Drinking Water Treatment

Water Treatment Chemistry

Overview

1

Treatment for Potable Water

2

I. Surface Water Treatment

Primary objectives are to


Remove suspended material (turbidity) and color Eliminate pathogenic organisms

Treatment technologies largely based on coagulation and flocculation

3

Surface Water Treatment
Coagulants Addition

Surface water from supply

Sedimentatio n basin

Rapid Sand Filter Disinfection

Rapid Flocculation Mix Basin

Sludge

Storage

To Distribution System
4

Surface Water Treatment  Removal of turbidity    rapid mix tank flocculation tanks settling (sedimentation) tanks 5 .

Coagulation and flocculation  Coagulation involves the reduction of electrostatic repulsion such that colloidal particles of identical materials may aggregate. They are small in size and very stable in water. Why: Colloidal particles are prevented from aggregating by electrostatic repulsion of the electrical double layers.Major Processes 1. How: By the addition of coagulants followed by flocculation 6   .

Colloids    Small particles (0.001 to 1 m) Usually negatively charged Particles repel so suspension is considered stable 7 .

100 m) 8 .Coagulation and Flocculation +  Coagulation (process) + Colloidal particles (0.001 .1 m) + + + + + + ++ + + + + + ++ + + ++ + + + + ++ + + + + + + + + + + + floc (1 .

They are small in size and very stable in water. Why: Colloidal particles are prevented from aggregating by electrostatic repulsion of the electrical double layers. How: By the addition of coagulants followed by flocculation   9 .Coagulation for the Removal of Fine Solids:  Coagulation involves the reduction of electrostatic repulsion such that colloidal particles of identical materials may aggregate.

Coagulation is: Addition and rapid mixing of a coagulant with the water to:     neutralize surface charges collapse the surface layer around the particles allow the particles to come together and agglomerate allow formation of floc that can readily settle 10 .

Flocculation & Sedimentation Coagulant Raw wastewater Rapid mix tank Mixer Flocculator Sedimentation Clarified tank wastewater Flocculation tank Sludge 11 .Mixing.

This will carry suspended solids as it settles by gravity. will be hydrolyzed to form gelatinous hydroxide [Al(OH)3] precipitate. proteinaceous materials. when added to water.Common Coagulants    Alum  Hydrated aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3·18H2O]  Alum. Anhydrous Fe3+  Forms Fe(OH)3(s) in a wide range of pH 4-11 Anhydrous Fe2+ (FeSO4·7H2O) 3+ first at pH higher than 8. cellulose derivatives.5  Must be oxidized to Fe Coagulant Aids (Polyelectrolytes)  Natural: Starch. and gums composed of polysaccharides  Synthetic polymers 12 .

do not want high concentrations of metals left in treated water  Trivalent cations are most effective Concentration 13 . Coagulants  Non-toxic and relatively inexpensive Insoluble in neutral pH range .

5 to 6.How does alum work?     Al2(SO4)314H2O  2Al3++ 3SO42-+ 14H2O 2Al3+ + colloids  neutralize surface charge 2Al3+ + 6HCO3. 2Al(OH)3(s) + 6CO2 If insufficient bicarbonate is available: Al2(SO4)314H2O  2Al(OH)3(s) + 3H2SO4 -+ 14H2O   Optimum pH: 5.5 Operating pH: 5 to 8 14 .

Rapid Mixing 15 .

Flocculation     Physical process by which molecules of coagulant and colloidal particles are brought together Formation of aggregates that settle Can occur during settling May be “helped” by coagulants 16 .

5 ft/sec Detention time of at least 20 min 17 . usually <1 rpm Velocity of water: 0.5 .Flocculation    Paddle units rotate slowly.1.

Flocculation 18 .

The slow mixing is one of the fundamentals necessary to promote collisions between particles to form flocs. 19 .Flocculation is the process that leads to the formation of large voluminous flocs. which are loosely held aggregates of coagulated particles and solids.

Determining Coagulant Dose 20 .

Jar Test Example and Calculations for Mixing & Flocculation  See Text-book (Davis & Cornwell) 21 .

22 .  Clarified water drains out of the top of these tanks in a giant decanting process.2. Sedimentation:  Flocs settle out and is scraped and vacuumed off the bed of large sedimentation tanks.

Filtration      Removal of those particles that are too small to be effectively removed during sedimentation Sedimentation effluent: 1 .3.10 JTU Desired effluent level: <0.3 JTU Slow sand filters Rapid sand filters 23 .

15-0. But they need frequent back-washing  Slow-sand filters (dp=0.451 m layer of sand (dp=0. needing a smaller area.2mm) and work faster.35mm) require a much larger area but reduce bacteriological and viral levels to a greater degree. The top 1 inch must be periodically scraped off and the filter occasionally back-washed 24 .4-1.  Rapid-sand filters force water through a 0.Either slow or rapid filtration (depends on size of plant / volume of water considerations).

American Water Works Association.5M-73026-11/92-MG 25 .Slow Sand Filtration Source: Back to Basics Guide to Surface Water Treatment. 1P-2.

Rapid Sand Filtration 26 .

sand and garnet 27 .Rapid Sand Filtration    Single media: sand Dual media: anthracite coal and sand Multimedia: anthracite coal.

filter becomes clogged . turbidity increases Must backwash (takes about 10-15 min) done about once per day Must design to handle flow with one filter out of service 28 .headloss increases.Rapid Sand Filtration    As particles are removed .

