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1 About masks and alpha masks channels......................................... 2 ......................................... 2.2 Create and edit alpha channel masks .............................. 2 2.3 Create an alpha channel mask and set options ................... 2 2.3.1 Channel options ........ 3
Rename a layer or group . 6
8.2 Assign a color to a layer or group 6 8.3 8.4 8.5 Rasterize layers ................ 6 Delete a layer or group .... 7 Export layers ..................... 7 Masking layer A. Layer mask thumbnail B. Vector mask thumbnail C. Vector Mask Link icon D. Add Mask You can edit a layer mask to add or subtract from the masked region. A layer mask is a grayscale image, so grayscale areas you paint in black are hidden, areas you paint in white are visible, and areas you paint in shades of gray appear in various levels of transparency.
A. Select the filter mask. B. Add a pixel mask. C. Add a vector mask. D. Panel menu. E. Apply Mask F. Layer mask G. Vector mask More Help Topics •About masks and alpha channels •Editing layer masks •Adding layer masks •Adjust the layer mask appearance •Adjusting mask opacity or edges •Enable or delete layer masks •Merge and stamp layers •Applying filters video
2. SAV NG SELECT ONS SAVING SELECT ALPHA CHANNELS
• Abou masks and a pha channe s channels
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MASKS AND ALPHA
To the top he op 2.1 ABOUT CHANNELS
9. Combining multiple images into a group portrait ................................. 7 ................................. 10. Loading a layer or layer mask’s boundaries as a selection .. 7 1. MASKING LAYERS You can add a mask to a layer and use the mask to hide portions of the layer and reveal the layers below. Masking layers is a valuable Masking compositing technique for combining multiple photos into a single image or for making local color and tonal corrections. 1.1 ABOUT
MASKS LAYER AND VECTOR VECTOR
2.3.2 Paint on a channel to mask mask image areas .................... 3 2.4 Save and load selections 3
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2.4.1 Save a selection to a new channel .............................. 3 2.4.2 Save a selection to a new or existing channel ........... 3 existing 2.4.3 Load a saved selection from the Channels panel 3 2.4.4 Load a saved selection 4 3. 4. Editing Layer Masks ................. 4 Adding layer masks • ............... 4 4.1 Add layer masks ............... 4
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No e You can mask o h de pa s o a aye us ng a aye mask To he op Background painted with black; description card painted with gray; basket painted with white A vector mask creates a sharpsharpedged shape on a layer and is useful anytime you want to add a design element with clean, defined edges. After you create a layer with a vector mask, you can apply one or more layer styles to it, edit them if needed, and instantly have a usable needed, button, panel, or other web-design web-design element. The Properties panel (CS6) or the Masks panel (CS5) provide additional controls to adjust a mask. You can change the opacity of mask to let more or less of the masked content show through, through, invert the mask, or refine the mask borders, as with a selection area. 2 2 CREATE AND CHANNEL MASKS
ED T ALPHA
You can use masks to hide portions of a layer and reveal portions of the layers below. You can create two below. types of masks:
• Layer masks are resolution resolutiondependent bitmap images that are edited with the painting or selection tools. • Vector masks are resolution independent and are created with a pen or shape tool.
