You are on page 1of 14

Pols 293 Special Topics: The Theory and Practice of Human Rights

Fall 2012 – Tuesdays and Thursdays, 17.00-18.15 Padre Rubio Hall, Room 7 Thurs 1st September – Weds 14th December Instructor: Juan J. García Blesa, PhD ( Office hours: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 18.15-19.15 Loyola Hall, First Floor

Prerequisite (IR majors - Madrid Campus): POLS-160 Introduction to International Politics Introduction: Welcome to the Theory and Practice of Human Rights. In this course, we are going to critically examine what writer Micheline Ishay (2004, p. 2) calls ‘humankind’s noblest aspirations’ – universal human rights. To do so, we will examine: from when and where human rights have emerged; the theory and philosophy that underpins human rights; the full extent of human rights in the present; the documents, treaties, agreements and institutions on which the they are based; and crucially, how (and if) human rights are employed in practice. When looking in detail at all of these areas, we will also be touching on some of the key controversies that surround human rights and their application. This in-depth approach is intended to equip you with a full and detailed understanding of both the theory and practice of universal human rights. Course aims and learning outcomes: The aims of the course are: 1. To provide a broad overview of the development of international human rights politics before and since the signing of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights; 2. To examine the ideas, theories, and practical implications of human rights in a rapidly globalising world; 3. To investigate the politics of human rights through global issues and country-based case studies; 4. To analyse the problems of compliance in international human rights regimes;

Last day to submit transfer application for spring semester Nov..0 2.3 3. Arts & Sciences Grading Scale can be accessed at: http://www. Critically evaluate theories of universal human rights and cultural relativism.3 2. 14th September Last Day to Choose Audit (AU) or Pass/No Pass (P/NP) Options: Wed.7 2. 4 – Last day to choose audit (AU) or pass/no pass (P/NP) options Oct..Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 After completing the course the student should be able to: 1. Students will be graded on the basis of class participation. study skills. 29th October Important Dates Sept. midterm exams and a final paper..0 93%-100% 90%-92% 87%-89% 83%-86% 80%-82% 73%-79% 67%-72% 60%-66% 50%-59% 0-49% Grade Components: Course Credits: 3 25% Mid-Term Exam 25% Paper 30% Final Exam 20% Class Participation Requirements: Students should complete the readings before the date for which they are listed in the course outline. 15 . Last Day to Drop a Class Without a Grade of “W” and/or to Add a Class: Tue.g. prior experience.slu. 2. Analyse the problems involved in asserting universal human rights across political and cultural divides 3.. 7 – Registration for spring semesters open Accommodation Statement In recognition that people learn in a variety of ways and that learning is influenced by multiple factors (e.0 0.7 3. learning disability).0 1.7 1.0 3. 2 – Last day to drop a class and receive a grade of W Nov. resources to support student success are available on campus. Analyse the political development of human rights through comparative study. 4.xml Grade Points: A AB+ B BC+ C CD F 4. 29th September Last Day to Drop a Class and Receive a Grade of “W”: Fri. 17 – Last day to drop a class without a grade of W or to add a class Oct. Students who think they might benefit from these resources can find out more about: 2 .edu/x6352. Evaluate the effectiveness of emerging global human rights regimes.

