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FIFTY YEARS OF

CHINESE PHILOSOPHY

O. BR.IERJE,

S.J.

Fifty Years of

Chinese Philosophy
1898

1950

TRAJSTSLAXEr> FROJM

THE FRENCH

BY LAXJRENCE
PREFACE BY

G.

THOMPSON
KCXJOHES

E. R.

Z-OATJDOAT

GJEOB^GJB

ALLEN &

UTNT^^IN LTD.
SXRBBX

RUSKIN HOUSE,

J^USEXJAl

criticism or review* as permitted under the Copyright be reproduced by any process with.Act 10.11. Enquiry should be publisher.. Shanghai HST GREAT BY in 12 point &embo type JAItROI.I> ANI> SONS . Jair dealing Jbr the purposes of private studyr may made to the Translated Jrom the original French Published by The Aurora. research. no portion is copyright under the JBeme Convention.FTRSX PUBLISHED IN I>5<5 This booh from any out written permission.

list. P'u Manchu When to Briere's philosophical bibliography.PREFACE I left England for China court. there existed a profound sense of what in terms of ethics was an act of humility. Another thing that comes home to me. In 1922 I made Peking and there met some of the new intellectual leaders. there were those older scholars who recognized the needs of the times. For one thing. about and century. is as I recall the authors in the which the more specialized philosophers among them way reveal the scholar tradition of China. Not that they have waited till they were old before publishing. but never doubted but what the Great would hold its own. she was still under the rule WHEN covered by first visit Yi had published his abdication: the Revolution had come. after the turn affair. That whole movement in China. attracted. their Chinese scholar forebears had busied themselves mainly with intellectual tithe and cummin. Men imbued with the pride of scholarship confessed foster to each other that whereas post-Renaissance 'Europe had set itself to new powers of the mind. in 191 I 1. But the strain of perfectionism comes out very clearly in the the in . is of the a dis- too often regarded as a pretty straightforward carding of outworn shibboleths for an obviously more real and vital set of values discovered in Europe and America. they were none the less convinced that antiquity had new treasures to disclose under the pressure of sterner Tradition like Professor critical methods. Alongside of the acclaiming of the new. So also in the radical wing there were men Ch'ien of the Nbrmal College who changed his name to 'Doubt Antiquity'. M. which of English metaphor means 'the swing of the pendulum bringing a return of light'. Thus the years of my acquaintance with China correspond pretty much with the time span of the arrived. my year of the Republic came to be known as Kwang Fu. Some of them have emulated the immortal Wang Pi of the third century by writing notable works in their early twenties. Fiercely iconoclastic as some of them were about many of the hoary old beliefs. and stimulated even by the new studies. I have always thought that there was a great deal more The first in terms behind that idea than is to be found in the conventional Western belief that about that time Chinese scholars not only woke up to the values in Western science and these institutions but also abandoned their old gods for all new ones. Pere Bribe's list reveals that there was much more to it than that. were interested.

Laurence Thompson and his publishers have done a very praiseworthy act in giving Pere Briere's diligent cataloguing and appraising the wider public of the English-speaking world. this spirit will fare E. HUGHES . If the authorities decide that it is not unto the edification of the nation as a whole. R. Dr. Not only sinologists and librarians will profit from this: anyone who takes the history of ideas seriously will find here much food for thought.wonaers under the new political regime. it surely will be very hard to eradicate.

561-650. the translator has performed the following of some typographical errors in the text. there are undeniable advantages having materials in one's own language. leaving long ages completely blank DESPITE available to the non-Orientalist. made it likely that it would become 'buried' for places article all practical purposes. but to a wider circle of students of intellectual history in general. the contents would be of interest not merely to sinologists. The following reasons have motivated translation of this article and publication in book form: first. nor has any previous literature. and one which is obtainable in very few outside of China. there interest in the still is a dearth Occident concerning Chinese of materials on that subject in Western languages. in the Bulletin de fUniversite fAurore (Shanghai). no. the fact that the to appeared in a journal. The exposition brings out clearly the details of the intellectual fermfent and spiritual strife which have underlain social and in political events contemporary China. Besides the actual translation. third. and vague enough to the student who reads odd. It is knowing of the at the currents and cross-currents of thought history. supplying functions: correction . It was originally published in French. as The wide range of study covered the period with anything like the thoroughness of this one. which surveys the philosophical history of China during the first half of the present century. which have been bottom of that Hence the importance of the present work. but true. Octobre 1949. tome 10. second. Among the materials we do a disproportionate amount deals only with the period of antiquity. under the tide: 'Les courants philosophiques en Chine depuis 50 ans (^898-1950)'. pp. that one of the periods on which there is the least material available is our own.TRANSLATOR'S FOREWORD an increasing philosophy. There are wide gaps in our acquaintance with the whole story. possess. will be apparent upon examining this work. the 'formative period' of Chinese thought. In no other study has there appeared such a comprehensive bibliography as the author presents here. 40. even though most students might be presumed to be able to read the original. serie m. Father Bri&re's reading in Chinese philosophical well as his keenness and objectivity. And yet it is impossible even to understand the contemporary social and political history of China without Chinese.

Hong Kong HUANG College FAN Ch'i professor. Legislative Yuan member. since the author was not consistent in his translations. It was felt that this index would be sufficient for the convenience of the reader. This index also has a section in which are listed all non-Chinese persons mentioned in this work. to which the reader should turn for Chinese characters and dates (wherever it was possible to provide them) of all Chinese mentioned in the text or bibliography. and the reader would An index has therefore have been confused in identification of certain writings. the translator has assumed responsibility for translation of all titles from the Chinese. Training Committee. Provincial Taiwan Teachers College FAN Shou-k'ang professor. While adherence to the author's text has been as close as possible. Kuomintang Headprofessor. Taipei The following persons have had some share in the carrying out of the present project. Provincial Chung-ta LO T' Chia-lun Vice-President. Hsin Ya Academy. National Taiwan University Chien-chung professor. It will be of interest to note that. the following philosophical writers discussed by Father Briere have left the mainland of China rather than remain under the Communist regime. Provincial Taiwan Teachers HU Ch'iu-yiian JEN LIN Chiieh-wu quarters member. as of the date Foreword.of some explanatory footnotes. and appending of a supplementary of writings in Western languages which also deal with the bibliography subject or with certain aspects of it. and to them the translator wishes to express his sincere thanks: . Hong Kong Taiwan Teachers College WU Chih-hui professor. been provided. and are I now either in Formosa or Hong Kong: A Wei now a member of the Examination Yuan CH'EN K'ang professor at National Taiwan University CH'EN Ta-ch'i professor at National Taiwan University CH'IEN Mu President. In particular. Hsin Taiwan Teachers College Yuan ANG Chiin-i Shao-lun WANG Ya Academy. Pai Mi Erh Bookstore. Provincial in retirement in Formosa YEH Ch'ing- publisher. Examination professor. as the work is sufficiently divided into sections that it is easy to find of writing of this a desired topic by reference to the table of contents. a few liberties have been taken for the sake of a smoother style or clearer presentation. National Taiwan University FANG Tung-mei professor.

Hughes. Richard A. tion Service of the American Embassy. who originally called attention to the desirability of translating this article. S. Dr. formerly with P. Professor of Chinese in the University of Pennsylvania. For the assistance acknowledged above. Dr. while he of course must assume sole responsibility for the translation in its final form. THOMPSON . of the staff of the United Taipei.J. Dehergne. Prof. California.. Ernest R. Formosa December. Brier e. of Bulletin de V Universite rAurore. who went over the manuscript carefully. Derk Bodde. formerly S. late Reader in Chinese Philosophy and Religion in Oxford University. 1952 G. 9 managing translation editor J. Miss Irene Tsou j jj i~3=* . and made many constructive suggestions. who added his recommendation..J. and lone Perkins Oriental Bookstore of South Pasadena. who States Informakindly typed the manuscript. D. the translator is indebted. and and republication in the present form.TRANSLATOR'S FOREWORD Fathers O. and made a number of corrections in the manuscript. LAURENCE Taipei. for kindly permitting the author. Gard.

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Shu-ming 27 ^The controversy philosophy of life 29 31 The aestheticism ofTs'ai Yiian-p'ei of the materialist dialectic First applications 32 The long controversy between Marxists and anti-Marxists The quarrel between Marxists and scientists The philosophy of the Kuomintang The Chinese Philosophical Society Neo-Buddhist philosophy 34 .CONTENTS PREFACE page 5 7 13 TRANSLATOR'S FOREWORD The neo-Confucianism ofChu Hsi and Wang Yang-ming The precursors of modern thought 14 PART ONE: THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM 1898 TO 1950 Darwinian and Spencerian evolutionism 19 The anarchism ofKropotkin The voluntarism of Nietzsche Th&fast interpreter 20 21 of Marxism: Ch'en Tu-hsiu 22 Hmflih The and the pragmatism ofDewey 24 26 The neo-realism of Russell defender of Confucianism: Liang 'science v.34 36 37 39 PART TWO: THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION The apostle of modernized Buddhism: T*ai Hsu 45 A neo-Buddhist eclectic: Hsiung Positivistic Idealistic Shih-li 48 <ra neo-Confucianism: Fung Yu-lan neo-Confutianism: Ho Lin 153 The philosophy of tridemism: Sun Yat-sen. Chiang K'ai-shek The 'metaphysics oftridemism: the vitalism ofCtien Li-fu IX 57 60 .

Ai Ssu-ch'i The scientific materialist: Yeh Ch'ing The specialists in logic: Chin Yiieh-lin The philosophy of life of scientific determinism Semi-Oriental. interpreter of the Vienna (Moritz Schlick and R. Platonic.12 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY PART THREE: THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION Chang Tung-sun. semi-Occidental rationalistic ethics 85 88 90 93 The moralists and the surrounding pessimism Tendencies in psychology 94 95 school Chu Kuang-ch' ien and aestheticism Hung Ch'ien. Carnap) 99 104 CONCLUSION APPENDIX: Principal "Bibliography Works of Representative Bibliography of Authors and the Last Fifty Years (1900-1950) 109 144 149 of Writings in Western Languages on Ca/i/et~ Chinese Thought (appended by the translator) porary Index of Chinese persons Index of non-Chinese persons 157 . P age 66 72 75 8 1 Various idealisms: Hegelian. the neo-Kantian socialist etc. The Marxists: Li Ta.

those of Chu Hsi and Wang Yang-ming. While Chu Hsi placed the accent on 13 . arose during the Sung dynasty. by piJKiing the 'emptiness' of all things and the escape from this worlo^nad eventually the same result. something which would do great harm to our literature/ 1 Happily the authority leader of Chu Hsi was often breached by that of Wang Yang-ming. set itself up as the enemy of all progress. the reaction of Confucianism against Taoism and Buddhism. thinkers who were at the head of this intellectual re- two names are outstanding. of the idealist school.Fifty Years of Chinese Philosophy THE of history of Chinese thought during the last centuries was almost entirely dominated by neo-Confucianism. provoked a reaction in favour of Confucianism. The neo-Conjudanism ofChu Hsi and Wang Yang-ming Among the naissance. in the eleventh century. 1894. eminently anti-social and unsuitable to the governing State. Buddhism. This school philosophy. On July 17. true that his essentially rationalizing Until the last days of the Empire his as the ijiemory was officially honoured equal of the Great Sages of of Emperor Kuang Hsu proscribed under the most severe penalties the sale of a book attacking the doctrines of Chu Hsi: 'It is never permitted for anyone primitive antiquity. The philosophies of these two of a systems. an essentially positive system of politics and morals. interpreter it is of Confucian thought as adapted to new not less influence led to positivism. If Chu Hsi be regarded as the most orthodox circumstances. by its worship of pure 'nature* and its contempt of civilization. and by its theory of laissez-faire (which not long since inspired Tolstoy). Taoism. a decree to introduce opinions contrary to those of Chu Hsi. These men represented two very different currents of thought within neo-Confucianism.

appears to have played China/ 2 The modern thought precursors of of the nineteenth century. Thus one is right in saying that 'the intuitive Con- fucianism of Wang Yang-ming. The author describes the conditions of this fraternity. became in a sense a conservative* He became . Wang Yang-ming was devoted to the study of the human heart. In Japan the doctrines of Chinese philoand had a more profound effect on sophy were still more durable the intellectual world. he wished to make Confucianism a national prosperity in order to overthrow the religion and to attempt a coup d'ttat absolute monarchy of the Empress Dowager. on the 'exterior sense norm'. capitalism. which prepared the awakening of the same role in the awakening of Japan. the aegis ofsocialism and internationalism. for example. K'ang Yu-wei. the great statesman at the end of the In the second half Ch'ing period. perhaps by reaction against the influence of Occidental' materialism. In the domain of ideas he is revealed by his K'ang escaped Book of the Universal Concord** There he asserts that Confucius has a constitutional monarchy 3 (i8p8). he lived in exile and. divided the course of history into three periods. individualism. the major Chinese scholars were profoundly under the influence of the ideas of Wang Yang-ming. was a convinced Confuciamsk Believing that the of the Occidental nations came from their political system and their religion. In the second stage the nations unite under nationalism. At the end of the nineteenth century and in the twentieth century Wang Yang-ming had a renewal of favour in China. which gave the primacy to the life of the mind.'things'. curiously enough. In the third stage humanity great harmony. he even went so far as to advocate ! 'community of women* (Spouses communes") After the failure of his attempt in 1898. Thus. the stage of disorder. in favour of The project fell through. and the stage of universal peace or first stage reign egoism. Tz'u Hsi. His moral teaching. of the 'interior sense' of the mind. exercised a great influence in China. and into exile. Utopian conditions so audacious and so revolutionary that they were scandalous at the time. the stage of progressive peace. In the will be united in a single civilization. This will be perfect peace. especially in the century which followed his death.

the way of honour. T'an Ssu-t'ung. had a universal penetration like that of ether. or spirit. In 1896 he published his Theory also ( One of his most brilliant fjen adapted to 1. the perfect unity of the world will be assured. of classes. as is witnessed by the memoirs of Hu Shih. Having he denounced both the obstinacy of an mind. This attempt to synthesize Confucianism with modern science was short-lived. in consequence of the abortive coup d'etat in which he participated. He concluded by saying that. a liberalism hostile to all despotism. the two was slogans born with the Republic of 1911. he expounded all spirit of the of enterprise.FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 15 more and more a fervent admirer of Confucius and an obstinate partisan of constitutional monarchy which is why he was one of the champions of the opposition to 'science' and 'democracy'. if . for its author while still young was executed in 1898. electricity. a fervent Confucianist. of courage. his ideas aimed at a Confucianist-Buddhist syncretism. he was seeking the political reform and wanted to transform Empire into a constitutional monarchy. unreasonable conservatism and the abuses of an uncurbed radicalism. His influence was more lasting than that of the first two. and of sexes will be abolished. he never ceased to emphasize the moral point of view.r|? )> wherein he worked out the Confucianist ideal modern requirements. hence he advocated unceasingly the necessity of religious ideals. Another disciple of K'ang Yu-wei who held an eminent place in the intellectual and political world was Liang Ch'i-ch'ao. In the name of this ideal he preached evolutionism. kindness. Then all the distinctions and inequalities of nations. goodness.< Not a systematic thinker. He had thereby a very profound hold on youth. When this virtue ofjen shall be realized on earth. and of the worship of science. a well-balanced the benefits of a religious belief. In a long essay which has been frequently cited. but above all he crusaded with his pen to instil in Chinese minds the new ideas from the Occident adapted to his Confucianist convictions. So it is necessary to put this moral philosophy into practice for the welfare of the universe. Despite his reforming ambitions and his clear patriotism. disciples and colleagues. For himjen. that is to say humanity. He groaned to see the onrushing wave of positivist materialism. Like K'ang Yu-wei. the central virtue of Confucian morals.

Perhaps Chang T'ai-yen took stock of himself later. He died poor and venerated at Nanking. it is fitting to add the names of Tseng Kuo-fan. Chang T'ai-yen. he exhorted aspiring officials to heroism. of sufferings for humanity.16 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Japan has produced men of courage. This attitude. there is the last representatives of official Confucianism. he derived abstract system as a philosophy of life* For him the Imbued with progress of civilization was the portent of a recrudescence of evil. and so he had nothing but contempt for the scientific culture of the Occident* civilization Complete renunciation of seemed to him the only means of obtaining universal emancipation. began by adopting the sceptical Chang and disabused civilization. more statesman than philosopher. On the whole. embodied better than the preceding the type antiquity: an official of the great class of the perfect politician of upon. In consequence politics he was as much opposed to Confucianian traditionalism as to from them an Occidental ideas. abstinence and sacrifice. charging them to prepare themselves for service to the State by self-abnegation. his work is a harmonization of Taoism with Confucianism: he tried to correct at the life end of his the merits of . he became conscious of the urgency of reforms in when his services were called when he was in retirement. for he turned to Confucianism. Tseng Kuo-fan. led straight to anarchy. Thus. which were models of style. he was a persevering friend of moderate solutions. so eminently Taoistic. are inspired by noble sentiments. T'ai-yen. and even extolled Wang Yang-ming. and Ku Hung-ming. Adopting the theories of transformism. contrary to the preceding who were trained in the school of Wang Yang-ming. who were Without religion. His writings. A middle-of-the-way Confucianist. heroes who have brought about the greatness of their country. * no strength of soul!' To these three leaders who were a new realization of the classical ideal of the 'philosopher-statesman'. to Chang preached the naturalist of laissez-faire. and a literatus of high culture Saviour of the dying dynasty of the Manchus against the T'ai-p'ing rebels (1865). the classic theory of Taoism. it is thanks to the philosophy of Wang Yang-ming and to the Buddhist mysticism of the Zen sect. attitude of the Taoist Chuang Tzu with regard liberalism. order to safeguard the existence of the nation. when he was viceroy of Hopei.

They reckoned that Confucianism had still its word to say in modern times. of the spirit. We turn the page. Time. knew that it was necessary to borrow from the of organization. known abroad due to his books written in English. however. It is not without a little melancholy that one re-reads their writings. even though he tried to harmonize the two civilizations. as that But his was never as profound of K'ang Yu-wei or Liang Ch'i-ch'ao. the latter was to end by causing an eruption in the world of ideas and provoking a real intellectual revolution. he remained very much persuaded of the spiritual superiority of Confucianism and was scornful of Occidental materialism. All knew that it was necessary to change something in the governmental machine. marches on. a real influence on their times. but remained faithful to the Empire: all Ku Hung-ming. The twentieth century multiplied contacts with the foreigner. Such were the leaders of Chinese thought at the end of the although more widely nineteenth century. and were convinced that the welfare of humanity depended upon putting this morality into practice throughout the world. is his criticism of Occidental civilization one loves to know the opinion of a Chinese on the Occident! As a matter of fact.FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY the defects of the one influence IJ by the excellences of the other. Apart from certain excesses of language in the youthful writings of one or the other. Let us try. Despite the brake which these men attempted to put on Occidentalism. whatever and material greatness. is in reality less celebrated in his own country than the preceding: he is not even mentioned in the histories of the modern philosophical movement in China. to penetrate into the chaos of theories and systems which were clashing together in the course of the first half of the twentieth century. and to appreciate . then. to complement the one by the other. Occident its scientific spirit. its spirit made for their principal inspiration. in different degrees. but all wanted to conserve strength at all costs the Confucian morality which had in the past brought about the strength and greatness of China. one generally finds from their pens nothing other than eulogy of the moral virtues. those who were. mainly after the tradition of Wang Yang-ming. What has made him read abroad. for they still believed in the primacy of the ideal.

The real coup d'ltat was that of the Empress Dowager. It was Yu-wei in later years. and stepped in to remove the Emperor from power. Stanislas le Gall. 15. i. The author was from the outset very reluctant to allow publication of this extremely radical work. constituting about one-third of the whole. 2. p. Parts I and II. note: It (vol. who acceded to the urgings of the conservative party. jjsg >^ 3Eg was written in 1884-5. clarify this 3. while emphasizing the principal controversies which have brought to grips the great thinkers of the period. p. and was probably comexpanded by K'ang Tr.of La Chine Moderne. In the two latter parts we shall devote ourselves to the study of the schools of thought and of their leaders. and it was not published in its entirety until 1935. Prodromes 1931). Le Philosophe Tschou Hi. along with the philosophers indebted to Occidental thought. In the first part we shall sketch a general description of the movement of ideas. note: of Mankind . seems necessary to statement by explaining the that K'ang Yu-wei had convinced the Kuang Hsu Emperor of necessity for reforms. Sa Doctrine Son > Influence (Variltes Sinologiques). and over a period of three months the Emperor issued a series of edicts embodying K'ang's ideas.l8 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY the importance of each in the general evolution of thought. 4. 24. 1894. Shanghai. For the convenience of the exposition we shall attempt to make out this balance sheet in three stages. 1. The first draft of this work. the authors whose thought is of Oriental derivation. pleted in 1902. in 1913. Hien-hien. were published in Pu Jen Tsa Chih %^ $* ^Jffc -^ a magazine edited by K'ang. under the title Universal Principles A. long after his death. TV. Leon Wieger. .

IHE history of Chinese thought in this half-century may itself divided into two well characterized periods. is dominated by the to the ideas. as much for the very well polished style as for the substance. One. notes in his memoirs that his juvenile enthusiasm was shared by the rest of the country: 'After its appearance Huxley's book made the round of China and became the bedside book of the students/ 1 The book was actually adopted as a manual of Chinese in certain Already at the the Confucianist thinkers schools. Evolution and Ethics. which goes from 1927 present. This translation was immensely famous in China. in 1898. for example. as we have noted. as we shall see. by the following.PART ONE THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM 1898 TO 1950 Y | Ibe extends positivist. Hu Shih. which from 1898 to about 1927. 19 . such as 'the struggle and 'the survival of the fittest'. are often more profound and more original than their materialist colleagues. who was then a mere schoolboy. however. to the military disasters of China and of for existence'. Darwinian and Spencerian evolutionism ' end of the nineteenth century. But the true introduction of evolutionism into China dates from the translation of Thomas Huxley's book. The other. A whole series ofexpressions taken from Huxley. These. had taken an interest in the evolutionist doctrines and had attempted to adapt them to their moral system. is plainly under the sway of Marxist Beside these two principal currents* there co-existed various idealistic systems whose authors. by Yen 'Fu. are only brilliant individuals who do nqt represent the main currents of opinion. scientific current. 'natural selection'. especially after 1902. became current terms which were applied to external political events as.

inversely to his times: radical at the start. Jenks. evolution is only the of mutual aid. Hume. there have been counter-balances to the influence of evolutionism. He was several times a member of the government.20 Russia. as well as various works of Spencer and Haeckel. and never attempted a personal synthesis. his thought evolved. or president of a university. Adam Smith. he was not the principal specialist in those doctrines. in a sense. He and his friends Wu their Chih-hui and Wang Ching-wei enthusiastically praised common ideal of liberty and mutual aid for the welfare of humanity. who translated Darwin's The Origin of Species and The Descent of Man. The translator had studied in Japan and Germany. takes According to the author the instinct of mutual aid among men its origin from the world of insects and animals. and E. Kropotkin's system attempted to be a correction or adaptation of Darwinism to the needs of sociology. Even only though he had started the infatuation for transformist doctrines. like animals. Since then The true many other authors have made themselves apostles of evolutionism. the great thinker of this movement. as well as the classic works lating Spencer's of Stuart Mill. Li Shih-tseng (Yii-ying). a translator. Men. solely and their survival depends hence. A little later this group of friends. One can say that transformism has become an absolute dogma in Chinese cultural eclipse circles. it became ensuingly conservative and fiercely Yen Fu was moreover opposed to the anti-Manchu movement. who were in the beginning at the . and that it has not suffered any serious up to the present time. became a fervent adept of anarchism and translated the Mutual Aid ofKropotkin. in which was published in instalments his translation of Kropotkin. However. The anarchism ofKropotkin However. In his works he assigned himself the role of interpreter and introducer. FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Yen Fu prolonged the fortunes of evolutionism by trans- The Study of Sociology. Montesquieu. promoter of evolutionism in China was Ma Chiin-wu. who studied the biology of Montpellier at the beginning of the century. About 1905 Li Shih-tseng and some development comrades founded a review in Paris. A witness notes that his assistance: on their mutual faith in anarchism verged on fanaticism. struggle together in order to live.

Since then Pa Chin has Autobiography. a restless soul. Wang Kuo-wei. This passion did not last with him. anarchism was only a youthful transgression with these men. Later he joined the Kuomintang and finally ended up as mayor of Shanghai under the Wang Ching-wei government which collaborated with Japan. but he was of settling himself down. and he afterwards entered the embryonic Communist party of 1921. flirted momentarily with anarchism. Another politically important figure. he was a true only fifty years 1927. the future Kuomintang. and The Source and Development of Ethics. he seems to have been a victim of his master's pessimism. entered into relations with Sun Yat-sen on behalf of the Chinese students at Lyons and affiliated themselves with his party. of age. threw himself into a lake^of the Imperial Palace. perhaps Mutual Aid. Fundamentally then. and his admiration has not slackened.THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM 1898 TO 1950 21 University of Outremer. they rejected who lasted longer in the case of a writer the celebrated novelist Pa Chin. Pa Chin. and the reading of this book provoked in him such it. as the victories thinker. had published his -& X JJf. Different from his rivals. More under the influence of Schopenhauer than of Nietzsche. not merely a translator. day as a child he chanced to acquire a work of Kropotkin. That occurred in 1920. Essays ofChing~an ^ Wang Kuo-wei. On May 3rd. another scholar. finds in his theories the secret of The voluntarism of Nietzsche At the time when ( Li Shih-tseng was enamoured of Kropotkin' s thought. is attracted to anarchism by the dreamy humanitariantranslated My ism of Kropotkin.( I 95))> *& which he intro- duced the German voluntarism of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. since. believing one universal happiness for humanity. when they arrived at the age of maturity. incapable The man was not without merit. like the others. Bread and Liberty. One very popular today. of the 'Southerners' seemed to forecast the of the government of Peking. It is enthusiasm that he undertook the translation of the complete works of this thinker. seized by collapse He was despair. and also translated Mutual Aid into Chinese. Chou Fo-hai. Another author who was greatly influenced by Nietzschean .

The philosophical fever which marked the first years of the twentieth century. like the anarchism of Kropotkin. Min To ( ). as presentation extends also to most of the other important thinkers and systems of the period. and on the comparative study of Oriental and Occidental philosophies.22 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE is PHILOSOPHY thought his own Li Shih-ts'en. it is only for the convenience of our exposition. where he became university professor and editor stayed various influential university people. Indeed. There he came in contact with He concentrated especially on the philosophy of life. In homage to the masters of his thought. To explain Nietzsche he also wrote a work entitled Brief Outline thinker. a Treatise on (* ( ^ ^$ U8 X ftW & ). which replaced the Empire by the . In 1928 he undertook a trip to Europe and in France and Germany. But the trip to critical Europe seems to have brought about a new orientation of his thought. otherwise called dialectical materialism. he returned to a country. and ardently studied current In his writings. Even. After studying in Japan. he dedicated two numbers of his review. If we have caused an anachronism by mixing in Pa Chin and Li Shih-ts'en with the authors of the beginning of the twentieth century. Bergson and Nietzsche. Many others imitated him. as much the Occidental as the Chinese. are domi- Chinese nated by the principles or nis new belief: he judges everything as a function of the Marxist dialectic This volte-face is in the of the spirit times. -t* ^ *jj ^). this radical Thejirst interpreter oj Marxism: Ctitn Tu~h$iu Thus the thought of Nietzsche had its hour iqt vogue. is He is a man of transition: a reflection the crucial evolution of his thought of the upheavals going on in all Chinese minds around years 1928 and 1929. Let us now go back. despite their unsystematic philosophical problems. after his return to China in 1930. he stupefied his friends. he showed himself superior to his predecessors as a of important reviews. the backwash of the political revolution of 1911. ^ of the Philosophy of the Superman well as many magazine articles. was followed by an almost complete cdm from 1905 to 1915. In truth his latest works.* and Ten Lectures on )* ^ ^$L Philosophy (both published in 1933). His (& A. character. when he wrote in an important review that *the philosophy of the Philosophy future will be scientific materialism'.

stereotyped thought. which seeks to liberate man from all bondage. shared in the general reprobation involving the fallen dynasty. Despite its own way. which agitated intellectual circles especially between 1915 Ch'en Tu-hsiu. Confucianism and Republican government are incompatible. evolving with the times. He acquired by ms articles a place among the thinkers of the time. and because of this Science. which is ruled by economy/ Thus. Imbued with democratic from . And so he found himself constrained to distinguish thus: he did not 'mean to abolish all morals. It is he also who preponderant Shih in his campaign for a 'literary was the firmest supporter of most influential 2 ^-^h ) ^ Hu theories which he had derived Ch'en Tu-hsiu did not cease to repeat: 'Republican France. government in politics and science in the domain of ideas. Furthermore. it was an enemy of progress and anti-scientific. these seem to me the two treasures of modern civilization. spiritual or material. spiritual evolution pursued sophical world. ended by bringing about an extremely violent campaign against Confucianism. according to him. editor ofLaJeunesse Nouvelle and 1920.' 3 Now. It is no longer adapted to modern exigencies: the tyranny of its moral notions over men's minds is contrary to the democratic ideal. Why? Because Confucianism exercised a monopoly fatal to the development of the country. The leader of this controversy. was (-^fj- review of the period. and hence he wishes to destroy only the Confucian concept of absolute ethics. Two slogans then occupied the field of thought: and Democracy. He concludes: 'The old ethics is no longer adapted to the modern 4 world. He contends that ethics like all the sciences is relative. but only the Confucian morals. Its moral and political philosophy was the firmest ideological support of the old regime. he ended up by reform'.THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM l8p8 TO I95O 23 Republic. 'Confucianism' was synonymous with conservative. Such were the reasons alleged by the champions of the anti-Confucian campaign. For the partisans of the Republic the fate of Confucianism was tied in with the Empire. did not have any immediate repercussion in the philoall the changes. Therefore it was necessary in the name of science and democracy to destroy this emblem of obscurantism and despotism. fact it backward. The fermentation of ideas provoked by these two terms which seemed the panacea for modern times. This line of argument evidently shocked many readers of his review.

' 6 Completely imbued with this creed. By this itself on the attention Hu campaign he acquired and retained in history the name of 'Father of the Literary Revolution'.24 asserting FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY the primacy of the economic also that essential law of Marxism. his former . the inanity of this ideal. He was called the Chinese Lenin. his faith in encountered a mounting opposition. Liberated by the Sino-Japanese war in 1937. It was he who founded the Communist party in 1921. he won fame at the very outset. However. an ideological evolution. it was in the columns of La Shih. his and even expelled him Communism remained complete. he died unnoticed in 1942. He adversaries stripped him of the presidency from the party. Hu Shih and the pragmatism ofDewey Before becoming a mere organ of the nascent Communist party. I have said that the republic has failed and that feudalism has been reborn... favour of a Literary Revolution (1917). it is not by this title that we wish to speak of him here. and he tried to create an opposition movement later dubbed 'Trotskyist' which did nothing but vegetate. Indeed. Hu Shih is also the introducer of pragmatism into China. I hope that soon the feudal forces will be wiped out again by democracy and the latter by socialism . and more especially that of Dewey. and directed it until 1927. In 1920 he writes: 'The republic cannot give Thus his is 5 happiness to the masses/ And again: 'Evolution goes from feudalism to republicanism and from republicanism to communism. the Nanking government threw him into prison. After having battled he suddenly perceives fervently for the triumph of republican ideas. to supplant the ku-wen or classical style. the review Lajeunesse under the aegis of Ch'en Tu-hsiu had thrust of the public by its campaign in favour of the hua or spoken language. Sic transit gloria mundi! His writings on behalf of Marxism had only been isolated essays without systematic character. Upon his return from in studying in America. he henceforth consecrated his powers to the realization of his ideal. To complete his misfortunes. for I am convinced that the creation of a proletarian state is the most urgent revolution in China. But the vicissitudes of politics but were cruel to him. pai so concise and so obscure. published his manifestoes Jeunesse that a young student. However.

whence the error of all metaphysical speculaspace. father. The only criterion of truth. Yu-lan. Since he is in love ^ the ancient philosophy. What contributed still more effectively. transitory. 'one cannot help but see that for him Chinese civilization has been entirely led astray/ 9 The philosophy of Ti. Armed with this pragmatic method. he finds that Confucianism wrong in teaching subordination to sovereign. then. thought. he blames Taoism for teaching us only to enjoy it and 'On reading his book. ceaselessly. As life is in perpetual evolution. %g & ^ was and Since he believes in the necessity of striving to dominate family. state with 9 . Confucianism and Taoism. great though it was. In his view it is nothing less than the art of the scholar in his laboratory: 'To examine the facts attentively. was the sojourn in China of Dewey himself from 1919 to 1921. so truth must also evolve relative. but because he thought he found there some elements of pragmatism. In his History of Chinese of which only the first volume ). spatial. 25 scientific. authority of Hu Shih. will be the practically begotten result. for it proves inefficacious in to complete it judging theories or beliefs. however. nature. Convinced that the methods of intellectual work should be he believed that in philosophy the pragmatic method alone merited this name. was not in itself sufficient to give the popularity to this system which it attained in The 1920 and afterwards. In the course of these two years the American philosopher spoke in the . thought being only an instrument/ 8 This is why the name instrumentalism is sometimes given to Dewey's tion. he passes in review the two most influential schools of antiquity. we are conscious that the point ofdeparture of philosophy should be the study of life. Every belief occupies time its and necessary to look at the consequences. as it the environment changes cannot be other than Thus is Darwinian evolutionism adapted Shih devoted himself to a to the study of speculative and moral problems. value. Hu critical work on Philosophy ( |JS| has appeared (1919). this discipline cannot be used unilaterally. to risk a hypothesis boldly.' remarks Fung advocating 'laissez-faire liberty and individualism.THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM l8p8 TO Ip5O teacher. finally to strive to find the proofs/ 7 However. and to judge of value it is *Now. not by reason of its high moral found favour in Hu's Mo eyes. It is therefore necessary by the historical method.

