Unit Second

Surface Finishing
Prof. Shashank S. Bhamble Mechanical Engineering Department

Shri Sant Gajanan Maharaj College of Engineering, Shegaon

In most cases. The accuracy becomes even worse as the grind wheel wears. the accuracy of the finished workpiece geometry is limited to the accuracy of the truing dresser.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques HONING (METALWORKING) Honing is a manufacturing process that produces a precision surface on a workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. This averaging effect occurs in all honing processes. they also differ in the stiffness of their construction. The limitation on geometric accuracy is overcome in honing because the honing stone follows a complex path. The purpose of grinding is to achieve a tight size tolerance. Due to the oscillation. it is better to think of it as a self-truing grinding process. Smaller grain sizes produce a smoother surface on the workpiece. which in the case of bore honing is a cylinder. both the workpiece and stones erode until they conform to the average shape of the stones' cutting surface. Therefore. As a result of the averaging effect. but honing stones are usually more friable so that they conform to the shape of the workpiece as they wear in. Generally. wax is usually preferred for environmental reasons. In grinding. material is cut away from the workpiece using abrasive grains. Instead. but may also improve surface texture. any inaccuracies in the geometric shape of the grinding wheel will be transferred onto the part. and then moves back out. CBN or diamond. the stone moves along two paths simultaneously. corundum or silicon carbide are acceptable. Honing machines are much more compliant than grinders. the accuracy of a honed component often exceeds the accuracy of the machine tool that created it. honing grains are irregularly shaped and about 10 to 50 micrometers in diameter (300 to 1. but the most commonly used are corundum. In the case of honing. The choice of abrasive material is usually driven by the characteristics of the workpiece material. Honing stones Honing is classified as an abrasive machining manufacturing process. The stones are pressed radially outward to enlarge the hole while they simultaneously oscillate axially. but extremely hard workpiece materials must be honed using superabrasives. there is no need to true them. Since each slice of the wheel repeatedly contacts the same slice of the workpiece.500 mesh grit). the wheel moves in towards the axis of the part.[1] Any abrasive material may be used to create a honing stone. Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface. it is tempting to think of honing as a form of low-stock removal grinding. silicon carbide. To counteract their friability. the grains are bound together with an adhesive to form a honing stone (or hone). To do this. each slice of the honing stones touch a large area of the workpiece. For example. the grinding wheel Page | 1 . grinds it. the wheel follows a simple path. A honing stone is similar to a grinding wheel in many ways. Process mechanics Since honing stones look similar to grinding wheels. so truing must occur periodically to reshape it. in plunge grinding a shaft. As with all abrasive machining processes. Therefore. Since the honing stones tend to erode towards a desired geometric shape. imperfections in the honing stone's profile cannot transfer to the bore. The path of the stone is not the only difference between grinding and honing machines. Instead both the bore and the honing stones conform to the average shape of the honing stones' motion. honing stones may be treated with wax or sulfur to improve life. In bore honing for example.

while in honing the stone is actuated with pneumatic or hydraulic pressure. Superfinishing has lower material removal rate. Therefore a grinding machine must be very stiff and its axes must move with very high precision. Instead of relying on the accuracy of the machine tool. Page | 2 . It is typically the last manufacturing operation before the part is shipped to a customer.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques must be moved to an exact position relative to the workpiece. Honing configurations Track/Raceway honing Spherical honing OD through-feed honing (taper and straight) Flat honing Bore honing Comparisons to grinding Superfinishing is more expensive than grinding. Economics Since honing is a high precision process. Some grinders have complex movements and are self-truing. Grinding determines the size. A superfinishing machine must move the stone in a compound or orbital motion relative to the part surface. the contact area between the abrasive and workpiece are larger than in grinding. This leads to an obvious difference between the two machines: in a grinder the stone is rigidly attached to a slide. and honing improves the shape. and some honing machines are equipped with in-process gaging for size control. Therefore it is only used in components that demand the highest level of precision. the last of which is usually grinding. In fact. flatness. Superfinishing has lower cutting efficiency because of smaller chips. The primary purpose of polishing is to improve surface finish without concern for form. The improved shape after honing may result in a quieter running or higher precision component.[3] Unlike polishing. Superfinishing stones don't need to be dressed. A honing machine. The dimensional size of the object is established by preceding operations. Performance advantages of honed surfaces Since honing is a relatively expensive manufacturing process. it relies on the averaging effect between the stone and the workpiece. cylindricity. ironically. it is also relatively expensive. compliance is a requirement of a honing machine that is necessary for the averaging effect to occur. or sphericity. it can only be economically justified for applications that require very good form accuracy. High-precision workpieces are usually ground and then honed. In honing. Superfinishing stones are softer and wear more quickly. superfinishing can improve the geometric form of an object. Then the part is honed to improve a form characteristic such as roundness. Many through-feed grinding operations rely on the same averaging effect as honing. is relatively inaccurate and compliant. The difference between honing and grinding is not always distinct.

