether, our dug-out was considered to be the cosiest one in
refuse

the whole Peninsula,

as

indeed

it

had every

right

281

The Finding

of the Shield of

David
our
civil

to be, for was not Claude Rolo,
architect

who was

and engineer, one of the cleverest
that ever
?

engineers technic in Paris

passed through the Poly-

Our charcoal fire was very useful in many ways it made very good toast, for the bread, which up to now had been excellent, began to be sodden
;

owing to the bakery being
often

in the
all

open and,

of

course, getting the full benefit of

the rain that
in addition to
all

came down
shell-fire.

in torrents

;

and

the rain the unfortunate bakers were at

times

Although the bread was not up to the usual standard after the rains set in, yet in
the whole history of war I do not believe that men and animals have ever been better fed

under

than were the troops, horses and mules during the whole time we were on the Peninsula.

The

might perhaps have been bettered, but the quality and quantity on the whole were excellent and reflected the greatest

variety of food

on the organization of the Army Service in fact, it was the only department Corps where one could say all the time it had done
credit
;

well.

The Ordnance

failed

at

times

failed

lamentably in the supply of high explosives for
282

The Finding

of the Shield of

David

the guns, but this was through no fault of the ordnance officer on the spot, who, I know, took

every precaution to ask for every conceivable article months before it was required. Of course,

he did sometimes get the needed articles, and sometimes, when it was on its way, submarines would sink the ship, or the ordnance people said
the ship was sunk, which amounted to the same thing and covered a multitude of sins. Those

submarines

saved

many

reputations

!

All

the

sapper supplies, however, might

just as

well have

been sunk,
scrap
of

was impossible to get the smallest how urgently material, no matter
as it
all

required, without the most minute details as to

what

it

was for and

about

it.

There was

any amount of stuff one wanted in the Field Park, but when application was made for it the " invariable reply was It is earmarked for other
purposes."

This policy is all very well in normal times, but does not do for war. Some men cannot shake off
the petty trammels by which they are fettered in times of peace.
I

have no doubt the Turks
use
of
a

much enjoyed
of
this

the

considerable
283

amount

The Finding
"

of the Shield of
which,
it

David
had been

earmarked

"
material,
if

issued to us,

would have greatly enhanced the
beast.

comfort of
I

man and

remember on one occasion being

in

want

of of

a gallon of tar.
it in

Now
all

there was any

amount
it

the stores, in fact, one could see
directions.
I

oozing
this

out of the barrels in
tar to

wanted

put on some ropes and sacks filled with sand which I was burying in the ground to make
so I sent a

horse lines and to waterproof some canvas ; man to the R. E. Park, with a requisition, hoping to get it back in the course of

my

half an

hour or

so

;

but no
"
:

:

all

he brought back

was

a letter to say

Please explain for
I

what
was so

purpose you

require this gallon of tar."
I

annoyed that

"
replied
:

To make

a

bonfire

when you
reached

get the order of the boot." But I have some doubt as to whether this message ever
its

destination, as I

had

a very diplomatic

adjutant.

and men of the corps of Royal Engineers who wore no red-tabs, were simply splendid, and it was with admiration that I

The

officers

often watched

them

at all hours of the

day and
putting

night, digging trenches,

making

saps, or

284

The Finding

of the Shield of

David
of the

up barbed wire, right in the very teeth " Second to None." enemy

It is sometimes of vital importance in war to do the exact contrary to all peace traditions ; but men get into a groove, get narrow, and often I have a good infail to rise to the occasion.

stance of this in mind.
to issue sandbags

A

certain officer refused

from

his store

when they were

needed. (This did not happen at " Helles.) They cost sixpence each," he re" " and I have got to be careful of them marked, a wise precaution in peace-time, but utterly unurgently
a few sandbags at sixpence the lives of several soldiers worth each might save hundreds of pounds, putting it on merely a cash

sound in war, because

basis.

285

CHAPTER XXX
BACK TO ENGLAND

OHORTLY
*^
would
arranged
call a

before

I

left

Gallipoli our Staff

what
"

the

American

soldier

great

stunt."