His philosophical method is an amalgam of dialectical materialism and Russellian objectivism. The neo-realism of Russell Shortly after Dewey's visit. Bertrand Russell. In the quarrel over Confucian- ism one saw the greatest intellectual authorities enter the lists to protect the miUeniums^old heritage of Chinese thought. and even very daring in certain of today quite outdone. This event also aroused much interest. Today it is no longer still the same: Dewey is China abides. when the lecturer re- Shih wrote dithyrambically: 'We can since 'the meeting of China and the Occident. his conceptions. However. K'ang Yu-wei. for example. the American teacher. This greatly extended the effect of his speaking. there have been many who have been impregnated with his doctrines and have returned enthusiastic for years. for infatuation with pragmatism was very ardent in those his influence in eclipsed. he found himself . At least four or five of his works were translated into Chinese. one sees that there was an intense philosophical boiling and bubbling around about 1920. Thus. His interpreter to the public was Chang Shen-fu. also came to China. The introduction of Occidental systems of philosophy provoked a feverish curiosity. The arguments between the two camps were incessant in these years. There was. Chang. although Because of the large number of Chinese students in America. was not only a specialist on Russell. there has say that. especially on the subject of education. who published many articles about him and taught his theories at the University of Peking. Not long ago ahead of his times. So. But if the Occidentalists dominated the field of thought. the Orientalists did not consider themselves beaten.6 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY universities of eleven provinces.2. he never attained the vogue of his American colleague. however. Hu world of Chinese thought/ 10 This judgment was correct at the time. not been a single foreigner who has had such an influence on the embarked for America. explaining his ideas. The texts of his lectures were published in the reviews of the period with critical evaluations. the English philosopher. although he has been many times presented and commented upon in the reviews.

mechanized life. corresponding to three attitudes of life. where he had travelled about in order to review the new conditions issuing from the world war. The Civilizations of Orient and Occident * * ) ( Ip22 ). For Li Ta-chao. Li Ta-chao. which had brought about the strength of the modern Occident. Ch'en Tu-hsiu and his friend. therefore. it must return to the cultivation of the Scientific and democratic' Spirit. & ^ ^ J civilizations lay For Ch'en Tu-hsiu. the out-and-out champions of Occidentalism. recorded his impressions in his book. Hence Chinese civilization was no longer well-adapted. He returned horrified with what he had seen. Liang Shu-ming. the principal difference between the two not so much in greater or less material prosperity better or less adapted to modern on the contrary. We Plainly in accord with this opinion Liang Shu-ming undertakes in his book thoroughly to discuss the problem of Oriental and Occidental philosophies. In the .THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM 1898 TO I95O The defender of Confucianism: Liang 2J Shu-ming Another defender of tradition. Oriental civilization. the characteristic point was the question of action and repose: the Occident had put the accent on action and the Orient on repose. and as in the quality of tho^ight being times. In 1919. that it is materially backward. According to him civilization is divided first into three stages. Liang Shu-ming published his famous book. but spiritually superior. against the scorners of the national thought a la Ch'en Tu-hsiu or Hu Shih. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao returned from Europe. and Their Philosophies ( fc <^ Before that. had each on his own part instituted comparisons between Orient and Occident. as to the excellence of twitching. and has brought about the throes of this gigantic war in which the world remains must conclude. Now science has culminated in only material development: on the spiritual plain there has been total failure. A little after the appearance of the History of Chinese Philosophy of the latter (1919). In substance he says that the Europeans have believed in its omnipotence and announced the coming of a golaen age. The material progress indeed has created an inhuman. arose to protest against the iconoclasts. Recollections of a Trip to Europe x i11 which he ) proclaims the bankruptcy ( \&*L ^2^ * ^j|/ ^^ of science. in 1917 and 1918.

agricultural prosperity can be assured. whence stage man tries to gain an attitude of striving. Since Chinese civilization 'The world-civilization of the future will be the renovated Chinese civilization/ 12 Such are the great principles. This is why Liang founded at Chouping. civilization as useless. In a word. As to the right mode of government. a social experimental centre with an Institute of Rural Reconstruction. Between these three choice. it is India their attitudes two being necessary to reject Hindu manifestly exaggerated. up 'science' completely and to prevent it from committing new crimes. their limitation. the Occident seeks the satisfaction of its desires. which is that of the Occident. considered the leader of the Rural Reconstruction party. In those high schools he devoted himself above all to the moral training He was of his students. which is the appanage of Chinese desires he comes to see the inanity the impossibility of finding happiness in even a moderated of lusts.28 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY the objects indispensable to his needs. but corrected. is finally injurious to his happiness. it is make a happy medium. Thus did he abandon discussion for action. to work in common accord with the toilers for the solution of local problems. a harmonization of the passions. then we can think of industrial prosperity. Hence he goes back and thinks to find happiness by divesting himself of them: that is the Hindu wisdom. are to be conserved. In the second stage man establishes that the excess of so he seeks an equilibrium. without distinction of mine and thine. In practice. it is necessary to suppression. To this effect he advocates the return to the village of the elite who have deserted it. of progress. Liang proposes an economy based on rural reconstruction. of getting ahead. in detail. and later established a second one in Honan. how must the Occident be rejected and China regained? The concepts of 'science' and 'democracy'. . it is necessary to imbue it with the Confucian spirit of Wang Yang-ming. which essentially benevolent. characteristic of the modern Occident. the other 'In short. radically to change the Occidental. China civilization. Finally. By this means science can purge itself of its disastrous utilitarianism. attempt to satisfy them. and to 11 return to our tradition after having criticized it/ Liang prophesies: adopts the preferable. When Shantung. in the highest stage. In order to take' afresh. is a source of unselfish actions.

after all. and there was much ink spilled over the Orient- Occident problem. Ting Wen-chiang. who have produced the great spiritual civilization of China/ 14 This. attacked Chang Chun-mai in 'Science and Metaphysics'. from Confucius and Mencius to the Sung and Ming neo-Confucian literati.. The great philosophers of history are those who have tried to find a solution to the problems of life. who was to become famous in the political world under the name of Carson Chang. deterministic but that it had its origin in the intuitive moral conscience principles. was resuming from another angle the discussion on civilizations started by Liang Shu-ming. 'Science cannot solve the problems of life. he wrote on January 12. 1947. the ideas Upon expressed therein much discussion. Now. Among us there has been a series of philosophers. accusing him of combining the Bergsonian intuitionism of Velan vital with the intuitionism of Wang . by a young professor who was a disciple of Liang Ch'i-ch'ao.THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM 1898 TO 1950 29 disgusted with politics. preaching the necessity of a moral of scientific positivism. The leaders of Occidentalism criticized provoked this article sharply. under the impulsion of the free will. professor of geology an article entitled University of Peking. His opponents were not slow in taking up the gauntlet. philosophy of life' The tumult in there arose a new the intellectual world had not yet died down when controversy which was also to become very sharp. of man. and Chang ideal against the partisans clearly was advocating the moral philosophy of Confucianism. who had studied in Japan and Germany. Asked to give his advice on his country's civil war. This was Chang Chun-mai. it will be 13 impossible to bring about accord on political questions/ the appearance of this book. This young professor. The controversy 'science v. he has retired from action and has plunged again into study and personal meditation. in a Tientsin paper: 'The fundamental task of politics lies in the cultural problem . On the at the following April 12. If a solution is not found for that. 1923. This was called 'The Quarrel between Metaphysicians and Scientists/ The occasion of the fray was a lecture given at Tsinghua University in Peking on February 14. declared in his lecture that day that the philosophy of life could in no manner be governed by scientific..

matter as in the manner of procedure/ 15 Chang Chiin-mai retorted: 'It is time that thinkers go beyond the confines of empiricism and rationalism. . an end and a method proper to it . Chang Chiin-mai was against the majority opinion: a fact quite symptomatic of the spirit of the times and the growing vogue of positivism. for he was more an intellectual than a man of action. from being omnipotent: it is limited in its scope as in its methods/ 16 By this defiance towards science which he accused of materializing the world Chang added to the criticisms of Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and Liang Shu-ming against Occidental civilization. not the "why". As a result he threw himself into politics and founded a party which was at first called 'National-Socialist*. not so much in its subject and universal. Science is far which cannot be verified by scientific criteria. . His political influence. not interpret the universe.' 18 Despite these illustrious names marshalled on his side. Manifestly there is knowledge outside of science.30 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY resuscitate Yang-ming. . There are some truths and some hypotheses in philosophy. and then 'Social-Democrat'. But this new party chief never reKuomintang cruited a great number of members. it does not depend on logic Another friend of Chang Chang Tung-sun. This was the descendant of various political groups created by his opposing the T'xmg-meng-hui. therefore.. physician. The field of knowledge is not limited to science. Liang Ch'i-^h'ao.. . 'The object of science to eliminate personal subjective prejudices and to search for the truth which is general Science is all-sufficient. whereas feeling/ which concern 17 Chiin-mai. in aesthetics and in religion . the philosopher science should describe. also took part in the and with perhaps more success. In his capacity of metadispute. It answers the "how". was not teacher. however.. . If human life be under the jurisdiction of science in logical matters. . . so how can we judge the heroes of love? at all in matters . It has an independent place.. or future of Sun Yat-sen.. Some years afterwards he opened and directed the first .. negligible. and taught the superiority of the Chinese conception. in order to idealistic an out-dated and disastrous is metaphysics. It is not astonishing. that Liang Ch'i-ch'ao sh6uld descend into the arena to come to the succour of his disciple: 'The driving force of life is feeling . . he naturally took up the defence of metaphysics: 'The role of philosophy is hereafter to criticize the sciences.

he founded an Institute of National Culture. Still later. during the Sino-Japanese war. a beautiful tragedy. From the of name between his party and the National-Socialist party of Hitler. near Shanghai. In political contacts. which have often been masterpieces of art. Like K'ang Yu-wei and Liang Ch'i-ch'ao. experimental psychology. Now. and on several occasions Minister of Education. Bergsonian idealism and Confucian idealism only complemented each other. which was also a centre of Confucianism. and translated Paulsen's System of Ethics. way he made many his native place. he was at one and the same time an ardent innovator and a convinced Confucianist. he also kept in line tradition. which seeks consolation from the miseries of life. could we not with advantage substitute a purely aesthetic teaching for the religious teaching of the past? A beautiful concert. and the history of civilizations.' 19 Indeed. and socialism itself is subordinate to it. do they not elevate the soul who was . with the national Strongly influenced by Bergson and Eucken. In short he remained faithful all his life to his first ideas. Chang Chiin-mai was a partisan of state socialism: for him. all religion arises from the imagination. he did not intend to copy Naziism. while he was a refugee in Szechuan. despite the similarity The aestheticism of Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei Another important figure of the period is that of Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei. the nation comes first. even though he opposed the attempt of the conservatives who wished to proclaim Confucianism the State Religion. But his idealistic socialism is aligned more closely with the Communist party than with the Kuomintang. Interested in the moral problem. At Leipzig he had studied aesthetics. for a long time chancellor of the University of Peking. he remarks. political point of view. if the adepts of these religions believe in dogmas which are often incoherent. but he distinguished himself above all by his theory of art as the substitute for religion.THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM 1898 TO I95O Political Institute at this 31 Woosung. Hence this formula: *It is art which causes the attraction of religions. religion has always used beautiful sites for the establishment of its temples. for with him. he thinks. Now that the era of religions is ended. According to the conclusion he drew from his studies of comparative civilization. he wrote a History of Chinese Ethics. it is by reason of their picturesque symbolism.

as we shall see farther on. But the new editor was to have a tragic fate. if one considers the general evolution of civilization it seems apparent. and thereafter almost every issue carried a few dissertations on the La Jeunesse became a mere organ of Marxist under the direction of Li Ta-chao. if Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei stars. viewing the decline of the religious spirit. aesthetics 20 having replaced religion. after the example of science. First applications of the materialistic dialectic from around 1920. stated in modern terms by Ts'ai Yiian-p'ei. the first exponents of the great Marxist theses in China. The moment has now arrived to take up the introduction of Marxism into China. that art and literature are abandoning religion completely. Although the propagation of the new ideas was intensified during . 'that man will end by deriving the consolations of life from the enjoyment of beauty. As early as 1919.32 as FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY much as a religious service? And in nature. or a little after. he believes. associate Li Ta-chao. are they not elevating of themselves? Moreover. far from being lost. Had it not been the practical of thousands of aesthetes in the course of the centuries? The of antiquity took pleasure in showing this attitude. In that year they devoted an entire number of the review to studying the cardinal points of dialectical materialism. I lose all notion of time and space/ has given to aestheticism a special form. After 1921.' This religion of aesthetidsm. moreover. the great landscapes of mountains. as is seen these words of a poet: *I go alone. was not a novelty in China. who replaced his propaganda friend as editor. I intoxicate myself with by contemplation of the blue sky. the starry heavens. the brilliant moon and the numberless 21 In short. fundamentally he has only belief artists sanctioned an old tradition a tradition which is. We have already said a few words about Ch'en Tu-hsiu and his All of these theories and controversies date little either a before. In 1927 he was seized and shot by the military authorities of the Peking subject. what themes of profound emotion! The immense ocean. government for social agitation. Among his early collaborators two names should be mentioned in view of their notoriety in the ranks of Marxism those of Li Ta and Li Chi. 'It is almost certain*. they published their essays in the columns of La Jeunesse.

THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM 1898 TO I95O
first

33

the following years, they did not as yet draw much attention. The to employ Marxist methodology as a tool in their work were

mostly writers.
school,

Kuo Mo-jo,
first

the leader

of

a

romantic

literary

was the

of the

dialectical

writers to formulate the principles materialism to which he has been devoted

of the

of his faith he scrutinizes the antiquity of China, and draws from it entirely new conclusions: 'When one wishes to speak of antiquity/ he says, 'it does not suffice to study the written documents and the old historians. It is necessary first of all to know Marx and Engels, for they give us the key to all interpretation to come, that is to say, the materialistic point of view. It is necessary then to get rid of the ordinary, classical, self-styled scientific method of the historians, which is in fact influenced by 22 their prejudices.' Although first and foremost a poet and dramaKuo Mo-jo has worked in almost all fields, and usually with tist, ability: archaeology, economics, philosophy, sociology. So far as philosophy is concerned, he has collected his critical studies in two books, The Bronze Age ( ^(g] g ft ) and Ten Critiques both appearing in 1945. It goes without saying ( ~t~ -t tt: -nN 3Jj ) that his conclusions do not at all match with those of other specialists on antiquity. Kuo Mo-jo was also one of the leaders of the controversy on Chinese society which began in 1928. Starting from the primacy of economics, the basic principle of Marxist ideology, several controversialists tried to determine the different periods of Chinese history according to the mode of production. They were unanimous in declaring that primitive society constituted a communist society, and the present a capitalist society; but they were not in accord in fixing and characterizing the various intermediary periods. In reality the stakes of the battle were of little consequence; but the discussion revealed to what an extent Marxism was in the forefront of Chinese thought. Kuo Mo-jo combined the fruit of his meditasince 1925. In the light

^

tions in a Study of Ancient Chinese Society

(

ty

)J3

&ffif him to

a unique case in China. Hence he has very naturally been nominated to the post which the new Chinese Communist government has entrusted to him, that of
is

$? ) (1932). Assuredly take up so many different fields

his multiple genius

^fc" %i which permitted

^

President of the Cultural Federation for

all

China

a

body including

34

FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY

even more

nearly fifty philosophers, historians, writers, sociologists, etc. As an he has at the same time been flattering distinction,
the four vice-presidents of the Central Political

named one of
Committee.
The long

controversy between Marxists and anti-Marxists

More important was

the ideological battle
this, it

which

started in 1929

and was very prolonged. In of principles involving two
articles for

was

different

of the triumphing conceptions of the world. The
a question

who

or against Marxism, published by the various authors took part in the controversy, were combined in two volumes

through the care of two philosophers who may be considered as the leaders of the combatants. Chang Tung-sun published The Controversy over Dialectical Materialism

(1934), in
studies.

> ^Jf?V ) (*$ $fa $j% which he brought together especially the anti-Marxist The following year Yeh Ch'ing replied with his Philosophical
(

^

which, taking the the pro-Marxist essays. opposing side, he inserted principally
Controversies

4^

f&

%&$

)

(*935)> in

The

quarrel

between Marxists and

scientists

That controversy had scarcely ended from the general
the authors than another arose,
still

lassitude

of

more

furious

this time,

within

the materialist camp.
cause,

Yeh

Ch'ing,

who had

fought so hard for the

who

was suddenly and violently taken to task by his colleagues, accused him of betraying Marx. Indeed, even though he had a

great esteem for Marxist thought, he was not entirely subservient to Marx, did not consider him as a unique prophet, and did not

him exclusively against other thinkers. Such was the origin of the drama. Yeh Ch'ing defended his cause with vigour and with an incredible fecundity. In our opinion, moreover, he was much
hurl
superior to his attackers in dialectical power. He compiled his essays in two Volumes: The Controversies of the New Philosophy

* $tggks in the DevelopJ|V Jfe ) ( I93<5) of the tfew Philosophy*( ing ) fa ,$ (1937). During the two years that the controversy lasted there were
(

4h

&^

^

^

^4

^^

as yet

no

signs

out. This event
saries

of it slackening when the Sino-Japanese war broke brought an end to the pen-jousting, and the adver-

were

separated.

The Marxist

thinkers

were divided into two

THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM 1898 TO I95O

35

principal groups: those othe one took refuge in Yenan, the capital of Soviet China in the north of Shensi, the other followed the

government in its removals,

at first to

Hankow, then to Chungking.

At Yenan,
under the

in 1938, the Marxist philosophers, direction of Ai Ssu-ch'i (

adversary of Yeh Ch'ing in the preceding controversy, founded the 'Society of the New Philosophy'. This society published its studies in the review Chinese Culture ( *f ifS] 3^ jt+ ). It was in

X ^^

who were
)>

reunited

tbe g reat

review that the leader of the Communist party, Mao Tse-tung, published a famous article, entitled 'The government and culture
this

of the new democracy' (1940). This document became the political and philosophical charter which the Marxist intellectuals took as the basis of their, studies, and on which they wrote fervent commentaries. At Chungking, in 1939, a parallel association was created around the review Theory and Reality ($g 4^Jp2)l ) The writers were all well-known Marxists philosophers, socioloeconomists. This was at the time certainly the best gists, historians, written Marxist doctrinal review which had appeared in China.

^

After the victory over Japan iji 1945, it still continued to be published for a while; however., it suddenly disappeared one fine day, doubtless by order of the Nationalist government. At Shanghai philosophical
activity abated. In 1940 two small periodicals were published in succession. One was extinguished after the second number, the other,

which
(

started
)'

in

October

1940,

4

nevertheless very vital and original, whence its good fortune. But all Marxist activity ceased on the day the Japanese invaded the Concessions, with the declaration of the Pacific war, on December 8,

^

laste(l

more than a year. Modest in format,

under the name Philosophy it was

1941-

government re-entered Shanghai, free literary expression recommenced. Then the intellectual forces of Marxism appeared greater than ever. In spite of covert censorship, the windows of the book shops were nearly all largely occupied by works of Marxist inspiration. Even the government book stores offered to the visitor examples of notoriously Marxist books; 'One must do business/ the bookseller would say to those who expressed astonishment about it to him. As one can see, it would be vain to question the seductiveness of Marxism within
After the victory,
the Nationalist

when

to restore a soul to the popular masses. itself tried various methods combat its adversaries in the realm of ideas. published the text of lectures delivered before the students of the Central Political Institute under the title Vitalism -fA* ) ( *|f j This was a metaphysical essay which attempted to place the (1934). One notes a quantitative and qualitative increase in this direction between 1935 and 1945. honesty. Three People's Principles of Sun Yat-sen on systematic bases. Pointing out as examples the order and discipline 1934. giving concrete means for prompting the cultivation of order and discipline. the partisans of dialectical materialism. and claimed thus to resolve the eternal opposition between materialism and idealism.. he desired to infuse a the utmost in energy. order and integrity.. 'is due to the fact that we have completely forgotten our ancient virtues. he said in the inaugural address. at one time the head of the legal wing. vital by the authors and by the works of Hans Driesch and Eucken. reason. Huge meetings were held Life'. at the same time that it and even harshly repressing. In order to change our bad social habits. on movement which was more new soul. For this purpose Chiang Kai-shek inaugurated 19. It was inspired largely by the Bergsonian theory of Telan say. will. His speculation proceeded from the central concept 'life'. Ch'en Li-fu. a collective national esprit. and then a detailed programme came out. that is to who were in reaction against the materialist . 'The weakness of China'.' To that end he summarized the doctrine of the movement by proposing the four Confucian virtues of and honour. . while at the same time re-engendering trust in the ancestral virtues. we must go forward in a great co-operative effort. The philosophy oj the Kuomintang The Nationalist was keeping to a close surveillance over. The great cities of China each in turn held propaganda congresses. in order to launch the 'New fully when the Sino-Japanese war crushed While the Generalissimo was striving all its efforts in 1937. and the movement was progressing peacesincerity. of the German^ and the Japanese.36 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY intellectual circles. another eminent member of the Kuomintang. government of Nanking. at a 'New Life' movement. his Nanchang February than mere anti-Communist propaganda. for he intended to give the nation a new spirit.

discussions between members. In July 1944.THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM 1898 TO Ip50 classical virtues 37 conception of science. philosopher by profession. But his system was not lacking in weak points. This society held annual meetings in the beginning. in a small tract which he devoted to the Vitalist' ^ epistemology. the its war between China and Japan. who did not let themselves become carried away by more or less explicitly political considerations. in 1935. Hu Shili. the Chinese Philosophical Society was founded. and the reports of these congresses. which was in existence for ten years from 1927 to 1937. such as Fung Yu-lan. on its editorial committee. Chang Tung-sun. and his adversaries made great it. The movement lasted demise being hastened by the breaking out of Its initiator. In fact Ch'en Li-fu was trying to bring certain of Confucianism back into favour. This review brought together all the important names of modern philosophy. which today numbers 120 members. The studies published in this review most often concerned the thinkers and systems of the modern Occident or the sages of Chinese antiquity from the historical or exegetical point of view.. although not a this only a few years. and new ideas. remarked explicitly that the aim of his metaphysics was to furnish a philosophy and a spiritual arm to the Kuomintang in its battle against Communism. and communications of authors were published in the Philosophical Critique. few magazines which were mouthpieces of two or three authors who tried to exploit had only a small influence. and who for As the wrote technical works of philosophical research they foregathered around the review Philosophical Critique ( $ &j> fjJL^^ ). Society The Chinese Philosophical mass of the professional philosophers generally university professors. One of his commentators. Chang Chun-mai. for we never come across the . he resumed and completed his system with a work entitled The Origin of Life ( )^ ijg ). the review and the Association kept painstakingly aloof from the Marxist thinkers. etc. Fung Yu-lan. Some years later. did not limit himself to essay. In the years which preceded the SinoJapanese war. and whose president was the most famous contemporary philosopher of China. sport of attacking response: aside these Ultimately his attempt did not evoke any great a from it the Kuomintang.

In 1941 there was a new development of the Philosophical Society. At the same time the critics reproach him. and the Destiny ofMan ofFichte. France. In fact. Fung Yu-lan and Chang Tung-sun. England. The Spirit Modern Philosophy by Royce. The Spinoza by Treatise on the Improvement of the Understanding23 of Ho Lin. Among the university professors two men are outstanding. but he is first of all a disciple of Chu Hsi. Thus in recent years were published the Parmenides ofPlato by Ch'en K'ang. The Philosophy ofLoyalty ofRoyce by Hsieh Yu-wei. Fung's history is and it has overshadowed the similar work by Hii Shih. of The professors obviously did not teach philosophy to a very large number of students. and above all America. of whigh the 193 784 ^ ig} ^|r f&> first far published. . and not unreasonably. In order to consent to specialize in philosophical studies for four years. 1931.38 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY names of celebrated dialectical materialists. henceforth. Undoubtedly the one and the other were tinder the more or less official patronage of the Kuomintang government. The Classical Moralists of Benjamin Rand. vol. . with exaggerating his interpretation of classical Chinese philosophy . they were done accorcling to a systematic plan. Fung Yu-lan is the present of the round 120 members who constitute the Chinese Philosophical Society. thanks to the establishment of a com* mittee. Of these ten universities more than half were Protestant. n. the somewhat positivistic commentator on Confucius. and is certainly the most eminent representative of modern Chinese thought. He became famous by the publication of his History of Chinese Philosophy ( 1934). translated into English in considered thd most complete work thus volume was ^ ) (vol. He studied philosophy president (1949) first at University. under the presidency of Ho Lin. the forming of Chinese by T'ang Yiieh. the University of Peking and then in America at Columbia He fell under the influence of pragmatism and of American neo-realism. In the whole of China one could find some ten universities which had special departments of philosophy. for translation of the important works of Occidental philosoph/ Until then translations were made at random. even of Marxism. in Germany. a student would necessarily not be ambitious to find a livelihood: he could only be drawn to it by love of pure thought. thinkers at present is almost always completed abroad. The Principles of Psychology of William James . I.

in the midst of war. In acknowledgement.e. his thought underwent a surprising evolution. is also concerned with seen that politics. He starts out from the Kantian problem of knowledge. Fji> ) or 'new explanation of Reason (or the Norm)'. in a little volume entitled Democracy and Socialism ( J& ^ ^ 3L ^-4^ *^ jfc J^v many of the Marxist elements. His 39 own philosophical system was not evolved and delivered to the public until 1940. with whom he collaborated for so long. leaves ancient Chinese philosophy completely aside and constructs a system based entirely on Occidental thought. to build up little by little what he calls the 'pluralism of knowledge': a synthesis.THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS'TROM l8p8 TO 1950 in the materialistic sense. i. We have he was the leader of the intellectual opposition to the rising tide of Marxism. in 1948. these ne applies himself to showing that democracy is not only a political regime. he is influenced above all by Wundt. Chang Tung-sun. of Kant and the Americans Lewis and Morgan. His rival in celebrity. the most important is New Li Hsiieh ( $(f &S. there is all of these diverse also a school of thought of which Aye have not . This has been the most important philosophical event of these past ten years in China. Although a former disciple of Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and friend of Chang Chun-mai. but also implies a whole civilization. Without yet being Marxism. he has broken with the small political party which represented the idealistic socialism of his friend. finally. Among the five or six works which showed the various aspects of his thought. But fifteen years later. a progressive attitude of life. Still more recently. the principle of neo-Confucianism in the light of modern philosophy. Neo-Buddhist philosophy However. As for ethics. the fruit of his incarceration under the Japanese: Knowledge and Culture His philosophy earlier ^ ^ ( \ Thought and Society ( j& *& and Reason and Democracy ( jKg )*t Jplp^d^ ) ). the Communist regime has named him a member of the Cultural Federation he integrates ^ presided over by Kuo Mo-jo. outside of all of these groups and tendencies. his socialism comes considerably near to it. In 1946 he published three books. and shows ). an esteem for Marx which not long ago he was far from having.

. who remains the dominant figure of neo-Buddhism. it is inimical to worship. and at first a disciple of Wang Yang-ming and neo-Confucianism. and lived in ramshackle monasteries falling into ruins. If Buddhism as a religion is retrograding with a rather rapid rhythm. a complex and subtle system of metaphysics imported from India in ancient times by the famous pilgrim monk Hsiian Tsang. a scorn which he himself contempt shared in part. destined to restore to favour to deepen the principles of the Fa-hsiang to re-edit the masterpieces of the wei shih ( *f| ) -^f^ philosophy. Resolutely rationalistic and atheistic. Buddhism with the other systems. The bonzes had no idea of social not seek in any way to adapt their doctrine to the of the times. This philosophy has always been regarded as the summit of Buddhist rationalism. Intimate with the revolutionary partisans of Sun Yat-sen. The reason is very ties simple. After having embraced Buddhism. Entering very young into the he felt keenly the decadence of his religion and the which surrounded the bonzes. that of nee-Buddhism. and it is the only one which attracts modern speculative and critical minds. it must yet be said that the Buddhist intellectuals have made a forms a closed world. and Academy and for the Study of Buddhism'. The greatest theoretician of the school was the bonze T'ai Hsu. where to life these deficiencies was encrusted with archaic practices.40 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY spoken. did Buddhism by modernizing it and by breaking many points. knew nothing of the sciences or Occidental exigencies philosophy. he intrepidly undertook state remedy the of affairs. without considerable effort to modernize and spread Buddhist speculation by drawing inspiration from such Occidental theories as are capable of vivifying it. apart. . . for which he always maintained a singular esteem. he was convinced that it was necessary also to effect a monastic life. It was with this objective that he founded three institutes of Buddhist research: one at Wuchang. revolution within with tradition on service. So the partisans of this school declare with Ou-Yang Ching-wu: 'Buddhism is neither a religion uor a philoThe Buddhist Law is only the Buddhist Law/ 25 sophy. Conscious of all and all this wretchedness. he founded at Nanking 'The Chinese School. Ou-Yang Ching-wu was only the forerunner. . The initiator of the movement was a certain Ou-Yang Ching-wu. He was only" a layman.

in his eyes tainted with superstition. the only one which truly merits the name of religion. many monasteries in the interior refused hospitality to T'ai Hsii. Personally very cultivated. such Thoroughly as hospitals. This sect is the most popular in the ranks of Buddhism. atheistic after the example of the master T'ai Hsu. another at Amoy. Yin Kuang. deems it practically . one may say. although well versed in knowledge of the sutras. and even. he campaigned especially for the philosophical school which he had embraced. they strove to bring their social role to the fore with the development of their Buddhist culture. intellectual and spiritual chief of another Buddhist school. Finally. or pure idea. modern His influence was perhaps still greater among the Buddhist laity. he spoke several languages and was well acquainted with Occidental scientific and philosophical theories. This last was with the mission of renovating Tibetan Lamaism. where he gave with great success. schools. dispensaries. and orphanages. T'ai Hsu's intellectual influence also radiated writings. The leader of this opposition was Yin Kuang. who were generally favourhim and felt the need of instruction and of adaptation to times. with whose aid he tried to give and atheistic system. and who desired to participate in intelligent persons in the big cities social work. the 'Pure Land' sect (also called 'Amidism'). the school oftvei shih. for they tended to take away from the bonzes their traditional authority as interpreters of the 'Law' of Buddha. conservative bonzes new distinction to his rationalistic His efforts encountered a very lively opposition in the ranks of the who regarded with shame and indignation this rupture with tradition. These associations marked a revolution within the Buddhist ranks. Editor of the review Hal Ch'ao Yin ( ^ from $%ft his ) ^ (The Sound ofthe Tide). at the frontier of Tibet.THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM which was for a long time his centre lectures to throngs 189^8 TO I95O 4-1 of propaganda. and of undertaking a critical study of the sacred writings of Lamaism. Moreover. These institutes put him in contact with of voluntary listeners the able to younger elements among the bonzes. To carry out his purpose he created associations designed for who desired to deepen their of the doctrine without indulging in the superstitious knowledge practices of the common people. and the third in Szechuan.

for 'tradition' is progressives. . the Such in brief have been the vicissitudes of Chinese thought during last fifty years. value of prayer. For the more than a philosophical nothing the pietist remains a. 26 the great specialist in modern Buddhism. Yin Kuang the traditionalist represents only the least influential tendency of neo-Buddhism.42 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY impossible for the common man to save himself by means of meditation and intellectual study. or 'saints' of Buddhism.true religion. means which are to him in- For this reason Yin keeps up a voluminous correspondencewith young people. Nevertheless. and refuses any adaptation of the doctrine to the conditions of the'times. and in the bodhisattvas. One can say that they reflect in all sectors the struggle idealists between and traditionalists and materialists. of creed. between was rather idealistic on the whole which why the champions of tradition have only scorn for the partisans of the Occident. His system. Reichelt. Wang idealism. Hsiung Shih-li Like his two predecessors he belongs to the philosophical school of 'mere-ideation'. the absolute truth. and their complaints awaken fewer and fewer responses. According to him Buddhism holds the highest truth. One sees that there could not be a between the rationalist T'ai Hsu and is one the doctrine of Bu4dha system. and in his writings preaches salvation by faith in the god Amitabha. of faith. which is to say. cultivated Buddhist circles are dominated by the atheistic rationalism of T'ai Hsu. L. The successor of Ou-Yang Ching-wu in the presidency of the Chinese Academy of Buddhism and the most important of their philosophers. He teaches the accessible. for the other it more complete opposition Yin Kuang. is a layman. which he has reconstructed on new bases by fusing the classical doctrines of the school with the essential principles of the neo-Confucianism of Yang-ming. and it is therefore fanciful to the point of impiety to seek to harmonize it with modern philosophies or scientific theories. in the words of K. in Kuan-yin. was written and published in a definitive form in 1943. the goddess who is so popular. or again. But these champions are everywhere the smaller number. and by drawing inspiration from Bergsonian which has been taught in various universities.

p. 11. P13. 1921. (The cited page does not contain passage. Hu Shih. note: This review was started in 1915 under the tide CVing Nien Tsa Chih (Youth). The editor also gave -^ Jf jf| 4&. Ren Grousset. Cited by Kuo Chan-po. 324. ibid. Institute Bulletin. Histoire de I'Asie. cit. i f^ . issue cited '^cience and 19. p. Plot Montant (vol. Fifty Years ii History of Chinese Thought during the Past + if- ^ {$ ^f W5. 1924. Tr. 72. p. 99. 6. . June 1917. 2. i. article no. ibid. 3H. n. Essays y of 5^ >f^ . 1924. i. 'Response to Hu Shin'. 21. 72. 2. 533.1925. 43 2. October of w*)>5 Hu Shih. vol. in Chang Chiin-mai.. J ^ $g ^ 2nd ist 3J... ra. n. Cited by Kuo Chan-po. Supplement to ^J 10.THE MOVEMENT OF IDEAS FROM 1898 TO 1950 1. Le hien. 2 of La Chine Moderne. cit. & & : 40 /X ^ ^ ^ff ^ ^ 1922.) 16.. (Ting is better known to Westerners as V. p. 327. Ting. vol. 1921). 9. op. Philosophy of Life of 1923'. article no. no. September r. 3. above. Kuo Chan-po.. 7. 322. 'Rejoinder 17. HuShih. t. p. Liang Shu-ming. p. 'Reply of Ting Wen- chiang'.998. ^^ (M 4. Autobiography at the Age ofForty t5* -Jr |j \ p. 1921. ibid. If 1920. of Life. 15. 1920.) Fung Yu-lan. The following year the title became Hsin CVing Nien -gft La Jeunesse Nouvelle. Essays of Hu Shih. K. 1 of Chang Chiin-mai'. op. p. Series fc)E| ^ 3^ >^f ^- vol. Youth). 202. 1922. Tr. die tide in French (La Jeunesse). 1938. China Institute Bulletin. Pans. article no. 0/" 44 Tu-hsiu i. Hien- 20. Leon Wiegcr. note: No reference is given here by author. ist Series ifl vol. Series i this vol.36. special number on 'Symposium Science v. 8. . . The Civilizations of Orient and Occident and Their Philosophies p. 14. 8. m. p. 12. of Chinese Philosophy )J| Appendix: 'Philosophy in Contemporary the History ^ China'. 3. p.. China Philosophy'. 446. Science and the Philosophy 4.

