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Infinite Series
1.1 Definitions, 1.2 General Properties of Series, 1.3 Comparison Test, 1.4 Integral Test, 1.5 D’ Alembert’s Ratio Test, 1.6 Raabe’s Test, 1.7 Logarithmic Test, 1.8 Cauchy’s Root Test, 1.9 Alternating Series, 1.10 Series of Positive and Negative Terms, 1.11 Power Series, 1.12 Uniform Convergence and Weirstrass’s M-test.

1.1

DEFINITIONS

I. Sequence. A function whose domain is the set of natural numbers and range a subset of real numbers is called a real sequence or simply a sequence. Symbolically, if u : Natural Numbers → real numbers, then u is a sequence. It is denoted as {un}, where un is the n-th term of the sequence or simply u1, u2, u3 1 1 1 ....... Thus 1, , , ...... is an infinite sequence. 2 3 4 II. Monotonic sequence. If in the sequence {un}, (i) un+1 ≥ un for all n or, (ii) un+1 ≤ un for all n, then the sequence is said to be monotonic increasing (for i) or monotonic decreasing (for ii) sequence.

1 n , {un} is monotonic increasing sequence and if un = 1 + , {un} is monotonic n n +1 decreasing sequence. III. Bounded sequence. If corresponding to the sequence {un} there exists a finite number M such that un ≤ M for all n the sequence is said to be bounded above and if un ≥ M for all n, the sequence is said to be bounded below. If a sequence is bounded both above and below it is said to be bounded.
Thus, if un = Thus, 1 +

lower bound is 0. IV. Convergent sequence. A sequence {un} is called convergent and is said to have a limit l, if

R S T

1 is bounded above and the upper bound is 2 and n

U V W

R 1 U is bounded below and the SnV TW

Thus,

V. Divergent sequence. The sequence {un} is called divergent if 1

R n U is convergent and the limit is 1. S n + 1V T W

n→∞

Lt un = l.

VED

C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1.pm5

2

Textbook of Engineering Mathematics
n→∞

Lt un = + ∞ or – ∞.

Thus {n3} is divergent. VI. Oscillatory sequence. If a sequence neither converges nor diverges to + ∞ or – ∞, then the sequence is said to be oscillatory. Moreover, if it is bounded, it is said to be oscillate finitely or if it is unbounded it is said to be oscillate infinitely. Thus, {– 1, 1, – 1, 1, – 1, 1, ......} oscillates finitely and {(– 1)n . n2} oscillates infinitely. Now we state the necessary and sufficient conditions that a sequence {un} may be convergent as follows : (i) Either, the sequence is monotonic and bounded i.e., monotonic increasing and bounded above or monotonic decreasing and bounded below. (ii) Or else, the sequence satisfies Cauchy’s condition namely, “Given and pre-assigned small positive quantity ∈, we can determine a positive integer N, such that | un+p – un | < ∈, whenever n ≥ N, p being any positive integer.” Example 1. Prove that the sequence Let Now un = un+1 – un =

n +1 n ,u = 2 1 n+1 ( n + 1) + 1 n +
2

R n U is convergent. S n + 1V T W
2

− n2 − n + 1 < 0 for all n. [( n + 1) 2 + 1] (n 2 + 1) Then un+1 < un for all n i.e., {un} is monotonic decreasing. n > 0 for all n i.e., {un} is bounded below by 0 Also, un = 2 n +1 Hence the given sequence is convergent 1/n n Lt un = Lt 2 = Lt = 0. Also, 2 n→∞ n→∞ n +1 n → ∞ 1 + 1/n Example 2. Show that the sequence {(1 + 1/n)n} is monotonic increasing.
Let Assume that if, if, un = 1 +

F H

1 n

I K

n

F1 + 1 I H nK FG 1 + 1/n IJ H 1 + 1/(n − 1)K

un > un–1
n

n

FG 1 IJ H n − 1K F 1 IJ > G1 + H n − 1K
> 1+

n −1

−1

VED

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Infinite Series

3

if,

if

if (1 – 1/n2)n > 1 – 1/n which is true by Bernoulli’s inequality. [For every positive integer n ≥ 2 and p > – 1 (p ≠ 0) (1 + p)n > 1 + np]. Hence the given sequence is monotonic increasing. Example 3. Prove that the sequence un =

FG n − 1IJ H n K FG n − 1IJ H n K
2 2 2 2

n

>
n

n −1 n

> 1 – 1/n

i.e.,

4n + 3 4( n + 1) + 3 4n + 7 = , un+1 = n+2 ( n + 1) + 2 n+3 5 Now, un+1 – un = >0 ( n + 2) ( n + 3) ⇒ un+1 > un or, un < un+1 Putting n = 1, 2, 3, ...... we get u1 < u2 < u3 < ...... < un < ...... So {un} is monotonic increasing. 4n + 3 5 7 =4− < 4 and u1 = Now, un = n+2 n+2 3 7 ∴ < un < 4. Hence {un} is bounded. 3 Example 4. Discuss the convergence of the sequence {un} where 1 1 1 + + ...... + un = n +1 n + 2 n+n 1 1 1 1 + − Now, un+1 – un = = > 0 for all n. 2n + 1 2n + 2 n + 1 ( 2n + 1) ( 2n + 2) ∴ un+1 – un for all n un < un+1 i.e., u1 < u2 < ...... < un < ...... So {un} is monotonic increasing. 1 1 1 1 , ......, is less than 1/n, it follows that un < n . = 1 for Also because each of n +1 n + 2 n+n n
∴ {un} is bounded above. Hence, {un} is monotonic increasing and bounded above and is, therefore, convergent. VII. Infinite series. If {un} be a given real valued sequence, then an expression of the form u1 + u2 + ...... + un + ......
n =1

R 4n + 3 U is bounded and monotonic increasing. S n+2 V T W

all n.

is called an infinite series. In symbols it is generally written as

∑u

n

or

∑u.
n

VED

C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1.pm5

. X.pm5 ..... a sequence {sn} defined by sn = u1 + u2 + ... divergent or oscillatory when each term of it is multiplied by a fixed number other than zero... .. Lt un = 0.. + + . Sequence of partial sums of an infinite series. is a positive term series. implies that Σun may or may not be convergent.... Mathematically. 1 1 1 1 For example. are all zero. An infinite series Σun is said to converge..... An infinite series in which all the terms are positive after some terms is called positive term series e. Let us associate to the infinite series u1 + u2 + .e. But ∴ n→∞ Lt sn −1 = s un = sn – sn–1 n→∞ Lt un = Lt ( sn − sn −1 ) = Lt sn − Lt sn −1 = s – s = 0 n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ The converse of the above result (Example 1) is not always true i.... n→∞ Example 1. Let sn denote the nth partial sum of the series Σun. than s is called the sum of the series Σun and we shall write s = Σun... Series of positive terms. {sn} does not have a unique limit.. inclusion or omission of a finite number of terms.4 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics Whereas n =1 ∑u m n is called a finite series assuming that the terms un+1.. 1 + + + .e. though Lt un = Lt = 0...g. Σun converges if Lt sn = finite n→∞ Σun diverges if i. un+2. the sum of first n terms tends to either a finite limit or + ∞.2 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF SERIES P1 P2 P3 P4 : Convergence of a series remains unchanged by the replacement. IX.e. + un + .. 1.... ∴ Lt sn = s (finite) n→∞ Also... Then Σun is convergent ⇒ {sn} is convergent.. : Every finite series is a convergent series.. omitting the negative terms.. n→∞ n→∞ n n 2 3 VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1. VIII.. n→∞ Lt sn = + ∞ or – ∞ Σun oscillates if {sn} oscillates (finitely/infinitely). + un The sequence {sn} is called the sequence of partial sums of the given series. In case {sn} converges to s. diverges. Show that if a series Σun is convergent then Lt un = 0. – 2 – 1 + 1 + 2 + 3 + . : A series of positive terms either converges or diverges to + ∞ i... Convergence of an infinite series. diverges or oscillates. diverge or oscillate according as its sequence of partial sums {sn} converges. : A series remains convergent.

