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notions exchange the possibility of values. respectively: "Why don't you trade me Many strum-scrum. even robbed. trust. ." had justdiscoveredbaseball cards. . learned about of processes as exchange. letalone gave would actually takehim beyond the refer anythingthat masculinist ethosof baseball and itslore. even cartoons. phies. and Sam and Willie learneda lot about phonics thatyear to decipher surnameson baseball cards. Peruvianist about what Tony called new visions Richard Sarmiento. I and watched him develop sensesof patterningand order by arranging aestheticjudgment comparingdifferent by photos. get life too. In that my contributionisundoubtedly supposed to be capacity abstract. his of baseball. for Carl not how I don't Yats you ..differ ent series. varied.He learned the meaning of expertise. meteorology. Sam learned the and the struggle baseball. eightyearsago betweenmy Willie.Ya say it. wouldn't irrelevant. the to results. of life. and color schemes.. something well enough that you can start a conver their own use. states. one's body and talents to be owned and dispensed by another. wind.The name they thename Manny stumped on was Carl Yastremski. where theDanish Royal Archive in Copenhagen and came of literacy. preadolescent history luminous point of contact with grown-ups. anyone. ment. Iwatched Sam stages skillsto applyhis arithmetic working out battingaverages subtracting and retirement years from rookie years. playing sation with a stranger and feel sureof holding your own. Sam and Willie it's the subject of literacy comes baseball stadiumshe thoughtabout architecture. poems. Taiwan. English phonics. tral America the meaning of corn _ up. places of birth. I disappointing to head back several centuries immediately has a few points in common with baseball cards and thoughts to the conference. Many Trailswas their with thehelp of first-grade decoding. struggling way throughthestages the local Little League system. most enduring. loving thegame and coming to know deeply his Literacybegan forSam with thenewlypronounceable names on the picture cards and brought him what has been strengths and weaknesses. American geogra rearranging his cards for hours on end. shelves shelves of encyclopedias. and how men about and Cen and Japan. . thedynamics of public of space. of were quite rightly Trillo. in Responsibilities September 1990. He knows something Cuba. of. fairness. dummy. all this time he was also caring. weights. And baseball cardsopened thedoor to baseball books. the tools with which to find and open all thesedoors. an with an adult.light. In 1908 a was in exploring was much to be learnedabout adultworlds aswell. Pennsylvania.. sion and . his lifeline to of course. histories. and baseball phy and historytook shape inhismind through cards. to speak asked to speak as an most easily the broadest. books of jokes. and a by trying lot about cities.Yesits . topography. He history of American racism and The author isProfessor ofSpanish and Comparative Literature and Director of theProgram in Modern Thought and Literature at Stan This paper was presented as the ford University. Yes.Much of his social life revolved around trading them. and he importance to means Baseball Nowhere money.Through the history and experience of pops first intomy mind is a conversation I overheard son Sam and his best friend. aged six and seven. oh.thatfollowed. heights.In theyears.he saw thedepres against itthrough two world wars from behind home plate. And. experienceof his thirteen-year Like Iwas delighted to see schoolinggive Sam many parents. However. and most integrated life. as a parent. adult?especially Through was Sam's out his baseball years. anecdotes. novels. nor I was not on invited here I was as an expert literacy. layouts. Trails "That's .At the same timeI found itunforgivable thatschooling itself as him nothing remotely meaningful todo." Carl Yes.learned Arts of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Whenever Zone ? means for what it modified labor. keynoteaddress at the for Literacy conferenceinPittsburgh. Baseball cards meant long- short-term in his comments personal baseball that are indepen there dent of market named Pietschmann card shows. what often boys do things there. I propose to a text that raises the absolute divorce between value. ential. what it opposed taken advantage cheated. That was the first time to I remembered seeing themput theirincipientliteracy Iwas of course thrilled. . biogra magazines. and anchored dream of outside the real world.luckyenough to be a pretty good player. knowing about Even with know. cards were the medium of his economic better to learn the power of and values and arbitrariness use value of and invest MLA member working in the elite academy.