Examp es of masks Examples o A. Opaque mask used to protect the o p o ec he backg ound and edit the butterfly background ed he bu e y B. Opaque mask used to protect the o p o ec he bu e y and co o the background butterfly color he backg ound C. Sem anspa en mask used o co o Semitranspar the backg ound and part of the he background pa o he bu e y butterfly Masks a e s o ed in alpha channels. are stored n a pha channe s Masks and channe s are grayscale channels a e g aysca e images, so you can edit them like mages ed hem ke any o he image w h painting tools, other mage with pa n ng oo s ed ng tools and filters. Areas editing oo s e s A eas pa n ed b ack on a mask a e painted black p o ec ed and a eas painted white protected, areas pa n ed wh e a e ed ab e are editable. Use Qu ck Mask mode to convert a Quick o conve se ec on to a temporary mask for selection o empo a y o eas e ed ng The Quick Mask easier editing. Qu ck appea s as a co o ed overlay with appears colored ove ay w h ad us ab e opac y You can edit the adjustable opacity. ed he Qu ck Mask us ng any painting oo Quick using pa n n ng o mod y it w h a filter. Once you or modify with e
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4.2 Unlinking layers and masks 5 5. Adjust the layer mask appearance ....................................... 5 ....................................... 5.1 Select and display the display layer mask channel ...................... 5 5.2 Change the layer mask rubylith color or opacity ................ 5 6. Adjusting mask opacity or edges.................................................. 5 .................................................. 7. Enable or delete a layer mask 6 7.1 Disable or enable a layer enable mask 6 7.2 Apply or delete a layer mask 6 8. Managing Layers ...................... 6
Layer and vector masks are nondestructive, nondestructive, which means you can go back and re-edit the masks re-edit later without losing the pixels they hide. In the Layers panel, both the layer and vector masks appear as an additional thumbnail to the right of the layer thumbnail. For the layer mask, this thumbnail represents the grayscale channel that is created when you add the layer mask. The vector mask thumbnail represents a path that clips out the contents of the layer. Note: To create a layer or vector mask on the Background layer, first convert it to a regular layer (Layer > New > Layer from Background).
Masks panel (CS5) and Properties panel (CS6)
1 A c ck W ndows o Op on c ck Mac OS he New Channe bu on a he bo om o he Channe s pane o choose New Channe om he Channe s Channe pane menu
2. Specify options in the New Channel dialog box. 3. Paint on the new channel to mask out image areas. 2.3.1 Channel options To change options for an existing channel, double-click the channel thumbnail in the Channels panel or select Channel options from the Channels panel menu. Options available in the New Channel and Channel Options dialog boxes: Masked areas Sets masked areas to black (opaque) and selected areas to white (transparent). Painting with black increases the masked area; painting with white increases the selected area. When this option is selected, the Quick Mask button in the toolbox becomes a white circle on a gray background . Selected Areas Sets masked areas to white (transparent) and selected areas to black (opaque). Painting with white increases the masked area; painting with black increases the selected area. When this option is selected, the Quick Mask button in the toolbox becomes a gray circle on a white background . Spot Color Converts an alpha channel to a spot color channel. Only available for existing channels. Color Sets the color and opacity of the mask. Click the color field to change the color. The color and opacity settings affect only the appearance of the mask and have no effect on how underlying areas are protected. Changing these settings may make the mask more easily visible against the colors in the image. 2.3.2 Paint on a channel to mask image areas When the new channel appears at the bottom of the Channels panel, it is the only channel visible in the image window. Click the eye icon for the composite color channel (RGB, CMYK) to display the image with a color overlay showing the mask.
Select the brush or an editing tool and do one of the following to add or subtract from the mask created from the alpha channel:
• • •
You can choose to save the selection to any existing channel in the selected image or to a layer mask if the image contains layers. 4. If you’re saving the selection as a new channel, type a name for the channel in the Name text box. 5. If you’re saving the selection to an existing channel, select how to combine the selections: Replace Channel Replaces the current selection in the channel. Add to Channel Adds the selection to the current channel contents. Subtract From Channel Deletes the selection from the channel contents. Intersect With Channel Keeps the areas of the new selection that intersect with the channel contents. You can select the channel from the Channels panel to see the saved selection displayed in grayscale. 2.4.3 Load a saved selection from the Channels panel You can reuse a previously saved selection by loading it into an image. You can also load the selection into an image after you finish modifying an alpha channel. Do one of the following in the Channels panel:
To remove areas in the new channel, paint with white. To add areas in the new channel, paint with black. To add or remove areas using opacities less than 100%, set the Opacity in the options bar of the painting or editing tool and then paint with white or black. You can also paint with a color to achieve lower opacities.
• To load the intersection of the saved selection and an existing selection, press Ctrl+Alt+Shift (Windows) or Command+Option+Shift (Mac OS), and select the channel.