| x | < 1 sn = 1 + x + x2 + . + xn–1 xn 1(1 − x n ) 1 = − = 1− x 1− x 1− x 1 Lt sn = n→∞ 1− x ⇒ {sn} is convergent... –x>1 p = – x.. + xn–1 = n→∞ 1 − xn 1− x Lt sn = ∞ ⇒ {sn} is divergent hence the given series is also divergent. (iii) x = – 1 sn = 1 – 1 + 1 – 1 + 1 – 1 + ....... = 1 or 0 if n is odd or even ∴ ⇒ (iv) x < – 1 Here..e.. {sn} oscillates finitely and hence the given series oscillates finitely. to n terms =n Lt sn = ∞ n→∞ ⇒ {sn} is divergent hence the given series is also divergent For x > 1 sn = 1 + x + . x < – 1 ⇒ Let Now n→∞ F3 H n→∞ Lt x n = ∞.e.... The geometric series 1 + x + x2 + x3 + . 1+ p 1+ p VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1. ∞ (i) Converges if – 1 < x < 1 (ii) Diverges if x ≥ 1 (iii) Oscillates finitely if x = – 1 (iv) Oscillates infinitely if x < – 1 (i) – 1 < x < 1 Let i. sn = 1 + 1 + 1 + .. to n terms......... + xn–1 1 − x n 1 − ( − p) n = = 1− x 1+ p n 1− p 1 + pn = or if n = even or odd. then p > 1 sn = 1 + x + x2 + .. as x > 1 I K Lt sn = 1 or 0. x = 1 and x > 1 For x = 1... hence the given series converges F3 H n→∞ Lt x n = 0 as | x | < 1 I K (ii) x ≥ 1 i.pm5 .....Infinite Series 5 Example 2..

4 3 . 2n − 1 2 − 1/n un = = 2 n( n + 1) ( n + 2) n (1 + 1/n) (1 + 2/n) 1 Let vn = 2 ..3 COMPARISON TEST I. 4 . if l = 0 and Σvn converges.. Let us compare with Σun and Σvn n 2 − 1/n 2 un = Lt = Lt = 2 ≠ 0 and finite n → ∞ (1 + 1/n ) (1 + 2/n ) n→∞ v 1.... 3. If two positive term series Σun and Σvn be such that (i) Σvn diverges and (ii) un ≥ vn ∀ n.6 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics n→∞ Lt sn = – ∞ or + ∞ (3 pn → ∞ as n → ∞) ∴ {sn} oscillates infinitely and hence the given series oscillates infinitely. Test the convergence of the following series : ∑ ∑ ∑e n2 + 1 − n j n +1 − n 2 un = e = n2 + 1 − n je n2 + 1 + n j n2 + 1 + n VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1. Among I. If two positive term series Σun and Σvn be such that (i) Σvn converges and (ii) un ≤ vn ∀ n. 3 2 .. 5 = 2n – 1.. l being a non-zero finite vn quantity then Σun and Σvn either both convergent or both divergent. (Note. 1. Example 2. 5 Tn of 1... III. III is widely used.. then Σun also diverges. In particular. If two positive term series Σun and Σvn be such that Lt n→∞ un = l. III. .. n = 1. An important series for comparison is the Harmonic series of order p i.. 2.. II. 2 .. then the first m terms of both the series can be ignored which will not affect their convergence or divergence).pm5 .1 n 1 1 is of the form with p = 2 > 1 3 Σvn = 2 np n ∴ Σvn is convergent ⇒ Σun is convergent. then Σun also diverges. 3 . then Σun also converges. 1.e.. IV. then Σun also converges. Test the convergence of the series 1 3 5 + + + . If the relation un ≤ vn holds for n > m. ∞ converges if p > 1 and diverges if p ≤ 1. ∑n 1 p = 1 1 1 + . if l = ∞ and Σvn diverges. II. p + p + p 1 2 3 Example 1.

.pm5 . 5 5... n = n e j 1 1 + 1/n 2 + 1 j Let ∴ n→∞ vn = Lt un = Lt vn n → ∞ e 1 1 + 1/n 2 + 1 = 1 ≠ 0 and finite 2 but Σvn = ∑ n diverges 1 3− 2 + 2 4− 3 + . 1 + 4.. 5.. p ≤ 1 for divergentI H n K p Here un = = n +1 − n = n n d i n +1 − n n = n n d n +1 + n id n +1 + n i i 3/ 2 d 1 n+1 + n d 1 1 + 1/n + 1 i = n d 1 1 + 1/n + 1 i Let vn = n→∞ 1 n 3/ 2 Lt un = Lt vn n → ∞ d 1 1 + 1/n + 1 i = 1 2 ≠0 and finite but Σvn is convergent ∴ Σun is also convergent.. ∞ 22 33 4 4 55 2n3 + 5 4n5 + 1 ∑ ∑ FH n + 1 − 1 ∑ (n + n ) 3 2 p n n2 + 1 n3 IK ∑ 6. Examine the convergence of the following series : 2− 1 + 1 F ∑ 1 . 3 ∴ Σun also diverges. F ∑ 1 .. 3 3 . ∑L MN 2 3 4 + + + . 7 2... p > 1 for convergentI H n K p PROBLEMS Test the Convergence or Divergence of the following series : 1. 1 2 2 33 44 + + + + ....... 1 2 3 + + + . ∞ 1p 2 p 3 p 3 n3 + 1 − n OP Q VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1. Example 3. 3. ∞ 1... 7. 8.Infinite Series 7 = 1 n2 + 1 + n 1 ....

e.. + 2 z n +1 n f ( x ) dx ≤ u1 + u2 + ... [2. Divergent 3... + un.. r + 1].. .(i) f(x) x u2 + u3 + .pm5 . 5... [n – 1. . divergent for p ≤ 1/2. 3]. then both 1 z z 1 n→∞ . r + 1]. So {sn} is a n→∞ z ∞ z ∞ f ( x ) dx converge on diverge together. Hence Σun and Note... [r.. sn+1 – u1 ≤ Taking the limit n → ∞ (a) If {sn} is a convergent sequence and Σun is convergent.. Proof.. then both 1 f ( x ) dx diverges. The totality of all the intervals leads to the following inequality. z z r +1 r r +1 f ( x ) dx ≤ r f ( x ) dx ≤ ur z r +1 r ur dx .. Now consider the intervals [1.. y ∴ f(r + 1) ≤ f(x) ≤ f(r) ⇒ ur+1 ≤ f(x) ≤ ur Integrating in [r. Convergent for p > 2 and divergent for p ≤ 2 Convergent for p > 1/2. Divergent Convergent 2.. 1..8 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics ANSWERS 1. 4.. k ≥ 1 also converge or diverge together. n]. Σun and z z n→∞ ∞ Lt sn +1 – u1 ≤ z z z 2 1 f ( x ) dx + n +1 1 f ( x ) dx ≤ sn z 3 f ( x ) dx + ... 2].. Convergent 6. r + 1] z ∞ 1 f ( x ) dx converge or diverge together i.. Let r be a positive number such that r + 1 ≥ x ≥ r ≥ 1. Given that f(x) is a monotonic decreasing function.4 INTEGRAL TEST A positive term series Σf(n) where f(n) = un decreases as n increases then the series Σun and the integral for divergent the value of the integral must be infinite... 1 k f ( x ) dx .. Convergent. VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1. (b) If ∞ ∞ divergent sequence and Σun is divergent. So n→∞ f ( x ) dx and Lt sn +1 – u1 will be + ∞..(ii) ∞ 1 f ( x ) dx and Lt sn +1 – u1 will be finite numbers..e... (sn = Σun) ∞ 1 f ( x ) dx ≤ Lt sn f ( x ) dx converges. Convergent 8. for convergent the value of the integral must be finite and ⇒ z r +1 r ur +1 dx ≤ ur+1 ≤ 0 1 r x r+1 n This inequality is true for the interval [r. 7.. + un+1 ≤ i..