1). the manuscript was a manuscript. nor Andean as a literate culture. No titledThe First one knew (or knows) how themanuscript got to the in No library Copenhagen or how long ithad been there. Those ends were. He he learned to write from says by conquest and empire. a miracle The and a there. Written in a mixture ofQuechua and ungrammatical. Quechua guage was not thought culture of as a written lan in 1908. What stunned Pietschmann was that the letterwas twelve hundred New Chronicleand Good Government. He identifies ages ofChristian historythathe five links in parallelwith the fiveages of canonical Andean confused. out in world today. such as colonialism. mestizowhose Spanish father had given him access to to Guaman Pomas letter theking is written in two lan andQuechua) and twoparts.He may as haveworked in theSpanish colonial administration an or assistant to a tax collector? interpreter. In It constituted one of official discourses. Spanish as a mediator. had everbothered to read itor figured out how. in short. The chronicle of course was the main writing religious education. often cultures in con each textsof highly asymmetricalrelationsof power. in order to WEVA this erstwhile thoughts about words lay out about some unreadable zones.claimed tohave precededColumbus in the Americas. or their aftermaths as they are lived about Gua man Pomas giant letter Philip III. 1. in writingand literacy what I like to call the contact I use meet. Western scholars foundways of readingGuaman that Pomas New Chronicle and Good Government as the extraordinary letter got terrible intercultural tour de force that itwas. In theNew Chronicle Guaman roughly.34 Arts of theContact Zone a Itwas dated in the city of Cuzco in across Peru. this term to refer to social clash. a his halfbrother. Guaman Poma exemplified the sociocultural complexities pro duced Andean who claimed noble Inca descent and who had adopted (at least in some sense) Christianity. one.Eventually Iwill many parts of the use many under the term to reconsider of us rely on challenge in the models and of community and that teaching theorizing a little more today.which he presented inLondon in 1912. a pictureof a Christianworld with picture of the Andean it?Cuzco. It was pages Guaman Poma tookover theofficial Spanish genreforhis own ends. There were almost eighthundred pages ofwritten long. years too late. But first is known about that are slavery. world. rather at the center of than European peoples not Jerusalem. in theyear 1613. writing a "new chronicle. Pietschmann prepared a paper on his find. The firstis guages (Spanish Nueva coronica 'New Chronicle/ The title is called the which the Spanish representedtheir apparatus through American the main conquests to themselves. Reception.Guaman Poma constructs a veritable encyclopedia of Inca and pre-Inca EtPPiMERMWOO - tragedy. a year afterthe rediscovery of Machu Picchu byHiram Bingham. itappeared.Adam and Eve. was apparently with thatdiverge history?separate but equal trajectories not Noah and reintersect with Columbus butwith Saint Bartholomew. incorporating the world from Amerindians into it as offspringof one of the sons of Noah. He was an indigenous I--^-J Fig. some forty yearsafterthefinal fall of the Inca empire to the Spanish and signedwith an Andean indigenousname: Felipe Guaman unmistakably Poma de Ayala. . Itwas not till the late of thework habitsgaveway to interpretive 1970s. In a couple of hundred pages. and grapple with spaces where other. as positivistreading studiesand colonial elitisms to postcolonial pluralisms. to Insofar as anything him at all." to construct a new important. scribe. textand fourhundred of captioned linedrawings. It took twenty-five years fora facsimileedition to appear. to say a few more I propose text. addressed by an unknown but apparently literate letter Andean to King Philip III of Spain. expressive Spanish. only 350 congress of Americanists. in Paris. by an international Poma begins by rewritingtheChristian history of the Adam and Eve (fig.