Materials for a huge

bonfire were secretly collected and placed in a

commanding position after dark on the heights near the Aegean coast near to it a mine was laid. At about ten o'clock at night this was purposely;

next moment, exploded, making a terrific report to prearranged plan, the bonfire, according
;

which had been
tar,

liberally saturated

with

oil

and

up

burst into a great sheet of flame which lit half our end of the Peninsula. Our Staff

expected that the explosion followed by the great fire would bring every Turk out of the
fully

depths of his trench to the parapet in order to
see

so at what had happened every gun on the Peninsula, which
;

this

moment
had

of course

286

Back

to England

the range of these Turkish trenches to a yard, loosed off a mighty salvo. Next morning at daylight the Staff eagerly scanned the enemies'
parapets,

expecting to see them littered with

but instead, they were somewhat chagrined to observe our old friend the Turkish wag

dead

slowly raise a great
Casualties

"
placard announcing
:

No
in

"
!

The Turks were now much more
their cannonading,

lively

and began once more their

hateful tactics of loosing off shells at

mounted

men.

About
I

a fortnight before I left

the Peninsula,

was riding up from Gully Ravine, and, having
is

got to the top of what
I

called Artillery Road,
of the drivers told

met

a

gun team, and one
yards, as the

me

to be careful going along the next couple of

hundred

short strip of road just ahead.

Turks were shelling the I was walking

my

horse at the time, and continued to do so,

as I felt I

was

just as safe walking as galloping.
I

In a few moments

heard the report of a gun from

behind Krithia, then I heard the scream of a shell coming nearer and nearer, and as I bent my

head down to the horse's mane
287

I

said to myself

:

Back
" This
is

to England
"
!

The shell going to be a near thing whizzed close above my head and exploded a
yard or two beyond me, plastering some twenty or thirty yards of ground with shrapnel. My
horse took no notice of the explosion, and con-

tinued walking on

as if

nothing had happened.

Although

I

was anxiously on the look-out for

another salute from the enemy, I thought, if I just walked on, I would bluff the Turkish observing officer into thinking that, as
so unconcernedly,
I

took the matter

and

it

would be

useless to
else

he must have the wrong range go on shooting. It he was
a

was either that or

sportsman and

thought that, as I had taken my escape so calmly, he would not shoot again, for at any rate not another round was fired.

Although I did not know it at the time, Gye had been watching the whole of this episode from
a
little

distance.
it

He had

seen the

gun team

being shelled as

galloped for shelter

down

to

the Gully, and when he saw me emerge he pretty sure that I would be fired on as soon

felt
as I

me

was spotted by the Turkish gunners. it was most exciting to watch me
;

He
as I

told

came

to the dangerous bit of road 288

hear the report of

Back

to England

the Turkish gun, hear the shriek of the shell as
it

came

along,

and then

see

it

go bang, apparently

on

my

head

!

As was to be expected, where cannonading and battles were the order of the day, there was little
to be seen or bird
of

on the Peninsula

in the

way

of animal
sings

life.

The

cranes

which Homer
in great flocks

somewhere or other, flew

down

to Egypt, flying almost in the arrow formation of

geese

when

in

flight,

but with the arrow not

I have quite so regular. put up some partridges out of the gorse, between the Gully Ravine and

the Aegean, within a hundred yards of where the guns were blazing away for all they were worth.

There were
very few,
if

a

few other small birds about, but I came across one any, warblers.

dead hare, shot by a stray bullet, and I had a glimpse of one live one as it scuttled away in the The only other four-footed wild thing gorse.
that
I

be

a cross

saw in the Peninsula was what appeared to between the merecat and the mon-

goose,

but slightly larger than the mongoose. It was of a dark reddish-brown colour, thickly
I

dotted over with grey spots.
289

saw one or two

small snakes, but whether they were

venomous
19

Back
or not
I

to England
they glided
off into their

cannot
I

say, for

holes before

A
a

night or

could secure a specimen. two before I left Gallipoli
of

sudden downpour

rain

we had which made the

trenches raging torrents, and turned the dugouts into diving baths ; but still our men re-

mained cheery throughout
depress them.

it

all

;

nothing can

like all others,

Battery, R.H.A., were flooded out in the twinkling of an eye, and I watched them, standing in their shirts on the edge of their dug-outs, endeavour-

The men

of

L

ing with

a

hooked

stick to fish

up

their equip-

ment and the remainder

of their attire
all

from

a

murky

flood of water four feet deep

the time

"
singing gaily
:

It's a

long

way

to Tipperary."