Test the convergence of the following series. 2n 3 n4 + 3 un = 2n 3 = f(n).. xp z ∞ 1 dx = Lt xp k→∞ = Case (ii) p = 1 1 (finite). ∞. and monotonic decreasing. ∴ Integral test is applicable. + + 1p 2 p 3 p Converges for p > 1 and diverges for 0 < p ≤ 1. f(x) is positive. Here un = ∴ The above series will converge or diverge according to Case (i) p ≠ 1 z ∞ 1 dx is finite or infinite. ∑ n ln n 1 2 VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1. ∞ ∑ 1 n 2.Infinite Series 9 Example 1. np ∴ Integral test is applicable.. f(x) is positive and monotonic decreasing. z ∞ 1 f ( x ) dx = ∴ Σun is divergent. for p > 1 = ∞. n4 + 3 For x ≥ 1. for 0 < p < 1 p −1 z k 1 k 1− p − 1 dx Lt p = k→∞ 1− p x FG H IJ K k dx dx = Lt ln k = ∞ = Lt k→∞ 1 x k→∞ 1 x ∴ Σun converges if p > 1 and diverges if 0 < p ≤ 1. for x ≥ 1. 1 = f(n).. Now. z ∞ z ∑ Here.pm5 .. Example 2.. Show that the harmonic series of order p ∑n 1 ∞ 1 p = 1 1 1 . k 2x3 2x 2 dx = Lt dx 4 4 k→∞ 1 x + 3 1 x +3 k 1 1 ln ( x 4 + 3) = Lt = Lt [ln ( k 4 + 3) − ln 4] 1 k→∞ 2 k→∞ 2 ∞ z z PROBLEMS Test the Convergence of the following series : 1.

Div.. 3 −1 5 −1 7 −1 2 7.. Conv.. (ii) Σun is divergent if m > 1... by comparison of ratios test. 23 33 43 ANSWERS 1... 7. for p > 1... there exists a natural number l such that for 2 1+ m un > > 1 for all n ≥ l.. 8.. ∑n 1 + 2n + 3 1 2 3 + . 2.e.pm5 . (i) Let m > 1 and finite 1+ m < m. for p ≤ 1 1. 10. Div.. 4. un +1 =m un (iii) No conclusion can be drawn if m = 1 i. ∑ n ln n (ln (ln n)) 1 p 6.5 D’ALEMBERT’S RATIO TEST n→∞ If Σun be an positive term series and Lt then (i) Σun is convergent if m < 1. Div.10 3. (ii) Let m < 1 and there exists a natural number l such that ⇒ ⇒ un < un+1 for all n ≥ l ul < un for all n ≥ l + 1 un < 1.. div.. Div. 5.. Conv. we get 1+ m un v > n = for all n ≥ l 2 un + 1 v n + 1 Since Σvn is convergent. un+1 VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1. Σun is convergent. 1 2 3 + + + .. for p ≤ 1. 6. Proof. 2 + 2 + 1+1 1+ 2 1 + 32 2 8. Conv. for p > 1. the test fails and the other method is required.. Conv. 9.. 9. 3. div. 2 un+1 Taking vn = FG 2 IJ H l + 1K n . therefore. 10. Div. ∑ n ln n ln (ln n) 1 3 ∞ 5. – ∞ 2 5 10 17 1 1 1 + 2 + 2 + ... Textbook of Engineering Mathematics ∑ ∞ 3 1 n(ln n ) p 4. Conv. 1 2 3 4 + + + + ..

∞ (ii) 2 1+ 2 1+ 2 1 + 23 (i) (i) Here ∴ un = 2n n +1 2 and un+1 = 2 n +1 ( n + 1) 2 + 1 n→∞ Lt un +1 2[ n 2 + 1] 2n 2 [1 + 1/n 2 ] = Lt = Lt 2 2 2 2 n → ∞ [( n + 1) + 1] n → ∞ n [(1 + 1/n ) + 1/n ] un = Lt n→∞ 2 [1 + 1/n 2 ] =2>1 (1 + 1/n) 2 + 1/n 2 Hence by ratio test. ∞ 3 2 4 3 5 4 VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1.. ( 2 H n K (2 F H I K −n Equivalent Statement If Σun be positive term series and Lt then (i) Σun is convergent is m > 1 (ii) Σun is divergent is m < 1 (iii) No conclusion can be drawn if m = 1.Infinite Series 11 ⇒ n→∞ Lt un ≠ 0 ⇒ Σun is divergent. but the first series n→∞ u n +1 is convergent and the second is divergent. Test for convergence for n→∞ un =m un + 1 1 2 1 + x2 x4 x6 + + + . ∞ + 2 + 2 12 + 1 2 + 1 3 + 1 1 2 3 + + + ... Discuss the convergent of the following series : 2 22 23 + . For m = 1. ∴ Σun is divergent.. un = 1... we note that both the series ∑n 1 2 and ∑ n have 1 Lt Hence the test fails for m = 1. Example 1... (ii) Here ∴ un = n 1 + 2n and un+1 = n +1 1 + 2 n +1 n→∞ Lt 1 2 n (2 − n + 1) un + 1 ( n + 1) (1 + 2 n ) = Lt = Lt 1 + n→∞ n 2 n ( 2 − n + 2) n→∞ un n(1 + 2 n +1 ) + 1) ...pm5 . Example 2.. So the series Σun may converge of diverge... + 2) = 1/2 < 1 ∴ Σun is convergent by ratio test... = Lt n→∞ −n F1 + 1 I .