It is titled Buen gobierno justicia 'Good Government and y and combines a descriptionof colonial society in Justice' Guaman Pomas most implacablehostility is invokedby of the system. why some of the earliestpublished Chicanas took writing by the form of folkloricmanners and customs sketches written inEnglish and published in English-language newspapers or folklore magazines (seeTreviiio). oro. Auto ethnographic collaborations representation between people. yndias. those of idioms of the metropolis to create or the con texts. "You eat this gold?" Spaniard replies in Spanish.Following contact with the Incas. Autoethnographic shouldhave been a peaceful encounterof equalswith the mindless greed both. nothing Spaniards were saying 'Yndias." theAndean regionwith a passionate denunciation of Spanish exploitation and abuse. autoethnography. was a great commotion. and both audiences and Louise Pratt 35 The depictions resemble dynastic leaders. he writes. which. Thus ifethnographictexts in which in ways that engage with representations others The conceptmight help explain graphical tradition. plata.which in biography in itsautoethnographic some respects interesting to think. and resistance temporary account In recent decades have creation critique.) . what Autoethnographic are of as autochthonous forms of expres usually thought sion or the Andean (as self-representation quipus were). a Such texts oftenconstitute marginalizedgroups point of into the dominant circuits of print culture. the testimonio. yndias. there kite plata.2). silverfromPeru") (fig. to definedothersconstructin response or indialoguewith texts are not. gold. which I mean a textin which people undertake todescribe them selves quipusznd in the oral memories of elders.which is alien to him) an image of surely recognize. and the Inca elders who Poma. gold. munity. He parodies Spanish history. he writes. The Inca says inQuechua. were his informants. laws. were decimating thepopulation of the j^ndes at a genocidal rate. and Such are the dynamics of language. In fact. Their reception is thus highly indeterminate. Meeting of Spaniard and Inca. "We eat this gold. than one as in Guaman it involves more Rather they involve a selective collaboration with and to These aremerged or infiltrated varying queror. but for the potential forbenefiting of the Spanish. often involves concrete literate ex as between distinguish it from Euramerican autobio themselvestheir others (usually theirconquered others). betweenGuaman Poma Often. Indies. I quote these subject using the conquerors oppositional to construct language of the conquerors representation a "but armor and guns con la codicia de oro. degrees with idioms indigenous to intervene in intended self-representations modes of under metropolitan to works are often addressed appropriation language. Conquista.the potential lossof the labor force became a main cause for reform The second halfof the epistlecontinues thecritique. Europeanman ners and customs history. for example. themselves that theyoften suppress and will therefore representation Fig. oro y plata. at the timehe was writing. public but also offices. oro. The Spanish. writ in contact zones. autoethnographic texts are representations that the so European metropolitan subjects represent to or slavesand abolitionist intellectuals. then. in a con with reconnected writing of the contact zone. Guaman PomasNew Chronicleendswith a revisionist of the standing. Spanish conquest. own speech. meticulous detailwith which knowledge in Inca society was stored on description. reproduce the Guaman PomasNew Chronicle isan instance what I of have proposed to call an autoethnographic by text. a lasYndias. 2. social forms. It is entry dimensions.gold and silver. silver. ing. of American slave auto metropolitan the speakers own com are those havemade of them. Piru" ("with the lustfor gold. the Indies.Mary customs. All day and at night in their dreams the "In all Castille. brought nothing of value to sharewith theAndeans. platadel Piru'" ("Indies. Peru") words as an example of a conquered (372). silver. (These.Guaman Poma mirrorsback to the Spanish (in their language. he argues. parodic. Indies.
as dis crete. while Eve ison the right-hand side below the moon. abuses of power. and remains today. autoethnographic . and in imperial single-handedly gives himselfauthorityin the colonizers extraordinarytextdid getwritten?but not. with theSpaniard opposite. is a varying extents what gets absorbed into their own and its addressee. for the letter never reached language and verbal repertoire.dominant dividing upper from lower. thediagonal descending from the sun marks thebasic lineof power and authority male from female. Guaman Poma con cution they Andean systems spatial of deploy specifically In figure1. Adam isdepicted on the left hand side below the sun. The dominance. the Inca appears in the same position asAdam. and slighdylowerthan Adam. he argues. one needs to keep in mind that the Incas had no systemof Their huge empire is said to be theonly known writing. Corregidor labor force. coherently man Pomas text. instanceof a full-blownbureaucratic state societybuilt and administered without As scholarshave realized only relativelyrecently. The two are divided by the ofAdams digging stick. for instance. do they determine