University-level support (e. they could benefit from academic accommodations are encouraged to contact Disability Services at +34 915 54 58 58. copying from a book or class notes during a closed-book exam. receiving. or providing any unauthorized assistance in the completion of any work submitted toward academic credit is dishonest. Students who believe that. it is the responsibility of any student who observes such dishonest conduct to call it to the attention of a faculty member or Disability Services) by visiting the Academic Dean's Office (San Ignacio Hall) or by going to http://spain. copying a passage or text directly from a published source without appropriately citing or recognizing that source. a faculty member or administrator has the responsibility to apply appropriate Further.g. Recommendations of sanctions to be imposed will be made to the dean of the school or college in which the student is enrolled. due to a disability. Possible sanctions for a violation of academic integrity include. Academic dishonesty violates it. 204.. etc. Examples of academic dishonesty would be copying from another student. Academic Honesty and Plagiarism The University is a community of learning. and colluding with another student or students to engage in an act of academic dishonesty.. ext.slu. tampering with another student’s work. Catholic institution. Investigations of violations will be conducted in accord with standards and procedures of the school or college through which the course or research is offered. taking a test or doing an assignment or other academic work for another student. submitting materials authored by or editorially revised by another person but presented as the student’s own and dismissal from the University. tutoring/writing services. or to visit the Counseling Office (San Ignacio Hall).html. it can be said in general that soliciting.g. but are not limited to. and staff members share the responsibility to maintain this environment. whose effectiveness requires an environment of mutual trust and integrity. Confidentiality will be observed in all inquiries.pdf 3 .slu. students.Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 Course-level support (e. Although not all forms of academic dishonesty can be listed here. faculty member. departmental resources. The complete SLU Academic Honesty Policy can be found at the following link: http://spain. faculty. As members of this community. It not only violates the mutual trust necessary between faculty and students but also undermines the validity of the University’s evaluation of students and takes unfair advantage of fellow students.) by asking your course instructor. Where there is clear indication of such dishonesty. securing or supplying in advance a copy of an examination without the knowledge or consent of the instructor. send an e-mail to counselingcenter-madrid@slu. such as would be expected at a Jesuit. Course instructors support student accommodation requests when an approved letter from Disability Services has been received and when students discuss these accommodations with the instructor after receipt of the approved letter. disciplinary probation. suspension.

All required assignments are to be submitted on time (daily drop of 5% in grade).Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 Classroom Philosophy You are required to attend each class session prepared to participate and think critically during lecture and discussion sessions. Tardiness is at best a rude disruption to your fellow classmates who are punctual. you are expected to attend all class session. 4 . Essays that are handed in late will be marked down by 5% a day. you are reminded that cheating is a deplorable behaviour. which leads to an “F” grade and possible expulsion from the University. I trust you will be able to sustain a mutually respectful classroom atmosphere by treating all classmates as equals. You are expected to read up on issues covered during class in the course book. Lateness and absence (more than 3 times) will be reflected in your final overall course grades (dropping 10% for every three absences). and except for legitimate reasons (doctor’s letter certifying illness for example). With regard to matters pertaining to academic honesty and plagiarism.

32-54/Ishay. 15-27/Freeman. 199-229/Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. pp. 6998 5 .Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2012 – Tuesdays and Thursdays. Lynne Rienner Course Reader – available in the book shop Course Timetable: Tuesday 4 September General Introduction Handing out the course description/syllabus/course reader Thursday 6 September Introduction to Course Reading: Ishay. pp. 117-144 Thursday 20 September The Basis for Humankind’s Noblest Aspirations: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Reading: Freeman. 21-23 Thursday 13 September The Historical Development of Human Rights .Part 2: From the Enlightenment to Industrialisation Reading: Ishay. Room 7 COURSE SCHEDULE Course Books: Callaway. RL and Harrelson-Stephens. J (2007).Part 3: From Industrialisation to 1945 Reading: Ishay. pp. pp. Colorado. Exploring International Human Rights: Essential Readings. 63-83 Tuesday 18 September The Historical Development of Human Rights . pp. 1-13 PART I – THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS Tuesday 11 September The Historical Development of Human Rights . 17:00-18:15 Padre Rubio Hall. pp. 1-14/ Freeman. pp. 14-31/Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. pp. pp. pp.Part 1: From the Ancient Period to the Enlightenment Reading: Ishay.