= . un+1 = 2 n +1 ( n + 1) 2 2 ( n + 1) 2 2n n n→∞ Lt un + 1 [( n + 1) 4 + 2 n +1 ] n2 .12 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics Here.2 n /n 4 1 . un = ( n + 1) n n (1 + 1/n) 1 Let vn = 3 / 2 n ∴ By comparison test. n→∞ FG H IJ K x 2n (n + 2) n + 1 1/ 2 x2 IJ K 1/ 2 . Example 3. (1 + 1/n) 2 n 4 (1 + 1/n) 4 + = Lt n→∞ LM N 2. x = Lt . Test the convergence of the following series : (i) Fn ∑ G2 H ∞ 1 2 n + 1 . 2 . (ii) Here Lt un = xn x n +1 un + 1 = ( 2n) ! (2 n + 2 ) ! n→∞ 1 (2n) ! u n +1 = Lt .<1 2(1 + 1/n) 2 2 (1 + 2 n /n 4 ) Hence by the ratio test Σun converges. VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1. n → ∞ 1 + 2/n 1 + 1/n ∴ Σun converges according to x2 < 1 and diverges according to x2 > 1. ∴ un = x 2 n− 2 ( n + 1) n and un+1 = n→∞ Lt un + 1 n +1 n = Lt n→∞ n + 2 n + 1 un = Lt FG H 1 + 1/n 1 . Hence. by ratio test the given series is convergent for x2 ≤ 1 and is divergent for x2 > 1. 4 = Lt n→∞ 2 n +1 ( n + 1) 2 un n + 2n 1 . vn n → ∞ 1 + 1/n 3 Σvn is convergent. Σun converges.pm5 . x2 = x2 Lt 1 un = Lt = 1 ≠ 0 and finite. n2 2 2 IJ K (ii) ∑ 1 ∞ xn (2 n ) ! (i) Here un = ( n + 1) 1 ( n + 1) 4 + 2 n +1 1 n + = n +1 + 2 . 1 1 = 3/ 2 If x2 = 1.x=0<1 n → ∞ ( 2 n + 2 ) (2 n + 1) n → ∞ (2n + 2) ! un ∴ By D’Alembert’s ratio test.2 n n4 n 4 [1 + 2 n /n 4 ] OP Q = Lt n→∞ 1 (1 + 1/n) 4 + 2. ∴ Σun is also convergent.

. 7 4 ... Div... Examine the convergence of the following series : 1 3! 5! 5! + + + + ... 2 2. + 9 3 .. Conv.. 10.. 32 10. 5.. div. if α ≥ β > 0 Conv. PROBLEMS Discuss the convergence of the following series : 1. 3 1+ e 1+ e 1+ e 1+ n e ANSWERS 1. 8... 7 . 6 . 1 + + . 5 + + + . 2. n ( 2 + 1/n) .. Conv. 9.. 22 22 42 22 42 62 + ..... 11.5 2 . Conv. 5 2. 1 + 12.6 2.... 7... 2 n (2n + 1) ! un+1 = 2 . 2p 3p 4p 2n .....6.. 12.3 2 . Conv.. 32 + .. Conv... 6. 10 3..4. Conv. Div. Div.. if β > α > 0. 8. 3 1.. for x < 1 and div. ∑ n2 5n 3 32 33 + .7 5 2 . ratio test the given series diverges....... 8 .. (2 n + 2) un + 1 (2n + 1) (2 n) (2n + 1) ! = Lt Lt = Lt n→∞ n→∞ u n → ∞ (2 n − 1) ! (2 n + 2) 2n + 2 n ( 2n + 1) . + .Infinite Series 13 Example 4. 4. . + + ... 1 1..8 ( 2n − 1) ! Here un = 2 ... 6 . 4 . 3 1. ∞ (p > 0) 2 ! 3! 4 ! nn α + 1 (α + 1)(2α + 1) (α + 1)(2α + 1)(3α + 1) + + 1+ + . VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1.4...pm5 . 1 1 1 1 + + + . ∑ n n +1 2 xn 5. 3... 7. 3 . ∞ + .. ∞ 1 1. ∞ 4 4 ... n ! + + 6.4 2. 8 .. ∞ β + 1 (β + 1)(2β + 1) (β + 1)( 2β + 1)(3β + 1) ∑ ∑n 1 + 3 n! n 9... 3 .. 4. 32 32 52 32 52 72 1 1 1 + + + . for x ≥ 1 Conv.. 32 + 13 4 . 4 . 11. Conv. + 2 + 3 2. n = Lt = Lt =∞ n→∞ n → ∞ (1 + 1/n ) n +1 ∴ By D’Alembert’s.

...e.e. Since 1 ∑ nu < ∑ (n + 1) u l l lul < nun for all n ≥ l + 1 1 (lul) ... there exists a natural number l such that 2 Rn F u |G S Hu | T n n+1 n −1 n+1 IJ U = m be finite | KV | W FG u Hu −1 > IJ K m +1 >1 2 m −1 un+1 for all n ≥ l.. this test is applied when D’Alembert’s ratio test fails and also when in the ratio test un +1 does not involve the number e.. m −1 l This shows that the sequence of partial sums {sn} is bounded and so. < un for all n ≥ l + 1 n ∑ n is divergent and lul represents positive real number. Let Lt (i) m > 1. for n ⇒ Thus i. 2 2 lu + u1 + u2 + .... both the series VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-1...6 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics RAABE’S TEST The series Σun of positive terms is convergent or divergent according as n→ ∞ Lt Rn F u | G S Hu | T n −1 n+ 1 I U > 1 or < 1 V JK | | W The test fails if the limit = 1. + un) for all n ≥ l + 1. or n→∞ m +1 < m. (ii) If m < 1.14 1. i.e. + un for all n ≥ l + 1. i. Generally. + um > u1 + u2 + ..e. 2 m −1 2 n −1 nun – (n + 1) un+1 > n −1 ∑ l [nun − ( n + 1) un +1 ] > lul > ∑u l n +1 m −1 (ul+1 + .pm5 .e.. For m = 1.. there exists a natural number l such that n i. Therefore Σun converges for finite m > 1. un Proof..... being monotonic it converges. n −1 FG u Hu n −1 < 1 nun < (n + 1)un+1 for all n ≥ l n −1 n n +1 n+1 IJ K i. Σun is divergent.

. 6 . 4 .... the test fails. 2n . 3 . 4 ..4... 2 . we have 1 . Hence for m = 1.6 7 un = Here.. (2n + 2) 2n + 1 2 + 1/n un + 1 .. (2n − 2) 2n − 1 1 .. 3 ..... (De Morgan’s Test or Bertrand’s Test) Let Σun be a series of positive terms such that Lt if l > 1...4 5 2...x=x n→∞ u n → ∞ 2n + 2 n → ∞ 2 + 2/n n ∴ By D’Alembert’s ratio test. 3 2 1... Lt Now. 5 x7 + .. 3 x5 1 . The test fails for x = 1. 5 .. 3 .4 2. 6 . Test the convergence of the series FG u Hu Fu nG Hu n n+1 n n +1 IJ FG 2n + 2 − 1IJ = n K H 2 n + 2 K 2n + 1 I F n IJ = Lt FG 1 IJ = 1 < 1 − 1J = Lt G H 2n + 1K H 2 + 1/n K 2 K −1 = n n→∞ n→∞ x 1 x3 1 .4. Example 1. ( 2n − 1) n un = .... + + . x2 2 n ( 2n + 1) un VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 .. 2n 1 .. Hence the given series converges for x < 1 and diverges for x ≥ 1. ∴ un+1 = 1 . 3 .. (ii) Σun diverges if l < 1.. Example 2. x = Lt = Lt . 5 3 x + x + . the series converges for x < 1 and diverges for x > 1. 1 2 3 2... + ....6 Neglecting the first term... x and 2 .. 3 ...x 2 .. RLn F un − 1I − 1O log nU = l... 5 . 4 . 5 . 4 . 2 n 2n + 1 un +1 (2n − 1) 2 = ... ∴ We apply Raabe’s test for x = 1.. 3 . Note. 2 . ( 2n − 1) x 2 n +1 . ( 2n − 1) (2n + 1) n+1 un+1 = . Then (i) Σu converges |M G SM H un +1 JK PP | V n → ∞ |N Q | T W n [This test may be applied when both D’Alembert’s ratio test and Raabe’s test fails].. 6 .... ∴ n n→∞ Lt ∴ By Raabe’s test the series diverges.Infinite Series 15 ∑ n(ln n) 1 2 2 and ∑ n have 1 n→∞ Lt n FG n Hu n − 1 = 1. ( 2n − 3) x 2 n −1 . 5 . Discuss the convergence of the series : 1 1. ∞ (x > 0) 1+ x+ 2 2.. but the first series is convergent whereas the n +1 IJ K second series is divergent. 6 .