to in a way itdid what itgetsused for. To grasp the importofGuaman Pomas project. followed by thedreaded corregidorest colo nial overseers(fig. of He does writing. Gua indeed any work. He also praises good works. Transculturation. metropolitan culture. power. from subordinate.and offers tianhabits. monolingual edifices. The term." The Indies.though continue to occupy the left-handside of thepic figures ture. itworked?this the empire?a dialogue imagined across While subordinatepeoples do not usually controlwhat emanatesfrom thedominant culture.Such a text isheterogeneouson itself structured. The epistle endswith an imaginary question-and answer session inwhich. Fig. 3. If one text is a Pomas truly product of the thinks of cultures. transcultural written compo catelyapparent in itsvisual aswell as its nent. Ifone does not think culturesthis of Guaman Pomas way. mind you) along Andean interests and aspirations.The diagonals of his lance and thatof the servant mark out doing the flogging a line of real. should be a administeredthrough collaborationof Inca and Spanish elites. Guaman contact zone. The genre of the four hundred line drawings is European?there resentational seems to have been no tradition of rep drawing among the Incas?but in their exe structs his textby appropriatingand adapting pieces of the representationalrepertoire the invaders. and de minas.likeautoethnogra phy. originally coined the Andean scribe from the many lines thatdivide the which the subordinatedsubject monarch. diagonal InAndean spatial symbolism. or literatures.the king isdepicted askingGuaman Poma questions about how to reform views length his as to what constitutes not simplyimitate reproduceit.The Andean illegitimate.36 Arts of theContact Zone or the clergy. In figure2. Ethnographers have used the term transculturation to describe "good govern wherebymembers of subordinated ormarginal groups selectand inventfrom materials transmitted a domi by nant or processes FernandoOrtiz in the 1940s.3). and just at ment and justice. Guaman Poma wrote that the symbolism that express Andean values and aspirations. aimed byCuban sociologist to replace overly used reductive assimilation and concepts of acculturation to characterize culture under conquest.he selectsand or adapts it Andean lines to express (bilingually.1 Spanish conquest had produced "unmundo al reves" 'a world in reverse/ In sum. In a way. then text is simply as the was Andean region heterogeneous. the symbolicpattern is reversed. In figure depictingSpanish 3. but clearly as victims. but Spaniard is in a high position indicating on the "wrong" (right-hand)side. indigenous Catalog of Spanish abuses of appearsanomalous or chaotic?as itapparendydid to the European scholarsPietschmann spoke to in 1912. the character of Guaman Pomas text is intri phenomenon of the contact zone. in a reversalof hierarchy. Chris men where he finds them. and the two at the sameheight.
Anderson three mine).sovereign. and to differently bilingualSpanish-Quechua speakersand to monolingual speakers in either language. and seventeen.Mary the reception tact zone. human communities exist as imagined sat somewhere was edited and reedited in Spain and the New World." nation is imagined. tion. end as well as the end: it will read more Louise Pratt 37 to very differently people indifferent positions in thecon Because it deploys European and Andean sys tems of meaning making. Like the Guaman Poma taught was the son of an Inca princess had lived in Spain since he was spoke Quechua. Spanish. life'swork without his book to read and write. as have others. transculturation. yet in the minds of each lives are the image of their communion. thedrawings mean Andean. While the Guaman Poma's Royal Commentaries and present hierarchy.As prepared fraternal metonymically in thefinite. a text by another as and thesetended to be theorized discrete." he goes on "Communities to say. absolute are of pieces. All intractable. it is second. it is imagined as limited. while the despite the ready availability of several fine editions. in the academy. Miscompre dead hension. is not. communities. by a mestizo. and Contact and Community The idea of the contact zone is intended that underlie in part to con much and of the culture ago. centered sense of knowledge reality. invisible argues. less inwriting than in storytelling. are vernacular imaginary dialogue. "not by their fal textual remainsa staple itemon PhD reading lists in Spanish. symbolic European with of considerable bilingualism. collabora hierarchy Commentaries are but in sity/genuineness. that the main bourgeois nation-building italism. as continued still exemplifies they do. bilingualism. held or grammar This together by abstract homogeneous and equally com among commu shared identically other of all the members. he too Though in iswritten standard eloquent. art forms. painting and sculpture. mentaries Inca ter. and. sovereign-."3 that with of that title. In the Andes in the early 1600s thereexisteda literate competence such a commu trast with thinking ideas of community about language. Anderson exception of what the possi villages. more Poma's text. New Chronicle and Good Government. Itwas anotherhuge encyclopedicwork. and. or to monocultural readers. the nation-community is embodied long-term unequal