Part 1: First and Second Generation Rights Reading: Freeman pp. 101-130/ Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. 42-48/Supplementary reading Tuesday 9 October Universal for Whom? . pp. 55-75/ Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. pp. 112-121 Thursday 18 October Cultural Relativism 2: Islam and Human Rights Reading: Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. pp. pp. pp. 101-130/ Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. pp. 1-20 PART II – CONTROVERSIES/KEY CHALLENGES Thursday 27 September What are ‘Rights’? Are Rights Achievable? Part 1 Reading: Freeman. 55-75/ Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. 1-20 Tuesday 2 September What are ‘Rights’? Are Rights Achievable? Part 2 Reading: Freeman. pp. 1-20 Thursday 4 October Universal for Whom? .Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 Tuesday 25 September The Basis for Humankind’s Noblest Aspirations: the Two Covenants and the 6 Core Treaties Reading: Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. 109-112 6 . 109-112 Thursday 11 October Mid-term exam (grades are due to be entered into SLU database on 22nd of October) Tuesday 16 October Cultural Relativism 1: Asian Values and Human Rights Reading: Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. pp. pp. pp. 132-140 Thursday 25 October Cultural Relativism Conclusion: Are Universal Human Rights Universal? Reading: Reading: Freeman. 122-131 Tuesday 23 October Cultural Relativism 3: Africanist Perspectives and Human Rights Reading: Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. pp. pp.Part 2 – The Problem of Cultural Relativism and Human Rights/Mid-term exam revision Reading: Freeman.

pp. pp. 235-254 Thursday 1 November Public Holiday (University Closed) Tuesday 6 November Globalisation and Human Rights 2 Reading: Freeman.Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 PART III – HUMAN RIGHTS IN PRACTICE Tuesday 30 October Globalisation and Human Rights 1 Reading: Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. Rule of Law and Human Rights – FINAL PAPER DEADLINE *** Reading: Handout Thursday 6 December Public Holiday (University Closed) 7 . 265-270 Thursday 15 November Human Rights and the War on Terror 1 Reading: Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. 271-9 Tuesday 20 November Human Rights and the War on Terror 2 Reading: Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. 148-168 Thursday 8 November Human Rights and World Poverty 1 Reading: Handout Tuesday 13 November Human Rights and World Poverty 2 – PAPER PROPOSAL DEADLINE*** Reading: Callaway and Harrelson-Stephens. pp. pp. 282-295 Thursday 22 November Amnesty International and Human Rights Reading: Handout Tuesday 27 November Amnesty International and Human Rights Documentary film Thursday 29 November Rights and Humanity and the ‘Human Rights Approach’ Reading: Handout Tuesday 4 December Democracy. pp.

Human Rights and Structural Adjustments. Oxford University Press Alston. Justice Beyond Borders: A Global Political Theory. Colorado. Goldsworthy. RL and Harrelson-Stephens. T. Intervention and the Use of Force. S (2001) Human Rights and Global Diversity. P & Macdonald. Oxford University Press Chomsky. Protecting Human Rights: Instruments and Institutions. MR & Cingranelli. Goodman. J (2007). D (2007). Cambridge. R and Steiner. OUP Ashby-Wilson.1: The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism. J and Stone. R (2005). E (1979). Lynne Rienner Course Reader ADDITIONAL READING LIST Abouharb. Human rights. Oxford. Cambridge University Press Alston. P. N & Herman.Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 Tuesday 11 December Human Rights and the Global Citizen Reading: Handout Thursday 13 December Humankind’s Most Noble Aspirations? Concluding Comments ***Wednesday 18 December –*** Final Exam Session – Returning graded papers COURSE READING: Course Books: Callaway. The Political Economy of Human Rights Vol. Exploring International Human Rights: Essential Readings. Oxford. Cambridge. A (2003). Oxford. Spokesman 8 . Oxford. E (2008). Oxford University Press Caney. Human Rights in Context: Law. H (2007). Cambridge University Press Campbell. Cass Caney S (2006). Morals. Politics. Human Rights in the War on Terror.