The lap is then used to cut a harder material—the workpiece. the rings stay in one location as the lapping plate rotates beneath them. usually in a "figure-eight" pattern. That particular plate is made of cast iron. Taken to the ultimate limit. silicon carbide. although it is similar). For a commercial machine that is about the smallest size available. This is one twentieth of the wavelength of light from the commonly used 632. a piece of lead may be used as the lap. In use.8 nm helium neon laser light source. In this machine. this pump feeds abrasive slurry onto the rotating lapping plate. lensmakers can produce surfaces that are flat to better than 30 nanometers. The weights can also be seen in the picture along with two fiber spacer disks that are just used to even the load. which is "charged" with the abrasive. The jig sits in a cradle on top of the lapping plate and the dial on the front of the jig indicates the amount of material removed from the specimen. emery. in between them. In operation. and used to cut a piece of hardened steel. The lap or lapping plate in this machine is 30 cm (12") in diameter. A jig allows precise control of the orientation of the specimen to the lapping plate and fine adjustment of the load applied to the specimen during the material removal process. or a polishing cloth or polishing pitch upon glass or steel. a lapping jig can be used to hold the material while it is lapped (see Image 3. typically involves rubbing a brittle material such as glass against a surface such as iron or glass itself (also known as the "lap" or grinding tool) with an abrasive such as aluminum oxide. Taken to the finer limit. This can take two forms. (This is not the same as the wringing effect of Johansson blocks. The small plate shown in the first picture is that of a hand lapping plate. The abrasive embeds within the softer material which holds it and permits it to score across and cut the harder material. The second picture is that of a commercially available lapping machine which is needed for this process. Page | 3 . Referring to the second picture again. On top of the lap are two rings. The first type of lapping (traditionally called grinding). The other form of lapping involves a softer material for the lap. the lap is the large circular disk on the top of the machine. machines with eight to ten foot diameter plates are not uncommon and systems with tables 30 feet in diameter have been constructed. a slurry of emery powder would be spread on the plate and the workpiece simply rubbed against the plate. lapping machine and jig).. etc. At the other end of the size spectrum. diamond. The workpiece would be placed inside one of these rings. in which two surfaces are rubbed together with an abrasive between them. traditional loads and weights are too heavy as they would destroy delicate materials. Due to the dimensions of such small samples. Operation By way of example. a small slurry pump can be seen at the side. Surfaces this flat can be molecularly bonded (optically contacted) by bringing them together under the right conditions.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques LAPPING Lapping is a machining operation. by hand movement or by way of a machine. with the aid of accurate interferometry and specialized polishing machines or skilled hand polishing. charged with emery. A weight would then be placed on top of the workpiece. this will produce a polished surface such as with a polishing cloth on an automobile. This produces microscopic conchoidal fractures as the abrasive rolls about between the two surfaces and removes material from both. When there is a requirement to lap very small specimens (from 3" down to a few millimetres).