My escape on Artillery Road was the last serious little bit of adventure I had on the
Peninsula,
I

for

towards the end of November

got

ill,

and Captain Blandy, R.A.M.C., packed
to
hospital.

me

off

My

faithful

orderly,

Corporal Yorish, came with me to the hospital and saw that I was comfortably fixed up for the
night.

cannot speak too highly of this man's behaviour during the whole time he was with me in Egypt and Gallipoli. In Palestine he
I

290

Back
was
a

to England

dental

student,

but he could turn

his

hand

to anything, and was never
at work.

happy

unless

he was
I

spent that night in the clearing station close to Lancashire Landing, on a bed having a big side tilt, with a dozen other officers all

round,
a

some
light

sick,

some
a

wounded.

We

had

hurricane lamp suspended to a rope, which was tied to the tent poles, and we got a little warmth and a lot of smell from

dim

from

an

oil stove, for

the weather was

now

At about 4 a.m. I dozed off, thing I remember was a Turk leaning over me,
trying, as I thought, to
a

very cold. and the next

prod

me

in the face with

bayonet.

I

made

a vicious kick at

him which

woke me up, and then I discovered that my Turk was no Turk at all but merely the hospital
orderly,

who was attempting to jab mometer into my mouth in an effort

a

ther-

to take

my

temperature.

It

was

5

a.m. and the hospital

machine had begun to work, and whether you whether you are ill, or whether you are asleep, or whether you are awake, temperaare well, or

and medicines must be taken according to rule and regulation.
tures
291

19*

Back
This

to England

same clearing station had seen some
times,

very lively

because
in
a

it

is

close

to

the

ordnance

stores,

and

line

from Asia to
into
it

W Beach, so that
Orderlies

shells

used to

fall

both

from Achi Baba and from across the Dardanelles.

and patients had been

killed

there,

and many others had had marvellous escapes. Scores and scores of times have I witnessed
the departure of the sick and wounded, which generally took place in the evening, and the
clock-like

precision

with

which

everything

worked reflected the greatest credit on Colonel Humphreys, R.A.M.C., who was in charge of it from the beginning to the end, and on the

members
him.

R.A.M.C. Corps who assisted From what I saw of the R.A.M.C. men
of the

in Gallipoli, this

Corps has every reason to be

proud
there

of itself.

Of

course, at the

first

landing

was

a
is

lamentable

medical

break-down,
of lives

and there
were
lost

no doubt that hundreds
because

there were not enough and stores to go round. doctors, attendants, Hundreds and hundreds of badly wounded men

had to be

stuffed

anywhere on board transports
at

and sent down to the hospitals
292

Alexandria

Back
with practically no

to England

one

to

look

after

excepting their lesser
this

wounded comrades
blunder,

;

them, but

was
not

an

administrative

which
and

does
skill

reflect

on
all

the
those
I

pluck,

energy
contact

shown

by

R.A.M.C.
in

officers

and

men with whom

came

in

Gallipoli.

Colonel Humphreys saw me off on the morning of the 29th of November, and I went down
in an

ambulance

full of officers

and

soldiers to

the French pier at V Beach, the same at which I had landed in April, because our own pier
at

W

not be used.

Beach had been washed away and could While we were getting on board

the trawler which was to take us to the hospital ship, the Turks put a few shells close round us
in their
efforts

to

damage the French works
last salute

on
as

V
I

Beach.

This was their

so

far

was concerned, for I never heard another shot fired. They were very good about our hospital ships, and never attempted to do any
shooting which would endanger

them

in

any way. As we rounded the stern of the hospital ship in order to get to the lee side, as the weather
293

Back to England
was
a bit boisterous, I

was interested to

see that

the ship was called the Assaye. Now, during the South African War, I had gone out in this same ship in command of about

twelve hundred troops, and it was somewhat odd that I should now see her as a hospital ship and

be going aboard her as a patient. I found things very comfortable on board, and certainly it was an immense change to us to find ourselves
once more between sheets on
a

spring bed

swung
very

on
the

pivots, so that the patients should not feel

motion

of

the

ship.

We

were

democratic in the hospital,

as generals, colonels,

some

majors, captains, lieutenants and senior N.C.O.'s, thirty or forty of us in all, were jumbled

up together in the ward. There was only one nursing
tainly

sister

for

our
cer-

ward, an Australian lady, Sister Dixon,

who

worked

like a slave

from somewhere about

seven in the morning until ten at night. task was too severe, and enough to break

Her

down
the

any ordinary mortal.