M and Marrow. E (1979). Cambridge University Press Addis. Guantanamo: America’s War on Human Rights. Your Rights: The liberty guide to Human Rights. London. M (2002) Human Rights: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Oxford University Press Fleiner. MR (2007). Human Rights and Structural Adjustment. Ishay. University of California Press. MR (2007). Pluto Press Ackerly. London. Polity Hunt. New York. Speeches and Documents From the Ancient Time to the Present. N & Herman. D (2004). New York. Civil Liberties and Human Rights in England and Wales. What are Human Rights? Blackstone Freeman. The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalisation Era. Spokesman Fenwick. CUP Addo. Routledge Jones. B (1979). H (2002). Inventing Human Rights: A History. Abouhard. Cambridge. Blackwell Rose. London. P (1994) Rights. The Political Economy of Human Rights Vol. 2: After the Cataclysm: Postwar Indochina and the Reconstruction of Imperial Ideology . b (2008). and US Foreign Policy. L (2008). Meridan Pogge. California. Ashgate 9 . T (2008). A (2005). The Human Rights Reader: Major Political Essays.Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 Chomsky. London. Oxford. Unilateralism. Faber and Faber Rosenbaum. Cambridge. Oxford. W & Rubin. T (1999). P (eds) (2005). Human Rights. Palgrave Lacquer. World Poverty and Human Rights: Cosmopolitanism Responsibilities and Reforms. Aldershot. International Law of Human Rights. Universal Human Rights in a World of Difference. London. Routledge EXTENSIVE HUMAN RIGHTS READING LIST (The following titles may not be in the library at SLU Madrid but are listed here for those students who want to take their human rights reading further). The Human Rights Reader. Cambridge. Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights. Aldwych Weiss. Norton Ishay. London. The Philosophy of Human Rights: International Perspectives. AS (1980). MR (2008). TG (2004). MK (2006). Routledge Woodiwiss.

The EU and Human Rights. D (2008). 2. pp. Cambridge Brems. Oxford. London. P (1995). and the Democracy. A (2006). Oxford University Press Alston. Human Rights Quarterly. Chicago University Press Aliston.Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 Agamben. Promoting Human Rights Through Bills of Rights: Comparative Perspectives. ‘Universal Human Rights: A Critique’. 10 . 363-379 Ci. J (2005). A (2005). Oxford University Press Alston. E (2001). The International Human Rights Journal. Oxford. Peoples Rights. Vol. P (2000). Oxford University Press. 101-121 Brems. pp. Human Rights: Universality and Diversity. University of Pennsylvania Press Clapham. the Rights of Women. Oxford. Human Rights in Context: Law. International Political Science Review. Human Rights: A Very Short Introduction. OUP Baxi. G (2005). 243-265 Claude. No. Issue 4. 1 (2). The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal. Oxford. Goodman.’ Iran and the Caucasus. Chicago. A (2007). P. Routledge Cardenas. Politics. London. ‘Taking the Reasons for Human Rights Seriously’. 325 – 340 Borbor. Clarendon Press Alston. 10. 26. The International Journal of Human Rights. Political Theory. 33. Vol. P (1992). Oxford. pp. No. 1. pp. Education and the State’. Vol. The Idea of Human Rights. C (1997). ‘Constructing Rights? Human Rights. Vol. OUP Beitz. 41-65 Brysk. P (1999). pp. Human Rights in the World Community: Issues and Action. Morals. OUP Boggio. BH (2006). pp. R and Steiner. E (2005) ‘Conflicting Human Rights: An Exploration in the Context of the Right to a Fair Trial in the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms’. RP and Weston. ‘Iran’s Contribution to Human Rights. ‘The Global Enforcement of Human Rights: The Unintended Consequences of Transnational Litigation’. H (2007). State of Exception. Oxford. U (2002). 27. Human Rights and Private Wrongs: Constructing Global Civil Society. Oxford University Press Alston. Vol. 12. 294-326 Brown. C (2009). The Future of Human Rights. S (2005). Pennsylvania.