1946. also translated by Bodde. . (A reprint of this first volume. note: Histoire de la Litterature Chinoise Moderne. FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY H. 1937. Shanghai. Tr.44 22. Peiping.C. Volume I: The Period of the Philosophers (From the beginnings to circa 100 B. p. 25.). Henri Vetch. 1936-1937. note: Derk Bodde. note: No citation is given here by author. van Boven.$^ presumably meant this work. 23. with corrections and additions. . translator: A History of Chinese Philosophy. Tr. 26. Peiping. 72. 24. ^-a j& gives only the Chinese tide. Tr. p.) China Christian Year Book. was published in 1953. The author is by which University Press. 67. was published in 1952 by Princeton The second volume.

for one no longer finds reason purely in the ancient way. Occidental. who knew nothing other than their mission of renovating also a sutras. save perhaps the Buddhists. This distinction appears very simple at thinkers first who glance. The apostle of modernized Buddhism: T'ai Hsu is As for the Buddhists. but the thought is sometimes more Occidental someIt is times exact more Oriental amount of the in allegiance. As we have seen. even though they science may take some new elements of Occidental and philosophy to integrate into their system. whose social and intellectual role we are going to retrace. Their principal theoretician. not only in the countries bordering China. a question.PART TWO THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION having surveyed the history of modern ideas in China in broad outline. and not to be contented with of the principal thinkers and a too schematic and therefore too vague account. The difficulty is to respective influences. it is proper to enter into some details in order give a A^ER to more precise idea systems. and the vitalists. there is not the shadow of a doubt that their philosophy purely Oriental in implication. the Confucianists. but in reality it is not. was a very cultivated man. one can place in the camp of Oriental thought three groups of thinkers: the Buddhists. For this purpose it is quite natural to divide our material between authors inspired by Occidental thought. then. He participated in numerous such as congresses. Be that as it judge the may. but he was very active propagandist abroad. and authors inspired by Oriental ideas. he was given the Buddhism in his own country. 45 . of unravelling in each of them the One can say that among all the method is predominant tendency. different from the traditional bonzes. T'ai Hsu.

and completely attained by the Buddha. shut up. superstitious rites. Not only the monasteries were considered as organs of Buddhism. But he himself wrote a good number of works. of which the principal one is The True Realism (jjl 2j^ -& ^& ideation' ) published in its entirety only in 1940. Not long since the Sacred with now this con- Books were bonzes in the pagodas by but now long since well educated people study them in common. but now on there are propaganda circles. He seeks to establish the rational doctrine of his system the school of 'pure by means of scientific facts.46 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY the East Indies. Buddhism goes before the people and places itself at the service of human life/ 1 The texts of his lectures were published by his disciples in books and small propaganda tracts. Berlin. on the contrary. and Ceylon. the throngs to Buddhism. secluded from society. is always an unstable state. This effort to penetrate the ultimate reality of all being does not postulate the necessity of a God. but to which This the world of laws. The metaphysics which he is based on the Buddhist expounds theory of knowledge. but now it is the norm which attracts cultural societies. Although it honours Buddha and the bodhisattvas. London and New York. Europe Frankfort. conferences and the provincial level as well as on the national Not long since the Buddhist Law had no relation to the ways plane. these are purely . the subject of knowledge in the mind. 'alaya. but of Buddhism. and America. and customs of the country. one advances along the way of virtue which conducts one to the illumination. the 'law*. He planned the creation of a world-wide and branches in plan. the perfect intuition of nirvana. Buddhism does not adore gods. it is resolutely atheistic. for it is perpetually influenced by the perceptions and impression arising from external appearances. according the only true reality is not the world of appearances. In 1928 he gave a series of lectures in Paris. equivalent to leading now. but even in Japan. In seeking to know the 'noumenon'. with headquarters in China was not able to accomplish this features Here is how he himself characterized the main since of his as work: 'Not long most people regarded Buddhism but a polytheistic religion ception begins to be only studied by hermits in the mountains or (sic)'. shaken. partially attained by the saints or bodhisattvas. Not long since to practice Buddhism was a solitary life. Institute all countries. the Philippines.

THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION

47

commemorative titles, 'as we raise statues to those who have deserved them from their country' in order to remember the heroes who have arrived partially or totally at 'illumination'. The worship rendered
,

by the people to these heroes is pure superstition, regrettable error. 'Owing to the fact that many people burn incense and candles, erect idols, and try to obtain good luck,' he says, *a great number of educated moderns do not realize that Buddhism is atheistic, that the Buddha is only our leader, our precursor, our master. We respect

him

own

because he leads us towards the enlightenment inherent in our nature and helps us to become Buddha. Gods and spirits

of life; they are themselves deserving of pity and have need of salvation. Thus, then, the great design of Buddhism is to dissipate ignorance and to bring enlightenment The Chinese term for Buddha, "Fo", signifies "illumination". All
represent only one of six phases

men have

a nature capable of

becoming "illumined";

all

could,

in other words,

become Buddha. He who has arrived

at a true

com-

prehension of

man and

the universe can be called "illumined".

Buddha is neither
he
is

a Creator nor a

God who controls human nature:

only a
T'ai
it

man who
Hsu

has attained to total enlightenment in the

universe/ 2

Then
and

boils

down to

analyses the content of the concept 'illumination' four great principles: the eternity of the flux of

being, the origin of being in the consciousness, negation of the self, and negation of the objective existence of the universe. These four
truths are easier to

expound than to realize: they are practically the grasp of the average man. There is a method to follow beyond in order to arrive at grasping untuitively the ultimate reality of the universe. 'Those who are near to illumination should reveal the

method by which Buddhahood can be

attained.

There are three

paths: the first consists of developing self-control; the second is mental concentration; the third is knowledge, derived from

from thought, and from strict mental discipline/ 3 The first path is put into practice by the humble classes, the faithful of the cult of Amitabha. Sometimes even T'ai Hsu, who disapproves of these forms of worship as being tainted with superstition, does not disdain to participate in them, because he recognizes them as
instruction,

necessary practices in the salvation of the ignorant. However, the faithful cannot arrive at total illumination by this path; by it, they

48

FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY

may only attain to the 'Paradise of the West', which is an intermediate stage bringing them nearer to nirvana. To more cultivated
people Tai meditation.

Hsu

counsels the

more

difficult

but more rapid path of

Such are the main points of his doctrine. But he does not occupy himself exclusively with instruction, with teaching the means conducive to illumination. On occasion he puts his readers on guard against modern doctrines or theories which he thinks contrary to
his faith. In 1927, at the

time

national

movement, he wrote
(

Jtl^L )> *** which he denounced the evils of and religions, as well as imperialism and comdogmatisms munism. Then he explained succinctly the essentials of Buddhism and showed that it alone correctly understands liberty.
of Liberty
all

&

&

when Communism began to become a a work entitled A View of the History

A rieo-Buddhist eclectic:
T'ai

Hsiung Shih-li
in 1947, taken prematurely by an illness; had been a classical exponent of the wei shih

Hsu died suddenly

he was not yet sixty. He system, but without great originality, according to his critics. One cannot say the same about Hsiung Shih-li, who proves to be much more individualistic and less traditional in his work, New Exposition
* Not long of [the Treatise on] Pure Idea ) (i944)before a certain Chou Pao-chang had already attempted to interpret the system by basing himself on the theories of Alfred North

(^

^(^
A

New Interpretation of School* Hsiung Shih-li undertakes to reconstruct the system with the aid of Wang Yang-ming and Bergson. The alliance of Wang Yang-ming and Buddhism is not a new fact in the history
Whitehead. This he did in an essay entitled
the Wei-shih

of Chinese philosophy. Wang Yang-ming and neo-Confucianisni were a product of Buddhist idealism and Confucian idealism, and there is an obvious correlation, a relationship of spirit and even of nature, between the two idealisms. Here is how Hsiung Shih-li establishes his system. Being in itself

human immaterial, absolute, eternal, whole, pure, strong. nature enjoys the same prerogatives as Being in itself. This substance in itself is the whole of nature; it dominates the ego as it dominates
is

Now

all beings, the subject as well as the object. Integrated in individual natures, the said substance at one and the same tiijie includes the

THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION

49

pure knowledge of reason and the love of goodness in Confucianism. 'Goodness is nature; that is to say, the common substance of egosubject
this

and beings-objects/ 5 But it is necessary to distinguish between nature and its activities. Nature in itself is eternal, but not its
such
as

activities,

thoughts, volitions, and sensations, which
c

form the

subject matter of psychology. The spirit as to its nature is anterior; as to its activity, that is posterior.' 6 The activity of nature manifests matter as opposed to spirit. Spirit and matter are not two beings,

but

two contrary

believes he has

aspects of a substantial whole. Hereby the author done away with pure idealism and pure materialism,

which he declares eternally inseparable since they constitute two a whole. Nevertheless, before the world was made aspects of

was already a

manifest, before one could speak of psychological phenomena, there pre-existent obscure and blind spirit. 'Although spirit

manifests itself

more and more

in the state

of organic matter, one

cannot doubt that there was a

a hidden active force, before spirit,

the advent of organic matter/ 7 From this he draws his conclusion as to the existence of a spirit or soul of the world: 'Each being
possesses a spirit,

which

is

the soul of the world; then the soul of the
8

world

only the spirit of particular beings/ Is this pantheism? No, the author knows that pantheistic doctrines are very unmodish in our day, and are considered anti-scientific. So he thinks he can
is

avoid the reproach of pantheism by denying to spirit united with matter the quality of individual, autonomous, personal entity. For him the spirit underlying the subjective ego as well as the objective

world

is

only an aspect of the manifestation of substance in

itself

the Kantian

noumenon.

Does not such an impersonal substance court the danger of being nothing more than a concept, devoid of all reality? No, for the
activities

of this

of spirit, the flow of evolution, give evidence of the reality for spirit and its activities are inseparable. This spiritual spirit; substance is only revealed by evolution, for substance and movement
is

are indissolubly united; there

no substance
its

aside

or

movement

without substance. This substance in
but

itself is

from movement unknow-

able, indescribable,

we

can perceive

manifestations,

we

can

describe its activities.

The universe is,

transformations, without any between subjective consciousness and the objective material world,

then, only a process distinction between the

of constant domain of

He makes much use of the ideas of Wang Yang-ming. But he did not undertake exposition of his own system until the end of 1939. It has not yet been surpassed. As such it is life. On the whole. These last words obviously bear the impress of Bergsonism. Also he is bolder with regard to his system and influenced to a larger extent by non-Buddhist philosophies. for. etc. the great current of production which cannot be perceived except and reproduction of the universe by intuition. Only unlimited evolution is real. a theoretician of knowledge. He does not pose as anything other than a philosopher.50 spirit FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY and matter. Hsiung Shih-li does not have the same preoccupations as T'ai Hsu. or 'progressives'. despite all the attacks of the representatives 'Occidentalists'. .j >y> ). themselves largely suggested by Buddhist idealism. vital energy. He has held this position since 1931. Confucian thought is still lively livelier than Buddhist thought with its special concepts which are are thus intelligible We only to specialists. which contains the metaphysical ( ty iSl ^F fij* ^ 9 )> ! principles of which he makes particular applications to morals. In this connection his most important work is New Li Hstieh ( J|j. sociology. by the publication of the first volume of his History of Chinese Philosophy which outclassed all the other treatises of the same type. is Modern Confucian thought tendencies: divided into two rather opposing Fung Yang-ming upheld by Positivistic the positivistic rationalism of Chu Hsi extolled by Yu-lan. and the intuitive. brought quite naturally to the study of the recent of Confucianism. just as those ideas were existing and sufficing unto itself. neo-Conjucianism: Fung Yu-lan Fung Yu4an is the highest philosophical authority in China at the present time. Hence he is more original. and does not have the philosophical bonze's purpose of salvation. between the one and the many. as we have remarked above. including that of Hu Shih. Neither material elements nor spiritual elements have any real nature in themselves. immanentistic idealism of Wang Ho Lin and others.

and by that. thus the norm of a being is the ideal law of this being. This modality is expressed by the two concepts of ancient philosophy. Reason. When the formal principle is actualized. Moral badness behaviour'. which exists eternally in itself and is not altered by its actualization in beings. This is Fung's great revolution. When an entity is actualized in accord with its 'norm'. to conform to the norm. In expounding these theories Fung Yu-lan corrects the fundamental concepts of neo-Confucianism and puts the Norm out beyond beings. The neo-Confucianists had claimed. The whole of these actualized norms is called the Great One. its nature is realized and its mission performed. an entity requires also another principle. on the other hand. ch'i. or the ideal good. the domain of truth. but from the point of view of actuality it is good. it is dynamic. and on its material principle. known by beings. . They are purely ^ Their activity produces the perpetual flux. By analysing actualized one can penetrate the domain of reality. systematic and objective study whence the utility of induction and the experimental method. From the practical point of view. From the logical point of view nature is neither good nor bad.THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION 51 The central concept ofthe Cheng-Chu school of neo-Confucianism was // ( 5^ ). In order to pass to being. Even though it be extra-temporal and extra-spatial. whereas ctii is passive and static. revealed. evolution in the course of transformation. If the nature. when an its called bad. The universe is only the Norm actualized. he sees them 'from the point of view of Heaven'. //. however. the constant (sic). When one considers things correctly. yin is destroyer and yang is creator. Every being formal principle. man ha3 to his knowledge. instead of leaving it immersed in the interior of reality. since it always follows the 'norm' to some degree. when he considers the myriads of beings as . the vital and is modelled on its material principle. entity does not reach a higher degree of norm. or ch'i ( ).a unity. he is in accord with jen (fe ). follows the norm completely. it is is thus a 'failure to develop its own nature. the Norm. the Ultimate One. then the nature and the norm are integrally To fulfil his mission. and puts himself into the transcendental world. the generator of movement. the Norm must rule the World. for the content of the norm can only be expand realized. yin ( p^b ) and yahg ( [H| ). This gradual evolution logical regularly embraces all beings.

even though the words may differ a little. When nameless. and adopted transcendentalism. and that it could not be beyond them. when it has a name. to say that the general tendency his philosophy is positivistic. or material) differ in name. and the manifestation. Therefore (only he who is) ever passionless mystery. while giving his own interpretation to this word. 'The Power which can be denned is not the eternal Power. He compares it with his Norm. it is the genetrix (mother) of all its things. Fung has broken with this sort of immanentism. Kuo Hsiang. From this point of view we sympathize with materialism/ 11 Many people. Their unity is a deep. is it not finally equivalent to a personal or impersonal God? For Fung.52 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY indeed. one of the principal commentators of Chuang Tzu. should be borne in mind now. that the norm was in things. a deep of deeps. Only the superior animals have a soul. (He who is) ever subject to his passions its may may behold (only) see external manifestations.. In order to set up his system he relies constantly on Chu Hsi. the mysterious or immaterial. . a universal. Be that as it may. Likewise he has developed the logical side. this transcendental //' or tao. but are the same in origin. it does not call for a real structure necessitating a soul. The existence of a cosmic spirit is impossible in our system. that the Taoist school represents (It the materialistic side of Chinese speculation. giving them God. it is the portal of all mystery/ 10 This impersonal or manifested tao seems clearly to have inspired more than one modern thinker besides Fung Yu-lan. . it is the origin of the Fung Yu-lan also universe . makes use of the Taoist idea of the tao (\ jj ). however. whereas the ancients had favoured the practical and moral side. whom he cites at every step. For us. 'We cannot admit the existence of a cosmic soul.e.) Fung rarely draws on Wang Yang-ming which is and hardly cites him except of to attack him. and when one rereads the first lines of the Tao Te Ching ( \jl fj|> $J ) of Lao Tzu. the name by which it can be named is not its eternal name. but he is influenced also by a Taoist philosopher. . practise a religion and believe in a real and that helps them to get beyond themselves. These two things (i. in no way: neither monotheism nor pantheism are admissible. the universe is only a general term. one is struck by the analogy between this tao and the // of Fung Yu-lan.

In the first stage. Idealistic neo-Confucianism: Ho Lin This Confucian rationalism. by the analysis of beings.' 12 Such animal. a truth. One discovers the traces of Reason or the transcendental Norm in material beings.THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION 53 at least the illusion of attaining an unattainable. that of science. In order to reach this transcendence. The sage penetrates into the holy of 'wisdom' by means of knowledge. he on the attains happiness. It is then in moral or social activity that man can attain the higher regions Now of the surpassing of self. One cannot admit the existence of a Norm or Reason beyond beings except in the sense of a term which is true 'logically'. 'Without moral activity the true we could not pass beyond the egoistical self. the beauty of ceremonies. and by that he exercises universe. one can choose between two paths. Happily there is another that city method of transcending experience which is accessible to all: is the practice of 'wisdom'. It is evident that this process is not available to everyone. the genius. despite the high authority of Fung Yu-lan. in a sudden illumination. yet does not seem to us to express the dominant tendency among Confucian thinkers. But to seek to transcend sensible experience must be the aim of all life. he has thereby a conscience and uses a real influence it. character of moral activity is to go beyond the egoistical self. is the difference between man and When man has attained to this stage. a false consolation. The surroundings and circumstances help them to create this psychological state the majesty of temples. and this furtive glimpse which he casts beyond the present world is called 'creation'. which teaches him to know the real. that of the genius and that of the sage. Finally this culminates in moral activity. he learns to go beyond experience: in the second. and then the true logic. etc. discovers all at once. in an intuitive flash. and not in the human heart as was asserted by Wang Yang-ming. scientific. by philosophical activity (not 'science').. philosophical. he learns to go beyond the egoistical self. and despite the official esteem which it has enjoyed during the centuries. the harmony of chants. not true 'really'. The greater number seems to us still to . that of moral practice. But it is only illusion. In this sense one can call him 'the soul of the world'. The man of talent. for thereby one tends towards the perfection of his norm.

and Hegel. Kant. as much in the line Plato. Professor of philosophy at the University of Peking. while according the preeminence to action. only he insisted on the difficulty of knowing. The dream of this author is to unite these two philosophies. however. He studied in Germany. Ho Lin enunciated an axiom of universal import. where he specialized in the study of Hegel. Wang Yang-ming advocated the union of knowledge and action. Be that as it may. Responding to an address by Chiang Kai-shek. according to collections of his studies. is akeady action. He dwells above all on moral and cultural problems. for they are 'the two greatest philosophies of the world'. essays. not any systematic work. they perfectly interpenetrate each other: 'Knowledge. which knowledge. While doing enlightened. he recommends the cult of heroes as the foundation of education. it is easy to review the principal questions with which he is preoccupied. although his authority is not comparable to that of Fung Yu-lan. He concludes that the commentary of Chiang Kai-shek adds a new point ofview. but in China he is best known for his commentaries on Wang Yang-ming and Sun Yat-sen.54 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY follow the interpretation of Wang Yang-ming. Ho Lin composed a small book on the question of'knowledge and action. it is is 14 the same. We are assured. and it devolves . Resolutely the idealist. who had taken it upon himself to modify an essential formula of Wang Yang-ming. in so far as already knowledge/ Sun Yat-sen was taken with this theory and applied it to the political domain. without action one could not speak of knowledge. In education to neglect the cult of heroes amounts to neglecting the formation of personality and character. to enliven them. sincere. He especially had in mind a moral point of view: 'True knowledge is for action. of neo-Confucianism as in the Occidental tradition of Aristotle. that he will soon publish the main points of his metaphysics. that they are only two aspects of the same truth. solves the problem: it not in speculative truth. action. in order to show that the points of view of Sun and Wang are not very different at bottom. the one by the other. Among all the disciples of the great idealist thinker. is in action that one finds true Thus far Ho Lin has published only fragmentary studies. in so far as it is true. Ho Lin is one of the best representatives of Sino-Occidental idealism. and criticisms. Ho Lin may be considered the most eminent.' 13 Besides.

This depersonalization renders classes dreary. if exterior action is not joined to interior virtue. reflection. bring together especially Chinese Confucianist on traditional . especially of speculative concepts/ 19 The attitude author is so imbued with the importance of theoretical knowledge. we absorb the spiritual heritage of the past and the marrow of modern thought.THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION 55 into a purely commercial. for culture. mechanical enterprise. truly. banal. 16 Indeed. even conceptual knowledge is indispensable is the necessary preparation for modern creation. and recognize the true value of theory. which is the fruit of so much work. To begin with. the civilized from the savage. 16 This cult of heroes in developing in man the understanding of the struggle to subdue blind reality and to triumph over the oppressions which hinder the happiness of modern man. Study differentiates man from animal. 'Yes. they should modify their traditional practical of adoration of matter and military force. pjj A Brief Exposition of Idealism (jr f\ *$t as '^ much To sum up: Ho Lin's on Occidental systems ^f ) published in 1942. they should take account of the power of concepts. is given to us crystallized and condensed. as well as of his ^ preceding work. the material and economic prosperity of the nation cannot rest on solid bases. would not in the end be a real economic value/ 17 Along with the creed of action it is necessary to develop the taste for study. he draws as Chinese philosophy. my opinions. By study we come into contact with the most eminent minds of all times. There lies one of must eventuate the truly great dangers of education in China. and this thought. It is necessary to cultivate confidence in oneself and in others. power/ today: 18 it Theoretical. and is part of our flesh and blood every moment. that he makes it the principal subject of his recent book Culture and Life ( ^&j A. 'If the Chinese want to enter by the door of science. but persevere whence the importance of optimism as an attitude of life. The author himself states in die preface to Culture and Life: *My judgments. but 'the optimistic attitude depends on the ideal'. thought has no frontiers. by study man has a holy riches. *A progress based on a mere accumulation of money or which did not result in striving after wisdom and virtue. In case of failure he must not be discouraged. dry and lifeless. of culture. to penetrate into the palace of technique. j ) (1947). discussion and reading.

If we prefer to place him among the Orientalists'. Fichte.5<5 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY thought and that of Kant. in fact. civilization cannot perish. traditional Confucianism. means to know poetry. The problem which has principally concerned him is that of civilization. the representatives of Occidental idealism/ In other words. for it contains. poetry and literature corresponding to goodness. So long as the human expresses the heart exists. and Hegel. He possesses a background of poetry. but he does not seek to explain it by means of Buddhist or Taoist thought. beauty and truth. literature. Mencius. of traditional . Chu Hsi and Wang Yang-ming. ). and not in material conditions. ( \T& ji: and The General Meaning of the Four Books he has synthesized and explained the doctrine of the four neo-Confucian Canons. That. associate professor at the Institute more !fe definitely Confucian Conversations at T'ai Ho ( ?ftr in of Life Renovation. is whole of his thought. The syncretism thus obtained would revitalize Confucian thought and give it a new to inaugurate a philosophical system scope. Conversations at I Shan ). Kant and Hegel with Consynthesis fucius. the Analects of Confucius. rites. One sees that Ho Lin is rather difficult to catalogue in one camp or the other. 20 These six sections of culture have their origin in the human heart. as some others have done. Thus culture is in essence spiritual from the start. He desires which would be made up of a of Socrates. history and etiquette. * Ma I-fu. the three branches of knowledge necessary to every orthodox Confucian. According to him culture is summed up in six arts. but later he draws nearer to Wang Yang-ming. the six arts held in honour by Confucianism. Even Occidental culture can be comprised within this cultural system. In the ^ ( ^^ ^ JjL ^ ^^^ ). the Doctrine of the Mean and Mencius. Plato. rites and music to beauty. it is because of his general view and his writings on Wang Yang-ming. history and etiquette to truth. the same values of goodness. rites and metaphysics. of the six arts. Aristotle. These six arts represent the spiritual activity of every man. German idealism and Confucian idealism are his inspirations: the one completes the other. Thus he shows himself to be an adept of the original. This universal value of Confucianism. music. the Great Learning. At the beginning he follows the interpretation of Chu Hsi. as he puts it.

it has no other way/ 21 Confucianism is not limited to the few authors whose essential theses we have analysed. much commentated upon. Sun Yat-sen retains two elements of that tradition in particular. the principal actor of the revolution of 1911 which overthrew the Empire in favour of a republic. his ideas were borrowed from the great economists and politicians of the Occident. whom we have already mentioned earlier. and so included among the philosophers of national derivation. whence his appellation. such as Chang Chiin-mai.. It would be necessary to add many other names of the first rank. Sun Yat-sen and Chiang K'ai-shek for political and economic doctrine. lectures delivered at Canton in 1924. Liang Shu-ming. as we have 3\. What interests us here about the theories of Sun Yat-sen is their ideological foundation.THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION Chinese culture. and Ch'en Li-fu for the metaphysical foundation. the ideal of the great harmony. or Tridemism ( ). and social principles have been expounded in his famous book. the Confucian virtue par excellence. he wanted to to . The philosophy of tridemism: Sun Yat-sen. As for political party techniques. The Three Principles a collection of J^ 3. Chiang K'ai-shek There remains a third group of thinkers greatly influenced by Confucianism. and consciousness of the problem of the relation between knowledge and action. Sun Yat-sen was. ) . as everyone knows. but the underlying thought on which they rest derives from the Confucian ( ^ tradition. These are the theoreticians of the Nationalist Party. Father of the Country'. etc. His economic. )S\ ^ seen. This ideal was taken up again and delineated by K'ang Yu-wei. It does not enter into our subject to explain the essential ideas of that work. who.J^ of the People. *If 57 humanity wishes to issue forth from darkness and advance towards the light. and love among men. brotherhood. political. He wanted of his people as of other peoples. Confucius had developed a Utopian ideal of peace and universal brotherhood by the practice ofjen JZL . for an ultimate book (Ta T'ung Shu In his turn Sun Yat-sen was haunted by the yearning universal peace founded upon a sense of brotherhood made it the subject of a special which would unite the peoples procure the welfare of the entire world. equivalent to our concepts of humanity.

Sun Yat-sen experienced bitter disillusionment in the pursuit of his dreams. it is because 23 In short Sun emphasizes the they are completely ignorant. That is why he launched a campaign to after know/ 22 On reform the popular champion union of action and knowledge. Becoming an ordinary citizen again. as we have stated earlier. Demonstration of this thesis is the object of a book which he published in 1918 under the title On Psychological Reconstruction repercussions <> 2Q Jt 1^1^ ). had strongly insisted on the synthesis of knowledge and action. To know and to act are but one. was the between knowledge and action. The old tradition is false. The Confucianist aspiration was already 'socialism' before the word was give invented. this in order to remedy a grave defect among the literati. That which could be psychologically exact in the time of Wang Yang-ming.' difficulty of knowledge. as the nation them peace within and without a desire all the more ardent became more and more disordered. If you do nothing. that they rather neglected action. Those men were so imbued with the importance of culture. rror concerning knowledge and action: 'I the doctrines of Wang Yang-ming. rather than in the incapacity to act.' as many people believe. Hence Sun Yat-sen: 'As soon as you know. Sun affirms that this teaching was more disastrous than useful to the Chinese people. he reflected on the causes of his failure and was persuaded that the root of the difficulty was in ignorance. He felt himself so badly supported that he offered his resignation. of knowledge. I understand the reasons for China's weakness. is not to himself in order to try to the very morrow of his political triumphs of 1911. 'Even if the teaching of Wang Yang-ming contributed to the awakening of Japan. But conditions have changed. If our people do not act. It is opposed to the truth. The second relation Confucianist element on which Sun Yat-sen based instil a new spirit into the people.58 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY in him. Wang Yang-ming. is not so today. overthrown the Empire and seen himself proclaimed having the first President of the Chinese Republic. who advocated the He gives a series often examples to prove the difficulty of knowledge and the easiness of action. thus taking a different view from Wang Yang-ming. a book which had many and was afterwards studied and commentated on by ( . act. what good is your knowledge to you? It will lose all significance: not to act.

and action is creator. action. 1934. He wants to ). approves it and makes it his own. but still derived from it a doctrine of action. ^ imbue his compatriots with this spirit of action. the future of China will be great/ 24 The successor of Sun Yat-sen. 'In the universe without any regard to the age or the circumstances there is but one word. When he launched the we 15.' 26 Besides this propaganda in favour of action in which he takes without so saying the opposite attitude to Sun Yat-sen. audacious action. but which is none the less an error. we have to consider the philosophy of action as our 25 jg| philosophy of life. Chiang returns to this teaching V^| of Sun Yat-sen. they should take the initiative and transform their cold lethargy into a warm enthusiasm for progress. China s Destiny ( ^ ^ published in March 1943. Chiang K'ai-shek. I hope that they will abandon this false dogma which may seem correct at first view. to think that 'action is easy and knowledge hard*. In other words. I deem it my duty to deliver the minds of my countrymen from this preconceived idea that 'to know is easy and to act difficult'. 59 The author Chinese today. While he was still only the director of the Whampoa Military Academy. retained this new theory that 'action is easy and knowledge hard'... at expected least most of them. practically returning to Wang Yang-ming. Thus the idea that to know is difficult and that Action is easy forms the centre of our philosophy of life. This tendency is unfortunate. determined. In particular they must change their present attitude of passivity and depression into positive. by repeated explanations and arguments. which seems to him the key to the whole psychological reconstruction of the nation: 'Our fellow citizens should actively become creators. If I succeed. he commented to the cadets on many occasions on the motto of Wang Yang-ming and the correction given it by Sun Yat-sen. In our age of science we have come to much of this campaign of ideas: 'The honour knowledge as much as action . it was as the purpose of restoring a national spirit to China have seen for New Life Movement on February . Chiang K'ai-shek has also worked to restore the ancient ideals of the Confucian ethic.THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION the philosophers and theoreticians of the Kuomintang.' In his book. to bring them. despise knowledge and admire action. He even made it the foundation of his oral and written teaching.

He considers this philosophy of life. and later explained by the literati of the Hati Dynasty. and in the writings and of statesmen like Wang Ching-wei. Ch'en Li-fu set materialism. which dates from 1934. rectitude. and in that out to keep the exact balance between idealism and way to steer clear of the drawbacks of the monism. was to restore to the people an ideology. in which he elaborated a new system of philosophy called Vitalism' furnishing a metaphysical foundation for tridemism. as the highest expression of morals which exists in the world: China's own philosophy. The latter. He aspires to effect a synthesis between idealism and materialism in the . justice. and of dualism. Hence name of vitalism which he gives to his system. superior to all The glories and the design of other philosophies in the world. reason. were warm apostles of Confucianism. whether idealistic or materialistic. so as to battle against the theories of materialism and class strife. Ch'en Li-fu.' among Response to this vigorous campaign by the Chief of State in favour of Confucianism was evinced not only in the quite rapid extension of the New Life Movement. gave a series of lectures which were later brought together in a book. His point of departure was a phrase of Sun Yat-sen's expressed thus: 'Life is the centre df the world/ Stressing this concept of *life*. . North China General Sung Che-yuan. and great virtues of Confucianism. They established schools to bring the study of the in Confucian Classics back into favour. The aim of this resurrection of Confucianism. The metaphysics oj tridemism: the vitalism ofCHen Li-fu During the same period another politician. This he calls ethical reconstruction. characteristic of China. In Chinas Destiny he proclaims anew the first necessity in the strengthening of the nation. developed by Confucius. but also in the personal initiative of certain provincial governors. is automatically a sublime system. in Honan General Ho Chien.60 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY - by reviving the honour. amplified * and propagated by Mencius. warmly sang the praises of Confucius and his culture. . the ancient Chinese doctrines have never been equalled 27 today's Occidental Powers. . In Kwangtung discourses Governor-General Chen Chi-tang. both before and after his passing over to co-operation with the Japanese.

of Goodness. thanks to the spirit of . matter. from the fact of the substantial unity constituting their being the primitive monad of all beings are distinguished only by free mobility or stable immobility. which is the smallest cosmic unity possible metaphysically what is called electron or cell or atom consists of a static quality. he notes.THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION transcendent. Indeed spirit and matter. Having arrived at the stage of the monad 'man'. power of resistance. 'in the universe. growth. Having man. for. takes a singular One cannot forbear to remark that the author way of refuting materialism. even the minerals. There is even a gradation within each species. there 6l is no being enformed from spirit or entirely buried in matter. ultimate stage. in which existence is the most perfect last refinements. The monad. of incessant progress. and the faculty of transmitting life. being in possession of all the and value of life He^in the effort to beautify it. The multiplicity of entities and species comes from the variable number of monads or their combinations in the interior of an entity. vegetable. Not only do tirely absolute spirit and pure matter not exist. the animal. since in his view. but also matter and spirit are essentially relative terms. attained to the perfect. The meaning possible. the ultimate goal of hand from the endeavour. Thus coral is cited as forming the intermediary link between mineral and vegetable. Through these diverse activities man evolves and progresses all down through history. offering between them only a difference in degree. since they are endowed with spiritual energy and material substance. Before arriving at state raw traverses the stage the ideal state. and culminates in the stage of Beauty. or improved existence. This progress starts with existence. for certain species form the bridge from one kingdom to another. Far from getting rid of it. they are then correlative/ 28 Here is the basic principle upon which his whole system his rests. and mineral. the of existence that one can consider as Truth. the only difference between is a smaller or beings larger dose of spirit among the three kingdoms of nature. All are faced with the struggle for existence. humanity must go through seven stages. spirit. and a dynamic force. he only gives it a helping start. All these entities have life to one degree or another. and this struggle is the principle of worldly evolution. the author studies the exercise of the human faculties on four planes of action: autonomy or free will.

(3) the (2) Chiang K'ai-shek inaugurating General Ho Chien establishing Confocianist schools in Hunan. The year 1934 saw (i) the Communist armies leave Kiangsi to undertake the famous Long March which State in the north resulted in the formation of a new Communist of Shensi.62 HFTY YBAfcS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY cooperation. gives the best that he has. 'We believe'. or sex. The synthesis of these two civilizations is indispensable to the creation of the international society of the Great Concord. class. Life is worthy to be called beautiful and harmonious only in such a community. and mutual love. The one will furnish the material element and the other the spiritual element. and takes what he wishes according to his needs. says the author. This is the Confucian ideal of universal concord. whereas Occidental the material phase whence its efforts and its success in scientific emphasis on the spiritual phase of discoveries. in order world of universal concord. trust.ish the Communist State in Kiangsi. The lectures of Ch'en Li-fu to the students of the School of Political Science in . pursuit of this ideal society the Orient and Occident vie ardently. It is above all a reaction Against the rise of the Maoist philosophy within the ranks of the Chinese intelligentsia. politicians and military governors also undertook an ideological offensive to restore the Confucian ideal to favour. but in a different manner. It marks an attempt to unite Confucianism and science. the ancient conception of the Great Concord with the socialistic ideal of a dream-society. Having in constantly live to a mind the idea of existence and collective progress. in perfect concord. New Life Movement. but on the whole it has not elicited any great response. men standard of absolute equality. the Marxist In the and Ch'en Li-fu intends by upholding it to defeat dream of the final communist society. and more especially on the between men. and sincerity. and that we Chinese spiritual must develop and augment in ourselves these spiritual elements in order to create the civilization with which to endow humanity/ 29 Several authors have tried to exploit this new metaphysic. civilization kys stress on fidelity. must adopt the characteristics of Chinese civilization. and (4) the philosopher Chang Tung*-$un publishing a book of philosophical essays criticizing Marxism. such as benevolence. Chinese civilization puts the virtues necessary to the relations life. *that humanity. While the Kuomintang to attain to this ideal armies made a last effort to cn. without distinction of race.

