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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS: DEFINITION AND ATTRIBUTION
Amarin Tawata Faculty of Management Science Silpakorn University, Petchburi IT Campus 1 Moo 3 Tambon Sampraya Ampur Cha-Am Petchburi 76120, Thailand Tel: 66-3259-4043-50 Ext. 1130 Fax: 66-3259-4027 E-mail: amarin@su.ac.th

ABSTRACT This paper describes definition and attribution of management information system. It clarifies points like data, information, process, information systems, management information systems, relationship MIS and computer systems and types of MIS. Management information systems (MIS) are applying computer-base for managing information in organizations for management roles such as interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles. MIS compound of theories of computer science and management science. These theories build systems and program utilization. Normally, MIS are integrated systems of users and machines (computers) with aiming to provide organizations’ information for operation, management and decision-making. The 5Cs are process to change data into information. They consist of capturing information, conveying, creating, cradling and communicating. The information must be accuracy and verification, completeness, timeliness and relevance. MIS can be divided by using of each organization level like operational – level systems, knowledge – level systems, management – level systems and strategic – level systems. Keywords: Management Information Systems, MIS Data and Information Data mean any facts of persons, objects and places that are collected from observations, questionnaires, and measurements. Data can be context and figures which are true. False context and figures are useless like trash that nobody needs it. If an organization applies false data, it may get a wrong way or it can not solve a problem. Sometimes, we call data as raw data because they’re unused or inappropriate for users. When data have been recorded, classified, and organized, related or interpreted within a framework so that meaning emerges, they become information. There are activities

it’s outputting data. In another example. Simplify. it’s inputting data at the original point. users can apply it. This processing is distributing information to other people or other location by using IT tools like a modem. 5. it concerns telecommunications technologies. We can select a appropriated computer program for process. They organize and manipulate data and information. Communicating. Selecting IT tools for storage depends on users’ need for updating and information size. 2.2 involved in turning data into information. on-working application software and operating system. For example. printer. Arrange And Calculate Feedback Output Process is procedures that convert data into required information. Figure 1 Data and Information ( Laudon and Laudon. Therefore. 1. It’s done by the central processing unit (CPU) executing software instruction and interact all the other hardware devices. The figure 1 illustrates the data and information. keyboard and bar code reader. Cradling. When we say communicating. This is the most important process in 5Cs. Simplify. Classify. an executive require total sales of each product in the last year as a chart. This processing is showing the most useful information by using IT tools like a screen. and these activities are known as process. Because he need summarized data for planning sales (It’s easier and quicker to understand the chart information than raw data of each product). a satellite and a digital pager. It’s permanently storing information which users can change or erase. The random-access memory (RAM) or an internal memory is temporary storage of on-working information. spreadsheet and database management system. Selecting IT tools for outputting depends on forms of users’ needs. Capturing. This processing is storing information for a later time by using IT tools like a hard disk. Creating. 4. speaker and monitor. There are many computer programs to process like word processing. The process tasks are 5 activities called 5Cs. 2004: 99) Process Data Information Input Processing. teachers are grading each student by using total scores. Selecting IT tools for inputting depends on capturing information and/or commands and its form. 3. This processing is originally obtaining information by using IT tools like a mouse. information means outputs of processed data. In briefly. This processing is creating new information by using IT tools like CPU and RAM. . CD-ROM and DVD. In technical. these procedures are fast done by a computer (both hardware and software). Conveying.

Completeness. Users have not to get overloaded information. Figure 2 A supply chain system (Schroeder. 2000:181) . tools.3 One of them is a computer network. peripheral devices and/or processing power. Accuracy and Verification. 1. a supply chain system has a purpose for delivering products to end customers. For example. The obtained information has to be related to users’ activities. the executive can quickly and precisely make decision or solve a problem. timeliness and relevance. It’s connecting at least two computers to communicate like sharing information. business competitions are not intensive. Particularly. When you get facts. 4. Information has to have references. an organization will get damage. If an organization quickly and precisely gets information. In the past. Timeliness. information is considered as valued property of an organization. users will get confident to use information. As a result. if they know the sources of information. 2. so they let users tracing. A system may consist of people. Relevance. he made decision. questionnaires and measurements. If information is wrong. Especially. equipments. the organization can stand in intensive competition. It can maintain organization competitiveness. 3. For example. The obtained information must come from facts by using procedures like observations. an executive requires information for making decision. Actually. supplies and methodologies for finishing the same purpose. executives need completed information for making decision. An executive could wait for getting enough information. The outdated data can take disadvantages of any business organizations. Nowadays. Therefore. software. Users have to receive completed information. completeness. The best information has to be always updated. The expectation may give false data. then. Information systems A system means a set of elements which are interactive by operating as a group to meet a purpose. The information’s attributes comprise of accuracy and verification. users can apply it for present situation. not outdated. it’s processed to be appropriating for implementation or users’ needs. business organizations need updated data for competition.

