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si pentru orasele sale renascentiste, Pisa, Siena, Luca si nu e un simplu oras, ci un imens muzeu in aer liber. Amprentele lui Michelangelo si Da Vinci, ca si a altor artisti renscentisti se vad peste tot: de la catedrala Santa Maria del Fiore cu vestitul turn al lui Giotto si cupola, realizata de Brunelleschi, Baptistria, Muzeul catedralei (care adaposteste copia vestitei Pieta a lui Michelangelo, aflata in original in catedrala Sf. Petru de la Vatican, pana in Piata Signoria si Palazzo Pitti, trecand peste Arno pe vestitul Ponte Vecchio Va sfatuim sa nu ratati Palazzo Vechio, care adaposteste Victoria lui Michelangelo, biroul lui Machiavelli, Galeria Academiei, cu vestita statuie a lui David, de Michelangelo si Biserica si muzeul Santa Croce (unde se afla mormintele lui Michelangelo si a lui Galileo Galilei). Si daca aveti chef de o plimbare in jurul Florentei, faceti o excursie la Fiesole, fosta cetate etrusca, azi suburbie bogata a Florentei, aflata pe coline, unde se pot vizita vechiul teatru roman, biserica Sf. Francisc si catedrala. Sau si mai aproape, va recomandam o plimbare pe jos pana in Piazale Michelangelo, peste Arno, de unde se poate admira cea mai frumoasa priveliste a Florentei (se recomanda sa se viziteze la apus), inainte puteti intra in biserica San Miniato al Monte, aflata in drum.
Se spune ca, in fiecare an, doctorii trateaza nenumarate cazuri de “sindrom Stendhal”, o boala ce poarta numele celebrului scriitor francez care, uimit de grandoarea orasului, a suferit o depresie puternica. Veti gasi in Florenta urme ale civilizatiilor romane si etrusce, dar epoca in care orasul s-a dezvoltat cel mai mult a fost Renasterea. Perioada de stralucire maxima a Florentei a fost in secolele XIV - XV, mai ales pe timpul lui Lorenzo Il Magnifico, membru al familiei Medici, care i-a adus la curtea lui pe Brunelleschi (un maestru al arhitecturii renascentiste), pe Boticelli, Masaccio, Donatello, Michelangelo si Leonardo da Vinci. Va trebuie macar o zi numai pentru a va plimba prin centrul istoric al orasului. Incepeti cu Domul, care are 500 de ani vechime si este al treilea ca marime din lume, dupa catedrala
continua cu frescele superbe din Cappela dei Magi din Palatul Medici si se termina la podul Ponte Vecchio peste raul Arno. care l-a modificat. Peter din Roma si St. de apusul soarelui peste raul Arno. vizitati cartierul Oltrarno. Insa Florenta a fost descoperita de catre straini abia in secolul al-XVIII-lea. cel mai vizitat fiind Galleria Palatina. In prezent. vinurile si bucataria traditionala. cupola maiestuasa a domului lucrata de Brunelleschi si turnul cu clopot al lui Giotto. unde aveti ocazia sa admirati splendoarea Palatului Pitti (resedinta familiei Medici). Palatul Pitti. de bogatia artistica si culturala si. semnata de Boticelli. Toscana. evident. vechi de 500 de ani. cel mai mare din Florenta. Michelangelo si multi alti artisti celebri. In a treia zi. cea mai mare biserica franciscana din lume. devenind o mecca a milioanelor de turisti care vin aici in fiecare an. cunoscuta mai degraba pentru faptul ca aici se odihnesc Galileo. unde se afla statuia lui David. Nu trebuie sa ratati nici Santa Croce. Ce-ar trebui sa mai vedeti in Toscana? . adaposteste mai multe muzee.St. de unde puteti admira apusul soarelui. Ziua nu poate fi incheiata decat la Galleria degli Uffizi. gradinile Boboli. dar si magazinele de antichitati din zona. a fost construit de familia Pitti in 1460 si vandut mai tarziu familiei Medici. Florenta este doar o mica parte din cea mai frumoasa regiune a Italiei. renumita pentru peisajele. Traseul celei de-a doua zi incepe cu Galleria dell Accademia.600 de tablouri. aflate la Museo dell Opera del Duomo. ale carei camere sunt exact asa cum le-a lasat familia Medici. Aici puteti admira usile de bronz ale lui Ghiberti. Paul din Londra. atrasi de eleganta palatelor sale. lucrata de Michelangelo. unde majoritatea turistilor nu se pot dezlipi de Nasterea lui Venus. Galleria Uffizi are 45 de camere si 1.