just placing the part on the surface plate and using a dial indicator to find TIR on the opposite side Page | 4 .can be made to stick together in this manner.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Two-piece lapping Where the mating of the two surfaces is more important than the flatness. the two pieces can be lapped together. it is also used to obtain very accurate surfaces. Schematic of two-piece lapping One complication in two-piece lapping is the need to ensure that neither piece flexes or is deformed during the process. without resort to special equipment accuracies of 1 to 3 HLB are typical. without quite the same degree of testing required for the latter. and the edges of the opposite piece are heavily abraded by the same action . Though flatness is the most common goal of lapping. one HLB measuring about 0.the lapping procedure assumes roughly equal pressure distribution across the whole surface at all times. The name "Jo-blocking" comes from the fact that gage blocks .000011 inches (280 nm). As a side note: Two parts that are lapped to a flatness of about 1HLB will exhibit "Wringing-in" or "Jo Blocking": a phenomenon where the two parts will cling to each other when placed in contact. As the pieces are moved past each other. the process is also used to obtain other configurations such as a concave or convex surface.sometimes called "Johansson blocks" after the manufacturer . Note that you must setup the part on three stands and find the minimum variation while adjusting them. and fails in this manner if the workpiece itself deforms under that pressure. usually very flat surfaces. Unfortunately. with a surface roughness determined by the variation in the abrasive size. resulting in two surfaces evolving towards some common shape (not necessarily perfectly flat). This yields closeness-of-fit results comparable to that of two accurately-flat pieces. part of each (some area near the edge) will be unsupported for some fraction of the rubbing movement. A typical range of surface roughness that can be obtained without resort to special equipment would fall in the range of 1 to 30 Ra (average roughness in micrometers or microinches). Again. Surface accuracy or flatness is usually measured in Helium Light Bands. the edges of the opposite piece will tend to dig depressions into it a short distance in from the edge. Measurement Of flatness The easiest method for measuring flatness is with a height gage positioned on a surface plate. Accuracy and surface roughness Lapping can be used to obtain a specific surface roughness. they are concepts that are often confused by the novice. Surface roughness and surface flatness are two quite different concepts. The principle is that the protrusions on one surface will both abrade and be abraded by the protrusions on the other. separated by a distance determined by the average size of the abrasive particles. If one piece flexes due to this lack of support.

kerosene is a common lubricant. which Page | 5 . Process After a metal piece is ground to an initial finish. The superfinishing process was developed by the Chrysler Corporation in 1934. The optical flat – which is a piece of transparent glass that has itself been lapped and polished on one or both sides – is placed on the lapped surface. and to carry away the swarf. A surface that exhibits an Ra of 8 consists of peaks and valleys that average no more than 8 microinches over a given distance. The picture to the right shows a typical monochromatic light unit used in workshops and laboratories. Each fringe – or band – represents a change of one half wavelength in the width of the gap between the glass and the workpiece. The geometry of the abrasive depends on the geometry of the workpiece surface. creates a cross-hatch pattern on the workpiece. Superfinishing. But neither of these methods can measure flatness more accurately than about 0.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques of the part measures parallelism. this layer is usually about 1 μm in magnitude. The abrasive cuts the surface of the workpiece in three phases. also known as micromachining and short-stroke honing. an instrument that measures the minute variations in height of the surface of a workpiece. or quantified by the largest difference from peak-to-valley (Rz). Calibration samples are available usually sold in a set and usually covering the typical range of machining operations from about 125 Ra to 1 Ra. it is superfinished with a finer grit solid abrasive. Of roughness Surface roughness is defined by the minute variations in height of the surface of a given material or workpiece. A lubricant is used to minimize heat production. The light will pass through the glass and reflect off the workpiece. In the past the light source would have been provided by a Helium lamp or tube. The monochromatic light is then shone down through the glass. The abrasive is oscillated or rotated while the workpiece is rotated in the opposite direction. SUPERFINISHING Superfinishing. a stone (rectangular shape) is for cylindrical surfaces and cups and wheels are used for flat and spherical surfaces. unlike polishing which produces a mirror finish. Flatness is more easily measured with a co-ordinate measuring machine. Roughness is usually expressed in microinches. is a metalworking process that improves surface finish and workpiece geometry.[1] A monochromatic light source and an optical flat are all that are needed. but nowadays a more common source of monochromatic light is the low pressure sodium lamp. The first phase is when the abrasive first contacts the workpiece surface the dull grains of the abrasive fracture and fall away. The individual variances of the peaks and valleys are averaged (Ra reading). which can alter the metallurgical properties. The light bands display a contour map of the surface of the workpiece and can be readily interpreted for flatness. This is achieved by removing just the thin amorphous surface layer left by the last process with an abrasive stone. Another method that is commonly used with lapped parts is the reflection and interference of monochromatic light. these motions are what causes the cross-hatching.0001" (2. Surface roughness is measured with a profilometer.5μm). As the light reflects in the gap between the workpiece and the polished surface of the glass. the light will interfere with itself creating light and dark fringes. Roughness may be also measured by comparing the surface of the workpiece to a known sample.