She was

assisted

in

ward duties by Corporal O'Brien, who did what he could to make us comfortable. The night
orderly

was

a

big

kindly
294

Scotch

Highlander,

Back

to

England

named Mackinnon, almost as tender and sympathetic as a woman, who apologized profusely when he had to wake us every morning at 6 a.m.
to take our temperatures of our pulse.

and count the beats

The Assaye
of

lay off

Cape Helles

in a blinding

blizzard of hail

and snow, during which many
I

the poor fellows in the trenches were,
frozen to death,
or,
as a lesser

am
got

told,

evil,

their feet frozen during that very cold spell.

On
we
at

the 2jth we set sail for Mudros, which reached in about four hours, where we lay
a day,

anchor for

and there was much specu-

whether we would be transhipped, or go ashore and be put in hospital on this island, each and all wondering what was going
lation as to

to happen.

One

or

two

light

cases

were put

ashore, and then the ship weighed anchor bound for Alexandria, which we reached without

adventure on the

ist

of

December.

All of us

who were unable
some
stalwart

to walk were carried ashore

Australians, and then we by were sandwiched into a motor ambulance, still remaining on our stretchers, and driven off
to

Ras-el-Tin

Hospital,
295

which

occupied

an

Back
excellent position
I

to England
of the sea.

by the edge

Here

spent fifteen days getting every care and atten-

tion from Miss
sisters

Bond

(the matron),

and nursing
looked
after

Blythe

and Jordon,

who

the patients in my ward. Ras-el-Tin Hospital is used for officers only, but I noticed that some
of

the medical officers were

somewhat young

and

consider wrong, inexperienced. because in these days the lives of officers are
I

This

and only the best and most experienced medical officers should be employed to look after them, and get them fit for their
of great importance,

duties as soon as possible.

experience in this respect may not be out of place here as an apt illustration of
little

My

own

have just written. The senior medical officer in charge, a very young temporary captain, without coming to see me, decreed that I was fit and well enough
I

what

to leave the hospital for a convalescent home. Now, I was just about able to crawl and no

more, and the matron and sister who knew the state I was in, told him that I was utterly unfit
to
leave

the

hospital.

coming

to see

me, he

still

However, without remained obstinate,

296

Back to England
but meanwhile away Colonel Beach, the A.D.M.S. Alexandria, having come to see me, his experienced eye showed
ordered

and

my

kit

;

him that
should be
told

it
fit

would be some months before
for

I

military duty again,

and he

me I should have to go before a medical board, who would dispose of my case. The
following

day

the

medical

board

decided

to

was put on board the hospital ship Gurkha, which I found very comfortable, with excellent food and a most
send
to England,

me

and

I

excellent medical staff, a colonel, three majors,

and
vice

a
;

captain,

all

of the Indian Medical Sera

and
of

I

thought what
able

pity

it

was that
officers

some

these

and

experienced

could not be utilized to take charge of such hospitals as Ras-el-Tin, where they could guide
staff into the way they should go. another example of not utilizing in just the right way the wealth of talent which we

the junior
It
is

possess
for a

in

skilled

and able men.
Medical Service

I

do not
were

moment mean
Indian

to suggest that the talents
officers

of

these

wasted on the Gurkha.
that one or

two

of the

What I do mean is senior men would have

Back
been ample on the

to

England
with
a

ship,

men

as

assistants,

and the

couple of younger other senior men

could then have been released for similar work

among some
Colonel
officer

of the ill-staffed hospitals in

Egypt

or Mesopotamia.

Haig,

I. M.S.,

the

senior

medical

sick

on board, was untiring in his care of the and wounded, and if a testimonial of his
were wanted,
in
it

zeal

could

be found in the
three

difference

the

appearance which his

hundred patients presented from the day when they came on board the Gurkha at Alexandria
to the day

ampton.

when they I, who saw

left his
it,

hands

at

Southit

can only say

was

simply marvellous. After eleven days' treatment in the capable hands of Major Houston, I. M.S., I found myself
a different

man when
where

I

walked

off

the ship at

we arrived on Southampton, Day, 1915, and reached London on a
train the

Boxing
hospital

same evening.
a

At Waterloo we were

met

by

medical

officer,

who

scattered
I

us

throughout
fortunate in

the hospitals

in

London.

was

being sent to that organized by
Brassey at
298
40,
.