. Briefly. Bygqne authors of antiquity have also been studied a great deal the Taoists for their worship of Nature. 67. fa ft ^ ||j) ty 6. of Buddhism jfc .C. and that Buddhism. The greatest part of opinion sages of China. p. Mo Ti for of universal love and his pragmatic.. ibid. 209. 4. to are sum up in a few lines more obviously of Oriental still this account of the systems which derivation. . The author has of the above quoted material is not indicated whether or not taken from 3. 7. second in favour. utilitarian elements. p. p. 15. he.C. is trying to climb back up from its decadence by deepening its philosophy and attempting to harmonize it with science and with Occidental thought. is not listed in the Bibliography. nor is he listed in the Bibliography. to establish this. ibid.B. 2. 70. note: This tide The A. But none of Lao Tzu and Ghuang Tzu his theories these has inspired the thinkers of the period in a profound enough way to give birth to syncretist systems in which the old ideas would be the predominant elements. Ho Lin. Tr. it must be said that spiritual force Confucianism remains a force.* A. Contemporary Chinese Philosophy . book. 1. and Wang 30 Ch'ung and Wang An-shih for their socialist ideas.B. task is it Our now is no longer being led by the ancient has resolutely turned towards Occidental theories. Tr. 14. T'ai Hsu. ^ dL 1941.. Tai Hsii's Discourses &* & all 5% - ^ > voL : p. so that it was not by * ( chance that a collection of these lectures entitled Vitalism j| ^ appeared in the same year.THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION Nanking -f^a* ) 63 certainly followed a studied plan. p. the greatest of China. this same source. Han Fei Tzu for his conception of government by law. note: The author does not give Chinese characters for either this man or his 5.

the Music (and Ritual Dances). 261. p.. 16. &t\ if fy . ibid. 1947. 1937. loc. Ho 22. Paris. 1913. London. 19. ibid. Sun Yat-sen. Ho not Tr. p. 246. 226.e. 11. no. Lin. 13.. 25. p. La Philosophic Morale de Wang (Varietcs Sinologiques. Chiang K'ai-shek: Soldier and Statesman (authorized biography). 165. Tong. ibid. dt.64 8. Ho Lin in the work cited (see note 5). 12. 161. p. Wang Tch'ang-tche. 15. 47-8. 142. 17. these compendia being in scriptures: the Poems (or Songs). Souvenirs fun Revolutionnaire Chinois. Preface. and the Changes and the Spring-and-Autumn appertain to truth/ canonical status in 21. 604. note: See above.. quotation mark in the X. 1933. the Changes. Tr. . ^ |f >^C ^ " SSJ ^ 1941. dt. Part One. p. ^ & . Shanghai. 20. the Historical Writings (or Documents). E. W. 1 8. p. 23. note 24. 'Lui I* the and 'etiquette'. NewLiHsueh ibid. 10. p. but in Arts) originally denoted the six branches of Eastern-Chou education Han times the term came to be a common expres- sion for six Confucianist compendia. Shanghai. 63). note: There is no initial ^3? A. loc. FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 9. the Rituals and the Music appertain to beauty.. the Rituals. p. error: presumably some proof-reading otiose repetition in 'ritual' note. 303. 13. Lin. According to [i. Contemporary Chinese Philosophy . 90. The term (the Six for nobles. The neo-Confucians while exalting 'the Four Books' to prime no sense de-canonized the other Scriptures. note: There is obviously some confusion in the foregoing. Cited by Hollington K.. ibid. Soothill. 1 02. ibid. p. for example. *Among the Six Arts Scriptures] the Poems and the Historical Writings appertain to goodness. p. 24. ibid. 83. text. Tr. pp.. n. Culture and Life Yang-ming 14. p. The Three Religions of China. 1936.. This work is listed in the Bibliography.. 17. vol. p. p. and the Spring-and-Autumn Annals (of Lu process of becoming canonical State). 3rd ed.

29. he has ventured to replace the name of Kung-sun Lung immediately above with that of Han Fei Tztt. . However. p. since it is obvious to that this was a slip of the author's pen. 26.. so the translator has not changed the text. p. Tr. Vitalism 29. 28. ibid. 307. 1934. p. fa i*jj the quotation as the author has given it. ^^ Q_ . 163. note: Both here and in the Bibliography Wang Ch'ung is stated have espoused socialistic ideas. 65 9 Chiang K'ai-shek. Tr. Ch'enLi-fu. 1944.THE SYSTEMS OF ORIENTAL DERIVATION. The Origin of Life ^ 30. 27. ^'|J 1943. 1 6. although it does not illustrate the sentence immediately preceding. *& . note: This is Ch'en Li~fu. ty \l ^^ ^ . as it does not give the other half of the equation: the material elements of Occidental civilization. Chinas Destiny p.

after traversed and philosophical ages. cease to use some elements traditional Chinese systems. The idealists themselves are divided into Kantians. and. moralists and aestheticians. so this division seems the most convenient. That is why it is necessary to turn towards the inspiration more logical Occidental systems. after the example of Li Shih-ts'en. he'had awakened in him 66 Chang Tung-sun. To tell the truth. In classifying the principal thinkers who have been moved by this we shall adopt the customary division into metaphysicians. hardly any follow one system exclusively all are eclectics. we shall therefore place them among the followers of this Chang Tung-sun. Hegelians. logicians. Doubtless many authors have explored these various sections goodly number of those who of philosophy in turn. spirit. theological Man. but there are a have specialized in one of the branches exclusively. whom we have examined above. even though there are those who have passed from one camp into the other. drawing from scientific theories.PART THREE THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION immense majority of the intellectuals profess Comte's having finally THE more of the axiom on the the three ages of mankind. Platonists. etc. Consequently all philosophy which seeks to survive must be scientific philosophy. Bergsonians. master. the neo-Kantian socialist The best representative of Occidental philosophy as early as the is incontro- vertibly age of eighteen. The metaphysicians must in their turn be divided into idealists and materialists. reaches the scientific age. when he read a classic treatise of Buddhism. but since in general they manifest some preferences for a particular author. From .

or the logical problem. sensation is at most indicative of the external world. Russell and Bergson. The consequence of this rejection of sensation is a radical negation a product of the synthesizing that the data of sensation are the material is . William James. There is a world of structures: although permanent and definite in themselves. elastic. and hence probably illusory and without reality. The object of knowledge is a very complex world. from physics like Russell. Kant. from biology like Bergson. To proceed from psychology like W. or from ethics like Plato. aesthetic. and neglected the problem of the 'True'. From that study he derived an eclectic system dominated especially by the influence of Kant. moral and religious. but we try to make them intelligible. 'GoodV or for according to interest him Occidental science was bound up with the From taken by the philosophers in the problem of knowledge. consideration of these multiple factors of knowledge. Morgan and Wundt. Observing that Chinese philosophers had searched into the problem of the the moral problem. he calls his system 'epistemological pluralism'. the infrastructures seem plastic or elastic according to sensation. he concluded that this negligence had been one of the major reasons for the lack of science in China. a world of phenomena of the natural world. His point of departure is then the problem of knowledge. seemed to him less happy. There is a world of infrastructures: that is. In the main he is inspired by the critical philosophy of Kant. and from this come all sorts of explanations of the world scientific. Dewey. he returned to China to devote himself to university teaching and the editing of various reviews. there is the world of interpretations: not only do we construct many 'fictions'. Lewis. After having finished his studies at Tokyo University. then on he devoted himself to the study of all the authors who have gone deeply into epistemology: Plato. which seems like something plastic. The exterior world is the world of laws.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION 67 a lively penchant for philosophy. in such a way that we can construct images and project them on them.James. philosophic. Hume. There is a world of sensation: being intermediate between subject and object. In particular he denies that the order of the external world power of the mind and of knowledge. In. and he translated certain of the Dialogues of Plato and the works of Bergson. Lastly. but he is at variance with it on some important points.

. . constitutes the is nothing more than empty whence the name 'panstructuralism* structure. without reality. He has had to pass through many inferior stages in order to arrive at his present stage. In reality. psychological laws and not In other words. on the contrary. there is no substance. Since order. 'The terms matter. and spirit.' 1 In short the concept of substance. but only structures an empty term which corresponds to nothing existent. that which we know of truth in connection with matter reduces itself to mathematical formulas/ 2 Let us also banish for ever disastrous to this concept of 'substance' as our thinking. . 1 consider'. which have no more reality than the terms "great" or "beautiful". Mathematical formulas.. biological laws and not life.. Finally. inheritance bring us much closer to matter. that neither matter. Civilized man was not made in a day. In short "matter" is the general term which designates the physical laws. if one adds the biological laws to the physical laws. We the physical laws for matter. whereas evolution is connected with the idea of liberty. all is structure. it evolves without this ceasing. nor Matter is life. cosmological system the author draws his conception Although the world is only structure. and these spirit. structures cannot be free of our consciousness. From of life. are only concepts. an from Aristotelian thought. The discovery of this truth fruitful era in the field of thought. This conception of evolution governs our conception of life. Thus there are physical laws and not matter. nor spirit. life. the world is only 'structure*. a convenient hypothesis. one gets the concept of 3 "spirit"/ In other words. one obtains the concept of "life". In the . the biological laws for life. which he gives to his cosmology. 'that there is truth of the external world. does not seem to him more than a term. he says.68 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY of the concept of substance. The same prefer to substitute goes for the concepts of life and spirit. giving birth to new very inaugurates a new and species. Always it is necessary to establish a distinction between 'becoming' and 'evolution': becoming implips the idea of necessity. Thus it is with the flowers in a mirror: they lose neither their colour nor their form but they are in the mirror. or law. which is at bottom only a lazy habit of thought. . The moral judgment which makes us condemn a bad action definitely proves evolution. and the psychological laws for spirit. if one joins the psychological laws to the preceding.

among whom belief in materialistic positivism has done away with all metaphysical doubt of this kind. animal hold in regard to them is. to 'curb' them. from the positive point of view. thanks to individual heredity and social experiences.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION 69 course of history he has at the same time augmented his scientific knowledge and developed his moral judgment. therefore. and from the negative point of view. his thought does not rise up the hypothesis of a God. quite rare among the modern thinkers of China. and the policy to He can transform his natural. but does this apply also to imof the soul? In these latter years there have been many mortality experiments on this subject.' 4 An honest admission. The progress. it in turn reacts on him: they correct each other. who works towards the perhas relations with society. For me also it is an unresolved question. he illogical. Still. Man commenced by groping. The is evident. intellectual and moral. Chang Tung-sun believes that even if science were to prove the immortality of the soul by experimental methods. he does not set is hypothesis continue to perfect himself and to make civilization himself. to 'sublimate' them. ideal. They have not led to any result. The development of man is then twofold. The ideal will always be to try to transcend first step on this path is 'knowledge'. they no longer deny categorically as in the past. rational life. the ideal of man would not be radically changed. life into an animated by a purpose. While necessarily he influences society. In this. his superiority over the animal. Moreover the continuity of society poses the problem of immortality. to contend immortality of society that nothing subsists after death is a premature matter. and the question remains in suspense. Thanks to his reason man is conscious of this development. knowledge and conduct are inseparable. Man must by any higher. our reason runs into the obstacle of the passions. that is the reason why thinkers . 'It is a point well worthy of remark: today the great number of scholars are inclined towards an attitude of doubt. instinctive. is this possibility of intellectual and moral self-cultivation the great nobility of man. At the present time. In this march to the ideal. and little by little he discovered all the principles of ethics. It is useless to curse civilization: it is necessary to work for its the other hand the individual life On fection of his moral progress and to try to establish an ideal society.

nor a bloody revolution. Hence progress has no end. He abandoned metaphysics for sociology. as he finds Marx's angle of vision too narrow. He has therefore turned towards Marx. I have studied it from the standpoint of sociology. During the war his thought underwent a profound evolution. and he tried several times to be the bridge in negotiations between Nationalists and Communists. Even though 'class' influences individual thought. Indeed. Very few have noticed this change. Long imbued with idealistic and liberal socialism. and this involved another philosophy. he had always been opposed to the Kuominthree works. Thus I have simultaneously studied epistemology and sociology. The evolution of morals entails the evolution have is of other co-relative aspects of culture. By it we can begin to study 6 philosophy/ Such were the words with which he addressed the students of Peking University in April 1947. he had had the leisure to reflect and to write. The whole constitutes 'culture'. 'Not long ago I was studying the problem of knowledge especially according to Kant. but since then I have changed. in tang as well as the Communist Party. 'One can have socialist ideas without belonging to the working class/ 7 according to the example of Marx and Engels themselves. Because of this same liberalism. A very liberal and changeable spirit. during his imprisonment under the Japanese occupation. he wanted . This emphasis on the evolution of liberty is the reflection of his temperament. He abandoned his old party and his friend Chang Chiin-mai to enter the new party of the Democratic League. and the development of morals is unlimited. . The second and most important (sic) moral progress.neither the political hegemony of the first. it is not the only determining element of thought. Epistemological sociology is a new science. politics. 'Morals is step integrated into all culture. it was Karl Marx who founded it. such as economics.70 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY all advocated idealism. for they go by my former books when studying me. but still without admitting it. still young. I have turned to the social studies with much interest and ceased to be a specialist in the mysteries of metaphysics. and the progress of morals follows the progress of culture. and technology/ 5 The ideal remains always inaccessible. The result was the publication in 1946 of which he brings to the fore his reflections concerning the concepts of democracy and society. he is himself the appropriate illustration of his theories.

Further. instead by collaboration with the peaswhich presupposes the return of students of residing in the cities. save among a few thinkers such as Ma Liang Shu-ming or Hsiung Shih-li. Entrusting peasants with the guiding of themselves does not make sense. The agrarian problem teaching. In reality socialism alone is the democratic orthodoxy. ideal is He complains precisely because this second part of the is forgotten. his are appearing in these latter years. he does not Since then his thought has further evolved. after strive still less to be gentlemen/ 8 In still resists: thought veers towards Marx. the State will follow into oblivion in their train/ 9 And some lines . it was because democracy in the nineteenth century had deviated by depending upon capitalism.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION Jl He suddenly discovers the leading role which the intellectuals must play in guiding politics a role formerly filled to general satisfaction by the literati. I-fu. as the evolution of the Occident shows. Marxism recognizes the State in the countries of today as nothing more than an organism by which the possessing classes administer their common interests. He has been quite a supporter of the 'collective farms'. for Marx repudiated the absolute character of morals. is Marxism concludes: 'Not only have we proved that democracy. but completely renounce his old ideal. The attitude of the literati of other days dis- appearing more and more. short. In 1947 he published a small tract of 95 pages. The intellectuals play this role possible in two ways: either by ants in the campaign to the interior. 'The intellectuals who having embraced materialism. democracy and socialism seem to be the only orthodoxy in politics. but also we say that the ideal elements He constituting Marxism are the same as those of anarchism. The theme of this little book is that today democracy and socialism are synonymous. the acquisition of science must be accompanied by moral education. He declares that the leftward tendency augments this state of mind. on the day when the classes have disappeared. in which he is seen to be more resolutely committed to the Marxian way. or preoccupies him. who were a counterbalance to imperial absolutism. If we grant there was a time when Marxism and democracy were hateful. On this point he remains faithful to Kant. Therefore. He thus reclaims for them the right and the duty to direct the democratic movement since. but without demanding the abolition of private property.

there are many other thinkers who Cheng Hsin is considered as being the first whose warmest partisan he is: *I believe that is merit the same courtesy. Although Kantism thus exercised a certain influence in China. speaking ideal. If one wishes the maximum liberty. He has explored the spirit of Chinese philosophy in order to show that the practical reason of Kant surpasses the theoretical reason.' 11 Mou Tsung-san has stressed the Kantian critique of reason. Various idealisms: Hegelian. after having shown that the ultimate aim of Marxism and even of work: 'As for me. we can apply to theories: absolute evolution leads to anarchy! him own If Chang Tung-sun might still be considered a Kantian because of his metaphysics. For the rest the Anglo-Saxon neo-Hegelianism of Bradley . He is not alone. having written his thesis at Oxford on The Moral Philosophy of Hegel. but the critics affirm that it is above all an introduction to the metaphysics of Hegel. Platonic. etc. England and Germany. It certainly is not common to see an adversary of Marxism end up in the camp of his enemies and adore that which he had branded. and he has tried to interpret the I Ching and its diagrams with the principles of Whitehead. and all authority has a constraining organism character. who studied more than ten years in America. where he taught the philosophy of Kant and Hegel. he must not be under the domination of anyone/ 10 of the The intellectual itinerary of Chang Tung-sun has surprised and scandalized several of his friends. and he has broken with them. Shih Yu-chung published in 1943 an introduction to metaphysics under the title Mind (3j$ *>* }. to have introduced Kant. Government is an which uses authority. We have already mentioned Ho Lin as being a specialist on Hegel. this being the principal influence to which he refers. the philosophy of Kant the highest good sense in philosophy. It is the result of an uncurbed liberalism which does not rest on any his solid principle. Chang Chen-ju.72 later is FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY he adds. returned to China to take a chair of philosophy at Peking University. that of Hegel was certainly more important. I personally the abolition of the State hold to anarchism. In another sense than his.

Lin and Chang Shih-chao. Shanghai. innate in the heart and develops by contact with matter. John's In 1933 he published his first book. Hsieh Yu-wei is a convinced idealist. is Fu T'ung-hsien. In the most recent of his works. whereas modern Chinese philosophy. *It is aesthetic experience which is the meeting place between spirit and matter. The University. to the times. Modern Occidental thought seems to him to be summed up in six points: (i) the identity of Heaven and Man. Critique of the Masterpieces of Contemporary Philosophy (i& ft he analyses the following authors: 4 ^^ j i Hsiung Price. with a practical spirit. . but has devoted himself to critical essays on contemporary thinkers. . Still in the line of idealism but closer to spiritualism than all the professor of philosophy in St. which is itself under the influence ofthe neo-Hegelianism of Bradley and Royce. (2) a revolt against matter. ^Ho ) (1947).' 12 In short. Adler. Shih-li. He of the also discusses at length the principal respective characteristics philosophies of China and the Occident. (4) preponderance accorded to the idea of value. Hume. He has not published a personal system. consequently the mind governs reality and the latter serves as its instrument. Here are some of his formulas: 'The mind is the substance. or a revolt against dualism. 9 experience all is the phenomenon. (3) a tendency towards idealism. Alexander and Tagore. he is a subjective idealist. In the preface he announces that his studies of the past two or three years have been others. . (5) attention paid to history. Each and the object are made one. ^a -^ ( concentrated on this problem. For his part Hsieh Yu-wei has instead followed Anglo-Saxon neo-realism. completes intuition by reason and adopts a philosophical attitude.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION 73 and Bosanquet has furnished him with many of his elements. for China. Dewey. Croce. head. all religious him all logical principle. utilizing the method of intuition and showing a religious attitude. Whiteamong the foreigners. (6) and finally minute exactitude of analysis by following scientific methods and mathematical logic. In short. and that he has read successively the . as a corollary to (2). considers theory and practice of the same importance. itself: the forgets subject to judge from the bent of his thought. Problem of Knowledge ( $fo *|S| ). According to aesthetic law. the noumenon. His conclusion is that ancient Chinese philosophy is idealistic. which still inclines towards idealism. is moral and dogma.

But this complex. 'The religious experience is a complex psychological state made up many aspects: the pure sentiment of love. goodness. good. transcendent. in this inarch towards the ideal. Berkeley. Kant. Among these three values of truth. man follows human reason. In short. the social influences which modify it. tomorrow he wiH battle against himself. the elements of the conscience which pass judgment on good and evil. the wisdom of the mind . by which one can reach the ideal world of of the union of pure love. pure beauty.) (1948). idealistic thought in ethics and in aesthetics. the section of philosophy His latest ^ which he thinks the most important. In practice he ends up in conceptualism. due to the troubled circumstances of China. and pure goodness. He also analyses at length the influence of religion on morals.' which have a universal character: Buddhism. His book is merely a critical analysis of the principal theories of knowledge. today he fights against society. religion drives man to correct himself and to improve society. That is why he wants to set forth the elements of the conduct of life. earth. the effect of the family and the school on the formation of the heart.. despite all the esteem which he attaches to religions.. He finds that it is best not to flee from reality. and beauty. Yesterday man struggled against nature. and he believes that moral judgment progresses with the complexity of life and the acquisition of knowledge. the sources of moral judgment. develop (1947).74 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY works of Locke. he . but to strive to realize happiness on perfectly true. to struggle to bring about the ideal of a world and beautiful. In the first he begins by mentioning the rather general tendency to laxity of morals. He establishes the essential characteristics of human nature. he does not seem personally to adhere to any. ideal world cannot be attained by the 13 The author also surveys the various religions majority of men. However. Thus it is one of the most powerful forces at the service of humanity. He affirms that far from it being 'the opium of the people'. the aesthetic sense of literary art. like so many of his predecessors. and Mohammedanism. the supreme ideal good of morals. pure truth. Christianity. . works. He concludes by aligning himself in the camp of objective idealism. Philosophy and Life ( 1$ t^ 3& S^ ) and Outline ofAesthetics ( >% j^-Jj. Hegel and Feuerbach.

His very personal commentary as the text itself. It is in this sense that he has translated the Parmenides and annotated it according to the classical method. he is interested above all in the moral problem. Ch'en Tu-hsiu and Li Ta-chao. We . who took the dialectical materialism. for the centenary of the celebrated philosopher. contrary to general opinion. In his latest work he says: one can say. If the . The Marxists: Li Ta. as we saw. is almost ten times from attention in philosophical circles by his problem of knowledge according to Pkto. with an appendix claim Hegel as on Feuerbach. it is necessary to point out the leftists who teacher. Aristotle as long he has attracted 1934. after the representatives of the Hegelian right. If mankind did not have art. After ten years of study in Germany. namely the part of the Marxists this relationship so conscious that. Since before the war.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION 75 'Art. Aside from Hegelian idealism and Bergsonian idealism. initiative On in commemorating this ( anniversary by publishing a collection of studies entitled Hegel ^^ jjj ). it was a Marxist. appears to award the palm to the kst. it would lead a cold and mechanical life like the animals. Art is the manifestation of human progress/ 14 T'ang Chun-i. For this reason we shall study him later. Logically then. he set himself to prove that Aristotle was not at all the adversary of Plato. his continuator. it is assuredly thanks to the work of Ch'en this K'ang. have already presented the two earliest theoreticians of Marxism in China. should be mentioned. the two principal Occidental idealistic currents in China. shortly after 1931. there is still a place for others. A whole school method while taking the opposite to his spirit. Ai Ssu-ch'i The took is posterity of his Hegel was not only idealism. but. Yeh Ch'ing. various studies of the still While in Germany of he wrote a book on The Problem of Distinction ( i ffc # if ^ ^t V in the Philosophy which was probably his thesis for the doctorate. another Hegelian. and the first Chinese to approach philosophy directly by the Greek text.ancient philosophy of Greece merits a mention again in the history of modern philosophy in China. Resolutely emphasizing the primacy of spirit. is the soul of human life. but. specialist in Plato.

Engels and Lenin.76 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY were only fragmentary.. In the colonized outwardly undertake the preaching of but in reality they practice espionage or commerce. "When socialism shall prosper. Meanwhile he published some treatises on economics and on Marxist philosophy and translated the classical commentaries of Marx.. and their writings almost at once entered the fessor after 1923. It is according to our knowledge the most learned work published in China on this school.. The first to be a systematic of Marx was Li Ta.^). whose fourth edition came out in 1939. . law and sociology. After having several times gone to interpreter Japan to study economics. Communist party. alleged to be able to this subsist in the city be responsible for all crimes. opium of the people*: 'The Church preaches peace between classes in order to get the workers to oppose socialism and support the vexations of capitalism. Besides this very important reactionary task which it performs within. will not of the future* The author concludes prophetic vision of the future: *The extinction of religion will not be a peaceable era. materialist conception of and of The title.. But. Marx cannot be Faith in the ! to cast any doubt deluded. On this point China is an excellent example/ 15 Evidently this wellknown Hne of reasoning does not presuppose the least reliance on territories the missionaries facts. the Church also plays the role of harbinger of . the Church has created numerous Elements of Sociology (ji the contents. if he put forth naive ideas. 'religion. . or the dialectical materialism. In order to carry out this task. it will be an era of violent struggles. As a university pro- he taught economics. . In philosophy his principal work is a weighty tome of more than 800 pages. it words of the Master is so strong that a man believes to dispense with exact verification of his assertions an possible attitude which is neither realistic nor scientific. it is better to remain blind than on the least of his dogmas Thus with religion. In concluding the author comments thus upon the Marxist formula. imperialistic aggressions in colonial territory. . religion will entirely disappear. explaining nearly all the important problems raised by Marx and his disciples. he finally returned to China in 1918. It is a veritable ^^ ^. It is a complete account history. of Marxist sociology. Christianity. gives a poor indication of workers' organizations which are united with the bourgeois political institutions. . compendium of Marxism.

Despite his merits. of the preceding. since he was for long suspect in the eyes of the orthodox Marxists because of his Trotskyist tendencies. he returned just in time to begin to publish his studies on Marxism in Lajeunesse alongside Ch'en Tu-hsiu. the last page of the volume More recently Li Ta has republished the second part of the same work on historical materialism under the title Modern Sociology without any appreciable changes. But the advertisement announces that treatises in a collection entitled 'University'. combat religion it is necessary not to be content with an abstract ideology. After having finished his studies in Germany. In fact he was expelled from the Communist party along with Ch'en Tu-hsiu and followed . Likewise he criticized the History of Chinese Philosophy of Hu Shih. both in seniority and in learned manner. This book was not long for sale in the booksellers' windows. Li Chi has been little talked about. Li Ta-chao and Li Ta. the author has prepared new on the same subject. Basically the book is an exposition of Marxist doctrines placed in their historical framework a less arid form than that of the systematic treatises. having brought to light the deep-seated . it keeps its reactionary role. reasons for the survival of religion in the believe that in order to womb of capitalism. . But his principal claim to glory rests on his look for the The rival monumental Biography of Marx volumes his (still ( >y ^& f^T ) in three hero and being republished). from the Marxist point of view. Afterwards he took part in the first Marxist argument on conceptions of Chinese history and prepared a general critique on it. It is necessary that this ideological struggle be united with concrete action aimed at extirpating the social roots by he little of religion. is Li Chi. The militant materialists.' 16 With this penetrating verdict finishes the eight ! hundred and fifty-fourth. (-J& 4^ ^i f? ) (1947). . Clients were notified to look for it ^ in Hong Kong.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION 77 in the preceding stage called the period of "reform". It is needless to add that one should not least originality of thought in these works. in which he recounts the life of describes at length the genesis and contents of his writings. And so religion will be extinguished little in the course of this stage. The enemies of socialism always use religion as a weapon and seek all sorts of expedients to prevent its extinction. as the Kuomintang censor promptly proscribed it.

He has translated a work on this the advertisement tells us that the translator has had subject. This according to the socialist methods. The author succinctly describes in it the essential points of the Marxist dialectic. who may almost be considered as the official thinker of the party. while illustrating them with numerous examples borrowed from the happenings of the day.78 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY his leader into the opposition party after his expulsion. $~$T ). This is because a certain vagueness was more advantageous than a too blunt explanation. for the author no longer has to fear censorship. since this but it reveals to us another 'Trotskyist' party was ephemeral. but curiously enough they seem less attractive. At first he edited in Shanghai a Marxist review called Intellectual Life 4. and forty years of experience in this field. the capital of the Soviet State of Shensi. or from national stories. it must be noted on the other hand that his name does not figure on the list of members of the Cultural Committee recently appointed by the 'People's Government'. published by a society of the same name. (-fi*^ became a refugee in Yenan. Among his works the most 1937. His intimacy with Ch'en Tu-hsiu has greatly damaged his reputation. On the other hand a philosopher assuredly in favour at court is Ai Ssu-ch'i. he celebrated is When the war against Japan broke out in ^ unquestionably his Philosophy of the People ( : g|j 4& ) A masterpiece of popularization. with an unheard-of success: thirty-two editions in twelve years! The new editions have been liberally revised and enlarged. He appeared for the first time in intellectual circles about the his year 1934 and has beert conspicuous since the beginning by virulent attacks against Yeh Ch'ing. while the dryness . He even received in which formed immediately it the title of 'Commissar of was obviously a purely honorary title. is due especially to its excellent presentation of the doctrine. and was there president of a philosophical society. in view of his positions of service and the success of his books. The success of this work. of specialist in the study of agriculture activity of Li Chi. If the very recent republication of his Biography ofMarx would lead us to suppose a return to grace. that Agriculture'. and he does not seem to have been pardoned as yet. from screen celebrities. indicative of the favour met with by new ideas. his less orthodox rival.

in view of the small number of specialists in philosophy. often drive us to suicide or to a pessimism which negates all effort. and from various circumstances ideas which are not always sound and exact. for its final task is the reform of the world'. being the summit of human thought and the last word of science. to destroy all mystery. to discover the origin of all things. economics and philosophy. picturesque. even humorous reflections. namely possesses the scientific method the materialistic dialectic! Such is the way the since it problem of Marxism manuals. little ^& well ) (&jg^ g$ ) I ( 935)> as as collections of various essays. a from the milieu. such as Philosophy and (1937). He ends by concluding that only dialectical materialism answers all the needs of man.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION of the account is 79 always tempered by concrete. It helps us to penetrate problems more quickly and more exactly. Above the people the principles of dialectical materialism. Ch'en Wei-shih. Li Ta and Li Chi. and Huang Te. such as How to Study Philosophy * and On Hoiv to Think <*r * ). the author has also written a of propaganda brochures. so as to give them the guiding compass for thought. such as Shen Chih-yuan. and Practice and Theory (-* Many other names are also known among the Marxist writers. hot a learned two preceding Marxists. 19 Then the author sets himself to find among all the systems title of thought the one which deserves the of 'the authentic philosophy'. which makes reading all this is it considerably easier for the reader. 'we are forced to seek to know the authentic philosophy. a former student in Japan. is also a specialist in popularization. despair. To remedy these disastrous psychological deviations. work in the style of the The aim is to infuse into work of propaganda. stated in most of these little popularizing Aside from this slender series book. behaviour and action. It is important to rectify them. His works diverge in two directions. under the sway of fatalism. This is the mission of progressive philosophy. to combat all oppression/ 18 Our spontaneous ideas. 'Each man has his own ideas which come from his heredity. . Shen Chih-yuan. The essential role of philosophy is indeed to give us the solutions to problems of life. is par excellence. or some other cause. it should guide us in practice. simple Life answers to the difficulties of the reader.

publishing three or four Marxist other. philosophy. and his name itself has not reappeared. Most of Marx and his Shen Chili-yuan has been editor of especially. and science. It was the best journal of ideas disappeared. of we have already A whom here Ch'en Po-ta. the turncoat of pseudonym?). Ch'en Wei-shih has written several works on ism. has 400 pages. published in China along this line. from before the war have not been deceased. and in favour of 'The New Democracy' of Mao Tse-tiing. Hsiang Lin-ping. of the type. but then it of culture. Huang Te is a new author during the Sino-Japanese brochures one after the appeared suddenly in Shanghai War. During the Sino-Japanese War he collaborated in Chungking in Hu Sheng is editing Theory and Reality. while building up little However. a He fought against Yeh Ch'ing. and himself published another Marxist small group of intellectuals have specialized in the history of Marxist philosophy. Its editor has since been named as a member of the Committee of Education and Culture of the 'People's Government'. the author of slim volumes of fifty or sixty pages in which the essentials of Marxism are well stated. During the war he was in Yenan. the review. who But it his name relapsed almost not perhaps a camouflage. literature. Theory and Reality (if whic h -|^> ^JL^ff )> j* brought together on its editorial staff the great names or the Marxist intelligentsia in all the branches history. Chen's books dating republished. a specialist in critical studies on antiquity we must mention and modern times. one of the most highly developed its main characteristic the refutation of adverse systems. Marxism. Begun at the end of 1939. collaborating with Ai Ssu-ch'i and his Marxist-educated . doctrinal review. doubtless by order of the Nationalist censor. Ch'en Po-ta. has not to our knowledge written any complete works explaining dialectical materialism. Perhaps the man is by little the outline of Marxism. Besides Kuo Mo-jo. and spoken. immediately into oblivion (was a popularizer. Hou Wai-lu.80 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY classical treatises and he has translated various commentators. economics. of which the dialectical material- Philosophy This stout ^4 (^y # ^ ff volume of as most important is Talks on the System of the ) New published in 1937. it was still in existence after the victory over Japan in 1946.

They use and abuse repetition. who belonged to the editorial committee of Theory and Reality. His principal work is an Outline of the History of Chinese Philosophy ( \j$ 3$ I from the angle of dialectical At^I-^. all of action. 1940. the dialectical method and the principles of deeply materialism. and so speculation in itself does not them. original works. 8l He developed the philosophical aspect of the slogan put out Mao Tse-tung on January i.) ( 939)> surveyed materialism. in which he shows that it has not been inferior to that of the could add many other names. is hardly known except by his critical studies on ancient and modern Chinese philosophy. The philosophical level of the readers is extremely low. In 1947 he published two voluminous tomes on the History of Thought and Scholarship in Modern China since the seventeenth century Renaissance in Europe. nearly all of them translators or popularizers.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION group. Hsiang Lin-ping. original works of philosophy are rare. Besides. Theory and Reality. In 1942 he brought out a History of Thought and Scholar- ^ ^ ^ ship in Ancient China ( in which he examines all the relating to high antiquity f $ ft & $ $ $f )' problems pending in intellectual circles this of course in the light of Marxist sur- principles and concludes that the wisdom of ancient China passed the Hellenic culture. Some Marxists themselves have complained: 'The various works on new interest this year are for the most part [i. whose works have caused much spilling of ink between 1935 and 1937.' 20 The Congress of Marxist Philosophy held in Russia in 1947 made the same complaints. in favour of a 'New Demoby cracy'. The dominant preoccupation is not so much to go into. Hou Wai-lu was also an editor of the review. the manuals of popular philosophy abound with errors and superficial passages. The authors do not seek to write personal. Marxism] published of essays or works of popularization. For them Marxism is above a doctrine of life. (^L^ ^ One & ^^ Jfcf ). Therefore they neglect profound studies. as to spread. Truly it must be said that deep.e. and who was moreover at the . philosophy collections The scientific materialist: Yeh Ch'ing On the borderline of the Marxist group one must take note of beginning one of the Yeh Ch'ing.

and then came to Shanghai to establish and manage a book-store with the significant name. and of reviving the error of the Russian mechanists. Pearson and Einstein. must logically bring about its decline. but energetically maintain that Marxism will not perish. the great scientific synthesists. critical analysis (^ + ~& fa of only two authors. They admit the future disappearance of non-Marxist philosophy. he refirst to his natal province of Szechuan. After having studied in France. by disclaiming religion.. . for he stopped after having prepared a very detailed. This he reached much more quickly than he had foreseen. Whither Philosophy? (Jg f& &\ 1$ fjj^*t (i934). Bogdanov and Lafargue. by virtue of the law of universal evolution which requires that all that is born grows and dies. Jjjlg rf: j& ). la Mettrie. finally. Eddington. Planck. Minin and Enchumen. Jeans. since it is the scientific method par excellence. Heraclitus. Yeh Ch'ing however repeated his offence. of the great masters of contemporary Chinese thought. certain more or less orthodox Marxists. brought about its disappearance. Deborin. Likewise from the fact that it has broken with philosophy to live independently. As it happens. and. 'The Thinking Bookshop' ( jf. It published at the French materialists of the eighteenth century. Taking up anew the thesis of two obscure Russian philosophers. d'Holbach. Democritus and Epicurus. he began to publish the fruits of his reflections. A mere enumeration is eloquent enough by itself: it tells us already of the general tendencies of the publisher. Hu Shih and Chang Tung-sun.82 leaders FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY turned at of Marxist thought. Condillac and Diderot. His studies had as their goal to prepare him in the working out of a system.* While this book-shop had as yet been going only a few years it did considerfirst in the field of philosophical publications. Formerly philosophy. abandoning his initial plan. Such was the origin of his first speculative ) essay. Huxley. In Problems ofPhilosophy science. he announced the forthcoming extinction of philosophy. The pure Marxists accuse Yeh Ch'ing of the false interpretation of certain texts of Engels. he did not carry through his plan. like Plekhanov. Yeh Ch'ing In the review Twentieth Century )> undertakes a general criticism. Because of these critiques he was hailed as one of the new leaders of Marxist thought. Helvetius. and then those of able work ancient Greece.