if x < 1. ratio test. 62 x + 2 2 x 2 + 2 2 2 x3 + . if x > 1.. + + + 1. Thus the given series is convergent when | x | ≤ 1. Let us apply Raabe’s test.7 LOGARITHMIC TEST A positive term series Σun converges or diverges according to n→∞ Lt LMn log u OP > 1 N u Q n n +1 or <1 but the test fails for the limiting value = 1. 1 + ANSWERS 1. 6. 1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + . the series remains convergent.. 3 1. 9 2.. x If x =1. 4 2 .6. 1 + 1 1. Ru Su T Ru nS Tu n −1 = n+1 n n +1 U n(6n − 1) = 6 − 1/n V (2n − 1) (1 − 1/n) W U 6 3 − 1V = i. 7 .(3n − 1) n =1 1 . | x | < 1 and divergent. for x ≥ 1... (3n − 2 ) 2.6 2. 6 ... 7 2 7. > 1 W 4 2 2 2 PROBLEMS Test the convergence of the following series : 1. ∞.. 2...e. 4.5 3 . 8.. 2 3..7 6. 8 .. 1+ 8. all the terms being reversed in sign as compared to the case when x = 1..4 2. 52 . the test fails. Div... ∴ n n→∞ Lt ∴ The series is convergent in this case.. Note. 52 32 . for x < 1 and Div. Lt Here.. 10 .. 8 . x + . 42 .6. i. Conv. 3. if x ≥ 1. and divergent when | x | > 1..4. 8 22 22 . 5. The series is the expansion of sin–1 (x). 7 3. 4 . 9 5. (x > 0) 22 22 .. 5 3. 4.8 2 x+ + + + + . ∞ ∑ 2 . 42 22 . 3.. and Div...e. Conv. 4 5 .... 7. Conv.. Div. Now.. 12 3. if 2 > 1.. 1. i.. 6 ... + + 32 32 . for x ≥ 1. for x < 1. 7 3..16 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics un +1 = x2 n→∞ u n ∴ by D’Alembert’s... if x ≤ 1... Conv.. 5 . VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 . 5.. Div.. 2 . 32 3 . x x2 x3 x4 + .e. 42 22 .. 4 ..5 . Conv. 5.4. the series is convergent if x2 < 1. 42 .5 2 . 4 . 5 . 2.. If x = – 1. 3.. 5 1. 1+ 1 1. | x | > 1. 7 .3 2.4 . 4. Conv. 62 + . 5 + + + .. 6 7 ... 3. Div. 7. 8 2 .

. x = Lt n +1 n → ∞ (n + 2 ) un = Lt (1 + 1/n) n ... Hence.e. 17 un involves e.. Test the convergence of the series x 2 ! 2 3! 3 + x + 2 x + . n→∞ 2n 2n 2 = Lt n→∞ F − 1 − 3 + .... un (1 + 2/n) n +1 1/e.. − 2n 2n 2 1 3 = Lt n − − + . the given series converges if x < e and diverges if x ≥ e..x n n→∞ (1 + 2/n ) . Its proof is similar to that of Raabe’s test.. ∞ 2 32 4 ( n + 1) ! n+1 n! xn. (1 + 2/n) e x = 2 .x= e e LM Lt F1 + a I N H nK n→∞ n = ea OP Q ∴ By D’Alembert’s ratio test. 4 + 1 ... un+1 Example 1. = un +1 (1 + 1/n) n +1 un +1 = (n + 1) log (1 + 2/n) – (n + 1) log (1 + 1/n) – log e un LMF 2 − 1 ..... un+1 = x Here..I OP – 1 KQ K H n 2 n 3n NH n 2 n 3 n 3 1 3 I = (n + 1) L 1 − 3 + . 1 + 1 − .......I – F 1 − 1 . e x x < 1 i...... If x = 1 the test fails. VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 . (1 + 1/n) . The test is applied after the failure of D’Alembert ratio test and generally when This test is a substitute for Raabe’s test..e.... the series diverges. x < e and diverges if >1 e e Now when ∴ log x = e..I = – 1/2 < 1 H 2 2n K F H I K So by Logarithmic test. un = n ( n + 2) n +1 ( n + 1) ∴ n→∞ Lt un + 1 ( n + 1) n +1 .. 8 − ..O – 1 = F 1 − MN n 2n PQ H 2n + n − 2n + .. the series converges if i.....K – 1 = (n + 1) 2 3 2 3 3 2 = (n +1) [log (1 + 2/n) – log (1 + 1/n)] – 1 =– ∴ n→∞ Lt n log un u n +1 1 3 + . x > e...Infinite Series Note.

Div. e 4 !.18 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics Example 2. if x > 1/e e 5. e 3 !. Hence by the logarithmic test the series diverges for x = 1/e. 1 .... 2 + ... 2! 3! 4! 5! 2. n! (1 + n) n n ( 2 + n) n +1 x ... Conv. if x ≤ VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 . x + 1 2! 3! 4! e + 2 e 2 + 3 e3 + 4 e 4 + . 5. 2. ∴ un = ∑ (1 + n) n n . 1+ 1+ 1+ 2 32 43 + + . xn+1 n! ( n + 1) ! 1 u Lt n +1 = Lt 1 + n→∞ u n→∞ n+1 n ∴ By D’Alembert’s ratio test the given series converges or diverges according as x < 1/e or x > 1/e. 3.. 4... 2 3 4 5 ANSWERS 1.... if x ≥ e. Div.. n→∞ PROBLEMS Test the convergence of the following series : 1. Thus un +1 2 the given series converges or diverges according as x < 1/e or x ≥ 1/e. un+1 = . 2 + 2 !.. Div. x = ex un = n log un + 1 FG1 + 1 IJ H n + 1K L R F 2 I − log F1 + 1 I UOP = n M1 − (n + 1) Slog 1 + T H n K H n K VQ W N L RF I = n M1 − (n + 1) |G 2 − 1 . if x < 1/e..x . ∴ n log FG H IJ K n +1 .. Conv. Test the convergence of the series Here.J − F 1 − 1 SH n 2 n K H n 2n | MN T n +1 2 2 e = n 1 − (n − 1) log 1 + LM N FG H 1 n+1 IJ OP KQ 2 + . 3. Conv... For x = 1/e the test fails... 2 3 4 5 2 2 x 2 33 x 3 4 4 x 4 + + + ...... if x < e. if x ≥ 1/e... Conv. − 2 6n | I UOP K VPQ | W 1 un = < 1.. = ∴ Lt n log 1 5 + . e 3 2x 32 x 2 43 x 3 54 x 4 e+ + + + . 1 + 4. Div. 2! 3! 4! 1 2! 3! 4! x + 2 x 2 + 3 x 3 + 4 x 4 + .