Lady

Violet

Upper Grosvenor

Back
Street,

to

England
so comfortable or so

where

I

was never

well cared for in the whole course of

my

life,

and
A.

for
;

which

I

tender her

my

thanks

and

I

would

also like to

very thank Doctor

sincere

B. Howitt, Miss Spencer (the matron), and the sisters and nurses for the care and kindness

which they showed me during the three weeks I was in their charge.
was delightful to have old friends crowding in with gifts of flowers, and fruit, and books,
It

and

all

the latest

London

papers

and

gossip.

Lady

Violet arranged

some delightful concerts

which such public favourites as Madame Bertha Moore, Miss Evie Greene and others charmed us with song, story, and recitations.
for us at

Among
reached

the

"

others

"
a

was Miss Marjorie Moore,
Little

whose song,
all

"
Just

Bit

of

Heaven,"

the Irish hearts there.

Harry Irving, too, came to see me one day, and presented me with a box for the Savoy,

where

dozen of us thoroughly enjoyed The Case of Lady Camber.
half
a

Discussing the play at dinner in the hospital afterwards, I remarked how well Holman Clarke

had acted

in the

Sherry scene,
299

when

the V.A.D.

Back to England
nurse

who was

at

that

some soup remarked

"
:

moment handing me I am glad you liked

him because he

is

my

brother."

wonderfully well the women of the They Empire have shown up during the war have come forward in their thousands not only
!

How

V.A.D. work, where their help is invaluable, but also for Munition work, and work of every
for

kind which up to the outbreak of war it was thought could only be done by men. Yes, the women have certainly come into

one am very glad of it, and proud too of the fact that they have responded
their

own, and

I for

so

nobly to the

call.

300

CHAPTER XXXI
THE EVACUATION

\ A

THEN

I

learned
at

Failure

August Suvla, and

in

of

the Great

heard

with

astonishment and no

little

anger that no further

troops were to be sent to Gallipoli, I knew then that the only thing to do was to get out as

quickly as possible before the Turks could get a fresh stock of munitions and reinforcements

from Germany and Bulgaria. It must not be imagined that
that

I

was anxious
all

we should

leave Gallipoli after

our great

sacrifices

there, but since the

Government had
it

decided once more to fritter away our chances

by diverting troops to Salonika, when

was

already too late to accomplish any useful purpose there, I knew that our position on the Peninsula was hopeless.

Bad weather was coming on and
301

it

would

The Evacuation
have been absolutely impossible to live in the Even with the little trenches and dug-outs.

amount of rain that I had experienced, the communication and other trenches were at
times
waist

deep in raging torrents, carrying
debris.

down empty cases, dead Turks and other Had troops been left in Gallipoli
winter,

for

the

the

losses

from

sickness

and exposure
;

alone would have been enormous

in fact, the

Army would have needed renewing every month. It must be remembered that the conditions
of
life

in

Gallipoli
in

those

prevailing
as

were entirely different to France. There were no

such things
or housing
likely to

of

dry sleeping places, dry clothes, any kind, and one was just as
rest trenches
line.

be killed in the so-called

as in those

on the front

One

of the saddest things I

know

of

was the

death of the Colonel commanding the King's
escaped everything right through the campaign, but in the end met his death in one of the rest
trenches
shell

Own

Scottish

Borderers.

He

had

about the middle of November, by a fired from Helen of Troy on the Asiatic
302

coast.

The Evacuation

When

once

it

was definitely decided to send
Gallipoli, of course

no further reinforcements to

the only thing left to do was to get out, and to get out as speedily as possible.

But even
evitable,

after
still

the obvious had become in-

we

went

on

gaily,

spending
miles

enormous sums
of

of

money, laying
a

down

making roads, camp hospitals, and doing
tramways,
all I

bridges,

erecting

thousand

other

things

very expensive work.

going on I began to think that perhaps, after all, the Government were really going to do the right thing, which would

When

saw

this

have been to throw an overwhelming force of

Anglo-French troops on the Turks, catching them, as they then were, with but little ammunition, crumpling them up and thus accomplishing
our main object in the Near East. This would, undoubtedly, have been the right line of policy
to have
taken,

and would have helped Serbia

much more than anything else, but some fatal demon seems to dog the footsteps of our politicostrategists.