Autoethnography. unread. deep. tellingly. denunciation. heterogeneity meaning?these some of the in the contact zone." that gets done of years cles in Spain as the canonical Christian mediation between the Spanish conquest and Inca history. dress. horizontalcomradeship"for which millions of people are "not somuch tokill aswillingly todie" (15). the letter necessarily means production visible. and a Inca Garcilaso Spanish official. How text did not reach its desti Poma's ever. figureof the citizen-soldier. critique. nity seemed way book ble modern Benedict Garcilaso de la mestizo half brother who Vega. expression?these some of the literate arts of the contact zone. written. titled theRoyal Com of the Incas." inwhich "primordial entitles illustrations. and many other vernacular contact and the effects of conflict. forms of governance. Anderson instrument that made tains. unread master incomprehension. by thestyle which they imag ined" features (15. Anderson argues that European bourgeoisies were dis the image suggests. religious express belief. if elastic.2 The today idea of the speech things.self-defined. Writing and liter of books was print cap in the vari what first of theUnited States and are becoming more widely vernaculars. dance drama.by "finite. distinguished. I tried to make sense of a Utopian social were quality of that often seemed to characterize Languages coherent petence analyses language seen as in living "speech a by the academy. textile art. third. like Guaman pressing. public degrees man note communication. though Guaman currents the transcultural of expression it nation. Spanish differently to the and to bicultural readers responding structures embodied in Andean genres. to evolve in the Andes. It is to trying interesting that in the same year Guaman Poma sent off his let Peruvian was adopted in official cir thinkingabout the linguistictheories I knew. entities. letters. intercultural Unfortunately. themselves to reflect. perils of writing They all live among us in the transnationalized today metropolis main acy play a central role in this argument. The commercial ous European the projects circulation he possible was tinguishedby theirability to "achieve solidarityon an essentiallyimaginedbasis" (74) on a scale far greaterthan thatof elitesof other timesand places. a mediation ways that coded the Andean past in thought unthreatening persists: the to colonial Royal "will never know most of their fellow-members. proposes emphasis that characterize the style inwhich the modern boundaries". parody. to those who once would have decipherable ignored them in defense of a stable. created networks that would eventually . mediation. ritual. imagined as it is imagined as "a fraternal. song. people meet them or even hear of them. among nations conceive calls the Utopian as what In a Anderson "imagined observes calls he communities. A couple nitydid not exist in theSpanish courtwith which Gua Poma was to make contact. First.
mirrored in ways it seemed munity was. but probably and explana elegance the one his teacher would "they're a lot nicer.38 Arts of theContact Zone the literate elites and those ruled as started what out it was in. only legitimate world in which language unifiedand homogeneous social exists as a shared patrimony?as precisely. sought ways doctors. for instance. do fun a lotmore. in of what authority?regardless see themselves as doing. (Estimatesare that 180million bookswere put into circulation inEurope between theyears 1500 and 1600 alone. A few days into the term. On to the analysis." and they have him said.) Now obviously this style of imagining of modern nations. it isassumed and school that had more open classrooms elementary school he more flexible curricula than the conventional and. on what you choose see or want to as normative. The prototypical mani literacy individual adult native face-to-face (as in Saus a device. "So you'll obey all the rules theydon't have. principles normally people analyses language and of cooperation assume for instance. as. tends to be described almost entirely word from thepoint of view of pupils and pupiling (the from the point teaching. situation a for understand even exist. When is linguistic(or literate)interaction described in games. we asked he like at the new school. readily take it for granted that the situation set of rules or norms shared a is by all single governed by The analysis focuses then on how those rules participants. an or fail to orderly. want define In of people each gathering a third and understood and held only one language in commonwith any of the on what of language It depends you workings to to see first. students were invention. I think a shot like this would be GRATE! . But often profess but systematically fail to realize. for and the speech community. a shared An universally image of imagining community. forexample. usually as part of the other lan terms of orderliness." The "a helpful for imagining to the asked to write single-sentence responses following questions: in effect. assignment.fraternity. him?parents. Descriptions in conversation. produce produce to are often used and moves Models games involving conflicts or sys whatever interactions. over things?that revealing speech was one involving ing language two of whom spoke languages others. Often