The main disadvantage is that superfinishing requires grinding or a hard turning operation beforehand. and needles. with 6 to 14 m/min preferred. but can be as high as 2. Abrasives Common abrasives used for superfinishing include: aluminium oxide. Page | 6 . shock absorber rods. Advantages & disadvantages Advantages of superfinishing include: increasing part life.910 psi). Four to eight progressively finer abrasive stones are used to superfinish the workpiece.3 MPa (1.06 MPa (299 psi).[3] Superfinishing can give a surface finish of 0. silicon carbide. Note that graphite may be mixed with other abrasives to add lubricity and to enhance the appearance of the finish. Wheels Abrasive cups or wheels are used to superfinish flat and spherical surfaces. The average rotational speed of abrasive wheel and/or workpiece is 1 to 15 surface m/min. The pressure applied to the abrasive is very light.07 MPa (3 to 10 psi). In the second phase the abrasive "self dresses". but if the wheel is tilted slightly a convex or concave surfaces will form. which improves the surface geometry. cubic boron nitride (CBN). Aluminium oxide is used for "roughing" operations.7 to 137. The stones contact the workpiece at a 90° angle and are oscillated axially. usually 5–8 μm.01 μm. The workpiece is rotated between two drive rollers. Plunge This type is used to finish irregularly shaped surfaces. usually between 0.20 in). When a stone is used it is oscillated at 200 to 1000 cycles with an amplitude of 1 to 5 mm (0. decreasing wear. Examples of parts that would be produced by process include tapered rolls. this is much slower compared to grinding speeds around 1800 to 3500 m/min. which also move the machine as well.039 to 0. where a most of the stock is removed. which creates the cross-hatching. and diamond. the abrasive grains dull. closer tolerances. higher load bearing surfaces. shafts. so it is used for "finishing" operations. If the two are parallel then the result if a flat finish. Finally. Honing is usually 3. The wheel and workpiece are rotated in opposite directions. better sealing capabilities. Types There are three types superfinishing: Through-feed.4 to 6.02 to 0. but find use with specialized materials. This adds cost to the finished product. such as ceramics and M50. and wheels.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques produces a sharp new cutting surface.000 psi) and grinding is between 13. piston pins. Through-feed This type of superfinishing is used for cylindrical workpieces. The workpiece is rotated while the abrasive plunges onto the desired surface.990 to 19. Abrasive grains must be very fine to be used with superfinishing. plunge. and elimination of a break in period.9 MPa (490 to 1. Silicone carbide is harder than aluminium oxide. CBN and diamond are not as commonly used.

Burnishing does not protect the wood like a varnish does. after being struck a blow from an equally hard. but you do not have to wait for a burnished piece of wood to dry as you would if you had varnished it. bearing races.e. or heavy object. This technique can be applied to concrete masonry.3 million holes drilled in it. but cross ways will still work. Burr formation in machining accounts for a significant portion of machining costs for manufacturers throughout the world.[citation needed] most of which have to be deburred to some extent. For example if the teeth in a gear are superfinished they will last up to four times as long. Burr (edge) A burr is a raised edge or small pieces of material remaining attached to a workpiece after a modification process. needle rollers. the cost and time needed to perform these drilling and deburring operations is significant. i. smooth stones. Drilling burrs. and durability. engraving or turning. Burnishing can also apply to relief printing. the more important one should be rubbed down its grain. BURNISH Burnishing is a form of pottery treatment in which the surface of the pot is polished. or even glass bulbs. Hard woods are best to use with this. drilling.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Applications Common applications include: steering rack components. With higher and higher demands placed on accuracy and precision. are common when drilling almost any material. so choose carefully and perform a test rub first. Often the whole outer surface of the pot is thus decorated. The Boeing 747 airplane has approximately 1. Page | 7 . burr formation is of critical importance because it can affect engine performance. hydraulic cylinder rods. transmission components. for example. Burnishing can also be applied to wood. camshaft lobes.[1] It is usually an unwanted piece of material and when removed the process is called deburring. In addition to drilling. milling. As one could imagine. plastic. fuel injector components. reliability. in the case of open bowls. One good example of unwanted burrs is in the automotive industry where cylinder blocks. After firing. pistons and other engine components are cast then milled to a specific dimension. while it still is in a leathery 'green' state. milling is also a source of burr formation in machining. the inside. creating a polished finish. It has been proven that superfinishing certain parts makes them more durable. using a hard smooth surface such as a wooden or bone spatula. but in certain ceramic traditions there is 'pattern burnishing' where the outside and. It may be present in the form of a fine wire on the edge of a freshly sharpened tool or as a raised portion on a surface. or is colored in some way. and shortly a glossy sheen will come up and the wood will become slick. and sharpening stones and wheels. Rub them along one another. it may rub off onto the other wood. before firing. If one wood has a dye in it. are decorated with burnished patterns in which some areas are left matte. such as grinding. the surface is extremely shiny. Burrs are most commonly created after machining operations.