n n→∞ n→∞ n ∑ VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 ..8 CAUCHY’S ROOT TEST n→∞ If Σun is a positive term series and Lt (un )1/ n = m. the series is convergent.n K F n + 2 IJ = F 1 + 1 I u =G H 2 .2 Here ∴ n n→∞ Lt ∴ By Cauchy’s root test. For m < < 1.3 K H 2. Thus un < for all n ≥ l.1 2... ∑n 1 2 and ∑ n have 1 n→∞ 1/ Lt un n = 1 but the first series is convergent and the second series is divergent.... ∴ the test fails in this case. then the series is (i) convergent if m < 1 (ii) divergent if m > 1 and no conclusion can be drawn about the convergence or divergence if m = 1.Infinite Series 19 1. n K H 2 nK F 1 + 1I = 1 < 1 u = Lt H 2 nK 2 FG H 2 3 n n 1/ n n n→∞ n + . + FG n + 2 IJ K H 2. u > l for all n ≥ l If un n n ⇒ ⇒ n→∞ Lt un ≠ 0 Σun diverges For m = 1. Such that n 1/n > l i..e. Example 2. 1/n → + ∞.. we note that. Let m ≥ 0. n F H F m + 1I Since ∑ H 2 K I K is convergent for 0 < ⇒ n→∞ Lt un ≠ 0 ⇒ Σun diverges. For m > 1.. Example 1. there exists a natural number l such that 0 < un1/n < 2 2 n m +1 for all n ≥ l. there exists. Test the convergence of the following series 1+ 2 2+2 + 2 . a natural number l such that un1/n > 1 ⇒ un > 1 for all n ≥ l. m +1 m +1 Proof. [( n + 1) x ]n n n +1 [( n + 1) x ]n un = n n +1 ( n + 1) x ( n + 1) x 1 = Lt Lt un/ n = Lt 1/ n 1 + 1/ n n→∞ n .. Examine the convergence of the series IJ + FG 3 + 2 IJ + . 2 m +1 <1 2 By comparison test ∑un is convergent. there exists a natural number l..

. 3 n=2 ∑ (log n) 1 x3 + .. the series converges for x < 1 and diverges for x > 1.. Conv. Conv.. Conv....20 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics = Lt n→∞ ∴ By Cauchy’s root test. 3.. If Sn denotes the partial sum of the given alternating series then. F I + F 3 I + . n→∞ Converges if (i) un > un+1 for all n and (ii) Lt un = 0. 5. If Lt un ≠ 0... ANSWERS 1... Conv.. Hence {S2n} is convergent i.. 4.. 5.. div. + (u2n–2 – u2n–1) + u2n] < u1 (3 un > un+1 for all n) This implies that {S2n} is bounded above Also. G H1 ∞ 2 2 2 − 1 I +F3 JK GH 2 −1 n 3 3 3 − 2 I JK −2 F4 +G H3 4 4 4 − 3 I JK −3 + .... 1.9 ALTERNATING SERIES : (LEIBNITZ’S TEST) The alternating series ∑ (− 1) 1 ∞ n −1 un . 2.e.. for x ≥ 1.x=x PROBLEMS Test the convergence of the following series. H K H 7K F nI ∑ GH 1 + n JK 1 2 3 4 + x+F I x +F I H 4K H 5K 2 3 1 2 + 3 5 2 3 n2 2 2 F2 2. 3.. ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ S2n+2 = S2n + u2n+1 – u2n+2 S2n+2 – S2n = u2n+1 – u2n+2 S2n+2 – S2n > 0 S2n+2 > S2n Lt S2 n = finite (3 un > un+1 ⇒ u2n+1 > u2n+2 for all n) This implies that {S2n} is monotonically increasing. n→∞ VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 . F1 + 1 I . 1.. S2n = u1 – u2 + u3 – u4 + .. for x < 1.. n→∞ Proof.. 1 H nK n 1/ n .. Here both the conditions (i) and (ii) must be satisfied for convergence. Conv. the given series is oscillatory. 4. + u2n–1 – u2n = u1 – [(u2 – u3) + (u4 – u5) + .

n→∞ Lt S2 n +1 = Lt ( S2 n + u2 n +1 ) = Lt S2 n + 0 n→∞ n→∞ F3 H n→∞ Lt un = 0 given I K = Lt S2 n = finite n→∞ Thus Lt Sn = finite when n is odd or even. When n→∞ Lt un ≠ 0.. 5n + 1 5(n + 1) + 1 un > un+1 for all n.. ∞ 2 2 3 3 4 4 It is an alternating series.. n→∞ ⇒ The given series is oscillatory.. Hence the given series is convergent. ( n + 1) n + 1 un > un+1 for all n (ii) Lt un = 0 n→∞ ∴ Both the conditions of Leibnitz’s test are satisfied. Discuss the convergence of the following series. VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 . ∞ 6 11 16 21 26 It is an alternating series (i) 3 ∴ (ii) n→∞ un = n n +1 .... Test the convergence of the following series 1 2 3 4 5 − + − + – .. Example 2. 1 n n and un+1 = 1 ( n + 1) n + 1 1 n n > 1 for all n. un+1 = 5n + 1 5(n + 1) + 1 n n +1 > for all n. Lt un = Lt n→∞ 1 n 1 = Lt = ≠0 n → ∞ 5 + 1/n 5n + 1 5 ∴ Second condition of Leibnitz’s test is not satisfied. 1– 1 1 1 + − + .. Example 1.Infinite Series 21 Also.. (i) un = Since. ⇒ n→∞ Lt S2 n +1 ≠ Lt S2 n . n→∞ Hence the given series is convergent. Hence the given series is Oscillatory.

3 1... 3 . The series Σun of arbitrary terms is said to be absolutely convergent if Σ | un | is a convergent series.... 1 1 1 1 − + − (iii) + ... ∞ 2 3 4 5 (ii) ∑M N ∞ 1 L (− 1) n n −1 n 2n − 1 sin OP Q (1/n) . 2. ∞ log 2 log 3 log 4 log 5 (iv) ∑ (− 1) −1 ANSWERS 3. is convergent but the series obtained from the first by omitting brackets is not convergent..... + − + .. See the next section] 3.10 SERIES OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE TERMS The series of Positive terms and alternating series are the special types of these series with arbitrary signs. suitable tests as discussed in the earlier sections has to be applied. ( n + 1) 2 VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 . Examine the convergence of the following series : (i) 1 – 1 1 1 1 + − + + . the series Σun is said to be conditionally convergent if it is convergent but does not converge absolutely i. Test whether the series is absolutely convergent or conditionally convergent ? 1– This is an alternating series (i) un = 1 n2 1 1 1 + ... Example 1. (i) Conv...... 2 3 4 5 2n 2n + 1 + ...6 is conditionally convergent. Σ | un | is divergent.... + FG 2n + 1 − 2n + 2 IJ H 2 3 K H 4 5K H 2n 2n + 1 K 3 4 5 6 2n + 1 2n + 2 − + − + .. [Hints. 2 2. (iv) Conv...22 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics PROBLEMS 1. (ii) Oscillatory (iii) Conv. To test Σ | un | is convergent or not...4 2.e.... un > un+1 for all n.. 1. Show that the series F 3 − 4 I + F 5 − 6 I + . 5 + − + .. 2 + 2 − 2 2 3 4 and un+1 = 1 obviously... Whereas.4.... Show that the series 1– 1 1...