pentru a admira Turnul Inclinat. Siena este un oras vechi.in forma florinului de aur . unul din cele mai fascinante orase medievale din Italia. inclusiv constructia avignon si reconstructia Romei.din Marea Britanie la Bruges. iar dupa aceea la Siena. plin de studenti. este orasul de deal caracteristic regiunii.acesta fiin motorul care a scos Europa din „Evul Mediu” un termen inventat de Petrach. aproape toti scriitori si poeti din literatura italiana sunt oarecum legati de Florenta. acestea au fost construite cu o singura grija: apararea. Pentru straini. vinul de Chianti se leaga de Toscana in acelasi mod in care gondolele se leaga de Venetia. Cea mai buna modalitate pentru a aprecia Toscana la adevarata ei valoare este sa mergeti cu masina prin regiune. de la Lyon. Zidurile imense de altadata constituie acum bariere pentru masini. Ei au finantat papalitatea. unde toate strazile duc in Il Campo. Ei au finantat dezvoltarea industriei in toata Europa .Montecatini Terme. un florentin. Toscana este cea mai cunoscuta regiune din Italia in materie de vinuri. Cortona. una din cele mai vechi si mai cunoscute statiuni din Europa. o priveliste senzationala noaptea. San Gimignano este un Manhattan al Renasterii. Mergeti apoi in Pisa. . bineinteles. Pienza este un mini-Vatican creat de Papa Pius al IIlea. acest lucru ducand in cele din urma la adoptarea dialectului florentin mai presus de toate dialectele locale. Din cauza luptelor vesnice dintre oraselestat din Toscana. cand papalitatea s-a intors din "Captivitatea babiloniana". ca limba literara. cu exceptia Florentei. catalogata de Montaigne drept cea mai frumoasa piata din lume. in Ungaria.Florentinii au reinventat banii . Influenta Florentei in domeniile artei si culturii era asa de puternica incat dialectul vorbit in secolul al XIV-lea a fost si este baza limbii italiene literare. Ei i-au finantat pe regii englezi in timpul Razboiului de o suta de ani. cu turnurile sale pana la cer. iar cu siguranta cel mai bun vin este Chianti. Dar iata care sunt cele mai atragatoare orase din Toscana. astfel incat centrul vechi sa ramana o zona pietonala. cu pietele ei patrate si peisajele de la periferie.
He made the body of the church and began the front. with its baptistery. and the originality and grace of this architecture thus renewed cannot be described. Resting on the great columns are upper . like arms. These two are buried in the front wall of the building that is also their monument. They stand apart from the city. the cupola. These men were familiar with the building of their day. they had studied the mighty work left them by the Romans. who was probably an Italian. but here it is a thing apart. made it a Latin cross. but over these forms." Taine calls it. on which they drew as from a quarry. On all sides are large solid forms.The cathedral at Pisa. the balanced stories. and in these relics of an extinguished life. He was followed by Rainaldo (Rainaldus). Everything is of marble. They were followed by Ildebrando. the nave or wide aisle. who did nearly all the rest. revived from the antique. there is spread individual invention and the new decoration of small columns surmounted by arcades. Its central space. of whom still less is known. and Leaning Tower. Campo-Santo. " The other Pisa. and are almost the only cathedral group in Italy that is surrounded by grass and space. and further-more. All the others have myriads of houses huddled of the sun. was separated from the narrower aisle on either side by two rows of twelve huge red granite columns that once stood in Greek or Roman temples : these were taken by the Pisans in war and brought home in their ships. mottled. The new church was based on the form of a Roman basilica." Having no great architect at home. the full wall. rich. the Pisans called in Buschetto (Busketus). though some say he was a Greek. and were surrounded by building material of that distant time. like delicate foliage that clothes an old tree-trunk. makes one of the most wonderful and beautiful groups of buildings in the world. you find a world. orange marble. and he goes on to say : " The true Pisa is here. the firmly-planted round or square mass. up against them. but the addition of transepts.