When

our

Foreign

Minister

declared

that

we were going

to uphold Serbia

with

all

our

303

The Evacuation
might he must have known that he was mouthing mere empty phrases, but the unfortunate
Serbians put their trust in the pledged of a British Minister, with the result

word
that

thousands upon thousands of
cruelly

them have been

done to death.

honest and more noble plan would have been to have admitted that, at the moment,

The more

we could do nothing
they
could

for Serbia or the Serbians,

and to have advised them to make what terms
with
that,

their
at

assuring

them

powerful neighbour, the right time, when

we would, without fail, not the hands of their only deliver them from but amply compensate them for the enemies, we were
ready,
trials

they would, for a space, have to endure. It is said that the gods strike with blindness those whom they are about to destroy and it
if

the gods had held the searing iron rather close to our eyes ; but, notwithstandcertainly looks as

the mistakes and in spite of our politicians and our blundering strategists, and in spite of
ing
all

our neglect of science and
still

scientists,

I

have

absolute confidence, owing to what I have
of

seen

the splendid pluck and endurance of

34

The Evacuation
our men, both in the Fleet and in the Army, that we will come out of this great World War
triumphant. Let it not
losses

be

supposed
failure
fruitless.

that
in

our

terrible

and disastrous

the Dardanelles

have been altogether
there,

By our presence
destroyed
a

we

held

up

and

almost

magnificent Turkish Army and by doing this gave invaluable aid to our Russian ally.

we

Had

it

which we held

been possible for the Turkish Army, fast in Gallipoli, to have taken

part in Enver Pasha's great push in the Caucasus there is no doubt that the Turks would have

crushed the Russians in those regions and have made things look very black indeed for our
ally.

As

it

is,

I

consider

it

is

greatly due to

the Gallipoli campaign that Russia, during her

time of

stress

and shortage of munitions, was

able to hold her

own

in the Caucasus and,
offensive,

when

she was ready,
in

assume the
brilliant

resulting

capture of that great in Asia Minor, Erzeroum. Turkish stronghold The knowledge that this effort of ours has,
her
recent
after
all,

borne some

fruit tends to assuage

our

dear friends grief for the loss of those
305

and good
20

The Evacuation
comrades

who now

lie

buried by those purple

Aegean

shores.

We
heroes

can well imagine that the spirits of those of France and Britain and Greater

Britain

who have

fallen in the fight are eagerly

watching
victory
;

and waiting for the hour of our and when our Fleet sails triumphantly

through the Dardanelles, as it surely must, and thunders forth a salute over the mortal remains
our mighty dead, their shades will be at peace, for they will then know that, after all,
of

they have not died in vain.

306

APPENDIX
I

HAD no

idea

when

should

not see
fit

my
said

was taken to hospital that I thought Zion men again.
I

I
I

should be
I

for

duty

in the course of a

few days, so

never even
I I

However, post, and

am am
and
I

good-bye to them before I left. in touch with them still through the
all

glad to say that there were no deaths
got
safely

after I left

back to Egypt when

that brilliant piece of

took place.
well

the evacuation of Gallipoli to recommend those who did promised
I

work

to the

Russian Authorities, and

was glad

to

forward the following letter and list of names to the Imperial Russian Consul at Alexandria, for transmission to the proper quarter
:

" "

From the Officer Commanding Zion Mule Corps. To the Imperial Russian Consul, Alexandria.
"
Headquarters, Zion Mule Corps, " 14 Rue Sesostris, Alexandria "

December

I4th, 1915.

"
SIR,

of

have the honour to state that with the approval your Government a number of Jewish refugees from
I

"

307

Appendix
Palestine, Russian subjects, were
for

with the British Army. furnished you with a nominal roll of all
service
of

formed into a corps I have already
officers
I

Russian nationality in the Corps.

and men now wish to

bring to your notice, for the favourable consideration of your Government, the names of those soldiers who

did especially well while serving under command in Gallipoli, and I sincerely trust that you may find it possible to have their names brought before the Imperial

my

Russian Minister " The
the

for

War

for favourable consideration.

following have distinguished themselves before
:

enemy

"
Officers

:

"
(1)

Captain

J.

most gallant
(2)

soldier

Trumpledor has proved himself a and has been already decorated
for gallantry at

by H.I.M. The Tsar
" Second
-

Port Arthur.
Gorodisky.