Chlorine can form harmful byproducts and has suspected links to stomach cancer and miscarriages.water completely free of suspended sediment is treated with a powerful oxidizing agent usually chlorine.4. chlorine then ammonia (chloramine).    A residual disinfectant is left in the water to prevent reinfection. Many agencies now residually disinfect with Chloramine. Disinfection . 29 . or ozone.

chlorine also has the following functions:     taste and odor control as an oxidizing agent oxidation of Fe2+ and Mn2+ in groundwater ammonium removal in domestic waste treatment slime.Disinfection:  Disinfection is typically the last step in a water / wastewater treatment system   Residual chlorine is needed in distribution system after water / wastewater treatment In addition to disinfection. biofouling control 30 .

Disinfectants      Gaseous Cl2  Most commonly used  Advantage: provide residual chlorine for the protection from bacterial growth in distribution system  Disadvantage: The formation of disinfection byproducts (trihalomethanes) presents a health risk Chlorine dioxide (ClO2):  No disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes Ca(ClO)2:  Safer than Cl2 Ozone: generated on site UV lamps 31 .

+ HOCl -4 +  HOCl is a weak acid with Ka = 4. NCl3  Chloramines (combined available chlorine) are weaker disinfectants than free available chlorine but are desired residual chlorine to be retained in water distribution system Excessive amount of ammonium (NH4+) in water is undesirable because it consume excess demand of Cl2 32 .5x10 (HOCl == H + OCl-)  HOCl and OCl.Chemistry of Chlorine in Water    Cl2 + H2O  H+ + Cl. NHCl2.are free available chlorine which are very effective in killing bacteria Small amount of ammonium (NH4+) in water is desired  Chloramine: NH2Cl.

Chlorination 33 .

Chlorine Demand or Breakpoint Chlorination Chlorine removal by reducing compounds Chloroorganic and chloramine destruction Formation of free chlorine Chlorine residual Chloroorganic and chloramine formation Free Residual Breakpoint Combined Residual Chlorine added .

II. Eliminate pathogenic organisms  Treatment technologies largely based on chemical precipitation 35 . Remove hardness and other minerals 2. Groundwater Treatment  Primary objectives are to 1.

Major ion concentrations .3 ~0.8 13 ~1.4 anions + ~28.7 Total = ~91.1 ClSiO2 NO3- 7.4 11.0 4.4 cations = ~ 120 mg/L (TDS) 36 .freshwater Anions mg/L Cations mg/L HCO3SO4-2 58.0 Na+ K+ Fe+3 6.2 Ca+2 Mg+2 15.3 2.

Groundwater Treatment Addition of Softening Chemicals Ground water from wells Sedimentatio n basin Recarbonation Rapid Flocculation Mix Basin Disinfection Storage CO2 Sludge To Distribution System 37 .

Cl . SiO3 38 . Sr2+. Mg2+)    Hardness is an important water quality parameter in determining the suitability of water for domestic and industrial uses  Hard waters require considerable amounts of soap to produce foam  Hard waters produce scale in hot-water pipers.Water Softening (Removal of Hardness (Ca2+. Mg2+. CaCO3 (s) + CO2 (g) + H2O Groundwater is generally harder than surface water Principal cations causing hardness and the major anions associated with them (in decreasing order of abundance in natural waters)  Cations: Ca2+. NO3 . heaters and boilers Ca2+ + 2HCO3. SO4 . Fe2+. Mn2+ 22 Anions: HCO3 .

 CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Ca2+ + 2HCO3. Cl. eliminated at elevated temperatures in boilers    Ca2+ + 2HCO3. 39 . can not be removed or precipitated by boiling.Carbonate and Noncarbonate Hardness  Total hardness = Carbonate hardness + Noncarbonate hardness Carbonate hardness = temporary hardness.and NO3-. Noncarbonate hardness cations are associated with SO42-.+ Ca(OH)2  2CaCO3 + 2H2O  Noncarbonate hardness = permanent hardness.

Example: Hardness Calculation  Calculate the hardness of a water sample with the following analysis: Cations Na+ Ca2+ Mg2+ Sr2+ mg/L 20 15 10 2 Anions ClSO42NO3Alkalinity mg/L 40 16 1 50 40 .

Mg(OH)2 (s)   lime-only process: when Ca2+ is present primarily as “bicarbonate hardness” lime-soda [Ca(OH)2-Na2CO3] process: when bicarbonate is not present at substantial level 41 . Mg2+  CaCO3 (s).Water Softening Methods    Ion exchange Reverse osmosis Chemical precipitation (most commonly used): Ca2+.

Lime-Soda [Ca(OH)2-Na2CO3] Process  Lime to remove Ca2+ in the form of carbonate: Ca(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2  2CaCO3 + 2H2O  Lime to remove Mg2+ in the form of carbonate: Mg(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2  MgCO3 + CaCO3 + 2H2O  Additional lime must be added to remove MgCO3 MgCO3 + Ca(OH)2  CaCO3 + Mg(OH)2 42 .

Lime-Soda [Ca(OH)2-Na2CO3] Process (con’d)  Mg2+ hardness in the form of a sulfate requires both lime and soda ash: MgSO4 + Ca(OH)2  CaSO4 + Mg(OH)2 CaSO4 + Na2CO3  CaCO3 + Na2SO4  CO2 in the water will also consume lime: CO2 + Ca(OH)2  CaCO3  + H2O 43 .

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