3. EDITING LAYER MASKS 1. In the Layers panel, select panel, the layer containing the mask you want to edit. 2. Do one of the following:
• (CS6) Click the Mask thumbnail in the Layers panel • (CS5) Click the Pixel Mask button in the Masks panel
4. ADDING LAYER MASKS • ADDING
Add layer masks Unlinking layers and
masks To the top 4.1 ADD LAYER MASKS When you add a layer mask, you can hide or show all of the layer, or base the mask on a selection or transparency. Later, you’ll paint on the mask to precisely hide portions of the layer, revealing the layers beneath. Add a mask that shows or hides shows the entire layer 1. Make sure that no part of your image is selected. Choose Select > Deselect. 2. In the Layers panel, select the layer or group. 3.
You can drag a selection from one open Photoshop image into Photoshop another. 2.4.4 Load a saved selection Note: If you are loading a saved selection from another image, make sure to open it. Also, make sure your destination image is active. 1. Choose Select > Load Selection. 2. Specify the Source options in the Load Selection dialog box: Document Chooses the source to load. Channel Chooses the channel containing the selection you want to load. Invert Selects the non-selected areas. non-selected 3. Select an Operation option to specify how to combine the selections if the image already has already a selection: New Selection Adds the loaded selection. Add To Selection Adds the loaded selection to any existing selections in the image. Subtract From Selection Subtracts the loaded selection from existing selections in the image. Intersect With Selection With Saves a selection from an area intersected by the loaded selection and existing selections in the image. You can drag a selection from one open Photoshop image into another.
3. Select any of the editing or painting tools. Note: The foreground and background colors assume default grayscale values when the mask is active. 4. Do one of the following:
• To subtract from the mask and reveal the layer, paint the mask with white.
To the top 2.4 SAVE AND LOAD SELECTIONS You can save any selection as a mask in a new or existing alpha channel and later reload the selection from the mask. You can use a selection as a layer mask by loading the selection to make it active, then adding a new layer mask. 2.4.1 Save a selection to a new channel 1. Select the area or areas of the image you want to isolate. 2. Click the Save Selection button at the bottom of the Channels panel. A new channel appears, named according to the sequence in which it was created. 2.4.2 Save a selection to a new or existing channel 1. Use a selection tool to select the area or areas of the image you want to isolate. 2. Choose Select > Save Selection. 3. Specify the following in the Save Selection dialog box, and click OK: Document Chooses a destination image for the selection. By default, the selection is placed in a channel in your active image. You can choose to save the selection to a channel in another open image with the same pixel dimensions or to a new image. Channel Chooses a destination channel for the selection. By default, the selection is saved in a new channel.
To make the layer partially visible, paint the mask with gray. Darker grays make the level more transparent, lighter grays make it more opaque.
• To add to the mask and hide the layer or group, paint the mask with black. The layers below become visible.
Do one of the following:
To create a mask that reveals the entire layer, click the Add Layer Mask button in the Layers panel, or choose Layer > Layer Mask > Reveal All.
• To create a mask that hides the entire layer, Alt-click Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) Option-click the Add Layer Mask button, or choose Layer > Layer Mask > Hide All.
To edit the layer instead of the layer mask, select it by clicking its thumbnail in the Layers panel. A border appears around the layer thumbnail. To paste a copied selection into a layer mask, Alt-click (Windows) or Alt-click Option-click (Mac OS) the layer Option click mask thumbnail in the Layers panel to select and display the mask channel. Choose Edit > Paste, then Select > Deselect. The selection is converted to grayscale and added to the mask. Click the layer thumbnail in the Layers panel to deselect the mask channel.
In CS5, you can also use the Masks use panel (Window > Masks). Add a layer mask that hides part of a layer 1. In the Layers panel, select the layer or group. 2. Select the area in the image, and do one of the following:
• Click the New Layer Mask button in the Layers panel to create a mask that reveals the selection. • Alt-click (Windows) Alt-click or Option-click (Mac OS) the Add Option-click Layer Mask button in the Layers panel, to create a mask that hides the selection. • Choose Layer > Layer Mask > Reveal Selection or Hide Selection.