Lieutenant
officers

Alexander

and he was a very brave I was much grieved when he died as the result soldier. He leaves a widowed of the hardships of the campaign. mother who was dependent on him for her maintenance.
This was one of

my best

"
(3)

Second-Lieutenant Zolman Zlotnic, a useful

officer

and a gallant man.
" Non-commissioned "

officers :

(1)
(2)

Sergeant-Ma j or Joseph Yassinsky. " Sergeant Nissel Rosenberg.
"
Corporal

(3)

M.

Groushkovsky.
308

This

Corporal

Appendix
has been awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for gallantry in the field. " (4) Corporal Nehmia Yehoudis. " (5) Corporal Isaac Yorish. " (6) Corporal Frank Abram (killed in action,
leaving a "
I

widow and

five little children).

have only mentioned those who have specially many others did very good service also, and I am glad to be able to attach a copy
distinguished themselves,

of

an

official letter,

enclosed herewith, testifying to the

good work done by these Russian subjects while serving under me in the British Army.
"

names

Trusting for the favour of your transmitting these to the proper quarter. " I remain, Sir, " Your most obedient servant,

"
(Signed)
J.

H. PATTERSON.

"

Lieutenant-Colonel

Commanding Zion Mule Corps."
[COPY.]

" 8th

Army Corps, H.Q.

"

D. Adjt.-General, G.H.Q.

"No. 27412.

"No.

B. 3322.

" October 2nd, 1915. " M. E. F.

"
5 io'i5.

" The A.Q.M.G. 8th Army Corps. " I have had a petition from forty-five N.C.O.'s and men of this corps for permission to go to Alexandria I would very for a couple of weeks on leave. strongly

recommend

that this leave

may

be granted, as these

309

Appendix
N.C.O.'s and

men have been

here (and have worked

well) ever since the original landing in April. " I consider that the men really need this change and

as their families are in Alexandria, I

hope they

will

be

sent there in accordance with their request. " If, as I hope, my men are given leave to proceed to Alexandria, I propose to give one half leave as

soon as granted, and the other half on the return of
the "
first

party.
particularly well,
I

As these men have done
"
J.

trust

that their good service will be recognized.

H. PATTERSON,

"

Lieutenant-Colonel,

Commanding.

" 2 10 "

15.

(Zion Mule Corps.)"

2.

"

Adjutant-General, G.H.Q. "No. B. 332.

" 8th Corps, H.Q. "No. A. 274'i2.

"510,15.
"

"41
"

15-

M. E.
the

F.

G.H.Q. " recommend
I

this

application.

As

G.O.

C.-in-C. is

aware

this

Corps has done excellent work. "

(Signed)

FRANCIS DAVIES,

"

Lieutenant General, " Commanding 8th Corps.

"41015."
310

Appendix
3.

" G.O.C. Stb Corps. This leave is approved, the delay is greatly regretted, but has been unavoidable. The C.-in-C. has approved of a grant of one pound to each of these forty-five men
"

in consideration of the good work of the Corps, Field Cashier is authorized to issue the cash.

and the

"
(Signed)

A. CAVENDISH, "
Colonel,

"

A.A.G., G.H.Q.

"511

15."

4.

" Field Cashier. " Please note, and pass to O.C. Zion Mule Corps, should return this memo to Corps Headquarters. who " HAMILTON
(Signed)
C. D. MOORE, " Lieutenant-Colonel for B.C., D.A. and " Q.M.G. 8th Army Corps.

"71015."

HATIKVOH
Kol owd Hallivor peneemoh Nafesch Yehoodee howmeeoh

kohdeemoh Tzeeown tsowfeeoh. Aynec
Ulefahahsi Mizroch

Owd km

ovdoh Sikvohsinu

Hatikvoh hahnowshohno.

Loshur learetz ahvousinu
Leear bow Dovid chonoh.

Kol owd demohows
Urvovous mibni

Mieyeninu

Yizzlu keghashem nedovous

Amminu
al kivri ovous.

Owd howlcheem Owd

lou ovdoh Sikvohsinu

Hatikvoh hahnowshohno.

Loshur

learetz

ahvousinu

Leear bow Dovid chonoh.

312

HATIKVOH
(THE SONG OF HOPE)
EVA LONSDALE
Arranged by
By kind permission of Mess ? R.MAZIN&O
1

LONDON

f

k

f*

~

zfco

^

*i

Refrain

XW

J

Trio fto

rait

.

^-^

*j

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
Los Angeles
This book
is

DUE on

the last date stamped below.

RPR 19 1989
I OCT02 1988
<H.APR

l9

6 1999

JUN05200Z
mi