Moreover these arguments reflected the battle of ideas which had gripped the Soviet intellectuals ten years earlier. ends in fact by ruining it. That is a natural and inevitable conclusion. that is to say. Trotsky and Bukharin'. the problem of internal and external cause. Kautsky. At bottom the debate resolves itself into a question of words. because by depriving historical and social problems are an indispensable source of the development of dialectical materialism. its Yeh Ch'ing Marxism mining bases.' 22 The system which results from this definitive synthesis has changed its nature and is now only the 'science of * ^ thought'. instead of exalting adversaries retort that to identify it Marxism with of its social basis its importance. of following 'the line of Bernstein. The discussions between the two camps were not confined to this question. Did not Marx himself give the example by affecting the synthesis of Hegelian idealism with the materialism of Feuerbach? In consequence of this higher synthesis the eternal conflict between idealism and materialism has vanished. and opposition was the motivating force ofits development. &4 New JV JL Philosophy* ( ) (1936). Yeh Ch'ing wants to call philosophy the 'science of thought'. He himself brought together the essays of the two opposing parties in two volumes under the title of The Controversies ofthe New Philosophy (% *$ ing of the (1937). His it science is to narrow and historical meaning. historical. and Struggles in the Develop- 3$/&<ftr *& Sino-Japanese The breaking out of the &* ) ?ij> War put a stop to the ^ . he takes up the same doctrine again ( from another slant. Is this the end of philosophy? Obviously. Thus a pkce is left for materialism. Idealism and materialism. he says. of all the heretical interpreters of Marxist thought. each contain a part of the truth: they must be amalgamated in order to complement each other. Bogdanov. such as the problem of the relations between formal logic and is Yeh Ch'ing also accused dialectic.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION 83 r* 1^^ ) (zpS^). but by going beyond it. Many others which were very important were debated. by underclaims certainly to rest on Darwinism. In short. adds to it living. and the problem of theory and practice. Since the oppositions are resolved. Yeh Ch'ing defended himself with a dialectical vigour and a prolificness of writing whichJiis adversaries had to envy. social experience. the history ofphilosophy stops.

Diderot. but one philosopher among others. of creating a theoretical system of natural sciences.84 discussions. ^f$&) of which he was the editor. The other author who shown is has worked in the a certain constructive spirit in the same direction and has manner of Yeh Ch'ing. all not related. foregoing. Helvetius and Condillac). in the same way as the two popularize. Jen Pei-kuo. and of constructing the science of thought/ Ambitious projects. For him Marx dialectic his disputes. unlike the Marxists. Not long ago there gravitated around him a whole group of philosophers and translatprs Yang Po-k'ai. Its task is the unification of science and philosophy. Others remain under his influence. Yang Po-k'ai translated the Greek materialists (Epicurus and Heraclitus) and the French materialists (d'Holbach. hence dialectical materialism and communism are not related/ 23 The root of the trouble is that the Marxism of Yeh Ch'ing is too eclectic. in the review Twentieth Century ( J2. attacks against Yeh Ch'ing were again to be found in the Marxist reviews. Yeh Ch'ing refuses to be servile to one thinker of others: he keeps his independence. it is sufficient to quote the plan of the authors in the advertising prospectus: 'The present review treats of theoretical science. Moreover dialectic and proletariat are crowning not the inventor neither god nor prophet. To show the general spirit of this review. In 1940. namely Yang Po-k'ai and Wang T'e-fu. and he on his part. and and socialism are not related. too remote from the usual path. too original. and devoted himself to criticism of various theoreticians. of blending the social sciences and the natural sciences. It seeks to judge history and theory by relying upon scientific truth. as we have seen. He. and T'an Fu-chih and rejoined the ranks of orthodox Marxism. is devoted to criticism of thought. declared petulantly in 1939: 'Marx was of dialectic. who did not necessarily say the last word on all problems. all the efforts of to the prejudice ^ Yeh Ch'ing converge. the mouthpiece of the group. they are exactly word for word the ideal towards which. no longer sought to but instead to deepen. FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY but the animosity between the two camps did not cease for the duration. . Wang of whom several have since attacked him T'e-fu. and to ideological construction. The enumeration of his publications is enough to show Wang T'e-fu. Although a is convinced materialist.

however. ^^4^ Ym but in it reason slave is substituted for faith. The specialists in logic: Chin Yueh-lin all its Throughout the course of its history Chinese thought has given attention to the moral problem. in one or another of the divisions of philosophy. 85 In the space of a few years he wrote a whole series of works studying matter. ). The movement was very active during the years which immediately preceded the Sino-Japanese War. the highest restoration of religion. he has been very original or profound Yeh Ch'ing Another thinker of the same group. namely now remains for us to the representatives of glance at those who are logic. 'The supreme to goal of philosophy in the eyes of the Chinese philosopher. which has spread very widely Chinese thought. It concludes with these words: 'Science is. and its man. and neglected the study of it nature. was . has been almost exclusively anthropocentric. the ideas expressed by now completely disappeared as a group by its adepts constitute a credo in the world of contemporary This rapid excursion into the idealistic and materialistic systems of modern China has not yet allowed us to pass in review all the thinkers of some importance.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION this. as follows: What Is Matter? ( -&/f *4 * Treatise on Physics ( #k *%. One as cannot say. %k 4& of the World ( nature A 3?S ^'M X which that (**&24 )* ti% 4& k )> ^d %tew realty Tllus is of Anthropology the philosophy of the author aspires to construct. proof for imagination. the of nature. has. and even though it the religion of science! In sum this materialist has phenomenon. t$ ^8t The Formation ). ethics. published his Elements of Philosophy ( Ag ^3 6. and aesthetics. has thereby become master/ This is movement which is dissident from Marxism is none other than the old scientific positivism quite out-moded today-coined to a socialism which is rather vaguely tinged with Marxism. one can say.This teaches f^ the 'scientism' so much in favour today. Having named it specialists general philosophy. Chang I-hung.

is 27 ). there was a growing infatuation with the Marxist logic. . These two types of logic. intuition. who had studied in Japan and Germany. the West emphasizes what we 26 have. They have been supplanted by a new philosophical method. the East is intension. After that date. it has proceeded by categorical affirmation without 25 These words are by Hsieh Yu-wei. Since the first years of the twentieth century. . At about the same time the Russellian or mathematical recruited many supporters. it is 'because of all philosophies the Chinese philoThe West is sophy is the most human and the most practical. and then the Logic of E. Jenks in 1905. whose whole intellectual effort ^ ^. it has adopted as its method . Yen Fu translated the Logic of John Stuart Mill in 1902. and to progress towards wisdom. Elements of Logic (4^ 3JJ 4&L there was Hu Shih. We are not trying to . Lacking the speculative spirit and logical experimentation. the champions of this methodology are not necessarily all Communists. which he considers as the type far excellence of the scientific method method.86 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY develop his own personality and that of others. and many intellectuals who are devoted to the Marxist method are not bound at the same time to the Communist Party. in the domain of thought Marxism and Communism are not exactly identical. flourished especially around 1920 to 1923. extension. For his seeking for proof/ Yu-lan has remarked that if China has not speculated on part Fung world with a natural intellectual curiosity. but continue still to hold a far from negligible Jplace in intellectual circles. Next summed up in the propagation and application of the pragmatic method of thought. a treatise. towards 1927. thinkers and translators have endeavoured to introduce Occidental logic. the Dialectic/ 28 Moreover.. He wrote a number of articles and even the outside . the East emphasizes what we are/ In consequence the modern thinkers have put all their efforts into supplying the missing logical method. if it has not created science. the pragmatic and the mathematical. 'now they have lost their authority. and specialized in the study of this science. Consequently.. . or dogmatism. returned to teach in Peking University. Ch'en Ta-db/i. have had We are speaking only of fact. . or dialectical materialism: If the experimental logic of Dewey and the mathematical logic of Russell their day/ says an historian of modern thought in China. not of right. .

. dialectic. under the title. and not yet any t However. We not to say that there has not been any Oriental have seen that Fung Yu4an has applied himself to reviving this is a philosophical method inspired in large part by the neo- Hsi. it is true. Besides. and of symbolical terms and mathematical formulas so excessive as to critic. the Maoist dialectic is not an invention borrowed from Hegel. however. supplemented. A humorously the littered somewhat grim aspect of his Logic. says that Russell himself will be taken aback when he thumbs through it. He demonstrated a true power of analysis.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION find. Chin Yiieh-lin set himself to study systems of logic and various schools of contemporary philosophy. One must then conclude that on the whole. he went to America for six years to study political thought. as we have seen. All these efforts to endow China with the ideal method of thought hardly show anything but a docile imitation. and his ideas gave his disciple a fondness for philosophy. or be it of Marx. The Tao (4 fa <^ ) ('The Way 'The Doctrine') . Peking. which he gave to the public in a book entitled Logic (\$| j|jj. Returning to China in 1926. logically speaking. After having finished his studies at Tsinghua University. the Hegelian method does not lack partisans. Likewise we have recalled the limited restoration Confucianism of Chu to favour of Hindu or Buddhist logic. Their partisans. ) (1935). latter. and. by certain Occidental systems such as the neo-realist American school and the Viennese school. some thinkers have attempted the is Chin Yiieh-lin. Green was not only a theoretician of political science. despite the great name of Fung Yu-lan. be it idealistic (or Hegelian). especially that of Green. constitute only a small minority. in 1940. he was also a philosopher. and thus worked out his own. original construction. he taught the history of European political theory at Tsinghua University. him for his extreme a use of reasoning. logic. He then went to Europe for four years. More recently. profundity of thought. However. its pages with mathematical formulas. but is materialistic (or Marxist). The most important Some have even gone closeness so far as to reproach strictness. 87 out whether one can be Marxist without being Communist. is by far the most widespread method of thought ia China. in order to explain discourage the non-specialist reader.

despite all efforts. . Chin develops a philosophy inspired by Hume and by Anglo-Saxon neo-realism. many people felt that this was most regrettable. We have seen superabundantly that this was the centre of the ancient philosophy. was 'old wine in a new bottle*. or 'ethics'. being identified most often with Confucianism. Soon after completion ) (1943) jij^ of his studies of law in Japan and England he became well-known \& because of his participation in the 1917. He himself does not seem-to be the devoted to thesis that the man for this task. In this book which he has logic. and more recently still. Tuan Ch'i-jui government of At that time he was widely attacked. endowed with a true creative talent. Taking expressions borrowed from neo-Confucianism. logic has not yet driven its roots very deeply into the soil of China. in the words of the critics. Since under the influence of the Occident many authors did not like to employ the words 'morals'. the two systems are in reality very much akin in content. in which the idealists rose against the exaggerated pretensions of science to rule human life. the philosophy of life'. Chin Yiieh-lin remains one of the most distinguished metaphysicians of modern China. save in the case of Chin Yiieh-lin. This. which seemed reactionary and old fashioned.88 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY three he made out a whole system of metaphysics. aid again into the 1923 controversy of 'science v. another work attracted the attenFinally. they preferred to say 'philosophy of life'. he develops and proves with many citations the elements of logic are not lacking in the ancient thought of China. since he does not attempt in the slightest a con- structive essay to join together these elements. which he based upon concepts of classical Chinese philosophy although his terminology differs from that of Fung Yu-lan. One cannot say the same about ethics. The philosophy oj life of scientific determinism In short. believing that the new China disowned the old even in that which was most precious. After the furious attacks of which it was the victim between 1915 and 1920. but that there has not yet been found the man to join them together into an organic system. This uneasiness was translated into the debate of 1922 on the philosophies of Orient and Occident. tion of philosophical circles: the Essentials of Logic ( j^S ^*T) of Professor Chang Shih-chao. Nonetheless. or 'conception of life'.

more are scientific. sentimental. Philosophy of Being . In 1925 -^ff rjf" ) Fung Yu-lan also published a Philosophy ofLife ( . A short while later he wrote another book on the same subject. same title and adopting much the same manner of reasoning as Fung Yu-lan. In 1928 Li Shih-ts'en published the first volume of a work bearing the. intellectual. He was on thus in support of the scientists. He discusses the problem of the connection of ethics. the same year as the celebrated controversy. In 89 truth the two terms not completely identical. Bacon. However. nihi(Schopenhauer). Again. He begins by a critical exposition of Oriental and Occidental theories on the question. he proposed Confucianism as the ideal. and Occidental thought. idealistic (Plato)./x an adaptation in Chinese of his doctoral dissertation at Columbia University. and one can overlook In this first it. However. for the philosophy of life overlaps ethics in treating of problems which are not always connected with it. romantic (Taoist). because the philosophy of life of the Orientals surpasses by far that of the Occidentals/ 29 In a word. he borrowed from the ^ Q streams of thought. In 1923. Hegelian and neo-realistic. treating of the origin and nature of life. hedonistic (Yang Chu). and sociology. of the ^^ of man in the universe. the practical difference is not very great. This was only a synthesis of various schools of Oriental place . Aristotelian. psychology. progressivistic (Descartes. Tu Ya-ch'iian also published a Philosophy of Life based ( $ff r|> ). spirit many thinkers have attempted syntheses. he published a Philosophy ofLife ( /^ qp ) based upon science. Confucian. and obviously in con- new is date nection with it.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION which seemed more modern. whatever he thought the best. in which he built up a system of morals the three sciences of biology. The Shu Hsin-ch'eng. but ends by concluding that religion is no longer necessary to human progress. and concludes with these words: 'The construction of this science is one of the common goals of humanity. in 1929. manager of a book-store and author by of numerous works on psychology and pedagogy. social and moral nature. ancient and modern. utilitarian (Mo Ti).. Oriental and Occidental. religion and art with life. Fichte). neo-Confucian. and of his physical. In particular he carefully studied the various forms of socialism and the economic theories. In China it listic is necessary to put forth a more vigorous effort in this sense. .

90 in the FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY World ( jjj^ ^$ upon rj* ). Epicurus. Kropotkin. on the whole the positivist point of view prevailed. von Hartman. However. The very term 'conception. and it has gone so philosophy far that entire collections of 'conceptions of life* have been published. a work containing no less than 650 pages. Bradley and Green. Hutcheson. Proceeding in the manner of his predecessors. of combative and scientific revolutionary spirit. Previously we have spoken of the ideas contained in the Moral Philosophy (1930) of Chang Tung-sun. Even though all tendencies^ were met with in them. Clark. Price. in New Ai take it Philosophy (^ ^ 6$ ( The Conception of Life of the A. or of life' has become very fashionable. Martineau. 'science v. Aristotle. Plato. Hegel. Shaftesbury. of devotion to as at society. Thus. in Talks on a New Conception ofLife ( &tf /v The ^ ^J^^jf^nfe' ) (1936). pass in review successively Socrates. Spencer. and to develop an ethical ideal composed of realism. a course entirely in line with the controversy of 1923 on To philosophy of life*. upon themselves to refute the attacks of the idealists against the lack of morals of the Marxists. We Smith. Darwin. ) (193?). the Marxists for their part did not neglect to express their opinion in small. Sidgwick. Hume. Moore. Hu * Sheng. Schopenhauer. etc. another as many as 250. popularized brochures addressed to youth. the author examines successively all the ethical systems since Greek antiquity. wherein were inserted the reflections of well-known people. They scoff as much Ethics at the 'scientists' the 'metaphysicians'. in Philosophy and Life *g f^Jjfe &* ) (1937). the major portion of Tu's interest is centred biology. semi-Occidental rationalistic ethics Idealism nevertheless produced some works of value with which to oppose the positivistic and Marxist current. One of these inquiries collected some fifty names. Bentham. Shen Chih-yuan. Hobbes. this new section of philosophy expressed by these four works is an attempt to make morals follow in the wake of science. but completely neglects Chinese thought. Kautsky's and the Materialistic Conception of History had already been translated three times before 1934. Adam . Mill. Guyau. Stephen. Semi-Oriental. summarize. Kant. and ft Ssu-ch'i.

the author dwells upon Wundt and Spranger. goes deeply k\to private. art. In the appendix the author attacks the Marxist ethic and its materialistic conception of history. which are universal and necessary. and has set up rules of etiquette . is based on the family in order to build up an agricultural state. the ethical doctrines of both Orient and Occident. Comparison between Orient and Occident shows their resemblances and their differences. 'My ideal is similar to that of Wundt: is For him virtue a value it is by culture that I explain ethics/ which transcends all the other cultural 30 values economics. their excellences and their deficiencies. 'that the method of ethics 31 is A little farther on totally a priori and transcends experience. which also rests upon the In 1935 a certain )> f *fe **4? Kantian principles. 'I boldly declare'. which go beyond time and space. He established that me methods and principles of ethics have the character of universal laws. politics. cannot be a product of experience. he examines ). science. and *great we learn that under the ancient name of harmony* is hidden the new meaning of 'sudden creation'. the origin of moral conscience in sociology.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION 91 After this imposing procession. has insisted upon the equality of moral duty. The general argument is well described in these words in the preface: 'This book looks for the origin of moral conduct in biology. interior morals. religion while at the same time remaining an element of culture. an element which works in concert with the others in the surpassing of the 'self '. with whose opinions he is in close accord. Like the foregoing. In 1944 a university professor named Huang Chien-chung J published in Chungking a Comparative Ethics ( trb j3t i^fwhich was widely read.' he adds: 'All principles. all criteria. 33 According to the author the difference between the Orient and the Occident is manifested in five principal points. just as much as the methods and principles of mathematics and philosophy. he says. Huang Fang-kang published an Ethics (\% which was decidedly Kantian. the development of moral ideals in the history of civilizations. and ethics falls precisely into this category/ 32 This a priori moral law is inscribed on the inner hearts of men. Along the same line Huang Fang-kang published a Socrates (1935). The Orient has fused morals and politics. the opposition between good and evil gives us the idea of absolute good.

as we have seen earlier. has made affection or love the of family relations. whomjhe calls *the apostles of the sentiment of mercy to develop into a transcendental ethic. the moral law. T'ang Chun-i. the moral ideal centred upon man'. In these latter years dissertations on ethics have been particularly numerous. The Occident. One senses from this a reaction against the ever more pronounced leaning towards materialism in intellectual circles. ^ show but he bases himself also on a Confucianist syncretism. artists. and the judicial law of the self. ^ & ^^ Along the way he examines which animates scholars. has developed a public. From this striking is the agreement author evolves his notion of moral law. adopting the four the Confucian virtues as criteria for moral judgment* To sum up.92 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY to preserve order. and Hindu mystiqs. is especially concerned with the moral problem. on the contrary. gives ten steps to the development the phenomenology of the ego. has given all its attention to equality of law. Nietszchean heroes. he is basis for an of the autonomous and egocentric ethic resting upon the freedom will. moralists. The critics have considered this treatise as one of the most searching in the field of ethics published in China for the past fifty syntheses out that its conclusions are in years. Finally he comes to the Chinese 34 Confucianists. what is of views in the majority of cases. moral judgment and freedom. has based an industrial and commercial state upon the individual. exterior ethics. the Hegelian already cited. with law. moral law. Thus natural law. and judicial law are the natural law. But the differences are small. with morals. but only as regards its frequently injurious effects. In passing he recognizes the influence of evolution on morals. and have brought harmony with the theories of Wang Yang-ming and the ideal values. and finally. and shows that ethics starts from the individual instinct. This self is not other than at one with nature and the universe. In order to the connection between freedom and self-realization he says: is 'Freedom self-realization. By respecting these . in order to refute utilitarianism. In his The Establishment of the Moral Self 3L ) ( I 944)> he adopts as his method l $( | ( of the mind. Hsieh Yu-wei. has j developed similar ideas in his Elements ofEthics ( i^fr *?p He adopts in part the theories of Royce and Bradley on &\m ). the faculty of the "self" for self-determination. has joined morals with religion. for I call true "self" the ideal self.

. A New 'We live in a strange Conception of Life the one world. here very precise knowledge. but tomorrow I don*t is is better to enjoy myself to the . the negation of everything. on the other pitiless destruction. in is the incentive for nine out often of fact. But to and be true to it. begins with these of his book Philosophy and Life: 'At present we is words live in in the preface an extremely troubled period. one which can faith. Lin Yutang. because everything go. This materialism our actions.' The author seeks the remedy for pessimism in the restoring to favour of the virtues of and conviction in an intellectual ideal. it shows the disquietude and disorder The of many minds. his be- of yesteryear. who not long ago vaunted his Epicurean positivism. (^^ A. not to conform to it. is in all of one's actions to flies and the fish that swims which is what the (Doctrine of the is know one's nature imitate the bird that Chung Yung follow nature Mean) calls "following Nature". unstable.' 36 'Man clouds our minds. is non-freedom/ 35 the surrounding pessimism The moralists and flourishing of these manuals on ethics. Truly the worship of matter is nothing but an atom in a machine which turns without end. The forces of religion. the celebrated essayist. . . give a strong incentive to action. of morals. Certain authors. there disordered action. today shall continue to be. the misfortunes of mankind. man . it excessive. Now to freedom. This he explains in detail in the this radical course of his book. and. Hence it results that man is sunk in perplexity. as we have said. 'Modern thought is is materialistic to the marrow of its bones. zeal. Fu T'ung-hsien. have collapsed. The old beliefs have gone and the new ones are not yet established. i HL ) On hand immense progress. . One know if I I says to oneself. all impute to materialism as after the War of 1914-18. and in consequence he suffers the 38 emptiness of life. is a reaction against materialism. has more recently made some astonishing declarations in his liefs Between Tears and Laughter (1943 ) which are contrary to . the return to spiritual values.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION laws in 93 my conduct I respect the nature of my authentic self. a professor named by Government to the post of ambassador to the in his book. of authority. scepticism. A third writer.' 37 And he advocates This complaint was echoed by Lo Chia-lun the Nationalist Indies (1942). so it easily inclined to let himself am alive. Everything is unstable .

and tridemism as the political philosophy. Shu Hsin-ch'eng being one who has done a great deal in this field. heroes. economics. and seeks 'We wish that the ideas contained in these essays may correct the 39 At the same date.. and geniuses. Tendencies in psychology In psychology the dominant school is that of behaviourism. tells how the worldyoung maximum/ Ho wide catastrophes of perpetual wars spurred his interest in philosophy: *In 1935. In the Chinese catalogues . One winter's evening All the countries of the world are preparing for me reflect war Thinking of the misfortunes of mankind. which many works. that is to say. . depressed psychology. Why then have they not been able to deliver the world from the evils which overwhelm it? . publishing We shall not dwell at all on psychology. but many other authors have expounded the same thesis.' title from the World fact that man's These lines. The Philosophy of a New (^ himself from that time to study $>) and the 'sciences of man'. the principal specialist in questions of psychology. although to a lesser degree. Abnormal been studied by the great aesthetician Chu Kuangpsychology has ch'ien. is in Chiiia more a science than a division of philosophy. I felt vague seedlings in my heart. pragmatism as the method. thanks in great part to Kuo Jen-yiian. that it has produced innumerable sages.94 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Lin notes the persistence of pessimism even after the to revive the morale of the nation: victory over Japan. 'Mo Ti-ism' as the ethic. of whom we shall speak in the following section. a prevailing apathetic. psychology. Chang Hsin-i. especially child psychology. justify the of the book. politics. and he devised a 4 *S& ). I mused that mankind has had thousands of years of civilization. Educational attention from the psychology. has been studied a great deal.*o xhe author ^^ set system composed of three elements.. I finally came to a conclusion: the world's misfortunes arise sciences are too young. I was studying in the department of physics at Tsinghua the sound of artillery-fire made University. and sociology.' thinker fresh from college. Freudian psychoanalysis has also attracted much scholars.. philosophy statistics. It is clear that all these systems of morals stem in large part from the anguish arising out of contemporary circumstances.. law. used in the preface.

Lin Yutang. Thus. Feng Tzu-k'ai (also a talented cartoonist).THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION 95 psychology appears among the natural sciences under the same heading as anthropology. He treated at length the theories of Confucius on music and the Odes. in which he discussed aesthetic problems. and finally took up again the question posed by 41 Ts'ai Yiian-p'ei: can art replace religion? Taken from attention of shifting the this angle aesthetics had little chance of drawing the many problem a thinkers in our positivistic century. beauty and goodness'. $f *^ ) ( I 934)' he lays it down that art is not a mere but a superior activity of man which expresses a transcendent world. But by little that is to say. Another writer. or moral culture. Ts'ai Yiian^p'ei. was the conception of the life 'of truth. By these terms it was meant that the aim of life is the search for truth. for good. aesthetics. from which it is understandable that some were tempted to sublimate it to the point of comparing it with religion. likewise applied himself to theoretical beauty. our aesthetic intuition is a much surer criterion than our instinct. as we have seen with Fu T'ung-hsien. or scientific culture. treating the question ex professo in several of his works. Such an attitude was very widespread. our moral sense/ 42 The essayist and humorist. for in the grasping of beauty the eyes of the soul are more important than the eyes of the body. Thus in Artistic Taste ( -$$^li* craft or technique. and for beauty. And generally among these three values. Intellectual . Now we shall come to the last division of philosophy which we have not yet treated. has echoed the same sentiment. His thesis and discussed his theory of art as the substitute for did not lack for response. In 1928 a certain Hsu Ch'ing-yii published a Philosophy of Beauty (Jjj^ 6^ $* r^ ). An idea which was particularly widespread due to its attractiveness for many people. the foremost Chinese poet of the present century said: 'There is no better means of attaining to the good than by way of the beautiful. first place was given to the idea of beauty. Chu Kuang-ctiien and aestheticism We have mentioned earlier the first of the modern aestheticians. by comparing aesthetics ethics not with religion but with the philosophy of beauty pro- voked a great deal of interest among the moderns. Hsu Chih-mo. or aesthetic culture. religion.

). 'In my opinion. truer. and feeling. After little book Twelve fe ). goodness. ethical. Ch'en Chu-shan published The Art of Living ( S^ ^. which is to say. which . In 1944. One cultivates art by desiring to create beauty. the will. each dissociated If one considered it it only in its from the others. which is confined to only the aesthetic side/ 46 The three values of truth. These principles are the essence of the Confucian ethic. the principles of the art of living. personally he intends to write a not speculative.a very current expression is today'.^f. will. bring goal of human expand his "personality". and not art in general. and the beautiful. 'The art of living that we advocate is an art formed by the synthesis of truth. goodness. and for realizing such harmonious concord within the family. the good. in which he builds aesthetic up an ethic based on the 'transcendental good'. isolated aspects.96 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY research proves the desire to create truth. and they are attained only if one follows the 'path' or 'ideal'. and more beautiful world. in bringing together the concepts of life' and 'art'. would seem as monotonous as the sound of the bonze striking on the wooden fish/ 45 How can we arrive at the synthesis of all its aspects? By the union of three elements. is the To Unfortunately man's understanding of beauty is far from equalling his comprehension regarding truth and goodness. but practical. and they postulate various methods for cultivating the intellect. intellect. and the international domain as will lead to the Great Concord. about a better. In short his aesthetic ethic almost comprises the Confucian ideal. and beauty. and the feelings. 'Life is comparable to a harmonious and complex symphony.' he says. he cannot life. the nation. the true. He begins by noting work which that the 'aesthetic conception of life is . One tries in his conduct to create goodness. However. and beauty correspond respectively to the three faculties of man.' He concludes: 'Aesthetic education is a very profound education of the heart which is bound to affect all of life/** These three men are only writers and should not detain us here. Let us turn now to the philosophers who have derived systems of 43 thought from these theories. But the great master of Letters to the aestheticism is Chu 1929 he enjoyed a lively success through his Young ($^^J-&<$ + ^ ^ Kuang-ch'ien. And yet if man cannot perfect his aesthetic culture.

thirty editions. Rejecting the idea of a transcendent Being. aboutjyhom he wrote a Critique of (*948). For him. following A That is false. and On the Philosophy of Croce ( Although by and large he follows the ideas of the he diverges from him on many points.. he his fancies. Here is how he transposes this speculative conception into his attitude on practical of 'truth' life: 'I for I find often doubt philosophical systems. it is is when our then necessary to leave the real temporarily. . we declare the austerity of life.) 48 and as (^j/L |> /&. us to flee reality Such was the leitmotif of his subsequent works. taken from the conclusion of one of his books: 'All life is a work of art in the perfect life has the beauties of a literary composilarge sense. but I love to study them. & $| Jfr *& ^4^xt ) (1948). In whatever concerns art. comes to the conclusion that the highest form of practical morals is artistic activity. aesthetics is above 'ethics. The mere enumeration is suggestive enough of it: The Psychology of Literary Art ( an evasion: works of art help and offer us consolation in the world of the ideal. more beautifying. His central thought is well expressed by this passage. On Beauty But above all he is the great specialist on Benedetto Croce. whose Principles of Esthetics he translated E ^M. .. the more life is beautiful more profound soul as much as the . .. tion of superior value. He counselled their private life. The theories of scholars can move my Venus de Milo or the Ninth Symphony. Italian philosopher.' 49 In other words the author. Those who love life should do the same. their student young people life. the artist is very Such a poet will erase ten times before finding the definitive word. going by way of Kant and Hegel. since the summit of 'supreme good' and 'absolute beauty' coincide. charm in them.' 47 life The of artists ^ >^ Poetry i tlr ) ) (1936). it seems to him more spiritual. But force proves insufficient.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION ran to 97 more than unpretentiously on life. It is the expression of a personality. who has read all the theories of 'beauty from Plato to Croce. The the delight experienced. * (^ -f^f- (44jL ) (1932). serious. in advocating the artistic conception of life. He said particularly: 'When our efforts are crowned with we should bend our energies to the triumph of the real. Hence. . and their social success.. Most people imagine that the artist is a man without trammels. 7 reserves to the concept of 'beauty' a higher place than the concepts and 'goodness'. .

98

FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY
full.

and

The

artistic

conception of life is the delighting in
is

life.

When

this delight exists,

man

like a free

and happy

50

spirit.'

One might be tempted
is

to believe that the

domain of aesthetics

of Marxist preoccupations, for the literary history of modern China still resounds to their maledictions on the partisans of 'art for art's sake'. However, the Marxist school tries to enter into all sections of culture, including aesthetics. After the victory in 1945 a till then unknown author, Ts'ai I, undertook a theoretical study of arts and aesthetics through a series of works such as The New and The Sociology of Art (4|- $t Esthetics ( 4*F^ ) (1948),
at the antipodes
7|-i

the

^ same
%*

51
).

In the same collection other authors

^

worked from

angle,

some with

original works, some with translations.

Kuo Mo-jo republished
Fine Arts
brated

A Century oj Archaeological Discoveries in the
certain

by

Michaelis. Others translated the biographies of cele-

artists

such as Tschaikovsky, Picasso, Michelangelo, Taine,

and Stravinsky. One of them, a
History of
the

Hu Man,

even wrote a

|f\J J|L $~J- j^ ) (1942), ( dominated by the same prejudices. In the preface he admonishes the reader in these words: 'Art, in the past, was based on the exploitation of the people, the workers: it is now a question therefore of restoring to the common masses their artistic heritage/ And some lines later he adds, if possible even more clearly: "The contents of the present book rest on the suggestions furnished by the doctrine of the New Democracy.' Of this group of Marxist authors Ts'ai I is incontestably the princi-

Fine Arts in China

^

entirely

pal theoretician, the philosopher. Let us follow him in his New Aesthetics, written in 1944 and published in 1948. He begins by declaring that the old aesthetics, having shown its contradictions,

should be thrown out and replaced. The error of the past has been to consider art as the basis of aesthetics; at the two poles of thought

The

the subjectivists and the objectivists have erred equally on this point. truth is completely opposite. 'I teach that the beautiful is an
is

objective reality, that the beauty of objective reality the aesthetic sense and of artistic beauty.

the source of

Consequently the path of

exact aesthetics

to observe the beautifiil, to grasp the nature of the beautiful in things, that is, the real.' 52 From this basis the author
is

attempts to demolish step by step the conceptions of Chu Kuangch'ien, whose school he scornfully calls that of subjective beauty,

THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION
of
aesthetics based

99

upon metaphysics; and he
is

this definition:

"The beautiful

believes he can give the manifestation of the universal

character of the species in the particular Beautiful beings are because in them the truth and the nature of the typical beings,

more plainly expressed/ 53 But since individual beings evolve ceaselessly just like the species, there can be no question of
reality appears

absolute, eternal beauty. In a little different spirit than the pure aestheticians and Ts'ai Mi declares that the artistic feeling and Yiian-p'ei in particular,

Wu

each other. 'Both of them', he

the religious sentiment are not opposed, but mutually complement says, 'permit men to find happiness

suppressing sorrow, by going beyond the fetters of matter, of the world, in order to penetrate into the ideal domain of the spirit.

by
As

for their relationship, it is that of ends and means: the religious is the end, the cultivation of art is the means. spirit Religion is

comparable to the
Religious
spirit

fruit, art

has not received the baptism of art

to the flower. In ordinary life a man who is like a prisoner in a dark prison.

and

artistic cultivation

complement and

are in-

dispensable to each other. In antiquity, in the Orient as in the Occident, the greatest art is founded on the religious spirit, which activates great epochs and great talents. If one wishes to reach the

sanctuary of religion, the best means is to penetrate it by the cultivaMi are akin to the tion of art.' 54 Many of the ideas put forth by

Wu

system of Ts'ai

Yiian-p'ei, in particular the conception of aesthetics Mi intended to make aesthetics as the source of religion. But

Wu

only an adjunct to religion, not a substitute for it. Still more, he wanted the religious spirit to animate our modern democracies and

borrowed from the religious sociology ofMax Water, from the American humanism of Irving Babbit and Paul E. Moore and, finally, from the book by Hoernle, God, Spirit, Life, Matter, of which he published a translation with commentary. This book explained the tendency of the sciences and of modern philosophy to 'revolt against matter' to use his own
our industrialized
society.