... 2. Here.. 2 53 54 VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 ... n→∞ u n → ∞ (2 n + 1) 2 n n Hence the series (i) is convergent for all x...... 2 2 4 3 6 8 5 Test whether the following series are absolutely convergent or conditionally convergent ? ∑ (i) (iii) ∑ 1 ∞ ( − 1)n −1 2n − 1 (− 1)n −1 n n2 + 1 (ii) 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 − 2 − 2 + 2 + 2 − 2 − 2 + .. i. Therefore the given series is absolutely convergent for all x. (p = 2 > 1 in the Harmonic Series).. Thus the given series converges absolutely. ∴ x+ un = x3 x5 x7 + + + ...Infinite Series 23 (ii) Lt un = 0. Text the convergence of the series 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 − + + − + + − + .. un+1 = ( 2n + 1) ! ( 2n − 1) ! un +1 x2 = Lt = 0 for all x. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 If S is the sum of the conditionally convergent series 3. then show that the rearranged series. Prove that the following series converges absolutely. Let Σun be an absolutely convergent series. so the given series is convergent. Result.(i) x 2 n +1 x 2 n −1 . Example 2... u1 + u2 + . Again.. .... + + 3! 5! 7! Consider the series by taking all the terms positive x– i.e. = n2 2 3 4 Which is a convergent series.. + | un | + .... Obviously.. consider the series with absolute terms 1 1 1 1 Σ | un | = 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + . Every absolutely convergent series is convergent but the converse is not true. ∑ x3 x5 x7 + .. ( − 1)n −1 .. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 ∑ (iv) – 1 + 1 1 1 − + – ...... n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 – − + − − + – .... Σun ≤ Σ | un | where Σ| un | is convergent.. + un + ≤ | u1 | + | u2 | + ... n→∞ Both the conditions of the Leibnitz’s test are satisfied....e. has the sum = S...... Lt PROBLEMS 1.. Hence Σun is also convergent...... 3! 5! 7! .

... + 2! n! un = xn x n+1 ..... Example 1.. Div. un+1 = (– 1)n+1 .. 2 3 4 IJ K FG H IJ = – x K VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 .. Example 2. + . 13 23 33 Converges absolutely. is convegent by Leibnitz’s test. the series 1 1 1 1 – + − + .... 3. an... + − ... + − 1 2 3 n x n+1 xn .11 POWER SERIES A series of the form a0 + a1x + a2 x2 + .. ∞ is convergent for all values of x. Show that the exponential series 1+x+ Here ∴ Lt x2 xn + ........ ANSWERS 1... These values form the interval of convergence.24 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics (v) 4. (i) Converges conditionally.. (vi) Absolute conv. where a0.... is convergent for – 1 < x ≤ 1. ∴ n x2 x3 n x + .... .... Also every power series is convergent for x = 0.. un = (– 1)n . (ii) Absolute conv. a1. + ( − 1)n + . (iii) Conditionally conv. 5... when x = 1.. ∑ n log 2 ∞ (− 1)n−1 2 n (vi) ∑ 1 ∞ ( − 1)n . Show that the logarithmic series x– Here. + an xn + .. (iv) Conditionally conv.. .... are all constants is called a power series in x which may converge for some or all values of x.. (v) Conditionally conv.. un+1 = ( n + 1) ! n! u n +1 x = Lt =0 n→∞ u n→∞ n n Hence by D’Alembert’s ratio test the series converges for all values of x. 23n 32 n Prove that the series sin x sin 2 x sin 3x − + – .... Show that the series 1 1 1 1 1 − + − + .... 1.. log 2 log 3 log 4 log 5 log n Converges conditionally...... n +1 n a f FG H n→∞ Lt 1 un +1 n = − x Lt = – x Lt n→∞ n + 1 n → ∞ 1 + 1/n un ∴ The series converges for | x | < 1 and divergent for | x | > 1.

. the series 1 1 1 1 + + + + . 3.. + n ! x n + ....... 10.... 2 2. x = Lt n +1 n→∞ n +1 n → ∞ ( n + 1) n→∞ u n! n = Lt n→∞ FG H IJ K n . x2 x 4 x6 + + + ..e. 2. sin x + 2 sin 3 9 3 x– 1+ x3 x5 – . 10.. x– x2 x3 x4 + − + . e PROBLEMS For what values of x are the following series convergent : 1... + 2n sin n + ...... 5..... x = 0 VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 .. 3..4 2.... (n − r + 1) r x + ..... + . 8.. 7. ∞ is divergent (comparing with Harmonic series) 2 3 4 Hence the series converges for – 1 < x ≤ 1... – 1 < x ≤ 1 6. 4..... ∞ 1 + nx + r! 2! x x2 xn x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 + ....... 4...... + 3 5 3 1 ( x − 3)2 1 ( x − 3)3 + .Infinite Series 25 When x = – 1. 1 ! ... – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 9....x 1 x n ..... + x + .. x − + + 3 2 3 33 32 9.. x + 2 ! x2 + 3 ! x3 + ... x= (1 + 1/n) e |x| For convergence by D’Alembert’s ratio test < 1 ⇒ | x | < e i... + − + − n+ n 1+ 1 2 + 2 2 3 4 5 x x x + 4 sin + ..... 2! 4! 6! 1 2 1... 3 4 1... 22 33 nn (n + 1) ! n+1 n! Here un = n xn. + + . 2. 6... – ∞ < x < ∞ 8.. un+1 = x ( n + 1) n +1 n u ( n + 1) ! n n n Lt n +1 = Lt . Example 3..... + n ! xn + . ∞ 2 3 4 n( n − 1) 2 n(n − 1) . – 1 < x < 1 5.6 ANSWERS 1.. –1<x≤1 –1≤x<1 0≤x<6 – 1 < x < 1.4..... – ∞ < x < ∞ 3. 5 6 x + 1+ x + x + ... – e < x < e.. For what values of x the following series is convergent ? x + 2 ! x 2 + 3 ! x 3 + ... 7.

Here and so. Then | Rn(x) | < ∈ for n > rn(x) | < ∈ for all n ≥ N and x ≥ a > 0. b). uniform convergence implies convergence for each point x in (a. If ΣMn is convergent. for ∈ > 0. there exists. ∞). Proof. such that for every x in the interval (a.. Weierstrass’s M-Test for Uniform Convergence A series Σun (x) is uniformly convergent in an internal (a..26 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics 1.. + Mn+p | < ∈ for all n ≥ N and p ≥ 1.. ∞) where a > 0.. we get | ≤| Mn+ 1 |+| Mn + 2 |+ . b)... Thus if we take N ≥ F 1 − 1I H∈ K a .. Σun(x) converges uniformly on (a. b)... b). x x x 1 + + . if for a given ∈ > 0.. ∴ For all x in (a. a > 0.. + =1– x + 1 ( x + 1) (2 x + 1) (( n − 1) x + 1) ( nx + 1) nx + 1 1 Rn(x) = – nx + 1 sn(x) = Let 0 < ∈ < 1..12 UNIFORM CONVERGENCE AND WEIERSTRASS’S M-TEST Let Let and ∑ u ( x ) be an infinite series of functions each of which is defined in the interval (a.. if there exists a convergent series ΣMn of non-negative terms such that | un(x) | ≤ Mn for all values of x in (a.. n 1 ∞ sn(x) = u1(x) + u2(x) + . Example 1...... x + 1 ( x + 1) (2 x + 1) (2 x + 1) (3 x + 1) Converges uniformly on [a.. there exists a number N which is independent of x. b) |un+ 1 ( x) + un+ 2 ( x) + . +| Mn+ p | ≤| Mn+ 1 + Mn+ 2 + .. b). VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 ... +|un+ p ( x)| F 1 − 1I H∈ K x .. N such that | Mn+1 + Mn+2 + . + un+ p ( x)| ≤|un+ 1 ( x)|+|un+ 2 ( x)| + . b).. b) but the converse may or may not hold... The series x x x + + + .. ∞) and so the given series converges uniformly on [a... + Mn+ p | < ∈ for n ≥ N and p ≥ 1 Hence........ | s(x) – sn(x) | < ∈ for all n > N By definition. Hence the same N serves for the convergence of the series for all x is [a. + un(x) = sum of first n terms s(x) = Lt sn ( x ) n→∞ The series Σun(x) is said to be uniformly convergent in the interval (a...