Select the alpha channel, click the Load Selection button at the bottom of the panel, and then click the composite color channel near the top of the panel. Drag the channel containing the selection you want to load onto the Load Selection button. Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) the channel containing the selection you want to load. To add the mask to an existing selection, press Ctrl+Shift (Windows) or Command+Shift (Mac OS), and click the channel. To subtract the mask from an existing selection, press Ctrl+Alt (Windows) or Command+Option (Mac OS), and click the channel.
Create a mask from layer transparency
If you want to directly edit layer transparency, create a mask from this data. This technique is helpful for video and 3D workflows. 1. In the Layers panel, select the layer. 2. Choose Layer > Layer Mask > From Transparency. Photoshop converts transparency into an opaque color, hidden by the newly created mask. The opaque color varies greatly, depending upon the filters and other processing previously applied to the layer. Apply a layer mask from another layer
5. ADJUST THE LAYER MASK APPEARANCE Select and display the layer mask channel Change the layer mask rubylith color or opacity 5.1 SELECT AND DISPLAY THE LAYER
6. ADJUSTING MASK OPACITY OR EDGES Use the Properties panel (CS6) or the Masks panel(CS5) to adjust the opacity of a selected layer or vector mask. The Density slider controls mask opacity. Feather lets you soften mask edges. Additional options are specific to layer masks. The Invert option reverses masked and unmasked areas. The Mask Edge option gives you various controls to modify the mask edges, such as Smooth and Contract/Expand. For information on the Color Range option, see Confine adjustment and fill layers to specific areas. Change mask density 1. In the Layers panel, select the layer containing the mask you want to edit. 2.
areas. Feathering is applied from the edges of the mask outward, within the range of pixels you set with the slider. Refine mask edges 1. In the Layers panel, select the layer containing the mask you want to edit. 2.
1. In the Layers panel, select the layer containing the layer mask. 2. In the Masks panel, click the Pixel Mask button. 3.
(CS6) Right-click the layer or group and choose a color. (CS5) Select a layer or group, choose Layer Properties or Group Properties from the Layers menu. Then choose a color from the Color pop-up menu, and click OK.
Do one of the following:
For easier editing of a layer mask, you can display the grayscale mask by itself or as a rubylith overlay on the layer.
Do one of the following:
In the Layers panel, do one of the following: Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) the layer mask thumbnail to view only the grayscale mask. To redisplay the layers, Alt-click or Option-click the layer mask thumbnail. Alternatively, click the eye icon in the Properties panel (CS6) or the Masks panel (CS5). Hold down Alt+Shift (Windows) or Option+Shift (Mac OS), and click the layer mask thumbnail to view the mask on top of the layer in a rubylith masking color. Hold down Alt+Shift or Option+Shift, and click the thumbnail again to turn off the color display.
(CS6) In the Layers panel click the Mask thumbnail. A border appears around the thumbnail.
• (CS5) In the Masks panel, click the Pixel Mask button or the Vector Mask button.
To remove the layer mask after applying it permanently to the layer, click the Apply Mask icon at the bottom of the Masks panel (CS6) or Properties panel (CS6). To remove the layer mask without applying it to the layer, click the Delete button at the bottom of the Masks panel, and then click Delete. You can also apply or delete layer masks using the Layer menu. Note: You cannot apply a layer mask permanently to a Smart Object layer when deleting the layer mask.
8.3 RASTERIZE LAYERS You cannot use the painting tools or filters on layers that contain vector data (such as type layers, shape layers, vector masks, or Smart Objects) and generated data (such as fill layers). However, you can rasterize these layers to convert their contents into a flat, raster image.
Do one of the following:
To move the mask to another layer, drag the mask to the other layer. To duplicate the mask, Alt-drag (Windows) or Option-drag (Mac OS) the mask to other layer. 4.2 UNLINKING LAYERS AND MASKS By default, a layer or group is linked to its layer mask or vector mask, as indicated by the link icon between the thumbnails in the Layers panel. The layer and its mask move together in the image when you move either one with the Move tool . Unlinking them lets you move them independently and shift the mask’s boundaries separately from the layer.