Many of his

theories are

expression.

Hung

Ch'ien, interpreter of the Vienna school (Moritz Schlick and R.

Carnap}.
Finally,

one can also add to the aesthetic current a new philosophical

100

FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY

school which has flourished in Europe for more than ten years under certain number of authors have the name, 'the Vienna school'.

A

endeavoured to construct an aesthetic logic which envisages denying all value to metaphysics and reducing it to the role of a 'mere poetry of concepts'. According to them the only merit of metaphysics is to
enrich our inner life and develop our world of experience; but it cannot increase the world of knowledge. Metaphysics is no more than a literary phenomenon like poetry: it does not in the least

contribute to .the quest for truth. Arguing from this the attempt is made to construct a philosophy on other bases: a logical base and a

of a philosophy of life. The logical aspect of this has been developed in China by Wang Hsien-chiin philosophy and Hu Shih-hua. The practical aspect, on the other hand, has been
practical base, that

brought out by

Hung

Ch'ien, a former student in Vienna, and a

fervent admirer of the great master of the school. Hung Ch'ien has given a general introduction to it in his work, The Philosophy of the

Vienna School

(&&

$fy

^

5)k *&

55

he

says,

is

rich in poetic sentiments, but

). professor, rf to his great regret has never

The

been able to become a poet, so he is wont to say: 'We are all repressed life from the same angle as the poet poets.' Hence he considers Schiller: It is only when man is taking recreation that he is perfect/
This term 'recreation', or 'diversion', must suggest the idea not of bagatelles to kill time, but of activity undertaken by the disinterested
free play

of the

will,

without the preoccupation of a

set

aim. For

him all knowledge is the product of 'recreations' or 'diversions' of the human spirit. The understanding of all culture lies there. Fung
Yu-lan, having explained these principles in one of his recent books,

New

Wisdom (^ff *% *

^

)

(1946), accepted certain

of these ideas,

while also criticizing them.
ously to task

the whole he has a high estimation of the Vienna school. That did not prevent his being taken vigor-

On

by Hung Ch'ien, who criticized his metaphysics as devoid of meaning or depth, of not being capable of touching being
the heart like the traditional metaphysics which was so rich in poetry. This was the signal for an argument between the two philosophers, which was joined by Chin Yiieh-lin and Shen Yu-ting. In short the philosophy of the Vienna school has elicited great
interest in
this

Chinese intellectual
is

circles.
its

vogue

in large part

due to

In our opinion the reason for conception of life, rather than

issued afterwards as Modern Sociology 3%. 1945. Philosophy and 1947. 14. 72.. 73. note: Philosophical Theories ^ 4 IT f& |A 3 . 1934. 24. of publication of the Philosophy of the People 1 8. 15. the author has given the date as 1934. tit. 1948. Contemporary Chinese Philosophy ^ 13. p. 600. The ^ note: 2. Ai Ssu-ch'i. cit. Tr. 4. % p. ibid. n. 11. p. T'an Fu-chih. Ho Lin. ibid. Chan Wen-hu. Philosophy of the People fo 3 f|J . 854. Elements of Sociology.. 8. Times and Culture Magazine ibid. p. 6. note: This work is not listed in the Bibliography. Philosophical 1937. 39- 12. Life $ Fu T'ung-hsien. 48.) 4"^- 20. p.. Moral p. Tr.p.? (No citation is given by author.. New 1929. 845-6. This & ^ work Epistemological Pluralism of Chang PP- &4 is > 9^ ^J-sKsV' Bibliography. Chang Tung-sun. 16. 5. p. 243. p. 88 ~* Tung-sun Tr ' not listed in the Chang Tung-sun. note: However.. 185. p. Chang Tung-sun. 7. 4 f^L . pp. Philosophy ^ Jj^ 9 fife. 9. 1947. I'iiW. p. in the Bibliography. Fu T'ung-hsien. Reason and Democracy &j> 1946. 1930. 17.p. tTjjp _tfcg April n. Li Ta. 124. Chang Tung-sun. May 30. JL J^ . P-919. p. Critiques . f^ ^^ ^ ^ (1947). Tr. Outline of Esthetics ^ ^p ^|^ ^. . p. note: loc. but the second half. 62. No citation is given for the foregoing quotation. 1.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION to its 101 logical aspect that is activity of the spirit and to to say to its theory of disinterested its attacks against the dogmatism of metaphysics. Democracy and Socialism ii 10. Tr. 1947. n. 178. is listed. 1941. op. Chang Tung-sun.

Ho Lin. Culture and Life X ^ J^ A^ ^ . 1947. (See Bibliography. 3 t SI *| St X 935. 34. FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Tr.314Yeh Ch'ing. Kuo Chan-po. Ifr 29. Contemporary Chinese Philosophy . p. no. December 25. in the review New China $tr ^ jjk: by n. p.. & |jft ^ IjS) J^fr ?li ^ *- qf it)* . Tung-sun. Tr. T'e. 40. p. 27. Ho F^ Lin. 35. The Weapon of Criticism :frt* * ^ i J^L 24. ^ was 37. 64. /0c. note: As the author gives Chinese characters for this title. Tr. 56. one assumes the Chinese note: pitie cit. Tr.. Ho Lin.) . 31. p. P. 1936. Ho Lin. &^ fj- \fy 1^ 4 1941.. 560. 147. 22. note: This work is not listed in the Bibliography. A New Conception of Life -%tf A. No dates of publication are given.IOZ 21. 36 and 39. p. 36. New Books Monthly ^ is ji /j -f*J . to Contemporary Chinese Philosophy ft 1941. Preface. note: 1941. TV. Appendix by Hsieh Yu-wei. p.6o. either here or in the Bibliography. 2. 25. 32. 38. 41 . 28. Lin Yutang. ' i 4 History of Chinese Thought during the Past Fifty Years & . presumably he used a Chinese translation. 39. a Chang p. 1930. pp. op. Appendix. Moral Philosophy tj|^ ^^ ft . The answer: no. 166. p. 'Why China Has No Science' (in Englisn). Cited by Huang . Lo Chia-lun. although this book originally written in English. Between *& sl^ Tears and Laughter M . r|> 26. p. note: This is the author's translation. 1942. 24. 105. Cited vol. author's note re this book. r/V. 1934: 'Criticism of Li Shih-ts'en'. no. Fung Yu-lan. 33. In the bibliographical review. Supplement to the History of Chinese Philosophy . 182. October 1948. p. *^1943. Yeh Ch'ing. jen ^ . 269. note: work is not listed in the Bibliography. A closer rendering would be * 'The Bookstore of Arduous (Mental) Ploughing'. Problems of Philosophy ^ jV] ^| } . Tr. 23. dL Jjf^ . ibid. i. note: This Tr.

p. but no date of publication 49. 6. p. The Art of Living p.THE SYSTEMS OF OCCIDENTAL DERIVATION 42. Ho Lin. -^ jjfef T^J ^ . vol. Tr. Feng Tzu-k'ai. ibid. 80.. but no citation has been given by ibid. Ts'ail. This is work is listed in the Bibliography. p.. Ch'en Chu-shan. 17. id. Contemporary Chinese Philosophy Jf^ f> ){fj ?y 0te: I94i. Cited in ^ Tr. but no date of publication given. 97. 38. 47. block which the bonzes strike while one chanting. p. Tr. 43. note: of a work by The According to the Bibliography.. ibid. Tr. 52. 48. pp. . On Beauty 4^-1^ > 1932. this latter is a new translation Friche. (Presumably the sentence in quotation marks above this is from the same passage. 55. Tr. n. is given.64.. 103 25.. n. in Creation Magazine Artistic Taste ^g. August 1929: 'Art and Life'. 50. Chu -f- Kuang-ch'ien. Hsu Chili-mo. note: work ^ J&L not is fy listed in the Bibliography.d. 136. New Esthetics ^ Jj( Np 1948. p. 128 and 132. ibid. note: This refers to the /^ >t -^^ jjj^ . p.. 45. author. 1944. 51. 54. Twelve Letters to the ^ Young &&* This -f>t i% work > n. 6. p. 53. Chu Kuang-ch'ien.) 46. note: This is listed in the Bibliography. 44.J <jl . p. no date of publication is given.d.

should not be pressed too their inspiration as all far. they themselves remain faithful to their general spirit. according to our definition. the logic. Metaphysics has meaning for them only as a foundation for ethics. and the new concepts of the Occident. though they modernize the national cultural heritage. so public opinion. and on liberty. and ethically based on Confucianism.CONCLUSION yt ^ l\ maze of these disparate to collect our thoughts in order to clarify fitting systems. especially after the war of catastrophes 1914. therefore. but having made this concession they sing with all their strength the spiritual superiority of the Orient. and this unending comparison leads the authors to declare themselves. and they gladly believe that China has its word to say in world civilization through the instrumentality of this ancient ideal with its still recognizable values. but adopting metaphysically the method. they point out the has brought to the world. they preach the traditional Confucian virtues and 'sincerity'. that is to say. All moreover agree are things to be changed. to a reality. J^ the essential ideas which have been accepted in the intellectual FTER having travelled through the it is world of China and have become. For a good part the history of modern spond thought in China is the confronting of Oriental philosophies with the Occidental systems. The term 'Orientalists'. since a certain number Although this distinction of authors derive much from one side as the other. They remain moralists above all. Also they retain their sympathy and admiration for the moral philosophy of Confucianism. current money in Up to this point we have placed the mass of thinkers in two camps: the 'Orientalists' and the 'Occidentals'. designates. 104 . the heads of the Kuominof 'benevolence' tang. From the philo- sopher Liang Shu-ming to the statesmen. to speak. Although they appreciate the it benefits of science. to choose between the two metaphysics. the intelligentsia who it is remain faithful to the national in admitting that there necessary to introduce the sciences tradition on the whole. they often create an eclectic system. it does corre- the same. on ideals. Even To tell the ttuth. that and methods of the Occident. to the stress put on the spirit.

in its most World War authoritative representatives. tradition. following the Pacific war. They go to Bergson. progress. the Naturally they want II. 'feudal' thought use the words of their adversaries. or because they only adopted the dialectical method of thought without accepting its extreme consequences. or for reasons of which we are not aware. The Marxist group was at all times the most influential. In politics they generally the past. preceding (who call themselves 'scientific materialists') them. despite the coercive measures adopted by the Nationalist government. results The development of the social sciences has made unheard-of As early as 1931 a chronicler notes that according to the of his inquiry thirty per cent of the books being published dealt with the social sciences in the large sense and for the most part expounded the theses and principles of Marxist socialism. they cried. they themselves beyond rationalism. conservative. All the modern literature is dominated by this concern. For of them religion has . to represent the 'right'. remained outside of it. arguments to support their beliefs. if not the greater number. for even Buddhist philo- Be they Confucianists. spiritual disquietude. Since then this movement has not slackened in the least. to find in Occidental idealism. in order desperately to attempt to oppose the grow- ing materialism. sometimes also to Kant or never Plato. and reject all absolute values all which do not fall under scientific determinism. Hegel. and subordinate science -to that. But since 1929 or 1930 the pole of opinion has been displaced somewhat. Buddhists or sophy has always been resolutely atheistic. worship After 1911. and. be it because they were opposed to violent methods. 'Long live science and democracy!' That was the slogan underscored by all the periodicals. the most active. Not all of these authors who extol the theories of Marx necessarily belong to the Communist Party. the proportion appeared to be yet larger.CONCLUSION From this 105 stemmed their lamentations after noted the collapse of ideals. the most prolific in the world of ideas. lift vitalists. as they the disorder. and now the rupture with The 'Occidentalists' on the contrary and their are characterized intellectuals think especially of the social realities. by their of science and sociology. Alongside of them are the positivists or mechanistic materialists. Bradley and Royce. Many. These positivists also blindly believe that scornfully as the call 'science' equals 'materialism'.

Fung Yu-lan. the spirit of modern Occidental civilization. which has worked with triumph of the new ideas. They no longer pronounce the name of 'morals'. it cannot be denied that in practice 'Orientalist' is equivalent to idealist. so persuaded it much so that they are that science still and while they religion are two contradictory notions. and content themselves with a relative ethic adapted to the circumstances of time and place. they subordinate and to sociology or science. 'The Association of Marxist Intellectual Workers'. preoccupy but speak of the 'conception of life'. the 'Orientalists' one also encounters the positivistic element. pragmaThey do not wish to reject all tradition. The method most after which come the methodologies which have been current in favour is obviously the authors attempt They study it a great deal. represent the scientific and socialistic current. for example. are in the 'progressives'. The old philosophical societies have obviously gone down in the fray: another has taken their place. Marxist to find tism and socialism. They no longer admit of an absolute. However. all the pragmatic method of Dewey. the import of the polemic against Confucianism of 1915 to 1920. the Russellian logic and others. But. this And now might for the party of the intelligentsia. more scientific. In reality who main the Among as. Likewise. as 'Occidentalist' is synonymous with all its it materialist. Scientific or social facts them. among the 'Occidentals' there are sometimes idealists. none of them disown the Marxist dialectic. it is necessary to keep from systematizing too much. among their ancients the beginnings of materialism. the political 'left'. invariable ethic. sees dawning before the day so long desired. What will it be . believe in the existence of ethics. And because they hold logic in high esteem they study in the Occident.10(5 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY been decidedly banished by science. while not claiming it to be any more than a general tendency. Even the to re-evaluate the ancient philosophy of China: only they apply themselves to these studies with a preconceived aim. which seems more modern. but to insufflate it with a new spirit. the logic of the Vienna school coming latest in date. of the debate on the cultures of Orient and Occident of 1922. for they claim past. less reactionary. and finally of the discussion aroused by the manifesto 'on This is the culture suitable to China' of 1935. These 'Occidentalists'.

CONCLUSION able to add to the mass 107 of materialist productions which is already so imposing? One wonders. Only the future can . all the classical Marxist works had already been translated into Chinese. Has not everything already been said? Despite the efforts of the Nationalist government. sometimes by three or four different authors. Is there anything left to philosophy but to veil its face? Was Yeh Ch'ing right in prophesying its decease? tell.

.

APPENDIX REPRESENTATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AUTHORS AND PRINCIPAL WORKS OF THE LAST FIFTY YEARS 1900-1950 .

Buddhist Philosophy The Philosophy of Tridetnism and Vitalism Utilitarianism.CONTENTS General Histories 111 111 The The Precursors of Contemporary Thought Specialists in Traditional Chinese Philosophy 112. Pragmatism.ealism 119 12 1 Dialectical and Historical Materialism 9 'Mechanistic Materialism 126 The Voluntarism of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche Philosophical Anarchism 127 128 German Rationalism: Kant and Hegel Various Idealisms: Anglo-American. 129 131 The Specialists in Logic and Methodology The Principal Specialists in Ethics and Ph ilosophy ofLife The Specialists in Psychology and Education The Studies on Aesthetics Publishers 134 135 136 139 142 . 1 16 118 Anglo-American Neo-R. French* etc.

NOTE As indicated by the title this bibliography is by no means intended to be exhaustive. Confucianism. The One Wtyrld (literally.T^e a ^ Ssu-t'ung Anthology or was a disciple . beginning with K'ang Yu-wei. may reader is cautioned that works by a particular author may frequently be found under more than one heading. Contemporary Chinese Philosophy > tij* f^ is *f* |JJ d taken up with a general survey of philosophical writings. describes the movement of thought (controversies and schools) and the introduction of Occidental systems. + *t A History of Chinese Thought during the Past Fifty Years 4 t m & & > 8 > *935. and with a discussion of the cp 9. The author analyses the writings of some twenty thinkers. as rendered by author. Authors are classified according to subject-matter. but only to be representative of the best authors and their best works. 452 pp. ^ . socialism. Tan Ssu-t'ung. evolutionism. (The possible). the other half deals with various inovements of thought. Publishers (most of which are in Shanghai) are indicated by numerals the first in bold-faced type. A very audacious work which was very influential. 1935 (only |sj A mass of theories borrowed from complete edition). THE PRECURSORS OF CONTEMPORARY THOUGHT K'ang Yu-wei. ^ .) GENERAL HISTORIES Kuo Chan-po. as well as dates (wherever be found by consulting the Index of Authors. 431 pp. Ho Lin. Chinese characters for authors. 1945. The Book of the Great Concord) z. 155 pp* About half of this book question of knowledge versus action. under each heading being ordinarily the most representative. Theory ofJen S5> 4J 9 28 ^> in Tan 97 PP. according to the list which follows the biblio- graphy.

i. and new-Western is Jew is equated with 'ether'. Briere as 'the 'dogma of the ideal pattern'. Buddhist. and a martyr in the 'Hundred Days of Reform'. 2. of Chinese *o. R. I92i.112 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY His book of K'ang Yu-wei. It the personal metaphysical system of Fung Yu-lan. ^> 3. Hughes ^ is and by Fr. History of Scholarship 2. an adaptation and blending of Chinese traditional philosophy with Occidental thought.) New Li Hsileh ^iif *_ . 183 pp. but now quite passe. norm*. This book modernizes the as positivistic Confucianism of is Chu Hsi. Anthology of Liang Jen-kung' s Lectures on Scholarship^ fa ' <? 5. see translator's bibliography. Studies on the Buddhist Classics. and very influential at one time. Li Hsiieh translated by E. General Discussion of Ch'ing Dynasty Scholarship i. General Discussion of Sinology Chang T'ai-yen. First Series ^ ^^!r y ' Ij two series> Ip23 and I925> ^ W ~ -^r I? I92 ^" k ^^ ^L f ' ^jfr. and Essays on Sinology and Politics. * ig) ^ #t & M ^ <$ the Evolution . is a blend of neo-Confucian. History of Chinese Philosophy 1. Studies on the Chinese Classics. while still following it rather closely. Many sound ideas. 1939. l*t &&* . Manchu. 1949). Christian. It has been criticized as ^ ^^ giving a too positivistic interpretation of ancient philosophy. 2. Liang Jen-kung *s Recent Writings. new edition in two volumes 1934. P arts: Impressions of Europe. Essays on civilization and 1902 (most various modern theories which the author criticizes. . antiideas. 312 pp. The authority in the field to date. THE SPECIALISTS IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE PHILOSOPHY )I3 Iff Fung Yu-lan. but spiritual concept. 1040 pp. a moral as well as a |j|) Liang Ch'i-ch'ao (Jen-kung).>K 'J? Complete Essays of the Yin Ping Shih recent edition. ^ 4. Volume One 1931. $f Further critiques of modern thought. (For English translation. 2.

Retraces the principal currents of traditional Chinese thought so as to indicate the position of neo-Confucianism.^ Various studies on cultural. New Wisdom ^tf indicated Treatise -* ^ > i.1922. . Kant. 123 pp. New Treatise on the Nature of Tao i. 3. 1. Writings ^j^ "^ X & > IX 1935- Dis- a propos of the author's experiences at quisition on education the Institute of Rural Reconstruction in Chouping. New on the Methodology of Metaphysics. Chang Chiin-mai (Carson Chang).APPENDIX 3. 104 pp. 6. title The contents are by the author's own English for this work. 1945. 1946. 'China's Road The to Freedom'. ^ & X ft* ^ $L Iff Writings of Shu-ming before Thirty i. 147 pp. which is the author's own school. A the Philosophy of Life compilation of the . is The neo-Confucian methodology etc. ^jj yijj ^ . and pedagogical ^ ^^^ ^^ . Civilizations of Orient and Occident and Their Liang Shu-ming. Described by the author as a supplement to his two-volume history (i) above. Treats of problems 'not touched upon in the three preceding'. Shantung. (i) above. 194. 1930. Seeks a solution practical problems of China in political. on Education 4. moral. of life. 113 New Realities to the new 230 pp. a Confucian rationalism. 198 pp. whence its sub-title. social. Counsels for the New Age J^^ t*M* ) k . . 1930. The Philosophies 2. see translator's bibliography. says the author in his preface problems of life. 1940. 'i |^. Science and J^ A. 216 pp. Nature of New Treatise on the Man ^.tf /3jr \ . 1925. cultural.0. author's philosophy 5. Confucian in ethical outlook. 1943. i. and other areas. Corrects the excessively anti-Western position of i. 12. (For English translation. -^ ^p ^^. 5. problems.) 7. Writings of Shu-ming after Thirty > Especially concerned with criticizing Occidental education. i. compared with that of Plato. Spinoza. 4.

C. concerned with the interpre- and divination of certain diagrams which are supposed to include in themselves all possible combinations of changes in the tation universe. a hedonist (?fourth century B. 479-381 B. z. Driesch's >% SJrfr*2 translator has *S^ *fr own /3L 4 ** borrowed many elements i. The I Ching in Sum / Ching is one of the canonical books. The from Driesch and .C.) is rationalistic & ^ and . to determinism. History of Chinese Philosophy to Supplement Hstin ca. ^ ^ . 2. ^j^ (Hsiin Tzu: died Chiang Wei-ch'iao. ^L v^-^- ^ 2.114 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY author's lectures advocating a free. fy The Relativity ofEinstein and Its Critics (translation) H.D. in three volumes. Fichte's Letters to the Confucian idealism. Joad's Spirit 3. Bergson to support his 4. and was the greatest opponent of Mencius. *. 1130- Chung Tzi. This Confucian The Chu Hsi School 5/k 3 Wang Ch'ung jfc of the Latter Han Dynasty ^ J^r r%> a. Yang (ca. .) ^ O * ^ jj^ "J ^-y- ^ v . Outline History of Chinese Philosophy 1934-35. Ch'en Chu. It liveliest autonomous ethic in opposition which gave rise to one of the of the period. 2j-ca. This philo- school 1200. .D.). (translation) German Nation Hsieh Wu-liang.C. i. |gj ^ f|l 2. History of Chinese Philosophy a. . History of Chinese Philosophy during the Last Three Hundred Years 2 3. 97) is sopher here studied for his political theories. philosophical controversies was these lectures 2. positivistic. $&#&>* The matter which is Classic of Changes. Tzu Annotated 238 B.) advocated utilitarianism and universal love. The Philosophies of Yang Chu and x. One of the principal works in the field. Philosophy of 3. i. (Chu Hsi: A. refers tCMts subject $ Its tide. and Matter (translation) >^ ^fe . (he lived A. tlflii^S^^^Jt'^ ^ & Mo ^ j Mo Ti Chu was ' Ti ftjfo .

Confucius -|L 2. Ho Lin. A Essays on Confucian Thought symposium of various authors. means something is like the 'golden Lao Tzu ^? ~J .APPENDIX 2. i. 'Knowledge and Action note: For One' ^E (Translator's Hu Shih's writings. the to title to identify the work some reader. Wang Shou~jen 3L is is Chu Hsi. from 1472 to 1528. which advocates naturalism and nihilism. 4. 115 . ^ Ch'ienMu. Ch'ien informs me he has not written a book by this title. . He 5. lived in the fourth century B. Lao Tzu the first Taoist philosopher and reputed author of the Tao Te Ching. New . HsiehMeng. ^ :fJ*- ?|J x. The Lun Yii is as The Analects of Confucius. Essentials of the Lun Yii generally rendered in English ^ ^ . The Wang Yang-ming School > ^ x - P *>} ?j* 1 5/fc. contemporary of Confucius. 'Knowledge Action is Easy . The Chung Yung Annotated and Collated i \^ ji j JL is one of the 'Four Books of the^neoits title Confucian canon. so this and publisher may serve item has been re- tained here. Chinese Confucian Thought (Translator's note: Prof. Is Difficult. He is supposed to have been an older 4. General Discussion of Sinology 3. see the section on 'Utilitarianism. Mo Tzu <j|k *]- x. Hui Shih and Kung-Sun Lung Two logicians. The Saying. The Chung Yung mean*. i.) . ^ $!L ^ who J& ~fL > x. who This famous opponent of the founder of the idealistic school of neobetter ^ Confucianism. known by his literary name. $j 9 2.) 2. lived . but Ten Essays on Moism *j> this is doubtful. 3. Anglo-American neo-Realism'.C. however. Pragmatism. Wang Yang-ming. often called Sophists. 6. and the Are Saying. 3. ^ e. i.

f 6. or 'pure idea'. Also in three volumes. the author on various occasions and on various A View of the History of Liberty 7 Vb |^. Volume Three life contains lectures 5. 6. J^ Jfj| z*J T^jLjj| ^ X 93 2 J in three volumes. 2. True Theory of Reality jl L ^ 4^ . JhS) J^- . > 5 v 8. Yin Kuang. whether religious or political 70 pp. imperialism. T'ai Hsu's Discourses ^ 4. Essentials of Buddhism ^ ^ 4fT -^A^L iNrx ^ 6. In two volumes. 6. Philosophy ig & . i. . and communism. Writings of the Buddhist Teacher T'ai .).). Hsu &. New Theory of Idealism ^^T ^* 6- A new statement of the position of the Buddhist school of pure idealism. 1940. on the philosophical school of 'mere ideation'. Volume One contains lectures on the Buddhist Law in general. Collection of lectures topics. 1932. 3. Huang Ch'an-hua. 6. *% General ^^ Sects . 6. the monotheistic religions. Regulations for the Reformation of the Sangha 3j| f(T| |W ^ ^ . Volume Two contains lectures on the relationship of civilization modern and Buddhism (161 pp. Idealism of the . Jj| ^Jfc 6. 494 PP2. given by 3. Combats dogmatism. Outline of Philosophy ty $p Under Buddhist influence. which denies the reality of the external world (211 pp. The author was the leader of the conservative wing of Buddhist thought and the great adversary of T'ai Hsu. 1932".). ^^ *1jf ^4. In four volumes.Il6 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY T'ai Hsu. on Buddhist attitudes towards (140 pp. Writings of the Buddhist Teacher Yin Kuang p jji >^ JH/. 2. X 7. 132 pp. 4. Discussion of Buddhism 4fy $L Main Principles Held by the Various Buddhist r. Introduction to Idealism *|| Buddhist wei shih school.

i.6. Outline of Indian Logic ^ &fl ^^i-^ The author 3. The most profound exposition of the views of the Buddhist wei shih school yet produced in modern China.* (translation) G. Sylvain Levi's TAe Sixteen Arhats (translation) ?i f Liang Shu-ming. is 2.APPENDIX Chiang Wei-ch'iao. General Discussion of Indian Philosophy !^ te*-t4t ' x I 9 J 9'' 3 J 3 PP- Ting Fu-pao. Idealism Ou-Yang Chien (Ching-wu).Pr2yluski's Buddhist Studies (translation 2. neither Religion nor Philosophy 3. General Discussion of Buddhism 6. The author adapts his theories to the present day. 19445 358 pp. Its Sources ^ ^ jfa & $& j$ J/^ i. Chiang Shao-yiian. : 3& 2. Moore's Origin and Growth of Religion Feng Ch*eng-diun. 6. McGovern's Manual of Buddhist Philosophy (translation) 2. i. Explanation oj Idealism ^fj : r^""^i' > . Compassion T/ze Buddhist ^. Sylvain Levi's Asvaghosa. 3. New ^f\ *& Iffii^W . to Lu Ch'eng.*&. Buddha s Law: ^Jj? 3& . Treatise on Idealism Hsiung Shih-li. The Written Foundations of Buddhism f^ . General 2. 117 Discussion of Buddhism History of Chinese Buddhism volumes. f^$fcj i^ *&. Idealism of the Buddhist t^ei shih school. En-yang. How Study Buddhism 4 fy ^t f? *5t z - *& . ^yst Complete Analysis of Idealism of the Buddhist im 5/zf/z school. *ti ttPtl$i. F. merely a popularizer. Brief History of Indian Buddhism fp jf^ ty 4^^> i. ty JJH f^^t X> 3C - Wang 2. (translation) the Sutralamkara and .

Driesch. author is A Buddhist Catechism j% also a prolific popularizer of Buddhism. a collection of Dr. On JrA. somewhat placing the Three Principles of the People. Fan Ku-nung. (For English translation. 1934. see translator's bibliography. Three Principles of the People (or. only the principal authors.) 2. but undertakes to correct 2. 6. ^^ f^ j^ . and Confucianism. Theoretical Foundations ofVitalist Philosophy 3' X 935. Ho Hsing-chih.B. A continuation of the preceding. dis- came new 'Bible' of the Kuomintang. This N.) Ch'en Li-a. 1944. see translator's bibliography.) (Translator's i note: The most complete and most recent edition of Dr.*Vitalism author's lectures * which were designed Collection of the JUj^ .3. Sun's lectures in rather rough form. by the Central j3C This It ^ ^to be the Reform Committee (Kuomintang) ^ > jfc W* (i* 1 twelve volumes). It is . see translator's bibliography. Tridemism) 3. The 'Bible' of the Kuomintang. Sun's works was published in Taipei. to furnish a metaphysical foundation for tridemism. 1918. 3. them somewhat. This author is one of the most prolific popularizers of Buddhism. FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 15. We have listed THE PHILOSOPHY OF TRIDEMISM AND VITALISM Sun Yat-sen (Wen). as well as of ideals of individual and national life. (For English translation. (For English translations.) Chiang Kai-shek. Its theories are based on Bergson.Il8 . Modern Buddhist literature is very abundant. China work by s Destiny \f> jgj China's wartime leader ran to ^ ^> some \Jr 3 I 943- 200. The most philosophical of the author's works. Taiwan. Treats of cosmology.000 copies. Psychological Reconstruction * 3. in 1952. *g^ Devotes special ^ . 1924. The Origin of Life ^L ^ /g ijg . based on the views of Wang Yang-ming.

work. Part at at Section on 'Darwinian and Spencerian Evolutionism'. "Wu K'o-kang. ^j| pares $ it ' System of Vitalist Philosophy ^^ *?' ^tf. The study of ancient Chinese philosophy by means of the pragmatic method. see the present ^ I. the Historical ^L ^^ J^ ^ Conception of the Peoples ^LU> l6 . J& 3. expounds Political Chiang Ching-i.) Hu Shih. The viewpoint is stressed. and comof the with materialism and idealism. Fu. PRAGMATISM. especially that central of vitalism. Volume Three the vitalist philosophy of life and ethics.APPENDIX attention to the vitalist theory of knowledge. Vitalist Conception of History *ti UTILITARIANISM. the theory of evolution. Incidentally the director of Provincial Taiwan Library Taipei. Volume Jfjr $jL & One discusses vitalism as the philosophical foundation of tridemism. an aspect H9 which had been neglected by Ch'en Jen Chiieh-wu.I*1 t'iree volumes. Jevons* Elements of Logic fa note: For mention of others of Yen Fu's transla(Translator's tions. history and society. Volume Two treats vitalists' theories of cosmology. Vitalism and Livelihood *f| Li-fu. 1919. Stuart Mill's On Liberty (translation) f Stuart Mill's System of Logic (translation) i. & ^ Outline of the History of Chinese Philosophy $j$j . translations remarked to the translator one time that Yen Fu's have never been surpassed or even equalled. . concept biological Wang Lung-yii. Prof. f lH j first $j> i. System of Vitalism *| Huang Wen-shan. 1 93 3* Another attempt to bridge the gap between materialism and idealism. ANGLO-AMERICAN NEO-REALISM Yen 2. Volume One only.

translator served as Dewey's interpreter during lecture tour in China. The author's doctoral dissertation (in English).) 2. 1921.4- (translation) . 3. 5. 12. Chang Tai-nien. 1931. HsuCh'ung-ch'ing. 1927. Tai Tung-yiian was one of the most important scholars 4. the Logical Method in Ancient China. fj Essays of Hu Shih 1930. Chu Chou ^ Ching-nung. Liu Po-ming. The Development of 1922. Dewey's ^ ^ *& Hpw We Think (translation) . Dewey's Reconstruction in Philosophy (translation) * i. Dewey's Democracy and Education (translation) Ch'iu Chin-chang. concerned in good part with ancient Chinese philosophy. . and -(^ X. This book. Dewey's . While Hu Shih paid attention especially to the 'American philosopher's methodology.C. He lived from 1724 to 1777. 4- 2. i. Creighton and Smart's Elements of Logic . of the Ch'ing Dynasty. The Book of the Prince of Huai Nan 5f| >fj i 19. Hu Shih and \2| T'ang Yiieh also jointly ^< The . most others have devoted their attention to his educational doctrines. fa of four volumes each.I2O FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY (Translator's note: No further at volumes were published. court of a grandson of the in the second century B. 8.f . Hu stated he was work on materials to complete this work. How We Think (translation) JgL $$ ^ his 2. in late 1952 Dr. Dewey's The School of Tomorrow (translation) En-jiin. These essays are . 20. translated this book. Philosophy ofTai Tung-yuan ~j& ^ /g $ 3g P& . 1924. Dewey's The (translation) ^ ^ ^ E * $ ^ J& Sources of a Science of Education $fx> . In three series first emperor of the Han Dynasty. usually known as Huai Nan Tzu ^H i^j is a -} compilation of Taoist writings composed at the ^ .

method of thought - the Mitin's Outline of the . (translation) YenChi-ch'eng. 2. Russell's On Scepticism i. William James' . Part Society'. William James' Thought (translation) ^-^ Jg. William James' The tion) Varieties 3. 2. Chao Yen. Extracted from James' Principles of Psychology. importance see the Section on 'The Chinese Philosophical its and DIALECTICAL AND HISTORICAL MATERIALISM Ai Ssu-ch'i. > 1934- tjl ^ & t& . Fu Chung-sun. i. Translation of a Soviet manual on Marxism. Metaphysics *ft j fa Jt ^fcl was the principal founder of the review Philosophical Critique. -fcfi Another chapter from the Principles of Psychology. William James' Pragmatism (translation) T'ang Yiieh. i. Russell's Education and the Social Order (translation) Huang 4. ^ On * Mathematical Philosophy . \3 Logic and Mathematical Logic Liu Qi'i-wei. 3 . . . On How to Think & $^> Sold in enormous quantities. This book has had at least three Chinese translations. 1936. & $ . is Establishes that the only scientific materialistic dialectic. (translation) ^ 2. of Religious Experience (transla5 i^ ^>C *< J^R ^^J> ^5 i.APPENDIX 121 Meng Hsien-ch'eng. Fang Tung-mei. (Translator's note: For this review present work. Jjf 3& ^ i. Russell's ^ On Education (translation) $^ ^ "? . i .) I. Philosophy of the People JC A popular presentation of Marxism. 1935. On Emotion (translation) -f ^ ^ $% 5^L . Murray's Pragmatism . The author Tzu-t'ung. New Philosophy (translation) fir ^ 21. (translation) Russell's Introduction to Wang Tien-chi.

