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Lighting-Part 1 1.0 Introduction Lighting is an art.

When it is crafted properly it has great influence on the way the people live and work. Lighting is used for different purposes. • • • • • • Comfort (interior lighting) Appeal for the product (display lighting) Influence the mood of the people (entertainment lighting) Sports (flood lighting) Safety and security (area lighting) Productivity (commercial/industrial lighting)

Achievement of the desired purpose would depend on how good the lighting has been engineered. 2.0 Terminology used in Lighting 2.1 Lumen Lumen is the light output emitted by a light source. Different lamps have different luminous output and efficiency. 2.2 Lux Lux is the unit of illumination. Light quantity (lumens) incident on unit area. 2.3 Efficacy The light output from the light source per watt (lumens/watt) 2.4 Utilization factor Ratio of the luminous flux falling on the working plane to the total flux emitted by the light source (lamp). 2.5 Maintenance factor Ratio of the mean illumination on a working plane under normal working condition to the illuminance when it is clean. Maintenance factors for Rooms, offices, or any other commercial interior: 0.8 Industrial environment, indoor area : 0.7 Dusty areas: Plant area, material handling area : 0.6

protect the lamp and control the power supply to the lamp. ignitor). Voltage required for starting is higher than the normal operating voltage of the lamp. light emission takes place. This is basically a inductive coil. 2.2.2 Discharge lamp: The principle of light generation in these lamps is based on the gas discharge than on the heating of a coil like in incandescent lamp. Ballast is used for starting and operating an electric discharge lamp. This consists of a coiled coil of tungsten wire inside a glass bulb filled with inert gas.0 Types of lamps: 3.3 High pressure mercury vapor lamp: When voltage is applied in a discharge lamp.1 Filament lamp: Most commonly used lamp for general lighting service. 3. the ionization of gas occurs emitting light.7 Reflector A device used to redirect the luminous flux from the light source by reflection 2.8 Ballast Ballast is also known as choke. 4.6 Luminaire Luminaire is a unit that houses the lamp. 4. 4.4 High pressure sodium vapor lamp: This is similar to mercury vapor lamp except that sodium is used in place of mercury. It takes about 5 minutes to achieve full output. Function is to distribute light. When a voltage of sufficient magnitude is applied between the two electrodes of a discharge tube. This requires additional component called ignitron for starting the lamp.2 Discharge lamps: • High Pressure Mercury Vapour lamp (HPMV) • Metal Hallide lamp (MH) • High Pressure/Low Pressure Sodium lamp (SON) • Flourescent lamp (FL/CFL) 4.1 Filament lamps • Incandescent Lamp (GLS) 3. the filament gets heated up to a very high temperature emitting light. The ballast does the function of providing higher voltage at starting and then regulating the voltage applied to the lamp. . reflector and control gear (Ballast.0 Internals of Lamps 4. When the current passes through the filament.

5.4.0 Comparison of different lamps Comparison of different types of lamps is shown in the attachment. 4. This requires higher starting voltage and hence the control gear is different. 4.6 Metal Hallide lamp is a halogen discharge lamp in which metals are added for improved colour rendering.7 Flourescent lamp is a low-pressure mercury discharge lamp. .5 Low pressure sodium vapor lamp: This is same as HPSV except that the pressure of the sodium vapor is low in these lamps.

Attachment Comparison of different lamps Lamp Efficacy Light Lumens/Watt Color 120 80 120 54 60 80 Golden yellow Warm white Golden yellow Soft white White White Warm white Warm white Color Control gear Rendering 0 95 23 46 54 54 100 100 LPSV MHL HPSV HPMV FTL CFL Run Restrike Average up Time Life Time In Hours Ballast/igniter 6 10 18000 Ballast 2 4 1 10 10000 15000 5000 5000 7500 2000 1000 Ballast/igniter 1 Ballast Ballast/starter Ballast Voltage converter Nil 3 0.1/0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 HALOGEN 22 GLS 18 .