it often is not. "Well. short. He invariably teachers. This several occasions my can be true in practice fourth the one grader. as Anderson describes they know why they're nicer?" "Why?" I asked. the most even monodialec tal situations?in socially. when of course speakers are from different classes or cultures.go on vacachin itbecause it would let to help your parents? Manuel's tematic social differences might be inplay. or moves actually named scripts. coherent exchange. public to resist or subvert power munity. as a social world and is analyzed unified classroom stu with respect to the teacher. Itwould look like a regular shot. all the rules they didn't have. shot that me now!! Iwould need It would help me by letting graduate right me play with my freinds. embodyingvalues likeequality. people the societies thought Many views about which liberty. Last year one of my children moved tioning would help you? What kind of invention How would ithelp you? Why would you need it? What would it look like? Would otherpeople be able to use italso? What would be an inventiontohelp your teacher? What would reply be an invention read as follows: A grate adventchin would be a Some inventchinsareGRATE!!!!!!!!!!! My inventchin would put every thingyou learnat school inyour brain. of use fraternal models commonly of com that of with the interests those in oftenasked him to identify authorities. The linguistically one could Now munication. Teacher-pupil of view of the teacher and view of the party parties might guage. called One these assignments. for example. language out how modern commentators have pointed a assume as code and competence of language where legitimacy isdefined from the point of system. keeping with autonomous. was given writ busy obeying a series that took the form of answering ing assignments to build up a These of questions questions paragraph. it. constitute nations. not of festation language isgenerallytakento be the speechof sure's famous diagram) and speakers in monolingual. that assumed that the most different case homogeneous same goes forwritten com a theory certainly imagine argued. is also part of the picture. Despite describe are in the same game and that all participants engaged it is. have given.This inventchin would help my teacherpar peaple would ents get away from a lot ofwork. are moves. a lot less rules." he replied. If a the though thing certainly does).This is a very coherent analysis with considerable not tory power. whatever homogenized the teacher specifies is invisible dents do other than what doesn't or anomalous as well. or one party is exer to it or ques is and another submitting cising authority to a new it. com nation as of the modern The prototype imagined to me. cratic settings.Ather use to. But that the game is the same for all players. are shared understanding of interactions between medical and bureau classrooms. is strongly Utopian.
marginalization were taken for gone. cultural citizenship. many groups monologue rings made demands beyond thoseof represen belonging that tation and basic we started from above. for example.many teachersfind them selves less and less able to do that even if own and unified the social world. probably in their things Who wins when we do that? Who loses? image? we Everybodyhad a stake innearlyeverything read. seems A cou where Iworkwent through ple of yearsago theuniversity wrenching over a narrowly been defined requirement that had instituted Western-culture therein 1980. Institutions rhetorics of began asserting a rhetoric of equally coherent. patrimony. Cultures.Mary the the assignment was received the usual Louise Pratt 39 Despite starto indicatethe task in had been fulfilled an acceptable No recognition the attempt available.of others. put ideas and in the class had their culture of the course identities the experi and the line. for instance. contact zone. oppositional commu in the classroom resistance. in variety of historical relationships play the course very diverse way. with an ad hoc com homogeneous to one's unifiedthesocial world. ing. in a contact zone anomalous the formal lecture became and also (who can forget Ata It was The composition of thenational collectivityis changing and being so are the as Anderson styles.4 course was designed In the context that centered of the on the him or her in it. a new Ideas. not like a com The classroom functioned homogeneous or a horizontal a contact zone. In the absence the igno the hostil ence. the requirement and was transformedinto a much more broadly defined course called change. world described with having theexperienceof seeing the . and forging munity. parody. moments there were of wonder and pain. alliance but like munity Every text we read stood in historical rela specific single to the students in the class. No one was excluded.In theirdialogues with dominant institutions. that whatever received in not only Instead. What only slightly better than Guaman is the place of unsolicited discourse. discussed citizenry imagination. imagine. and Along incomprehension. in which it is nation-states. the most exciting teaching at how the hardest. As you can student body. openly. Iwant tobelonghere. Manuel's Are teachers has nity? supposed to feel thattheirteaching been most successful when Poma's. In universities rights