Martinus Nijhoff Cruft. ‘Critical Studies – Two Approaches to Human Rights’. 3. P (1988) Human Rights. ‘Human Rights’. S (2009). Leiden. Oxford. Rights from Wrongs: A Secular Theory of the Origins of Rights. J (1999). Oxford University Press Cohen. (2nd edn). Oxford University Press Clayton. 12. B (2001). M (1973). ‘Violence for Human Rights’. R (2004).Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 Clayton. vol. T and Wheeler. Universal Rights in Theory and Practice. T (2005). pp. New York Donnelly. 1058-1059 Cranston. R (2007). H (2003). 142-154 Cruft. pp. J (1982). The Journal of Religious Ethics. ‘Toward the Rights of the Poor: Human Rights in Liberation Theology’. Oxford. Cambridge. Basic Books. Foreign Policy. 18-28 11 . Crime of The Powerful: A Reader Colvin. A (2004). Human Rights and Policing. Cornell University Press Dunne. D. 46-71 Engler. ‘Human Rights and Crimes of The State’. The American Political Science Review. ‘Are Property Rights Ever Basic Human Rights?’. Oxford University Press Contessi. The Law of Human Rights: Volume 1. London. 28. J (2009). pp. 176-182 Davies. London. Routledge Davies. in Whyte. Willan Publishing Deshowitz. ‘The Liberal Project and Human Rights: The Theory and Practice of a New World Order’. pp. Routledge Falk. J (2003). 42 (4). Human Rights and Civil Liberties. R (2010). T (2009). 5 (2). Human Rights and the Investigation of and Prosecution of Crime. Portland. Canadian Journal of Political Science. R (2010). M (2000). What Are Human Rights?. London Crawshaw. iss. Human Rights in Global Politics. 60 (238). 141. pp. ‘Human rights and Human Dignity: An Analytical Critique of NonWestern Conceptions of Human Rights’. Cambridge University Press Duner. N (2009). The Philosophical Quarterly. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations. pp. M and Cooper. pp. T (2009). 339-365 Evans. New York. International Journal of Human Rights. 76 (2). USA. The Law of Human Rights: Volume 1. 303-316 Donelly. No. The Politics of Human Rights: A Global Perspective.

pp. ‘Accommodating Children’s Rights in a Post-Human Era’. I (2009). Human Rights: Social Justice in the Age of the Market. pp. Vol. TM (2001). D and Rowe. Human Rights Review. ‘Are Human Rights Universal?’. 308-326 Landman. ‘The Europeanization of the World: On the Origins of Human Rights and Democracy’. 26 (4) pp. Modern Law Review. 1. 8 (4). A (2009).A. 15 (4). Longman Kalny. D (2006). 29 (4). European Law Journal. J (2006). 40 (4).S. Fortin. Critique of Anthropology. or Institutional Justice?’. Foreign Affairs. New York. H and Phillipson. S (2008). pp. Oxford. pp. G (2006). 371-395 Kicza. 80. A (2009). MA (2001). pp. 301-322 Greer. pp. Human Rights and Civil Liberties. Practice and Policy’. International Human Rights: A Comprehensive Introduction. ‘Are Human Rights Liberal?’. ‘ Measuring Human rights: Principle. pp. ‘The Legitimacy of International Human Rights Reviews: The Case of the European Court of Human Rights’. OUP Feyter. Journal of Human Rights. Routledge Hoffman. New York. 3 Frank. 191204 Glendon.Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 Fenwick. Haas. U. London. s and Williams. E (2009). Constitutional. JE (2008). A (2009). A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights. Cambridge University Press Foster. 462481. vol. Longman. 958-959 Kolstad. ‘Human Rights and Assigned Duties: Implications for Corporations’. M (2008). ‘Human Rights in the Council of Europe: Towards Individual. 69. No. Media Freedom under the Human Rights Act. Random House Trade Paperbacks Gourevitch. UK. 906-931 12 . Renaissance Quarterly. Human Rights in International Relations. KD (2005). Human Rights Quartely. Human Rights in the UK: An Introduction to the Human Rights Act 1998. London. 10 (4). iss. 61 (3). J (2009). T (2004). Journal of Social Philosophy. 459-307 Forsythe. Zed Books Follesdal. ‘Against Superciliousness: Revisiting the Debate 60 Years After the Adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights’.