five shafts or rather four and a capital. they are set thicker. The inequalities in the arches are not less remarkable. and here. giving twenty-one intervals instead of nineteen. the arches vanish. where the heights of the shafts are so fast shortened.Not one of the four arcades is of like height with another. having. But on their flanks. is the head. of which the choir. and they diminish in nearly arithmetical proportion alternately: in the order 3rd. above. In the next or third . in order to allow the columns to be carried to the extremity of the pediment. The eastern end of the choir is rounded. and pierced with windows. the nine central arches stand over the nine below. The termination of the choir in a Romanesque church is usually semicircular in plan and vaulted. or place. and the central one larger than the rest: in the second arcade. and this part is called the apsis. dark and light. they at first strike the eye as all equal. containing the high altar. The nave forms the longest part of a cross. The apse with its semi-dome is at the rear behind the altar. The pulpit is at the right. The highest is the third counting upwards. These walls form the clerestory.walls made in stripes of marble. eighteen are equal. the ninth central one `largest. and a wedge-shaped frieze takes their place. has the apse at rear. Over the crossing of the nave and transepts is a dome built much later than most of the church.Columns surmounted by round arches supporting the clerestory. 1st. to four of the arcade below. tapering upwards. The Cathedral of Pisa. and they carry the beams combined into trusses that cross the nave and support the main lead-coated roof. cathedral so that one who is facing the altar is also facing the east. 2nd. like them. but there is a grace about them which equality never obtained: on close observation it is perceived that in the first row of nineteen arches. a. It is customary to set. The roofs of the aisles are supported against the clerestory walls. where is the slope of the shoulder like pediment. or apse. 4th. and the north and south transepts stretching to right and left form the equal arms.
Finally. all equal. and were bent upon making their own as much more rich and impressive as they could. green lawn all about them sets off the marble. nor even close beside it. The mellow color of the three softly bright buildings taken together when shining between the blue sky and the green grass makes them seem like fine. are narrower than any of the facade. porphyry. curiously careen ivory boxes. Though it was the best they . so they made up their minds to have white marble for all the outside. so that now there is a central shaft instead of a central arch. in the upper-most arcade. the Pisan people felt that it should have near it the very finest bell-tower that they could build. which is the lowest of all. are given in the space of the nine below. to a church. They had already taken the best and safest place for their cathedral. or bell-tower (called so from campana. Having built for themselves the largest. most ornately beautiful cathedral ever made in the Pisan-Romanesque style. though it had no formal relation to the great building nearby. the arches. and the span of the arches is increased in proportion to their increased height. is the highest eight arches. and the baptistery close to it are surrounded each by a wide white platform with a step. In Italy it was not usual to join a campanile. so they looked for a possible site not very far away. or cathedral proper. a bell).arcade—which. not being exactly behind. the whole eight going very nearly above the six below them. There is a sensation in every inch of it. They knew that their rivals had built with brick mainly. For the tower they took what seemed to be the next best. old. They were well aware that the Venetians had finished in 1155 a very notable tower. Now I call that Living Architecture. and a broad. the same in number as those below. The Duomo. while the terminal arches of the lower arcade are surmounted by flanking masses of decorated wall with projecting figures. and alabaster. remember.
the columns. the tower would stand. this new one was begun. or attached to the wall back of it. and the Italian government takes that view. There were other towers that were made to lean on purpose and there is much to make us suppose that the Pisans wanted to have a leaning tower. For the foundation he made a ring of masonry ten feet deep and as large as he intended the base to be. an undue proportion of weight should overhang on the south side. that is called La Verruca. when the first colonnade was finished. and in 1174. as it grew. The south side had gone down so much faster and further than the north side that the entire structure was quite far from upright. into the wet ground. its center of gravity could be kept within its baseline. a great difficulty arose. These columns divide the wall into fifteen high sections decorated with square panels. The other story has it that. The tower was sinking. or The Wart. called piles. Some say. that is. and to have it pass for a wonder. and the arches nothing less than fine white marble would do. nineteen years after the Venetians finished their tower. so they began operations by driving a large number of logs. There are two stories as to the progress of the tower.could use. Bonanno knew that if. and ornamented with sculpture and colored marble inlays. the whole being engaged. with a blind arcade. . The outer wall of the first story was made like that of the cathedral. But if. the spot was very swampy indeed. and not even sinking evenly. of which one is given to the entrance door and fourteen are turned diamond-wise. For the outer side walls. a series of three-fourth columns having arches turned from each to each. as story was added to story. that it was intended from the start to have the tower lean. Bonanno was chosen to design the new work. The inner walls and stairs were made of stone quarried at the mountain five miles away. The object was to surprise the beholder.