Finishing processes may be employed to: improve appearance. adhesion or wettability. Adding and altering Blanching Case hardening Ceramic glaze Cladding Corona treatment Diffusion processes: o Carburizing o Nitriding Galvanizing Gilding Glazing Knurling Painting Passivation/Conversion coating o Anodizing o Bluing o Chromate conversion coating o Phosphate conversion coating  Parkerizing o Plasma electrolytic oxidation Plasma spraying Powder coating Thin-film deposition Page | 8 .Advanced Manufacturing Techniques In the printmaking technique of drypoint. SURFACE FINISHING Surface finishing is a broad range of industrial processes that alter the surface of a manufactured item for achieve a certain property. remove burrs and other surface flaws. Types There are three type of burrs that can be formed from machining operations: Poisson burr. rollover burr. tarnish resistance. corrosion resistance. which gives a rich fuzzy quality to the engraved line. modify electrical conductivity. and breakout burr. Surface finishing processes can be categorized by how they affect the workpiece: Removing or reshaping finishing Adding or altering finishing Mechanical processes may also be categorized together because of similarities the final surface finish. burr. wear resistance.the great problem with the drypoint medium is that the burr rapidly diminishes after as few as ten impressions are printed. In limited cases some of these techniques can be used to restore original dimensions to salvage or repair an item. is highly desirable . chemical resistance. hardness. The rollover burr is the most common. and control the surface friction. solderability.

#3 Finish Page | 9 . Mechanical finish designations For stainless steel finish designations.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) Electroplating Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) Mechanical plating Sputter deposition Physical vapor deposition (PVD) Vacuum plating Vitreous enamel o o o o o o o Removing and reshaping Abrasive blasting o Sandblasting Burnishing Chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) Electropolishing Flame polishing Gas cluster ion beam Grinding Linishing Mass finishing processes o Tumble finishing o Vibratory finishing Pickling Polishing o Buffing Peening o Shot peening Superfinishing Mechanical finishing Mechanical finishing processes include: Abrasive blasting o Sandblasting Burnishing Grinding Mass finishing processes o Tumble finishing o Vibratory finishing Polishing o Buffing The use of abrasives in metal polishing results in what is considered a "mechanical finish". see Brushed metal.

It is coarse in appearance and applied by using 36–100 grit abrasive. if not impossible. A #4 dairy or sanitary finish is produced by polishing with a 180–240 grit belt or wheel finish softened with 120– 240 grit greaseless compound or a fine non woven abrasive belt or pad. #8 Finish Also known as a mirror finish. Great care should be taken in removing the surface defects in the metal. like pits. A #7 finish can be made bright by color buffing with coloring compound and a cotton buff. Polishing lines should be soft and less reflective than a #4 architectural finish. This finish is produced by polishing with at least a 320 grit belt or wheel finish. This finish is produced by polishing with a 220–280 grit belt or wheel softened with a 220–230 greaseless compound or very fine non woven abrasive belt or pad. This is a semi-bright finish that will still have some polishing lines but they should be very dull. #4 Architectural finish Also known as brushed. roughing or rough grinding.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Also known as grinding. A #4 architectural finish is characterized by fine polishing grit lines that are uniform and directional in appearance. This is a good way to keep polishing costs down when a part needs to be shiny but not flawless. Some alloys of steel and aluminum cannot be brought to a mirror finish. Castings that have slag or pits will also be difficult. These finishes are coarse in nature and usually are a preliminary finish applied before manufacturing. Page | 10 . An example would be grinding gates off of castings. #6 Finish Also known as a fine satin finish. deburring or removing excess weld material. Carbon steel and iron are commonly polished to a #7 finish before chrome plating. the material is polished to a uniform 60–80 grit. directional or satin finish. When the finish is specified as #3. It is produced by polishing the metal with a 120–180 grit belt or wheel finish and then softened with an 80–120 grit greaseless compound or a medium non woven abrasive belt or pad. The part is sisal buffed and then color buffed to achieve a mirror finish. Care should be taken in making sure all surface defects are removed. The quality of this finish is dependent on the quality of the metal being polished. to polish to a #8. This finish is much finer than a #4 architectural finish. #4 Dairy or sanitary finish This finish is commonly used for the medical and food industry and almost exclusively used on stainless steel. #7 Finish A #7 finish is produced by polishing with a 280–320 belt or wheel and sisal buffing with a cut and color compound. that could allow bacteria to grow.

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