and Intent. Soundings. 1 Orend. Heritages. Oxford University Press McCorquodale. pp. pp. American Journal of International Law. The European Journal of International Law. 1067-1084 Neumayer. 38 (4). London Review of Education. Natural Rights. ‘Make sure you say that you were treated properly’. and Human Remains’. 925-953 Nickel. ‘The International Significance of Human Rights’. E (2005). pp. ‘Between Citizenship and Human Rights’. Pogge. and Europe's Imperial Legacy’. New York. Administrative Law. University of Pennsylvania Press Nash. Human Rights Quarterly. 45-69 13 . pp.Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 Landman. Making Sense of Human Rights. vol. ‘On a Hierarchy of International Human Rights’. T (1986). ‘Do International Human Rights Treaties Improve Respect for Human Rights?’. No. No. 365-385 Meron. G (2009). 31. L (2009). 4 (1). ‘What Rights? Whose Responsibilities?’. T (2006). JW (2007). Political Psychology. I (2009). ‘Talking of Human Rights: Histories. Broadview Press Ltd Osler. and Human Rights: A Critical Introduction. K (2009). 77-88 Pierce. Drafting. pp. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins. 26. 6. A (2008). pp. Political Quarterly. 79. pp. B (2002). Oxon. Oxford. ‘Equality and Human Rights Foundations of a Common Culture’. Vol. Vol. Routledge Loveland. No 3. 6. S and Matthews. M (2005). pp. 308-326 Morsink. Vol. ‘Human Dignity and Judicial Interpretation of Human Rights’. pp. A (2003). ‘Globalisation and Human Rights’. The Journal of Conflict Resolution. R and Fairbrother. 21 (3). 19 (4). T (2000). 655-724 McFarland. 2. Vol. N (2008). J (1999). Constitutional Law. The Journal of Ethics. 1. Political Theory. 43 (6). ‘Citizenship and Education: Re-imagining a Cosmopolitan Nation’. J (2009). no. London Review of Books. (9). Sociology. R (1999). O’Brien. Reviews in Anthropology. 43. 31. pp. 171-199 Petley. Studying Human Rights. 735-66 McCrudden (2008). 80 Meskell. Oxford. iss. Human Rights: Concept and Context. vol. ‘Human Rights. Blackwell Publishing. 11-15 Pagden. 49. ‘Who cares about Human Rights?’. Pennsylvania.

C (2004). D (2009). Oxford University Press Twiss. G (2008). P (2005).’ The British Journal Of Religious Education. Journal of Human Rights. A (2002). 44-47 Stone. No. M (2007). S (2003). ‘Education. Schorlemer. ‘Representing “the enemy”’: human rights and the war on terror’. Theory. 19 (1-2).’. ‘In the Full Glare of English Politics: Ireland. S and Hurley.Pols 293 The Theory and Practice of Human Rights Fall 2010 Relano. 1. 45. pp. B & Scraton. British Journal of Criminology. Culture. vol 32. inquiries and the British State. 14 (2). ‘Human Rights as Moral Rebellion and Social Construction’. Oxford. and Freedom Of Religion: Recent Decisions Of The European Court Of Human Rights. no. and Globalization’. On Human Rights. SB (2004). London. 32. (1). The European Journal of International Law. pp. Journal of Mental Health. International Journal of Human Rights. 19-29 Richardson. 58. ‘History. ‘The Human Rights of the Vulnerable’. 591-614 14 . 265-282 Shute. Blackstones Guide to the Human Rights Act 1998. 245-254 Rolston. pp. pp. and Society. ‘Human Rights: Substantive and Institutional Implications of the War Againts Terror’. Vol. Text book on Civil Liberties and Human Rights. Criminal Justice Matters. ‘Human Rights and the Challenge of Cosmopolitanism’. pp. Human Rights. 547-564. 17. Vol. 6 (3) pp. R (2008). 1. Basic Books Smith. E (2010). 13 (4). 139-155 Xenos. ‘Coercion and Human Rights: A European Perspective’. p. OUP Winston. pp. Pluralism. S (1994). 39-70 Wadham. J (2009). pp. Oxford. The Journal of Religious Ethics. 279-305 Woodiwis.