... n (2 a + a /n) 2 a − 1J = Lt = = 2 >1 n (1/n + a ) K a 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 n→∞ 2 2 2 2 x x x 1 + + . therefore the given series is not uniformly m 5 8 VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 . Therefore. f n +1 = 2 2 1+ n a 1 + ( n + 1) 2 a 2 ∴ Now.. 1] where 0 < a < 1. we shall apply Raabe’s test 1 + n2 a 2 a2 1/n 2 + a 2 fn +1 = Lt = Lt = 2 =1 2 2 2 2 2 n→∞ 1 + ( n + 1) a n→∞ f n→∞ 1/n + (1 + n/1) a a n D’Alembert’s ratio test fails ∴ n→∞ ∴ Σfn converges Therefore by Weierstrass’s M-Test.. 1] On the otherhand. 1]. 1]. 1]. 1 1 1 it gives < . Example 2. | un+1 (x) | + | un+2 (x) | + . Show that the series ∑ n =1 ∞ x 1 + n2 x2 Converges uniformly on [a.. | un ( x ) | = 1 x ≤ 1 + n2 x2 1 + n2 a 2 and now. then for ∈ = exists m. to test the convergence of Let Lt ∑ 1 1 + n 2 a2 fn = 1 1 .Infinite Series 27 Also from above. On [a. such that 1 > 0 there 8 Ff nG Hf Ff Lt n G Hf n n+1 n n +1 I F 1 + (n + 1) a − 1IJ = n FG 2na + a IJ − 1J = n .. b). let the given series uniformly convergent on [0. Σun(x) also converges absolutely on (a. + | un+p (x) | < ∈ for all n ≥ N and p ≥ 1 on (a.. 0 < a < 1 but not on [0.. b). a contradiction.. G K H 1+ n a K K H 1+ n a I n . 1]. the given series converges uniformly on [a. + < 2 2 2 2 2 2 1+ m x 1 + ( m + 1) x 1 + (2 m ) x 8 ∴ mx 1 < 1 + (2 m ) 2 x 2 8 (by taking n = m) On putting x = convergent on [0.

(i) (iii) ∑n n =1 ∞ 3 nx 2 on [0..x = Lt 3 ..28 Textbook of Engineering Mathematics Example 3. by Weierstrass’s M-Test.. there exists a N such that 4n x ≥ 0 for all n ≥ N. x has a maximum at x = n(1 + nx 2 ) converges uniformly in (0. = <1 1 4 n→∞ n→∞ un sin n 4 . + − 3! 5! 7! (vi) 1 – ANSWERS 2. VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 . for any real x. For any x > 0 in (a. 1 1 1 Also. ∞ 2 2 3 3 4 4 ∑ cos nx and 2n ∑ sin nx 2n ∑ x n(1 + nx 2 ) x2 x 4 x6 + .. sin n < n < n − N . ∞) if a > 0. ∞) 4n . ∞).. k > 0 (ii) – (vi) Uniform conv. Show that the series Σ3n sin 1 converges absolutely and uniformly on (a. on [0. k] for any k > 0 + x3 (ii) sin x – (iv) sin 2 x sin 3x sin 4 x + − + . Hence the series after a finite number of terms consists of positive terms. F 3I H 4K is convergent. Give the difference between sequence and series. (i) Uniform conv. + − 2! 4! 6! (v) x – x3 x 5 x 7 + . Give an example of a monotonically increasing sequence which is convergent. Test for uniform convergence of the series Show that 1 and hence or otherwise show that n ∑ n(1 + nx ) x 2 2. therefore. 4 x 4 x 4 sin 1 n +1 Since Lt n Thus. 3 sin 1 4n x n < 4N F 3I H 4K n for all n ≥ N Since Σ4N uniformly on (a. for n ≥ M. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.x The series converges absolutely on (a.. k]. Σ3n sin 1/4n x converges PROBLEMS 1. ∞). 2. x where a > 0. 3 un +1 4 . ∞) where a > 0.

. 4. (a) 0 2. . (a) Cauchy’s Root test is applied (c) Leibnitz’s test is applied 10.. – 1.666. the geometric series 1 + x + (d) Does not exist (d) Does not exist 6.. – 1 x2 + x3 (c) 1....... – 1 + . In the interval [– 1/2.6. Define uniform convergence of a series. 1.. 9. the least upper bound is 3 10 (c) 2/3 n–1 F H I K (d) 1/3 (d) – ∞ For the sequence 1. 1/2]. On Alternating series Σ(– 1)n–1 un. the greatest lower bound is (c) – 1 4.. What is meant by convergent of a series. S2 Diverges (a) S1 Converges. . 3 2 5 4 7 6 . For the sequence . S2 Converges 7.. State Weierstrass M-Test for Uniform Convergence of a series. . (b) 1 (b) 1 2 1 1 − n . – 1.. and S2 = um+1 + um+2 + . Under what condition..66. If m is a given positive integer. + um+1 + un+2 + .. .. 6. (a) 0. ∞. 5. ∞ (a) Converges (c) Absolutely converges VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 . State the properties of series. The series (a) p = 1 ∑n 1 p converges for (b) p ≤ 1 (c) p > 1 un +1 involves e then un (d) p ≥ 1 8. Define absolute and conditional convergence with examples. 8. (a) 0 3. (b) Diverges (d) Oscillates infinitely For x = – 1. 29 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. . then consider two series.Infinite Series 3. 7. the limit points are For the sequence {(– 1) The limit point of the sequence 0.. the geometric series 1 + x + x2 + x3 + . .. Logarithmic test is applied instead of Raabe’s test.. .. S2 Diverges (c) S1 Diverges. 1 (a) Converges (c) Oscillates finitely (b) 0. S1 = u1 + u2 + . . is 2 3 4 5 6 7 (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 n}. When D’ Alembert’s ratio test fails and (a) Raabe’s test is applied (c) Logarithmic test is applied (b) Cauchy’s Root test is applied (d) Integral test is applied (b) D’ Alembert’s ratio test is applied (d) Integral test is applied (b) Conditionally converges (d) Uniformly converges 9. S2 Converges (d) S1 Oscillates. .. (b) S1 Converges. 5. What is meant by Oscillatory sequence.. (– 1) .

4. 13. (c) 6. (c) (c) (c) (c) 2.. is convergent for (a) x = 0 (a) x < 0 (b) x = 1 (b) x > 1 (c) x < 1 (c) 0 < x < 1 (d) x ≥ 1 (d) – 1 < x < 1 The series 1 – x + x2 – x3 + . 9.. (c) 8.30 11. (b) 7. then the interval of convergence for the power series a0 + a1x + ... (c) 11. (c). (a) VED C-4\N-MATH\Ch1-2 . (c) 15. Textbook of Engineering Mathematics If Lt an +1 = l (finite). is 2 3 4 (a) Uniformly convergent (c) Conditionally convergent (b) Absolutely convergent (d) Divergent 15. The series 1 – 1 1 1 + − + .. is an n→∞ (a) 0 < x < l (c) – 12..... converges absolutely if 14. 13. (d) 14. (c) 3. ANSWERS 1.. + anxn + . (b) 0 < x < 1/l 1 1 <x< (d) – l < x < l l l Every power series of the form a0 + a1x + . (c) 12. 5. The series (a) x < 0 ∑ x is convergent if 2 n +1 (b) 0 < x < 1 (c) x ≤ 1 (d) x ≥ 1. (b) 10. + anxn + ...