• To unlink a layer from its mask, click the link icon in the Layers panel. •
Do one of the following:
3. Click Mask Edge. You can modify mask edges with the options in the Refine Mask dialog box and view the mask against different backgrounds. For a description of options, see Refine selection edges. 4. Click OK to close the Refine Mask dialog box and apply your changes to the layer mask. 7. ENABLE OR LAYER MASK
Select the layers you want to rasterize, choose Layer > Rasterize, and then choose an option from the submenu: Type Rasterizes the type on a type layer. It does not rasterize any other vector data on the layer. Shape Rasterizes a shape layer. Fill Content Rasterizes the fill of a shape layer, leaving the vector mask. Vector Mask Rasterizes the vector mask on a layer, turning it into a layer mask. Smart Object Converts a Smart Object into a raster layer. Video Rasterizes the current video frame to an image layer. 3D (Extended only) Rasterizes the current view of 3D data into a flat raster layer. Layer Rasterizes all vector data on the selected layers. All Layers Rasterizes all layers that contain vector and generated data. Note: To rasterize linked layers, select a linked layer, choose Layer > Select Linked Layers, and then rasterize the selected layers.
(CS6) In the Layers panel click the Mask thumbnail. A border appears around the thumbnail. (CS5) In the Masks panel, click the Pixel Mask button or the Vector Mask button. 3. In the Properties panel (CS6) or the Masks panel (CS5), drag the Density slider to adjust the mask opacity. At 100% density, the mask is completely opaque and blocks out any underlying area of the layer. As you lower the density, more of the area under the mask becomes visible. Feather mask edges 1. In the Layers panel, select the layer containing the mask you want to edit. 2. Do one of the following:
8. MANAGING LAYERS Rename a layer or group Assign a color to a layer or group Rasterize layers Delete a layer or group Export layers 8.1 RENAME A LAYER OR GROUP As you add layers to an image, it’s helpful to give them names that reflect their content. Descriptive names make layers easy to identify in the panel.
7.1 DISABLE OR ENABLE A LAYER
Do one of the following:
5.2 CHANGE 1.
THE LAYER RUBYLITH COLOR OR OPACITY
Do one of the following:
(CS5) Double-click the layer mask thumbnail. Double-click the layer mask channel in the Channels panel. 2. To choose a new mask color, in the Layer Mask Display Options dialog box, click the color swatch and choose a new color. 3. To change the opacity, enter a value between 0% and 100%. Both the color and opacity settings affect only the appearance of the mask and have no effect on how underlying areas are protected. For example, you may want to change these settings to make the mask more easily visible against the colors in the image. 4. Click OK.
Select the layer containing the layer mask you want to disable or enable, and click the Disable/Enable Mask button in the Properties panel (CS6) or the Masks panel (CS5). Shift-click the layer mask thumbnail in the Layers panel. Select the layer containing the layer mask you want to disable or enable, and choose Layer > Layer Mask > Disable or Layer > Layer Mask > Enable. A red X appears over the mask thumbnail in the Layers panel when the mask is disabled, and the layer’s content appears without masking effects.
Do one of the following:
Double-click the layer name or group name in the Layers panel, and enter a new name. Press Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS), and doubleclick the layer (not its name or thumbnail) in the Layers panel. Enter a new name in the Name text box, and click OK. Select a layer or group, and choose Layer Properties or Group Properties from the Layers menu or the Layers panel menu. Enter a new name in the Name text box, and click OK.
To reestablish the link between a layer and its mask, click between the layer and mask path thumbnails in the Layers panel.
(CS6) In the Layers panel click the Mask thumbnail. A border appears around the thumbnail. (CS5) In the Masks panel, click the Pixel Mask button or the Vector Mask button. 3. Drag the Feather slider to apply feathering to the mask edges. Feathering blurs the edges of the mask to create a softer transition between the masked and unmasked
7.2 APPLY OR DELETE A LAYER MASK You can apply a layer mask to permanently delete the hidden portions of a layer. Layer masks are stored as alpha channels, so applying and deleting layer masks can help reduce file size. You can also delete a layer mask without applying the changes.