There are 5 management functions such as planning. As you see figure 1. presentation graphics. Nowadays. machines. organizing. Management tasks involve receiving and sending information to communicate to other people in an organization. allocation and negotiating to solve problems and adjust an organization following . computer software. This communication can make an organization meeting its goals and objectives. Management tasks involve interaction with people to lead. intangible things and people. opinions. In a supply chain system may comprise of materials. process and data or information. distributing and showing information following users requirements. Henri Fayol presented the classical model of management. warehouses. trucks. informational roles and decisional roles. Henry Mintzberg proposed 3 categories of management roles called the behavioral model. this model is unsatisfactory for indicating all management tasks. Decisional Roles. process and distribute data and information. software. workers. we can conclude that an information system means all components involving with getting information which is started from finding data. Henry Mintzberg concluded management roles to 3 categories consisting of interpersonal roles. They can effectively store. There are hardware. they involve computer hardware and software technology. retailers. controlling. motivate. It can be supported by information systems like electronic mail.4 SuppliersSuppliers Factories arehouseRetailers W Customers s Components of a system comprise of tangible things. Management tasks involve initiating planning. management. commanding. telecommunications. Now. All of these are working together to meet the same purpose. partnership and customers. information systems are computer-based. people. Management In 1916. So. Therefore. information is output of information systems. processing data. video teleconferencing and voice mail. method. It’s used for 3 management roles like interpersonal roles. As a result. However. inserting data. It can be supported by information systems like decision support systems and executive information system. counsel and support. informational roles and decisional roles. computers are tools for information systems. storing date. inventory. storing information. Therefore. an information system has 6 components. coordinating and controlling. From analyzing managers’ day-to-day behavior. Informational Roles. Interpersonal Roles.

operates flexible. MIS compound of theories of computer science and management science. organizations use information technologies (IT) to manage information. As results. Then. and sending/receiving information. As well as. Furthermore. there will be sending. users can quickly and easily adopt information. They are both hardware and software such as computers. receiving and analyzing information. Therefore. informational roles and decisional roles. It can add value to organizations. As a result. MIS are used to collect and cumulate data from several sources both internal and external organization for processing and arranging information. organizations realize that information is important as a property. management and decision-making. They facilitate organizations’ divisions with collecting. processing. These systems use computer hardware and software. executives or users can apply it for making decision and other management. accuracy and fast. Information technologies are applying science that is used for managing information. Each organization must manage information by systematically collecting. Particularly. Management information systems (MIS) are applying computer-base for managing information in an organization for management roles such as interpersonal roles. We can say an organization gets efficiency and effective. It can be supported by information systems like decision support systems and executive information system. monitors. These functions are used from an executive to an operational worker. application software. Management Information Systems (MIS) At the present. particularly computer-base. cables. information must be a system to implementation for adding value of organizations. Relationship of computer systems and MIS Computer systems are components of MIS. systemize information in organizations. Due to a lot of information in organizations. operating systems. Information systems are created for 3 categories of management roles called management information systems (MIS). Information technologies can process data to be required information and sending/receiving information. it helps organizations to survive among intensive competition. Normally. organizations need information for management. showing. They involve the whole information systems of organizations. an organization sizes down. signal and so on. magnetic taps. MIS support many tasks in organizations. Information technologies. computer systems are main systems of MIS.5 fluctuated environment. These theories build system and program utilization. CDs. Therefore. MIS are integrated systems of users and machines (computers) with aiming to provide organizations’ information for operation. Therefore. Nowadays. those tasks get more effective and efficiency. .

Operational – Level Systems. 3. 3. DSS help managers for making decision. so they’re large and complicated. Office systems perform document and communication. They process data from MSS and DSS. TPS are computerized systems that make performing tasks easier. These systems provide information for management functions like planning. knowledge worker can use it. MIS support executives making decision. This level consists of management support systems (MSS) (many text book use MIS meaning MSS. 2. Following these samples knowledge work systems (KWS) and office systems. They summarize and analyze information. setting and adjusting strategies and operational plans. controlling and decision making. there is transaction processing systems (TPS). . Strategic – Level Systems. Particularly. executives can easily apply it. labor and expenses reducing in long run. It’s adopted to monitor an operation. KWS and office systems process data from TPS. Executives need internal and external data for planning strategy. MSS process data from TPS. engineers and clerks (they hold university degree.) and decision support systems (DSS).6 Sub systems of MIS MIS are integrated systems. 4. there are divided MIS into 4 sub systems by purpose of use in each organization level. 1. there are MIS support each level. KWS tasks are creating properly new information and knowledge by process. MIS reduce organizations’ cost because of time. knowledge work systems and office system. Then. Knowledge – Level Systems.). 2. Management – Level Systems. knowledge. MIS advantages to an organization We can summarize MIS advantages of an organization following these. 4. management and strategy. To understand. So. Users can quickly and timely access information since information is systematically stored by using computer systems and computer networks. These systems are used by knowledge workers such as scientists. management support system. ESS response executives’ queries. They involve processing routine operation in organizations for decision support systems. They include models to evaluate situation and give possible choices. executive information systems are created for them. Good MIS will show how an operation accords to an organization goal. then managers can use it. The organization levels comprises of operation. In this level. 1. They process data from TPS and MSS. So.

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