Another work of popularization for the young. 4VT Fundamental 2. the economic structure. Manual of the Scientific * Conception of History -i4 ^ )$* ^ It Wu Li-p'ing ^I&^i^JL Z2 > J 939* Written in collaboration with (see below).^ W$&. Dictionary of Marxist technical terms. 3JL ff *^ J. Thalaimer's Modern Conception of the World . 5. An anthology. & theories 5. ^ 3. Section this bibliography. . 1947- . Attempts 25 I 93 <5. 23. Modern Sociology i In spite of the title. 1937. to establish a sort of Marxist ethic. 7. Ai Ssu-chT. Similar to the above. 1939. a treatise on Marxist philosophy. and the ideological forms of society. the political structure. this ft is H ^ q> . Philosophy 5* 21.122 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 4.) Tymjanski's Introduction Corter's j Dialectical Materialism (translation) 3. 1936. historical materialism. ^ ft * F Dictionary of Terms of the j|fefc fj Philosophy 24. Li Ta. New . Philosophical Selections \^ 3$%. A and Life J$? ^jr collection of letters to the reader' expounding various Marxist . History of Contemporary Dialectic |fr 25. 21. Part Marxists: Li Ta. for additional to it which is not listed in to on 'The information on this III. 5. work and one related 2. (Translator's note: See the present work. includes the following topics: 'materialistic dialectic. Studies in Contemporary Philosophy 21. 138 A small popular work preaching neo-materialism. Practice and and criticizing the opponents of Marxism. 854 pp. (translation) Shen Chih-yuan. 4. 6. A. Theory -* Jtg $ fjp J*j& i3! 4& . 1937. Historical Materialism (translation) ^CX-fc * 2 T/ze 4. 1939. 542 pp. Talks on the New ^ t?> Conception of Life $ fr ^ 4"ir > # Questions of Modern Philosophy pp. 22.

Ho Lin. General Discussion 1932. 4^ by 190 "IT >-fe . Dialectic or Pragmatism? on i Huang J& J 7T^z/Jb T e. Engels. 30. Biography ofMarx 2. In three volumes. Another popular manual. 169 pp. 1940. 7. Lenin. General Discussion of Philosophical Currents in the } $t 3<>. Reason and Liberty 29. The New Philosophy > s Conception of Life ^ ^* ^ *} ** ethic for the ^L fc 25 I 937* 5 i?2 pp. etc. -fil^ 2. 1940. this is ^?^t4. classics of Marxism Marx. Fl 26 J 938. ^ Neu. How to Think and How to Read 5& ^ J^ %^ & > ^ 5. A small manual which First down the Marxist theories for popular consumption. 1947. Articles which illustrate concrete examples the methodology of Marx and Lenin. 1930. Laidler's Socialism in Thought and Action (translation) 3. 1934. Jj$ $$ft jg ^JE^ Ch'ien Chang Juhsin. **g. 27. Dialectic and Materialism Hf 4^5^^ <$^> > 3- 3. . W. Philosophy 31. Soviet Union fa ^ ^f^|^. 1946. Dialectical Materialism Selections from the ^^ *fc$tj$fo .APPENDIX 123 Hu Sheng. 28. ^ ^ g f^ . 3. Explanation of Marxist 54? young. A collection of articles criticizing Fung Yu4an. Introduction to Dialectical Materialism %j> Hi #fr Jf& *^ boils 3. H. Li Chi. 72 pp. The Weapon of Criticism ^tt. The methodology is of course the dialectic. Philosophy of the Proletariat^- 4. Steps in How to Think g ig ^ 3* 3 $. 31. 2. Despite its its title. *jr of Philosophy a history of philosophy having as ^ aim to demonstrate that dialectical materialism is the summit of human thought. and Mu. $*} &$ ^C ^ 3*> . & pp. 87 pp. 4. 2. 85 pp.

Manual of the with Ai Scientific ' Conception of History ^ i11 *** JJ&^fer^m I939j 271 PP- ^ri tten collaboration Ssu-ch'i. Ko Ming-chung. 222 pp. the ^ Philosophy of the Masses > X 9395 156 pp. > 3* X 937. A New 222 pp.124 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY and expositions including criticism of Yeh Ch'ing.%^ tfl . Chang Chung-shih. 1939. > Dialectic *& f & ?ff f i* ? f^ I 93 5- Brief statement of the principal tenets of Marxism. Popular Talks on ^"fe 2. On Tan Ssu-futy 4$f % 34' 2. Another popular manual. The Pursuit of Truth 2. 222 pp. Deborin's Introduction tion) 2. to Dialectical Materialism (transla- 5**S 35Deborin's Materialist Dialectic and the Natural Sciences (translation) &$ % Ml ** S& >wM O & *% ^5* J^ fi . . 1937. 26s PP' Later the World of the Scientific Conception of ' ' New Philosophy. manuals. Talks on the Materialism of Warring Nations ^Mifr^iHF title T/ze 33 I937. *Jj S$ . Ch'en Po-ta. treatment than most of the preceding more detailed 1939. the philosophy of the 'New Democracy'. Catechism on flfl sciences. 3 PP. Talks on the New Philosophical System^ $5 rfM^&f^: 4* 3. Manual of the Philosophy ofHistory Lin Po-hsiu.25. The author seeks to prove his case by examples borrowed Scientific Philosophy A ^ ^^ from biology and the other Lin Che-jen. 30. jfc .Refutes the non-Marxist systems and upholds neo-materialism. which is more accurate. Philosophy Reader P'ing Sheng. and others. Chien Po-tsan. collection A of critiques Ch'en Wei-shih. J^ * ^sj ^& \x\ . Plekhanov's Fundamental Sciences Questions of the Social (translation) 25.

Plekhanov's Militant Materialism '^f^ ^ *$ MaChe-min. not inferior to that of the Kuo Ta-li. General Discussion of Spirit and Science > 39. A study of e and the . ^ ^> #r in . Among one is con- sidered the best. 336 pp. Studies on $tt>^\ d of ancient Chinese philosophy. Marx's Third Revolution of Napoleon ^1^ ^ (translation) . *& . 2. 430 pp. 662 pp. 25. History China 300 pp. ti* # ?f Ten ^ $$ . author concludes that the thought of the ^ Contemporary China ?f f*f ^L is contemporary period in China Renaissance in Europe. religions Critiques + and philosophies of antiquity. 1939.21. History of Thought and Scholarship Jt In *V two volumes.a 5 .38. Outline of the History of Chinese Philosophy J 25. ^A 7- Engels' Dialectic of Nature (translation) $ ij|| _ > 2. 25. Essays 2. The . . Mitin's Philosophy (translation) Rosenthal's Knowledge According ^ >~> to . Tu Wei-chili. 1930. 3 6 ^945. 125 Engels' Origin of the Family. the Marx's Capital (translation) ^ > -f jj^ numerous translations of the Marxist *Bible'. 600 pp. 279 pp. Lange's History of Materialism *& $b 4fe JC Ho Pai-nien. this . 4. 2. Hou Wai-lu. Property and State (translation) 3. (translation) Dialectic *$4iM&*fr*fc Kuo Mo-jo.25. J. Dietzgen's Dialectical Materialism (translation) 3. * ^ ^ Ancient 37. 1942. 1947. 1945. T/M? Bnwze Age on the ^ $ . V * * *S & Thought and Scholarship in . Hsiang Lin-ping.APPENDIX 2. Dietzgen's Logic ofDialectic (translation) Wi3'$|L '35- 2.

4 . A symposium consisting mainly ot attacks of the dialectical materialists against the idealists. ^ 6* Struggles in the Developing of the New -$*r ^ cf^ ph S$ . *** Problems of'Philosophy 40. Po-k'ai. 1937. Maxims & ^?a Jj*3. Anthology on Philosophy and Ethics $g &>\ 40. 4. 40. Bukharin's World Economy and Imperialism (translation) tfr - % syj^iit ^ :^' . . 1935. 7. The Fu Tzu-tung. ^ f\^ ^^. 40. e 'orthodox' Marxists who accused him of betraying Marx. and hence will 2. 1936.126 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY of view. L&fzrgues Origin and Evolution of Wealth (translation) 4. *g &*> Jg^ ^ J^. 1936. Anthology on Philosophical Thought . d'Helvetius' 5. 1935- 3. Problems of Logic ij[ ^ lose its name. Whither Philosophy? *g fjfi 1934. Theories and 3. Tries to prove that philosophy will &} fsf become merely > the 'theory of science'. productions of the spirit from the Marxist point author is especially a student of Marxist economics. Philosophical Controversies 3g ^K 4^jpt 4o. After Solovine's translation of Heraclitus. Theories On Spirit (translation) *^" V^ ^^ > 4- Diderot's Principles of Philosophy (translation) 6.40. Continua^V tion from a different viewpoint of the argument that philosophy in the future will be merely the science of thought. Lenin's Materialism and Empirical Criticism < 'MECHANISTIC' MATERIALISM Yeh Ch'ing. ^ 40. The Controversies of the New Philosophy 4#r r|? ^ffi Collection of the author's disputations with 40. 5. 4. Yang 2. After Solovine's translation of Democritus. ^^ 40. A Philosophy ^fr continuation N Jt& of toe preceding. and maxims of Epicurus.

APPENDIX 127 Wang T'e-fu. ^^ j^ Man fc ^|i 4 Chang I-hung. 1937. vitalism. A Machine 40. Russell. 2. 270 pp. Philosophy of . Foundation of the Sciences (translation) ^4 qr 3. What Is Philosophy? 2. Critiques of Nietzsche.^J? T. Eddington's Nature of the Physical World New. i. 3. Eucken. of Science (translation) *%^. ^ . La Mettrie's . Anthology of Li Shih-tsens Essays i. Critiques of Liang Shu-ming. Exposition of Nietzsche's philosophy. 2. 1932. . . ^^ ^ (translation) 40. What Is Matter? J2. Ching-an Anthology -4^ j 3^ Ching-an is another name of Wang Kuo-wei. 1936. 1996. Kuan-t*ang another name of Wang Kuo-wei. A^ J^s 4ft j^t i. THE VOLUNTARISM OF SCHOPENHAUER AND NIETZSCHE Wang Kuo-wei. 40. 1926. 1924. Bergson. ^ ^^ ^ ^lj 40. General Discussion ofPhilosophy jtf* i. 3. and Buddhism.St>^^> Jen Po-ko. ^ ^ 4^ X 220 pp. Stoljarov's Critique of Mechanism (translation) ^t ^J 2. Kuan-t'ang Anthology is still ^^ the *|p ^^bfc. fy 4^ 40." jfr 5. 1924. 4-t Grammar Pearson's 4. of Life Philosophy /^ i 3 ^ . Superman -$ Li Shih-ts'en. Critiques of Yeh. 1935. 40. Anthology ofLi Shih-ts* ens Lectures i. Dewey 4. H. (translation) T'an Fu-chih. f*g- ^^f if*j Theory ofthe Formation of the World General Discussion of Physics ty/7 System of Logic 1* -^ ^c2 rp . jft . ^&L4& 4<>* 4. and Nietzsche. 40. 2. fit V^- ^^^ /^ ^ . Jeans' . Ai Ssu-ch'i. 200 pp. > 1923. Huxley's Method and Results (translation) c 35. Ch'ing. and others. Philosophical Critiques *$ ^^ ^j J^ .

the final stage in the evolution 6. x - A. The Free Society \\ tj* 10. ^ Science. which are tinged with Confucianism. by the author and several other Chinese students. 193 3. and concludes in favour of dialectical materialism. is and Life ^ F|? Iff p Jf . Schopenhauer's Theory of Pessimism (translation) ^ $t<Wt. published in a review founded in Paris about 1905. Philosophy. (See the present work. of his thought. * Ten Lectures on Chinese Philosophy IsRJ 4. The author as Neitzsche profoundly under the influence of regards 'life'. Fang Tung-mei. 5. but not as regards Voluntarism*. A brief history of Chinese philosophy. 454 pp. Studies in Anarchism ^jiL jjj^ fy . Part I. Bakhunin's God and the State (translation) JL . and 'culture'. i.41. i Jjf Pa Chin. Hsiao Kan. an unfinished translation of Kropotkin's Mutual Aid. vu Ying. ^f^ Liu Hsu. Principles of Philosophy Passes in review all the ^ ^ modern *3g r $fa|.) Chou Fo-hai.gV-v Ch'ii Jen-hsia. Kropotkin's My Life ^ &$ ^ {& . 400 pp.128 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Compares solutions to the problems of life as given by various Occidental and Oriental philosophers. (translation) Pi Hsiu-shuo. Kiopotkin's Words of a Rebel )i^t^i Ht The author is a follower of Pa Chin. ^ & 2. 4. Kxopotkin's Origin and Development of Morals (translation) Kropotkin's Bread and Freedom (translation) ^ *}j& ^ tjj 3. ^ i^ + -g^ . systems. Section on 'The Anarchism of Kropotkin'. Kropotkin's Mutual Aid (translation) <j $& |L" . and then sets forth his own. PHILOSOPHICAL ANARCHISM Wu Chih-hui.

neo-realism. 4. 307 pp. neo-realism. Popularization of Freud- ian theory 6. i. . its history in the Occident.APPENDIX 129 GERMAN RATIONALISM: KANT AND HEGEL Cheng Hsin. Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (translation) Kant's Power of the Spirit Chang Tung-sun. which derives from Kant but revises some of Kant's 8. . New Philosophical Theories 466 pp. etc. termed 'the pluralism of knowledge'. 4^j} r > J 9 29J modern 4. ancient times to the present. 4J *i Thwght and Democracy ttj. Knowledge and^Culture ^"J^a j^ 4& 237 pp. Philosophy 3g ^ . The author's own conception ofthe wond and of life. Kant ^* M Fan Shou-k'ang. $f *. 4. Gives Modern Philosophy JjJ 4\ $ f& . Epistetnology author's own ^^ : taV-!|f * *' I934 * Exposition of the system. 1931. theories. Also criticizes pragmatism. 2. Bergsonism. 1934. Psychoanalysis $^ ^ \p ^ ^i-. Description ofKantism jjfr jjfc %&. i. Concludes that materialism is bankrupt. . and then describes special attention to Kant. The philosophical theory ofthe Vienna school. 1934. neo-idealism. ^ ^ . Here the author has abandoned Kant and comes at the problem of knowledge from the sociological point of view. 9. . Philosophy of Value f j| ^| $ & 4. Describes pragmatism. 1946. \j i. 204 pp. 1930. ^ 4. Nan Shu-hsi. currents. especially those in America. 4. i. Kant j* Hu Jen-yuan. Defines philosophy. 1946. 646 pp. Chou Hsien. 108 pp. Shows the influence of society on theoretical thinking. 104 pp. The author adopts a personal view closely agreeing with that of Wundt 7. grafted on to Freudism. and other ^ Xg ^ . Moral Philosophy Moral theories fa 4 J^L oft&e Occident from ^ 2. relativism. 3. 5.

of preface to metaphysics. Royce*s ^Description of Hegel's Theories (translation) g 3. 97 pp. Said to be profoundly influenced by On Mind %^ >^ ^ zg ^ jg ff . sort Ginling College. 1942. Ho Lin. <* 3. 2.1. Montague's Methodology of Epistemology (translation) 3* . ^ ^ 11. Problems of Philosophy Simply Presented Yeh H| 40. . but implies a whole civilization. 178 pp. Cairas Hegel (translation) ^ ^^ S i^ . ^4 Sentimentalist's View ofthe Universe and Human <t tt 4fr^ * ?7 idealistic $ 1924. The author believes Confucian idealism to be the most superior. Analysis of current idealistic philosophies. Kant's Critique of Practical Reason (translation) Hegel's Logic (translation) Shih Yu-chung. Shows that democracy is not merely a political system. 1947. . A Hegelianism._|fc 3L With this work the author has aefinitely toward A ^^ abandoned metaphysics for sociology. 2. . Chang 2. Democracy and Socialism jL . 1936. 43. Shen Chih-yuan. 224pp. 45. He leans anarchism. 190 pp. Ming-ting. jL jL jfr. BriefExplanation of Contemporary Idealism ^jf j> ^^ AJ| ^ j^| . honour . Essays in Ch'ing. Chu 2. x. 1946. etc. 1934. Hegel and Comtism ^ ^ 6 Life ltv * 44* Hegel's Philosophy of History & %& ^ 3.130 10. Hegel of the centenary of Hegel by Ho Lin. but retains his moral convictions.4. P'eng Chi-hsiang. & $& Chang Chun-mai. 42. Derives V $1 ^L /^ from both Oriental ana Occidental ^ {gj . thought. FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Reason and Democracy }% JL J^& i. 1935. 635 pp. Ch'ien-chih.

4.2. Aistode jft SP Jtfr | Ijfe. A survey of the modern Philosophy and Life Examines the death. I947J 283 pp. jfo if eg $fS\ . 258 pp. Tagore. Berkeley's Three Dialogues (translation) i. FRENCH. 2. ETC. Ch'i-t'ung. Descartes* Principles of Philosophy (translation) ^ JS /ft 4.* 3. suffering. the author. Principles 3. Plato *&4i: lj{J .APPENDIX 131 Kuo Pen-tao. ' ^ ^& $& ^* y^ all x- The author claims to have read of Plato Fan Shou-k'ang. 4. 4. Epistemological Theories Summarized - pubKshed by theories. i* . 1933. I. basic Jgf /^ problems of life * f^ i . Kuan 2. Descartes' Discourse on Method (translation) ^ -^ 54 l< . White- head. Hoernle's Idealism as a Philosophy (translation) Aj|tf^^. Hegel %& $| is . 2. 1947. the riddle of good and evil. Shen Chih-yiian. 3. Fu T'ung-hsien. 24. TAe Scientific Foundations of Modern Philosophy jj[^ 3. Plato's Parmenides (translation) 'ff ^^T in the original Greek. x. 3. 2. Hsieh Yu-wei. . Croce. love. Critiques of Famous Contemporary Philosophical Works 3t& Plty f$ ofEthics accounts of writings by Ho etc. > Philosophy and Psychology $g s^ J^L? ^ j^f yt| 3- Ch'en K'ang. i. Hegel and Dialectic ji . . VARIOUS IDEALISMS: ANGLO-AMERICAN. Hsiung Dewey. &$*> Lin. 282 pp. The author a Marxist. Berkeley's Treatise Concerning the Principles ofHuman Knowledge (translation) A^Jl -* 4^\'/^ JJJ . Critical Shih-li. and religion.

Evolutionist 7. Philosophy and Contemporary Science .7. determinism. ^j j . 4. 47. . Philosophical Thought Chang Pao-heng. 4. % $ izfa i. 7- Hocking's Types of Philosophy (translation) 4 3.k.132 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY in P'eng Chi-hsiang. Durant's-M^n5ton5 o/"P//05op hy (translation) 4^ 2. Jfi. #. i^l i^ 6. The Development of Occidental Philosophy fi 5 5^ 2. Principles of Philosophy Jg author was one of the participants in the controversy between Marxists and anti-Marxists. 49- Ch'ing Tse-p'eng.f*M. x. . ^ 3^ JJL 3. Descartes' Discourse on Method 3. ^C^^fr^ 4. Wulf's Philosophy and Civilization in the Middle Ages (translation) * 4 # . Cunningham's Problems ofPhilosophy (translation) # j 2. ^ Durant's ^ ' & $% & $% ^ ^ ^f *^j *' Story of Philosophy (translation) &$ *^C . 3. ^ Rogers' History of Philosophy (translation) 3. Defends philosophy against scientific Chan Wen-hu. Modern Philosophy i-)j^ i\ 3 fjji . X^. Anthology of Essays on Philosophy jg fg f & ^ Chou The Fu-ch'eng. Levy-BriihTs History of Modern Philosophy France (translation) si tiB ^S" 2. 4.46. Stoce's Critical History of Greek Philosophy (translation) ^ *W . . 48 Weber's History of Philosophy ' ' * (translation) 4. Philosophy \ft Afow Currents of Modern ^^^ 4- . Booth's Philosophy ofEucken (translation) Metaphysics HFH 5. Ch'ii Shih-ying.

Since fl lb publication of this book the translator. ^ ^ .& & 3q l JL^ .APPENDIX J33 in the Wu Kuang-chien. New p|r $t f Treatise on Philosophy ^ .. ^t ^^ ^ . i. Driesch and 1 His Theories *4 1. (translation) U 41846 it. Salomon's Bergson (translation) 2. Outline of the History of Ancient and Medieval Philo- sophy in the Occident & ^ . 2. HofFding's Brief History of (translation) Modem 44> Philosophy ^Sb ^ Ching Yu-nan. i 4^ ' ' Miao Feng-lin. T'angCh'eng-ch'e. ** P'eng Chien-min. 3. Chiang Shao-yiian. Joad and Strachey's After-Dinner Philosophy i /j^ jp^ ^-fr jc* * 3. teenth . has gone over to dialectical Chang Tung-sun. Jones' Inductive and Deductive Logic (translation) Bergson's Time and Free Will (translation) 9$ JVJ 4*r r. Merz's History of European Thought +- Nine$Z> Century ^- (translation) ^ -y#- j^ 65^ JfH jg. Outline of the History of Modern Philosophy in the Occident & ^ & *.* j\ ^& *& 3$ it 2. Hume's Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding (translation) P'an Tzu-nien. Bergson's Matter and Memory *fe 2. ^ 2. ' j$*\ Bergson's Creative Evolution (translation) Plato's Six Dialogues (translation) 4t* ^f . Communist official. Driesch's Problem of Individuality (translation) 2 Driesch visited China on a lecture JL Ha ^ff tour in 1922.45 Carr's Bergsonian Philosophy of Evolution (translation) ' - Fei Hung-nien. brother of a materialism.

^ #|fc ^ > of the . Goes on from T. . but have not yet been systematically exploited. Elements of Logic Much deeper than the two preceding. Epistemology ^j^.. Deals especially with pragmatic logic anct the symbolic logic of Anglo- American neo-realism. is logically sound. ^ ^ ^ > x> Chu 2. 2. This work constructive spirit. but the thought book is . 4. Synthetic this author's Logic fafe %& *g *\jfe ^^ f . Voice > fj> i. too manuals. ^ other works. Elements of Logic ^ ^ A &W &j[ A. . 2. The but a mass of algebraic formulas. r Fan Shou-k'ang. rich in its Chang Shih-chao. Essentials 51. Complete Logic 4& i 4. Elements of Logic 2. Sperber's Principles of Inflection According to the Feelings >f| ^| 2. f|L Chao-ch'ing. ^fiR^fa 2. ji^jf 1935. Hsi-chih.134 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY THE SPECIALISTS IN LOGIC AND METHODOLOGY Chin Yiieh-lin. Green's system based on several is criticisms of Hume to create a new concepts of ancient Chinese thought. Chang-huan. and beauty. 1936. 1943. - . 1940.B. 5Z 47.C. . like student's 3. On the Tao -f^\j . Logic The A3. The Scope of Logic f^^S l Chang ^ ^ ff # ^^ j^.2. Follows the principles of Russell's mathematical logic. ary philosophy since they seem to be too superficial. More profound than Lin Chung-ta. Wang 1930. Logic \jjfe nothing published by Tsinghua University. On Logic 5. Chao-ts'ui. i. Its much Philosophy and Fundamental Problems %. the transcendentals truth. Demonof Logic ^g| jB jtfe strates that the elements to compose a Chinese logic* exist.C. Ho J^ |? of Logic jfo j^ -f^ . X 3- Chiang Heng-yiian. goodness.The numerous writings of this ^jb* JS? M? author have not been mentioned in the histories of contempor- . WJ-4^ 9 S- On ^ ^ ^C-J &W ^1^. H.

109 pp. see under the pragmatic. and other pertinent theories. 1942. mechan- A New i. j^ f^ $ 5 I !* ^ := T'ang Chun-i. character of each 3> 19345 ^ The *& ^ ^ J^ is ^ author seeks to establish the civilization. Paulsen's System ofEthics (translation) somewhat 2. Bri&re has not noted the .f| Lo Chia4un A New ^ ^^ (Fr. . He influenced by 3.B. Establishment of the Moral Self $%. tinged Ch'ien. For other works on logic. 1jj* Rudolf Carnap. ^ . 3. {& ft 4V !> 19445 144 pp. Collection of lectures delivered at National Central ^ j^ University. i. N. istic logic. B^to Sinipfy Explained {fa $ 2. j ^^ ?j . The Philosophy of the Vienna School & ji -&> &l*i Ff* Hung i. Comparative 535432pp. essential 4io pp. History 1^ of Chinese Ethics Yii Chia-chii. Conception of Life ^ ^ /^ i ^^ . System of Logic ^^ .Treats of the origin and practice of Jt ^ J^ > morals.^ 3 Exposition of theories of Moritz Schlick and Wang T'e-fu.3. neo-Hegelian thought. ^. Follows the English political theorists Ts'ai Yxian-p'ei. i. Ethics tt. Russellian. 1946. . 2. ^ Conception of the Nation 140 pp. THE PRINCIPAL SPECIALISTS IN ETHICS AND PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE Huang Chien-chung.APPENDIX 135 4. Eucken's Meaning and Value of Life (translation) A. 2. Comparative Studies on the Philosophies and Thought of China and the Occident *$ $* * ]* Aff ft. ^ Dewey and Tufts 1 Ethics (translation) ^ g jUj fj|. The Gospel of Love (translation) author) / t . 2. Advocates idealism and deplores scientific ism.Material4^ 'ft & with Marxism.

3- 3. 1946. . Biz&eys Ethical Studies i.>^j^ JC >*W . Marbe's Psychology ofJudgment 2.x. a priori 2. . categories of Kant: ^ 1935- J& T^^S. Jl^L > ^> J 935 II 9 PP. 1949* Holds a biological point of view and is rather positivistic. and laws of ethics. Elements . 3. *^t 212 pp. Royce's Philosophy of Loyalty (translation) ^^4 ff Pardy based on the 3. 2. nature. *p ^J ^5i- . Addressed to the youth of China who have become bewildered by the events ^^ ^k of the political scene. Chinas Road Ya-ch'iian. < * /f . i. Elements is (translation) ofPsychology '. . Treats of the origin.136 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY ** Hsieh Fu-ya. Wang Shao-lun. 4- Hsieh Yu-vrd. Human Nature According to General Discussion of Ethics ^ IJ| JJMt A Early Chinese THE SPECIALISTS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION Ch'en Ta-ch'i. the. Socrates Erfwc* v^ f^. Philosophy ofBeing in the World /^ 1^ ^ fy Chiang* Heng-yiian. 1945. Huang Fang-kang. of a Philosophy of the Nation ^ * ^> ^^ x. Tu Philosophy of Life 4^ Fy . Dickinson. Philosophy of Life A* ^ 4> J 929- Advo- cates Christian principles. i. i. 2. (translation) 1^ *g J^ . E. being a Protestant. i. System ofEthics 4$} i . Philosophy 2. Taylor. and A. Elements ofEthics 2.Based on Burnet.TheauAor somewhat under the influence of the Anglo-American school ofneo-realism. author 2. Royce's Religious Aspect of Philosophy (translation) ^& fe i.

^|| of view. Koffka and Kohler's Oe -45pecf of Gestalt Psychology Principles (transla- Hsiao Hsiao-jung. Educational 3. i..4. Koffka's of Gestalt Psychology 2. The A. Kuo I-ts'en. Freud's New 4. Psychology and Heredity /^* j^ ^i siehHsun^h'ujBeW/oMmfPsyc/zo/c^y Ch'en Te-jung. 5. ^ jl ^ ^ jjL ^ f ^ z- >ci^ ' J^ ^J.& 5 The author is the foremost Chinese specialist on behaviourism. . Shu Hsin-ch'eng. Pillsbury's History of .B.C. 2. Freud's Psychoanalysis (translation) i. %i *^* i. 2. ^|lij JB$P '&* 3E in Russia fp .Psychology (translation) *c? i 4. Psychology Abnormal Psychology Chu ^ ^^ ^ j^ i^ F^ /^ 12 *^ ><^ . >^ JffS^ . Introductory Lectures to Psychoanalysis (translation) 3. FliigePs Theories of Psychoanalysis (translation) jjj^. Pavlov aiid (translation) |^ (^ Schniermami's Psychological Studies a. Behaviourism >?T 2. t^ ^ 2. j1 Watson's Behaviourism (translation) 3. Human Conduct A. Exposition ^ of Behaviourist Psychology fa ^ > i - j* * c** *> ! 3.. Abnormal Psychology ^tfc . of Psychology . ^ With English and Chinese texts facing.B. 47.C. Fi>5^ Step5 in Psychology 4^* sjg @S $4 .APPENDIX 137 A. H Jf^f Jfr ^ fj? r Ffom the be- haviourist point 4. > 3* Kuang-ch'ien. 3. Foundations of Behaviourism ^L &^ A popularization. Kuojen-yiian.

. Psychology of Elementary Education . Chiin-i. Garrett's Statistics Psychology and Education (translation) AiWei. In. 2. Principles of Education 2.138 2. . and has was for a long time director of Yii Chia-chu. Educational Psychology ^ tjl . . Thorndyke's I- Human Learning (transktion) 3. i. a. x. of Life A. * in 2. FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Moore's Foundations of Psychology iSL ft ^* I92 ^ ty *? 3. Psychology of Thought < Jg- 6^ > 3% (^ . x. i. The Psychology and Education of Talent ^ ^tt 4. Philosophy positivistic. Chung specialist in China. Philosophy of Education (translation) . Psychology 3g ^ . Finney*s Social ^^ /& 3| . Thorough Treatise on Education field the author is the foremost written numerous studies. Colvin and Bagley's Human Behaviour (translation) Lu Chih-wei. 3. the great ^^ UJ^ ^f^ . In this He Hua Book Company. several volumes. Essentials of Chinese Educational History Chao Yen. Owrf/we of Educational Psychology . 42. I* 3. . ' ' (translation) Low's Theory of Psychoanalysis i^ Vi*r Chu !f JL . Liao Shih-ch'eng. Allport's 5oa'a/ Psychology (translation)' . ^ . *g ^ 9 Zy Distinctly 4. ^U^ 2. ^ $ 2. Binet and Simon's Measurement of Intelligence (translation) .

Outline of the History ofEducation in the Occident i5r Fan Ch'i. Le Bon's Peoples (translation) ^ Psychological i ^ Laws of the Evolution of *^ ig % . Hart's Psychology . Latof Currents of Educational Thought General Discussion of Philosophy Kir % P . Stresses Croce's views. 1936. Fu Tung-hua. 4.j^ $ . Textbook J normal 1. History of Education ^ " i . whose books 'making 242 pp. - 3. et aL > x 5. *. P'an Tzu-nien. Kuang-ch'ien. i. 1948. Psychology author's views. 137 pp. H4 pp. . 46. in Europe and America 3. He preaches an art*. 339 pp. Critique of the Philosophy ofCroce ^ ^1^-^ Press. art. 3. Hegel. Philosophy of Education 2. 5. Wbodworth's Dynamic of Insanity Psychology (translation) 2. 3. ^ ffi > 3> 1948. Creation and aesthetic play. Chu 2.This |^ |? }fc ig book exists in Chinese translation by another recognized scholar. for Chiang Ch'i.APPENDIX '** *ff 52. A popularization for young people of the 4. f> ^ ^JL^jjff* I - THE STUDIES ON AESTHETICS Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei. but also takes cognizance of Kant. On Poetry $jf <> . The author proposes the replacement of religion by He is influenced especially by Windelband. work by this author. ^L been translated into Chinese at 139 > > H ^ *M HI tt> * This book has least three times. 1924.^j ^t i^ . Another successful are well thought out and life well written. according to the catalogue of the Commercial Croce's Aesthetics E (transkrion) On Beauty ^^ j^ . . of Literary Art ^L ^> *S? fy 54. 142 pp. Guyau. Outline of Philosophy ^fr f^ ^|Z|^. . 1932. Chang Kung-piao. schools.

It essays to refute the theories of Kant. published a Protestant. Chu Kuang-ch'ien. 1928. and has just been published in still another translation. . 1948. Fui38 pp. Chin Kung-liang. Friche's Sociology of Art (translation) -|jc 7. Santayana and Dewey. The New Aesthetics first of a ^^ ^ series 2. cannot replace religion. General Discussion ofAesthetics J f& Ch'en Wang-tao. 285 pp. Fnckes Artistic Sociology (translation) Hu Man. j| of Roger's Beauty. Aesthetics translation 4. I. Stresses Croce. The adaptor teaches at Hangchow. An adaptation J J& if 3. Kuo Mo-jo.140 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY T'ung-hsien. An old Ts'ai 36. Albred's Life of Picasso (translation) . . 1948. History of the Fine Arts in China *} |^J tf i*y.This book Jbad already been translated four times $f ^^ fy before 1935. 5. Principles of Aesthetics 114 pp. 'Art was formerly based on oppression of the people. of Aesthetics js Hsii Ch'ing-yii. 2. 36. 36. recently republished. 1946. 216 pp. Fan Shou-k'ang. and their interpreter. Croce. it must be returned to the people'. . work.The author's 4jj* Feng Tzu-k'ai Artistic Taste jji in cartooning. refutes the thesis of author. Michaelis' History of Archeological Discoveries in the Fine _jC Arts (translation) f$t j$ & &t. > . The J^ *} 3ff f^ . The of books designed to explain aesthetics from the Marxist point of view. Outline of Aesthetics j^ $$ ^Jg. but he devotes his attention own talent in art lies #f ^ in this and other writings especially to the beauties of music. General Discussion. Tschaikovsky's My Life in Music (translation) zfc $b Su Ch'iao. Philosophy of Beauty by the author. r| < ^ the school of fine arts in / Li An-chai. 1936. Ts'ai Yiian-p'ei. and establishes that art Hu ^-i Ch'iu-yuan.This author has also done a of Frazer's Sympathetic Magic. says the preface. Ch'en Yuan.