and though it rose only about half as high as that of their Venetian rivals. for the base. It was plain that the tower must surely fall if more stories of the same size were added at the same inclination. Bonanno ceased to be the architect. But the ground continued to yield. they tried to make the third story more nearly upright than the second then was. and from that time onward we hear and know no more of Benenato. The causes for the strange effect produced were soon forgotten in the general wonder that a tower. He found the difficulties greater than ever for. a door leading to the external arcade. longer wall. reached by a curved and very narrow stone stairway. and the tower to sink. As a first attempt at correction. should continue to stand through the slowpassing centuries. The fourth story was added under his guidance. When we have risen forty feet we can look over the neighboring city wall. It was in part a thirst for greatness that induced the Pisans to build their tower. while the work was stopped. undertook to finish the long-neglected tower. that was made to protect the city . with wide. Slowly climbing the two hundred and ninety-four stairs that lead to the summit. once even with that of the Duomo. the sinking had been going on. and a flat roof. Benenato by name. and for sixty years nothing more was attempted. open arches in its sides. is now seven feet below the general surrounding level. Visitors to the Leaning Tower descend several steps to its handsome entrance. at the top of each story. their Leaning Tower became a sort of new wonder of the world. Nearly a hundred years later Pisano undertook to bring the work to such a conclusion as the unforeseen conditions would permit. we pass. so he designed a narrower belfry. In the year 1234 the chief workman on the cathedral. the later. seemingly in the act of falling.the whole would fall in ruin. all were discouraged.
The marvelous echo of the interior is one of the bestremembered sounds which many a traveler brings away from Italy. which is the belfry. Opposite to the side. In the eighth story.when it had grown far beyond its early bounds. and had treasures to guard. we find seven bells. that overhangs its base by thirteen feet and seven inches. of one soldo each by thirty-four thousand families. The baptistery. is the Campo Santo. is carefully placed the largest and heaviest one. STORY AND ANECDOTE Twelve altars in the Cathedral are said to have been designed by Michaelangelo. and the lamb of Andrea del Sarto . An offering. forming the last of this wonderful group. Many of the sixty-eight columns which support the ceiling are of early Greek and Roman origin. Repeated again and again. Its ton of bronze suspended from the center the same motion from which an-other great scholar derived the secret of the attraction of gravitation. Suppose that all the bells are ringing while we mount to the flat top of the belfry and lay our hands on the light encircling metal railing: the vibrations from the booming and caroling bells are so repeated by the whole structure that the thin rail under our fingers quivers like a violin string. begun in 1152. It was planned on the dimensions of Noah's Ark and filled with more than fifty ship-loads of sacred earth from Calvary. On a mighty pillar is the St. one of the finest specimens of the master's art. The slow swinging of the chandelier suggested to Galileo the idea of a pendulum. Agnes. was used toward its completion. while those at the sides were evidently collected from ancient buildings. The twenty-four pillars of the central aisle were brought from the island of Siglio and Elba. the gar-den of the dead. Nearby. was not completed for more than two hundred years. the most ordinary sound is .
even though none of the buildings came to rank among the few most famous in the world.The dome at the Crossing is additional at later period. Bell Tower 1173-1350.taken up and trans-formed into beautiful music. which is one of the best examples of the German Romanesque. carved in 1260. The church at Vezelay in France was one of the finest and most interesting buildings of France. Italy. 1063-1118. Early Romanesque in England was often called Norman. Durham Cathedral in England is one of the very best examples of Romanesque. This buildings have great unity in spite of using various architectual elements such as mozaic of Byzantine. : Duomo Pisa. • Duomo Pisa and Bell Tower The wall is covered with white and pink marble. The pulpit by Niccolo Pisano. Some of them were circular in form. small arcade of Lombardy and colonnade of Old Roma. pointed Islamic arch. Pisa. is his masterpiece and was one of the important beginnings of the Renaissance of the art of sculpture. Germany. The Duomo Pisa (Cathedral Pisa) is the largest Romanesque church i Tuscany. • . The Romanesque Church of the Apostles at Cologne. This was called Rhenish architecture because many of the churches along the Rhine showed similar traits. one note multiplied into a choir of singers. 1. and England. highly developed and beautiful. OTHER ROMANESQUE MONUMENTS There was a Romanesque architecture in France.