8.2 ASSIGN A COLOR TO A LAYER OR
Color coding layers and groups helps you locate related layers in the Layers panel.
8.4 DELETE A LAYER OR GROUP Deleting layers you no longer need reduces the size of your image file. To quickly delete empty layers, choose File > Scripts > Delete All Empty Layers. 1. Select one or more layers or groups from the Layers panel. 2.
3. In the Layers panel for each source image, select the layer that contains the image content, and drag it to the new image window. The Layers panel for the new image now contains two new layers, one for each source image. 4. In the Layers panel of the new image, arrange the new layers so the layer that contains the content you want to correct (portrait with eyes closed) is on top of the layer that contains the correct content (portrait with eyes open). 5. Select the two new layers, and choose Edit > Auto-Align Layers. 6. Select Reposition Only, then click OK. Photoshop finds the common areas in each layer and aligns them so that identical areas overlap. 7. Click the top layer to select only that layer. 8. Add a blank layer mask to the layer:
10. LOADING A LAYER MASK’S AS A SELECTION
LAYER OR BOUNDARIES
Do one of the following:
To delete with a confirmation message, click the Delete icon . Alternatively, choose Layers > Delete > Layer or Delete Layer or Delete Group from the Layers panel menu.
• To delete the layer or group without confirmation, drag it to the Delete icon , Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) the Delete icon, or press the Delete key. • To delete hidden layers, choose Layers > Delete > Hidden Layers.
You can select all the nontransparent areas on a layer, or, if a layer mask exists, all the unmasked areas. Selecting these areas is useful when you want to select text or image content that is surrounded by or contains transparent areas, or to create a selection that excludes masked areas on a layer. 1.
Do one of the following:
To select only the non-transparent areas on an unmasked layer, Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) the layer thumbnail in the Layers panel. To select the unmasked areas on a layer that has a layer mask, Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) the layer mask thumbnail in the Layers panel. 2. If a selection already exists, you can do any of the following:
To delete linked layers, select a linked layer, choose Layer > Select Linked Layers, and then delete the layers. 8.5 EXPORT LAYERS You can export all layers or visible layers to separate files.
• Choose File > Scripts > Export Layers To Files.
Click Add Layer Mask in the Layers panel. Choose Layer > Layer Mask > Reveal All. 9. Set the foreground color to black, choose a brush tip and size, and zoom in if necessary to focus on the part of the image you want to correct.
To add the pixels to an existing selection, press Ctrl+Shift (Windows) or Command+Shift (Mac OS), and click the layer thumbnail or layer mask thumbnail in the Layers panel. To subtract the pixels from an existing selection, press Ctrl+Alt (Windows) or Command+Option (Mac OS), and click the layer thumbnail or layer mask thumbnail in the Layers panel. To load the intersection of the pixels and an existing selection, press Ctrl+Alt+Shift (Windows) or Command+Option+Shift (Mac OS), and click the layer thumbnail or layer mask thumbnail in the Layers panel. If you want to move all the contents of a layer, use the Move tool without loading a transparency mask.
9. COMBINING IMAGES INTO PORTRAIT
You can use the Auto-Align Layers command from the Edit menu to make a composite photo from a pair of nearly identical images that may contain some unwanted areas. For example, one shot of a group portrait is ideal except that one of the subjects has her eyes closed. In another shot her eyes are open. Using Auto-Align Layers and layer masking, you can combine these shots and eliminate the flaw in the final image. 1. Open the two images you want to combine. 2. Create a new image (File > New) with the same dimensions as the two source images.
10. Using the brush tool, add to the layer mask by painting over the top layer. Painting with black completely masks out the top layer, while grayscale creates partial transparency to the layer below, and white restores the top layer. See Edit a layer mask. Continue editing the layer mask until you successfully blend the two layers to create one unified image. Note: Make sure that the layer mask thumbnail, not the image thumbnail, is selected in the Layers panel during the masking operation. 11. To allow further editing, save the layered and masked version of the image, and make another copy that you can flatten to produce a single-layer version with a smaller file size.
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