. less In a broad sense. General Discussion of Aesthetics Currents of Modern Aesthetic Thought J 2. Schiller's 2. is aesthetics. (translation) 36. 1944. In course of translation. of the ^T^^ any mention ^The reader will perhaps be surprised not to find efforts made by Catholic derivation. Concerning the Meaning ofArt ^| *%** ^^ Jfff. Ch'en Chu-shan. Ju/e. CarrelTs Man the . Lti $fo . the Catholics to introduce philosophy of must be confessed that apart from the manuals for seminaries the pickings are very slim. ^ $rf ^^ Lei Jan. A theory of morals based on supreme value of life. now in course of reprinting after a general syntheses are translations new translation. 3.e ^ Wu Mi. We is can cite among recent works the Introduction to Philosophy St. 5o/.B. Theory of Colour Difficulties Tengl-ctih. Fourteen Poems ^ On Aesthetic Education (translation) + It Ul^ N. ofArtists Tsung Pai-hua. The Sumnta of by Thomas Maritain. ^ &* ^ ^ Jg. Like the above-listed &^ l^ffr works published by ^j& ^ company. beauty the 3^ >$? > a * A Ch'eng. I. certain of more or Catholic derivation. such as the of Dawson's Progress and Religion. translated by Tai Ming-wo. i. The Cradle of Philosophy history of classical Greek philosophy. ** ** 2. ' in the review Building Hoernle's GoJ. Taine's Philosophy ofArt . 141 ft5| Symonds' Life of Michelangelo (translation)^ Jg > Shen ft i* Ch i-yii. this is in the Marxist series of studies. J^a the Nation & Jir ^5^^a >^^ An article \^ ^^ ^|^ no. The Art of Living \^ 240 pp. 'Artistic Cultivation and the Religious Spirit* ^ 2. Matter (translation) ^ **! FengChih.APPENDIX 2. Stanislavsky's My Life in Art (translation) all 5^ this > 36. 36.

Chung Book-store n. publishers (most of which are in Shanghai) in text The this publisher of any particular work in the Bibliography may be identified list. we can mention the Epistemology of P. Hsiang Ts'un Book-store 13. 16. 5. Chung Hua Book Company Cheng Chung Book Company jj jej* Shih Chieh (World) Book Company -# K'ai ^ jfjl Ming Book-store R$ *# 6. 20. as well as the works 4& Wi l& PUBLISHERS Note: In order to avoid excessive use of Chinese characters in the of the Bibliography. Ya Tung Book Company Chung Shan Book Company Ch'ing Nien Book-store I &^ Hsiieh (Medical) Book Company Pa T'i Book-store $ 17. Czech.B. 7. a deep work by a professor of Fujen University of Fr. S.. R. 3. Vinciarelli. Fo Hsiieh (Buddhist) Book Company Shen Chou Book-store *i>M / Wen Jen Book-store Sheng Li Publishers Ch'iin X \ fl^ *l . the translator has brought together all the following list. 15.142 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Unknown. 14.) 1. Commercial Press 1^ i& fe P 2. by the number printed in bold-faced type.g!f ^ fe R ^ % 9. Gilson's Modern Thought am Catholicism* etc.D. du Nouy's Human Destiny. 8. 12. according to date was not given by (In some cases publisher and/or author. O.S. And finally. 10. Ya Tung Library j ^ lJ . published by the Commercial Press in 1948. (Peiping). 18.V. Anhwei Fan Sheng Yiian^ Tso Che Book-store 4 1 Hsin Yiieh Book-store $L ^ 3* 19. 4.

34. Ch'en Kuang Book-store )fo K'un Lun Book Company * Pi 24. Tu Li Publishing Company Min Chih Book Company T'ai ^^ ^& )f k 48. Ch'iin Book Company Publishing Company g* ^ i J 41 Wen Feng Book-store Hsien Tai X )^* 38. Tung Library Book Company j t Wen Hua Company Hsin Chung Kuo Book-store $ ^ *^ >Sl Pei Hsin 4 /S 1 Ch'ing Hsieh Book-store 51. 29. Keng Hall ^ # )f $ :fr Sheng Huo Hsin Book-store 4- Hsin Chih Book-store Hua Book-store Keng Yiin Publishing Hua Hsia Book-store Company <)} jj ifc 31. 26. Ta Kung Pao (a newspaper) ^ Nan Ch'iang I 36. 52. 39. 30. Shanghai Magazine JL Tso Chia Book-store f*p 'fe. 45. 42. Book Company j qt jg| Hsin Sheng Ming Book Company ft ^ i: jg. 55. 143 Tu Shu Sheng Huo Publishers 22. 44. 5354. Hsin K'en Book-store -^ /5} Wen Hua Sheng Huo Publishing Company It* Kuan Ch'a Company i ^ ^^ *jfg /^ A 43. 27. 32. 40. 35. Nanking ?Book Company Shih Tai Ching Shen Publishing Company B^ Ta Tung Book Company dt ^| Kuo Wen Hua Fu Wu Company 9 Chung ^^ ^4 ^ f% > ^ & K4^A ^ Peiping Book-rstote J t Ch'iin Hsueh Company ^ c| /fc jg^ J^t . 49. 25. 47. Kuang Hua Book-store Hsin Jen Publishers ^fr A. 33. 37. 23. 46. 28. 50.APPENDIX 21. 41.

pp. January 1939. New York. 4.' in Sociological World. Chang Tung-sun. pp. O. Runes. being chapter 20 of China. 1947. 'L'Effort de la (complete A no. which have been published in B. 2. F. Bulletin de Y Universal I'Aurore. tome 8. Fr. 35). This is a slightly revised version of the author's 'Philosophies of China'. vol.. 2. 1946. Language and Culture.. no. March 1918. fuller treatment of Marxism in China than that given in the series present work. xxxn. 3 . pp. 541-71. 1943. The most important of is these 'Les tendances dominantes de la litterature chinoise series contemporaine'. in s&rie m. MacNair. Chan. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Briere has done additional articles on subjects closely related to the general theme of contemporary Cjiinese thought. x. Open Court. in Twentieth Century Philosophy. June 1938. 'Ceremony article lic an in Honour of Confucius'.J. 155-91i 44 . Dagobert D. Philosophical Library. Shanghai. 309-47. appeared no. University of California Press. in The Yenching Journal of Social Studies. vol. 'Trends in Contemporary Philosophy'. pp. Li's translation I. editor. 'A Chinese Philosopher's Theory of Knowledge' (his own). H. Celebrated under the Chinese RepubCarus.U. editor. S. With bibliography. 3 Briere. 234-69 tome 9 (complete no. s6rie m.A. 55-72. pp. covering the period 1917-48. 1948. vol. Translated from the Chinese by Li An-che from an article entitled 'Thought.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WRITINGS IN WESTERN LANGUAGES ON CONTEMPORARY CHINESE THOUGHT (Appended by the Translator) 1. Wing-tsit. 312-30. 31). pp. philosophic marxiste en Chine*. Paul.

in Chinese. Ein Beitrag zur gestigen Mitteif. Philosophical Library. 13. ^ . 345-55<T. In tvvo volumes. Geschichte der Neueren Chinesischen Philosophic. While the book is written Shanghai. 12. 1924. this special article is in English. The second volume was published by Princeton University Press History of Chinese Philosophy. 1922. 191 1-1922'. vol. 1936. pp. 15. 1948. 7. 1930. Ostasiatische Studien. New China Review. Dore. no. 527-30. 'Philosophy in Contemporary China'. K'ang Yu-weis und Franke. himself to be a better work than the original. pp. Lancelot. erste des Seminars Jur Orientalische Sprachen an der Friedrich-WithelmsAbteilung: zu Berlin. 1-83. *Die Staatspolitischen Reformversuche seiner Schule. 10. See also 3 1 below. Pages 571-650 deal with nineteenthand twentieth-century philosophers. 13. and republished by Princeton University Press in 1952. in 1937. translated from the Chinese by 6. H. *Le Confuceisme sous la Republique. 1938.ungen Auseinandersetzung Chinas mit UniversitSt dem Abendlande'.J. 1938. Journal of xxxv. Forke. vol. The first was published by Henri Vetch. pp. Hamburg. 1931. . Philosophy of Life. vol. 'Revival of Confucianism'. George Allen and Unwin. Wolfgang. 298-319. Fung Yu-lan. Jen Tai. The New Culture in China. 11. 'Recent Chinese Philosophy'.. Henri. 1936. September 1935. Shanghai. London. Le Triple Demisme Franciscan Suen Wen. Asia Magazine. in Supplement to a History of Chinese Philosophy <) * jfc^jg jjjt Commercial Press. Translated A in 1953 : London. The Triple Translated de from the French original entitled Demism of Sun Yat-sen. Press. New York. xxxv. 8. .BIBLIOGRAPHY 5. Berlin. 1954. 148 pp. pp. S. .. Dubs. Jahrgang xxxvm. The English translation Wuchang. by Derk Bodde. 693 pp. Shanghai. 1935. Elia. 145 Ch'en Li-fu. iv. Paschal M. The is stated by the author 9. Illustrated. 14. A Comparative Study of Life Ideals. Peiping. Hpmer Philosophy. Forster. with corrections and additions. Alfred.

R. E. Their History and 1934. E. Commercial the author as a supplement to his . one of the most eminent scholars of contemporary China. Shanghai. The Chinese no. New York. no. Hughes. Social and Political Science Review.146 16. vol. Adam & graphy. 'Some Tendencies of Contemporary Chinese Philosophy'. The MacMillan Company. The MacMillan Company. pp. Journal of Philosophy. The Chinese Student Movement. December ibid. To date this is the best rounded work attempting to cover this broad and important subject. Han Yii-shan. R. 324 pp. 1945. 1934. Revised . Translated See chapters 27 and 28. Leiden. 19. . 2. Spirit of from the Chinese by E. pp. 345-5521. 'The Literary Revolution in China'. vol. Press. 4. 192(1?). The Chinese historian is Ku Chieh-kang. no. Brill. which is called the New Treatise on the Nature of Tao Press. The English title is actually the subtitle of the original work. on. Chicago. New York. vi. University of Chicago 20. by two-volume History of Chinese Philosophy Routledge 18. translator and editor. 1919*. FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Fung Yu-lan. pp. The Autobiography of a Chinese Historian. Hu Shih. 1928. 1919. Hummel. Latourette. 91-100. London.. 25. Arthur W. Culture. Kenneth Scott. intellectual matters in general. xxv. The Chinese. 22.. The Invasion of China by the Western World. Derk Bodde. iv. Being the Preface to a Symposium on Ancient Chinese History (Ku Shih Pien). With biblioLondon. X y. 505-1319. .contemporary Kiang Wen-han. Described ^ ^ /& 1947.. Hughes. Edited by New York. 1931. 9 Chinese Philosophy. 319-42. 23. 1948. & Kegan Paul. (14 above). J. The Chinese Renaissance. Charles Black. 1937. The A Short History of Chinese Philosophy. 1948. It is doubly valuable because it is written largely from Chinese sources. pp. 'Intellectual China in vol. This light work throws 24.

lie Such works 32. L. Part Two. 1926. and 1946. Chapter i. 31. . Lin Mousheng. 30. vol. 2. Harvard University 33. i. 'Intellectual Tendencies in the Chinese Reform Movement*. Harvard University Press. 'The Changing Chinese Social Mind'. The John Day Company. See vol. i. Chinese Communism and the Rise of Mao . Response Ts'ai the A Documentary Survey (1839-1923). 27. n. Political Men and An Informal History of Chinese 1942. to John K. Volumes and 19. 'The Origin of Marxism-Leninism in Tu-hsiu and Li Ta-chao. Sun or the Chinese revolutionary movement. Boston and New Schwartz. vm. Translated from the Chinese by Frank Price.. chapter 12.. Benjamin. 1928. and Sun E-tu Zen. 41-9* Translated from the Chinese by 34. chapters 16 26. March 1918. even though they are obviously pertinent to it. article. See chapter 15 on K'ang Yu-wei.B.BIBLIOGRAPHY editions. 1924. January 1924. 1911. Fairbank. 320 pp. Eastern and Western Political Ideas . outside of the present field of interest. Intellectual Reinsch. An important 28. vm. East. Two Ideas. pp. Sheii. toward Harmony between Yuan-p'ei. S. n. The Thred Principles of the People. 29. no. Cambridge. Philosophy. The Chinese Social and 'Tendencies 1 Political Science Review. vol. Millican. Commercial Press. 'Philosophical and Religious Thought in China'. no. no. This bibliography does not include the numerous works relating to Dr. Frank R. The Chinese Social and Political Science Review. China'. in vol. Chinas West. See especially chapter 4. New York. 423-69. April Sun Yat-sen (Sun Wen). in vol. N. Tao. China Christian Year Book. discusses Ch'en Nelson Nai-cheng. 1954. Shanghai. Tsen& Yu-hao. See also 8 above. Part One. Modern Chinese Legal and Political Shanghai. Press. I. 1951. 1934. K. pp. San Mm Chu I. Shanghai. Teng Ssu-yii. Paul and Political Currents in the Far York. Thought. 1943 147 (in one).

115-2? and 234-47. 1953. be Enlightening as to what sort of expected under pressures which to 'recant'. Chicago. 1928. 40* German by John Holroyd Reece. Hien-hien. Brief but informative. pp. 1953. 1922. de. Arthur F. Communist control. 42. Edward. 'Intellectual Movements in Modern China'. philosophical activity may and as to the kind of as have led such philosophers Fung Yu-lan . et de modernisation. and reflections of a sensitive resident iji New & Western scholar long interest lay in the field China. Wilhelm. On Chinese thought see 10 and u. 1951. Wang Ching-tao. Confucius and New China. observations.). Brain-Washing in China. 2. Vanguard Press. 'Some Elements in the Chinese Renaissance'. Vargas. 39. New York. P.. Mouvement d Emancipation 37. Columbia University Press. 110-24. J. pp. Being an essay in Studies in Chinese Thought.148 35. chapters & 36.? f Wieger. Liang Ch*i-ch'ao and the Mind ofModern China. Experiences. vm. Richard. Brace Company. The Soul of China. April 1924. New York. Hunter. Chan. London. New China Review. 146-94* . Leon. vol. Prodromes (1931) and Le Plot Montant (1921) are cited in the present work. 1953. 1921-32. Williams Norgate. Wing-tsit. Harvard University Press. 1927. The Chinese Social and Political Science Review. Translated from the . 44. La Chine Mbderne. '"History" and "Value": the Tensions of Intellectual Thought in Modern China'. pp. d. The first two of these volumes. Harcourt. voL iv. in 43. Wright. 38. First published. University of Chicago Press. Contemporary Thought of Japan and China. R. no. 10 vols.. of Chinese thought. Levenson. York. Religious Trends Modem Red China. Cambridge (Mass. enlarged edition 1953. Shanghai. editor. much of whose 41. FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Tsuchida Kyoson.

CH'EN Wang-tao pfc ^ ^j| CH'EN Wei-shih yfc *|| CH'EN Yuan jrjL 140 .fe Carson (** ^ CHANG X Ioln - I32 Chun-mai) . . 138 . 1^3 ^ > <56ff. 65n. 57. 22. 141 CH'EN K'ang |r^ 8. 102 n. 57. . . CH'EN Chu pj^ ^i IL* w^ CH'EN Chu-shan pj^ 96.134 CHANG Hsin-i ^ ^^ . 124 /^ 1 .1868-1936. ioin. 88. CH'EN Po-ta 8o. 90. 70. ^ . .112 CHANG Tung-sun l88<5~ 30. 127 CHANG Ju-hsin ^^^ ^ 123 CHANG Kung-piao fj^ ^ fa . . 134 120 CHANG Tai-nien fg^ i^ j CHANG T'ai-yen ^ X S . 1886-1937. .78 *** 3 ' S^ .72 CHANG Chung-shih ffc ty & 124 r886 " 2 9 3o. . 118 |r ^ . 136 CH'EN Te-jung |?^ fa 137 CH'EN Tu-hsiu *& 1879-1942.36. .. .16. 82. 130 CHANG Hsi-chih & ^ ^ . ^ . 75. 24. 6off. 78 . 75...1893. 38. 75. 124 ffe CH'EN Ta-ch'i p^ J^ tfk. 37. 129^. 43 n. 121 . 138 CHAN Wen-hu CHANG. 35. 79.94 CHANG I-hung ^ ^ 85. 39. 43.. 34.. . CHAD Yen 5^ . 80. ^ ^^ . . 80. 86. 140 ^ .. 77.INDEX OF CHINESE PERSONS AI Ssu-ch'i : X & *[ . 127 AI Wei |f 8. 38. . CHANG Chen-ju J^ ^ a 1888.26 CHANG Shih-chao ^ ^r ^1 1881. 121. > . Jrfe. 39. 27. t . 23. 103 n. 90. . fa.73. ^ . "" H9 . CHANG Chiin-mai jg Jfr H3..139 CHANG Ming-ting j^ jj& ^ 130 CHANG Pao-heng f^ 132 CHANG Shen-fu ^ /^. 8. 131 1904j^ CH'EN Li-fu f^ i ^ l8 98. 37. 32. j 4& . .. roin.

138 CHU Hsi^ ^ Jig.C.^ X 132 CHOU Hsien |j . 16. 139. CH U Shih-ying J * _ 132 ) CONFUCIUS FANCh'i (K UNG TZU ^L 3. I2 128 ^^ ^^ ^\ . 134 CH1NG Tse-p'eng ^^^ . 131.^ 129 CHU Chao-ts'ui * 134 CHU Ch4en-chih 130 ^ || 120 CHU Ching-nung j ^| CH'IU Chin-chang & 5^ $ CHOUEn-jiia ^p >^>f4 *^% -$$ >W 120 . 103 n. 137. 134. 133 .8. 1896- 85. Yiieh-lin . 57. 6511. CHUChiin-i )^ . 140 FENG Ch'eng-chiin :# ^& ^ ^j| J^^ ^ ^^ . 13. 52. 123 . 1897-1948.133 CHOU Fo-hai j^ ^. CHOU Fu-ch'eng . Kung-liang /^ 140 . 1905- .. ^^ af .. 87..139 55i~479 B. X 36 36. 118 ^ ^ ^ CHIN ^ CHIN ^^ ^ CHINGYu-nan CfflEN Po-tsan CHIANG Shao-yuan CHIANG Wei-ch'iao ^1 CH'IEN ^ Mu ^ ^^ . ./ *34. 52. 115 CHU Kuang-ch'ien ^ ^L 1898.114 ^ . 128 133 . 38.8. f .. 62. 50. 38.1130-1200. CHIANG R'ai-shek ^| 4> /* l88 ?~ . 114. 117. Sjf. . 9 100. 112. 121. 286 B.C. ^ 117 . .. 56. 72. 117 fft i^4 ^|. . . 56. 60. 14. 57. ^ : . 128 . 15. g . c. 21. 59 . ^ ^ f CH*UJen-hsia -fi f . 6411. 140 CHUANG Tzu ^ ^ 3<59-c.150 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY jf jl CHENG Hsin CHIANG Ch'i 139 CHIANG Ching-i jf-|& "9 CHIANG Heng-yiian $ JL rjj . 54.. 63 CHUNG T'ai ^ . 9<5ff. 115 & FAN Shou-k'ang FANG Tung-mei FEI Hung-nien FANKu-nung /^ ^^ |^* /> II8 > 8 I2 9. . 115. .^8. 9 . fij 114.94. 29. .

I02n. ^ 120 42. 82. .j? . 64n. 130. 24. ^ Hjf . B. . d. 137 137 S . 54. 87.. 38. 37. 135 . 103 n. 140 121 FU Chung-sun ^Jt FU T'ung-hsien JJL FU Tzu-tung / j FUNGYu-lan . 81. 1910- . 26.95. 95. 123. 125 .INDEX 151 FENG Chih : . 86.).C. . 89... "7. 238 8. 72. 48 ff-. 77. FENGTzu-k'ai & *ct . 1898. . 50. HStJAN Tsang HSUN TZU ^ g^ 5^664. 90.. ioo. 86. 94.. 73. 100. ^^^&^p 95. 43 65n. 8 t 91.C. .. 140 A c. 63 n. 86. 95. J^& 1895- . . 73. 23.118 1902125 . 93 f. 43^-.*Ii2.. 92f.. . J 34 ^ . 141 . 37. HSt) Chih-mo ^4 J^ fe HStJ Chmg-yu HStJ Ch'ung-ch'ing 1896-1931. 73. 19.) . I03n. 27. 119!: HU Shih-hua -ft^ 100 HUANG Ch'an-hua -jf^^ n6 HUANG Chien-chung*^-"^ ^ 1890*). 81. 233 B.15. 25.. (d.98. 123 HAN FEI TZU HO Chao-ch'ing HO Hsing-chih HO Lin y^f . 125 *& 136 . 5O&. 80. HSIUNG Shih-li . . 40 114 HUMan HU Ch'iu-yiian ^ HU Jen-yuan $JQ ^ . 103 n. 38. 7i. I02n... . 63...|^ I02n. 123 HU Shih t)| $S 1891.j i . 115. "4.. 115. y^ . 131. .. 140 5/if 129 .. 88.140 HU Sheng ^ $jfc^ 80. 140 125 . . 53 ff. 73 ff. ioin. 50. 3&. in. l88 "7 136 *3* > > 38. . 130. ioin. 131 HO Po-nien HOU Wai-lu HSIANG Lin-ping HSIAO Hsiao-Jung HSIAO Kan HSIEH Fu-ya HSIEH Hsiin-ch'u HSIEH Meng4|| HSIEH Wu-liang HSIEH Yu-wei ^ 80. . . j^ .

C. ^ ^ >Jj^ . 17. .C. LI Ta-cKao ^ ^ LI Yii-ying (see LI Shih-tscng) LIANG Ch'i-ch'ao j&i ^| . 164.127 ^j[ ^ Jk . 57. iO2n. 13. b. 27.94. . 4311. in KUO Hsiang JTR i cL A. |r|jt 99. 1893- . 22. . 100.. 2.YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY HUANG Fang-kang HUANG T'e -^ HUANG Tzu-t mig HUANG Wen-shan r ^ ^ ".^ . 15. 66. 79... .124 KU Hung-ming g ^& 1857-1928. 312. ^ . r. 119 K'ANG Yu-wei /% . 75. 127 ^ 5j^i^ . ^ ^ j^ ffl >| . . 39.C. loin. LIANG Shu-ming 113. 77. fl. 52.. So. i8n.. . i8n. 57. 27. 31. 1873-1928. 125. 32. 117. 31. 29. J . III. 71. 89. 80. 136 79. 284-259 B. 1858-1927. 32. 91.131 LAO TZU -^ LEI Jan TT Jj. . ^ . JENPo-ko <i (^ ^. 79. KUOPen-tao KUOTa-li t ff ^ . 16. 115 141 LI An-chai LI Chi A t_ ^ 4* ... i02n. 77 ^L ^ ^^ ^^L . 14. 134 8. 17. 112 KAO Chiieh-fu ^^J^ . 30.. 17 KUAN ChWung^ ifljMW I31 KUANG Hsu.33 39. 123 LI Shih-ts'en V& r Jfcv 18921882- . Emper^^^ 1875-1908. 115 fl . 26. 137 ^ ^^% KUO Mo-jo jr -A 1892. 122 ^ 2 ' 75. . 52 KUO I-ts'en J ^^ 137 KUO Jen-yuan 1898. 350-260 B. . ^ 119 115 B.137 KO Ming-chung ^ ^ ^ ..D. ^ . iO2n.. 123 HUI Shih HUNG Ch'ien 4* JEN Chiieh-wu 4 ^ ^ #^ i ill I21 . 65 n. . 30.. 140 . LI Shih-tseng LI Ta ^ ^ ^ ^ I88 $>~ 20 7<5. 27. 2604 B. 98. 63. ' KUNG-SUN Lung ' KUO Chan-po jf-x ?fc 43 n. .

H4 .40. 1908- .^943.*. 130 . I905 _ ( Tzu-nien P'ENG Chien-min ^ ' t .INDEX I53 LIANG Jen-kung(e LIANG LIAO Shih-ch'eng LIN Che-Jen Ch'i-ch'ao) 38 / ' ^ ^ * { **. I28 SHENCh'i-yu Yu-chung ^ .2 5. 73 NANShu-ki ^^^. . m. W . .I .4^7 .134 ~ . 93. 89. -wei . ^^ . ^^ ^ t% ?4L . 1902- 72f. 1902. ( I4I I2J MAChe-min MA Ctan-wu MAI-fo . 81 B ' C . II5 5.121 * LIU Hsu LIUPo-ming Ba .^. 95. 71 MOUTsung-san MOn ^. ^ . I24 P'UYing * - . 1881-1940.8. wan. 90. 63. 120 LtiCh'eng . (see I29 OU-YANG Chien PA Chin OU-YANG Ching-wui 2I> 22> 12g i>lr OU-YANGChing^^^^^ (^ P'AN ^ c . . 1882- 5 6. 124 LINChung-ta ft LINPo-hsiu . 130 J^ .

63 n.. (see WANGEn-yang ^ WANG Shao-lun ^ >"7^ 8 3 6 WANG Shou-jen WAN^Yang-ming) WANG Tch'ang-tche (WANG Ch'ang-chih) WANGLung-yii .. (TUNG Hsien-kuang Jfc ^ ft -* J . TING Wen-chiang -f j(^ $JL 1887-1935. TUWei-chih Hsi. 29. S7&. 1835-1908. fft 1724-77* 120 . 116 T ANG Chiin-i ^ T'ANG Ch'eng-ch'e ^ J*J ^ j* 84. 140 . ^ ^ 127 119 J (see ^ ^f I- ^^ . n. . "7 . 43 TONG. <5o. Hollington K.^^^7 1909. T'AN Fu-dhih f f j^jjf T'AN Ssu-t'ung ^ Jk j|b j . 1866-1925. 21. . 118 TAI Ming-wo j TAI Tung-yuan T'AI Hsu tf Jrj . TENG I-chih /^ TINGFu-pao ^ i^C^ II7 TING. V. . 92. ' Yiian-p'ei 1867-1940. 60 WANG Ch'ung ^ AJX 27-97. io 3 n. +* 141 ^i^^ ^T*25 TU Ya-ch'iian a^ j^ & 8p. 141 .100 WANG Kuo-wei j^ ^ ^^. 1877-1927. 65 114 . . 21. 8. 63 WANG Chang-huan ^ ~& & 134 WANG Ching-an WANG Ruo-wci)^ jfc. 40. . 14. (see TING Wen-ckiang) J ^ h ^^ ^ ^Jj^ 141 ^ . 99. 127 >8Q . 42. WANG An-shih i . K. zoin. 640. ). 50. 1865-98. 136 TZ'U Empress Dowager ^ji ^i . . 135 5^^133 38. 64n. l892~ ' 89 > 94 I37 . 42n. i8n.16 .. 30. WANG Ching-wei 5i ^f 1883-1944. 75./i 1021-86. 21. 135.. so. > ^ ^ ^ &? * . inf.154 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY SHU Hsin-ch'eng SU Ch'iao I4o yfa SUN Yat~senj<fe^ >^ ^" & $7^^. Kuofan Pai-hua j^ . T*ANG Yueh ^ |J . 139. WANG Hsien-chiin . 121 . 45 . 3i 95. 54. ^ f^j^ ^ i^ TSENG TSUNG & ^^ & TS'AI TS'AI I.1811-72. 15. 63. 40 . 120. 1889-1947.. 98f.

128 >f " jrg. . fc ^ . 28. B.. 116 135. 6411. YEN Chi-ch'eng jffc $& *$. fourth century 84. 122. 20. . WU Chih-hui J^^fedjS 1864WU Kuang-chien jt ^L J^ I33 WU Li-p*ing j& ^^ 124 WU Mi I4i ' 40. 27. 29. 119 . 118 . fl. 41 .. 35. 114 1896- 8. 115. . iO2n. ?8. 126. 20.'34. 1861. . 52. 48. 58. 59.INDEX 155 WANG T'e-fu i *& WANG Tien-chi ^Jfr^ WANG Yang-ming j p . 50. 80. t7J 1472-1529.C. YANG Chu j^fr y^ YANG Po-k'ai % f YEH Ch'ing -^ -i107. 85. jf^ YIN Kuang ^ 7* > YU Chia-chii ^ . ?30 86. 53. 8iff. 138 .. 19. 42. *4. 17. .. 135 121 . 127. 8. 54. 56. 124. 16. 121 YEN FU 1853-1921. 13. . 92. 84 . 126 . 89. 99. 75.

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John. A. 89 Rene. Bernard. Croce. 131 Bernstein. 73 Allport. 73 Cunningham.. 138 Darwin. N. 138 Fliigel. 131. A. DietzgenJ. M. 132 82. L.. Thomas. 127. 75. 140 Carnap. 141 Aristotle. 112 Epicurus. 44n. A. 134 Grousset. 83 Bukharin. Charles. 132 Eddington. 66 Condillac. H. 118. 141 Dawson. 73. Rudolf. 122 Guyau. M. 48. 26.J. L. 133 106. 54. 130 Finney. 138 Gilson.. 90 H. 133 Berkeley. P. Irving. Albert. E. Einstein. F. 132 Dewey. 36. 141 Clark. G.. S. 131. 90.. 114... Denis. 86. 43 n. F. 90. H. 36. 127. Edward. 124 Democritus. 136 Briere. 124. 135 Dickinson. Otto. 74. Jeremy. H. T. John. Francis. Bagley. 105. 126 Eucken. 114 Burnet. 136 Diderot. 70.. 140 Garrett. Henri. L. Rudolf. 118. CX. Samuel. 74. Creighton.. E. 76. Eduard. 38.. 139. 141 Comte. S. 83. 139 Corter. 82 Engels. 123. W. 120. 67. 82. 72. Bradley. E. 99.. Charles. 82. 82 Bogdanov.. 114. 133 Freud. 56. 24. 105. Auguste. 135 Feuerbach... 136 Caird. W. E. 137 Friche. 87. 25. 82. G. H. 138 Bakhunin.. J. 82. 82. 125 H. 126 Descartes. 126 FichteJ.. 44 n.. Rene. C. Booth. 137 Frazer. 33. 73...G. H. Etienne. 22. S. 139 . 92. 140 157 120 Haeckel. 132. 89. 138 Colvin.J. 90 Aquinas. 127. 83 Binet. M. Alexis. 90 Bergson. 56. Benedetto. Friedrich.89. 128 Bentham. 20 Hart. 82. Henri van.. 82 Green. 99 Bacon. 73. Sigmund.90. 90.INDEX OF NON-CHINESE PERSONS Adler.. 126 Driesch. 73 Boven. 83 Enchumen. 135 Carr. A. 127 JBodde. A. 125 Bosanquet. 138 Durant. Derk. George. C. M. Carrel. 132 Czech. 140 141 Alexander. Will. St. Babbit. 103 n.. 90. 20. 131 Deborin. Albred. 131. 97. 67. Alfred..

E. 127 Michaelis. 83. 89. A. 56. 125 Locke. 141 Hoffding. Banjamin. 137 Kohler. F. 70. 90 Hocking. R. 67. Immanuel. 86. H. Low.. 113. 113 Moore. 67. Pablo. 90 Hegel. H. Alfred. Nicolai.. Friedrich. Francis. 34. E.. 90. 67.. 140 Michelangelo. 67 Rogers. 99 Morgan. C. 71. J. 26. T. 133.. 123 Levi. Lange. L. 82 Hughes. 125 Plekhanov. 119 C. G. 39. 80.. 90 Koflfka. 136. W. 76.. 74. S. 125 Price. 22. 82. M. 133 H. 54. 127. K. A. A. K.. 105. P. Pillsbury. G. 127. 67 Murray. 117 Moore. Thomas. 42 Levy-Briihl. Paulsen. 121 Jeans. Planck. 82.97. C. E. Jevons. W. 140 Mill. Huxley. Minin. 130 S. 119 Hume. 20. 88. 134 . 73.. 135 130. Wolfgang... d'. R. 97. O. P. D. 117 Przluski. W. 130. 87. 126 Maritain. 56. 134 Hutcheson. 98. 90. 127 W. Karl. S. 71. A. 131 . G. 121. 82. 77. i8n. 137 98 Kautsky. 125. 54. 131. 39. E. 21. 38. de la. 126 Laidler. 86.. Stanislas. B. 126 33. 39. E. H. 117 MerzJ. 137 Kropotkin. Gustave. W. 127 Picasso. Marbe. J. 132 Lewis. P. 125 Montague. 90 M. 73. 86 W. 124. 132 Hoernle. K. 128 Noiiy. 20 ^ 20 James. Sylvain. Paul. Kurt. 133 Joad. Max. R.J. 123. Lenin. Hobbes. 141 Martineau.. Edward. 87. Lecomte de ? 141 Kant.90. 105. 21. 87. 67. 82. 138 Russell. 105. 139.. Jones.. F. 112 McGovern. 128 Lafargue. Harald. David. 54. 74. T. 112. 132.. William. B. 105. M. 84. 129. 20. 98. UO Pavlov... 133 Mettrie. 99.158 FIFTY YEARS OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Hartmann. 90. 82. von. 82. 72. 38. Karl. 76. 90 Marx. H.. 90. d'. 31. 139 Le Gall. Josiah. 123 F. 137 Pearson. 82 Mitin. de Montpellier. T. I. 127 Jenks. 133 Holbach. 92. 72. David. 136 121. V. P. Montesqieu.. 83. 39. 73. 90. Karl. 126 Heraclitus. 140 Rosenthal. H. A... Bertrand. 121 Nietzsche. 130. J. 70.. 139 Helvetius. 82. 56. 97. 136 ... 82 13-1. 38 Reichelt. Henri. 75. 90 Le Bon. Karl. 82.. 20.J. 67. Jacques. W. 105. Plato. 19. 117 Rand. 114. 74 Royce. P..

B.. 98 . Eduard. 135 Tymjanski. 90. J.. 127 Strachey. J.. 73. 98... Arthur. 141 Watson.. A. C. 140 Tufts. 141 Schlick. 99 Whitehead.. 131 Taine. A. 136 Thalaimer. 141 Taylor. Third Earl of. 20. Adam. T. E. 132 Wnndt. 137 Weber. Tagore. 90 Simon. 90 Socrates. Herbert. 133 Stravinsky. i8n.H. Lytton. 73. 48. 39. 136 Solo vine. 90 Stoce. 98. 64n. J.. 126 Soothill. 20. Igor. Alfred. 138 Smart. W. 141 W. A. H.. P. 113 Spranger. Constantin. 21. Henry. W. Moritz. R.. 90 Sperber. A.. 67. J. Leo. 139 Wood worth. 99. Spencer. 132 Weber.. Wilhelm. 133 Santayana. 129 Stephen. 90 Sidgwick. N.INDEX Salomon. 43 n. A. 122 Vinciarelli. W. George. 83 Tschaikovsky. 91... M. 38.. 122 Thorndyke. 90 Shaftesbury.. 134 Spinoza. Leon. M. Tolstoy. 132 Stoljarov. 89. F. E. H. J. Leon. 56.. 72.. 135 159 A. 137 Schopenhauer. Rabindranath. 91 Stanislavsky. 131 Wieger. 120 Smith. Windelband. Max. 139 Wulf. 140 Schiller. Theodore. L. W. 140 Symonds. L. 138 Schnierman. E. Benedict. 100. 13 Trotsky.

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