and houses constructed with Romanesque or Gothic architecture. Therefore. there. He traveled to Rome with the sculptor Donatello to study architecture. Arnolfo di Cambio began the building in a Gothic style in 1294.• The Bell Tower was designed by Bonanno. Windows Look at the slender mullions made by stone. public buildings. • The concept of the dome first emerged during the Renaissance in the form of an architectural marvel that tops the Santa Maria del Fiore. new edifices in the classical style were built alongside or added to buildings of older styles. like many cities of the Renaissance. the cathedral of Florence. There are 68 Corinthian columns inside and wooden ceiling. the cathedral and its dome together represent early Renaissance style-one that blends old and new designs. when a revival of classical styles became popular. The tower is inclining since the construction and still going on. The construction of the dome marks the beginning of Renaissance architecture. architect Filippo Brunelleschi received a commission to build the dome. In 1418. had been built over many years and so was home to numerous churches. • • • • Inside of Duomo Pisa The Duomo is a five-naved basilica with three-naved transept. the two artists . • Florentine Art and Architecture • Florence.
The Bardi Chapel. Angelico's representation of . • At the cathedral of San Marco. but the chapel inside is Renaissance in design. Although Brunelleschi never duplicated classical features. and sculptures typical of the Renaissance. • Art Outside and Inside • Many Florentine structures that outwardly exemplify architecture from earlier times also house interiors. An example is the church of Santa Croce. paintings. is decorated with frescoes by Giotto that tell stories of Saint Francis. the upper floor contains monks' cells decorated with Fra Angelico frescoes. created by Bernardo Rossellino. due to Brunelleschi's careful use of proportions. he borrowed ideas from the ancient ruins and incorporated them into the design of his dome. • The interior of the church of Santa Croce houses important works of Renaissance art. particularly because his characters express emotion. These include the tomb of Florentine chancellor and humanist Leonardo Bruni. On the outside. Santa Croce is an example of Gothic architecture. Giotto's works are an important bridge from the late Middle Ages to the Renaissance.investigated various Roman ruins to learn about the design and proportion of buildings. and two works by Donatello: The Annunciation and his wooden Crucifix. as well as the construction of arches and columns. named for a family of wealthy Florentine bankers.
yet never loses . It was for the home of a Medici that he created his two most famous works: Primavera and The Birth of Venus. He balances his figures in nearly symmetrical groupings. His works represent Renaissance style in his use of classical subject matter and in the effect of motion that he achieves.the Annunciation--perhaps his best known work--is located at the top of the staircase. Angelico used linear perspective and a vanishing point to achieve the realistic appearance of the space. Michelangelo began to study painting in Florence with Ghirlandaio and later learned sculpture under the patronage of Lorenzo the Magnificent. • Michelangelo and Botticelli • Several of the greatest artists of the age studied or worked in Florence. a popular Renaissance architectural structure that features a series of arches supported by columns. including Michelangelo and Botticelli. It was for the Florence cathedral that Michelangelo created his famous sculpture of David. In it. The Renaissance aesthetic is apparent in the careful and accurate depiction of the human body and its representation as a nude. • The painter Botticelli was a friend of both Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. In both works Botticelli uses figures from antiquity. and the principal painter of the Medici family. such as the goddess Venus and the three Graces. the Virgin Mary and the angel are in an arcade. The tops--or capitals-that crown the columns of the arcade are classical in design.
the Laurentian 3. principal Renaissance architect Brunelleschi (1421-1459) . Lorenzo's symmetry and geometric balance. and Lippi. Michelangelo designed this. principal architect Michelangelo (1525) . Laurentian Library. that produced the wealth of superb art that is one of the hallmarks of Renaissance culture. It may be the oldest standing church in Florence. of wealthy citizens and the church.a feeling of motion and lightness. Top Renaissance era architecture in Florence Italy: 2. important Renaissance architecture in the world. with no lines. A simple walk around the city of Florence can show a tourist some of the top Renaissance architecture in Italy. Donatello. often stop in the best known museums in Florence to take in the famous highlights such as Michelangelo's David and Botticelli's Birth of Venus. harmony. but the long lines to get in can be disheartening. and architects. Church of San Lorenzo Florence. By purchasing numerous works of art. as the original architecture dates to circa the 4th century. and to have that beauty surround them in their daily lives. commissioned by the powerful. The Italian museums featuring Renaissance art are truly among the best in the world. It was also the Renaissance humanist desire to imitate and revive the beauty of ancient Greece.This was the first church designed by Brunelleschi. sculptors. but died before work was completed. with later oversight from from fellow Renaissance architects Vasari and Ammannati: With its geometric patterns. exemplified in works from Florentine artists. Florence is home to the most.The Laurentian Library is in the cloister of San Lorenzo. flourished largely because of the patronage. and symmetry. by Bronzino. Inside the church are many of the best examples of religious Renaissance art. and best preserved. The Medici family commissioned Brunelleschi to update it to the new style of Renaissance architecture. and often no fee. Renaissance men and women provided a livelihood for many painters. Tourists en route to the hills of Tuscany. He did design it. philanthropic Medici family. The Renaissance style of architecture can be seen in S. or financial support. . • Renaissance style in art.
with the symmetry and geometric unity that exemplify Italian Renaissance architecture. the workers were forced out. and several other famous figures in Italian art. See it for the interior architecture. but when Florentine royalty grew disgusted by the sights and smells of paisanos doing their daily work. It is famous as a Renaissance era building because of Alberti's facade. 6. Santa Maria Novella.The Duomo can't be missed.The Santo Spirito is across the Ponte Veccio. with the harmony and proportion of the Renaissance era. Click here for more details.4. the original panels are now found in the Duomo's museum. Ponte Vecchio spans the Arno River. principal architects di Cambrio and Brunelleschi (1296-1462) . principal architect Gaddi (1345. 7. architecture and science are buried at the Santa Croce church. and to this day is an undecorated plaster wall. It originally hosted many greengrocers and butcher shops. Ponte Vecchio.The Santa Croce church is original to a much earlier time in Italian history than the Renaissance. Galileo. Michelangelo. with contrasting marble providing geometric counterpoints. The original church was built in the High Gothic architectural style of the 13th and 14th centuries. The original design was by di Cambio. The church interior is stunning. principal Renaissance architect Brunelleschi (1429-1460's) . and its campanile towers above the city. the Ponte Vecchio features jewelry shops which tourists can peruse while crossing the Arno to Oltrarno ("the other side of the Arno"). Dating from 1250. Because S. Brunelleschi designed the Cappella dei Pazzi. Church of San Spirito. Pazzi Chapel at the Santa Croce church. on the Oltrano. it's the heart of Florence. Maria Novella is right next to the railroad station. The large wooden cross is attributed to Michelangelo. 8. This includes many ancient Greek books and manuscripts that are in top condition. 5. The famous doors of the Duomo. designed over many years by Ghiberti. Il Duomo Florence Cathedral. the Opera del Duomo. having been built in the (High Gothic) late 1200's. The boundary created therein forced his design to integrate those walls. it was renovated in the Renaissance style by Brunelleschi.The most famous bridge in Florence. principal Renaissance architect Brunelleschi (14341482) . The exterior was never completed. suffered some water damage in the 1960's. Library is considered one of the best works to represent Renaissance architecture. The top most important collection of antique books in Italy can be found here. principal Renaissance architect Alberti (1456-1470) This church is most famous for the facade on its basilica. but may have been stymied by the preexisting church walls. this church is often the first important Florentine sight a travel weary tourist sees. . Today. and 1564) .
Filippo Brunelleschi was the top Renaissance architect in Italy.com/famousarchitecture-in-italy-a18921#ixzz1eQvCK6HE . towards geometric order and regularity.com http://jennifer-w-miner. and his commissions remain paragons of the era's architecture in Florence to this day.Renaissance architecture moves away from late Italian Gothic and Medieval themes. Read more at Suite101: Famous Architecture in Italy: The Best Italian Renaissance Art & Architecture are in Florence | Suite101.suite101. An astute reader may note that Brunelleschi's name appears several times in any list of important architecture of the Italian Renaissance.
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