granted to hear. were. In the 1980s put in many it. are everyone Those challenged of us committed is by them in to educa as that ideological spectrum. itwas easy to the positives. we had ever done. critique imagined they have eliminated such Such questions may be hypothetical. ity. Virtually every student was granted rance and incomprehension. of the to be critical or contestatory. govern us display. imagined. one but impossible one had to work going to be ways knowledge said was diversity moment and multiculturalism is up for grabs whose the import at this are These shifts being livedout by everyone working in education one way tional today. however. of authority. all the students experienced and face-to-face occasionally of community values and the of synthesis. democracy particularly challenged ways thathorrifiedthem. reveal true for all. and or another. on those histories and lifeways part of their cit in the as the very mode of their membership task?unifying in the world eyes by means that national collectivity. "I don't want you to let me be just as it does to anyone other else. and no one was safe. with rage. manipulable of an enlightened have from the national disappeared the concept an intense and debate electorate. thisinstitution to me as much have responded with. Values. systematically that we were neither The on very nature radically heterogeneous able nor entitled to prescribe. Internal social groups with as histo him?). the hope forget that kinds of once fact. for example. The and revelations joys of the sufferings to be sure. Itkept boiling down to a debate over the ideas of national imagined community. Americas and the multiple culturalhistories (including European ones) that have attracted intersected a here. ody luck was the structures that score. because in the United States in the 1990s.but the rangeand kind of stakes varied widely." things. In the end.Many of those who quiescent. We were struck. probably in their own image? shouldbelong here. On to par spelling. they want to. humor. down huallpa throwing the Bible because it would not speak to Are teachers their teaching has been most successful when theyhave national syntheses thathad retained imagined hegemonic began to dissolve. their interest in a Even as an to ignorant. The lecturer's traditional (imagined) the class's of a supposedto feel that force riesand lifeways different from theofficialones began insisting izenship. ideal. mutual understanding. All the students of hearing notion finds itself besieged on thepublic agenda. at different moments experienced by every student. exhilarating and new wisdom?the revelation. all the students objectified in saw theirroots tracedback to legaciesof both gloryand shame. among across respect own words?this anomalous in the and task became unimaginable. but the range and tionships were enormous.
ways ground of 0/rhetorics across lines rules for communication into and of difference hierarchythatgo beyond politenessbut and maintain important in mutual a respect. for example. was as 2It is farfromclear that theRoyal Commentaries benign as the seemed to assume." "For information about this program and the contents of courses write Program inCultures. Gloria. Felipe. 1984.Manuscript. transculturation and attitudes of others. the course the importance of what we came to used the term to refer to social and groups can constitute themselves with Notes 'For an introduction in English to these and other aspects of Pomas work. Ed. Pratt. we are sure. authenticity. can then contact zone.40 Arts of theContact Zone The fact that no one was safe made all of us involved in appreciate call "safe houses. Guaman Poma de Ayala. 1966.Mary Louise. groups need places forhealing legaciesof subordination. Stanford. StanfordU. with suppressedaspects of history (including theirown histories). Austin: U ofTexas P. multicultural ethnic or women's studies. El Inca. and comparison (including unseemly comparisons the between elite and vernacular cultural forms). sovereign communities of trust. CA 94305. Lopez-Baralt pioneered the study ofAndean symbolic systems inGua man Poma. knowledges. in Early Chicano Prose Fic . Benedict. systematic approach of cultural mediation. Univ. 3The discussion of community here is summarized frommy essay "LinguisticUtopias. 1980. El primer nueva coronica y buen Murra and Rolena Adorno. and mutual shared recognition. Anderson. exercisesin storytelling and in identifying interests. into the that they bring course remains to our in the Americas Meanwhile. parody. and Spread of Garcilaso de laVega. "Linguistic Utopias. In and aspirations of indigenous elites in the taining the identity themid-eighteenth century. histories. Where there are We are lookingforthepedagogical learningthatitcan be. 1987. Values (CIV). 1985."Diss. safe houses inwhich to construct claims on the world understandings. 1986." We intellectual as horizontal. see Rolena Adorno. Imagined Communities: Reflectionson theOrigins Nationalism. London: Verso. I learned a lot about them there. Ed. redemption of the oral. Mex gobierno. 48-66. with the ideas. Austin: U ofTexas P. Rolena. work and collaborative and in experiments in the arts of Works Cited_ critique. Trevino. and I am thankful. Stanford taught in it. Ideas. Royal Commentaries of theIncas." The Linguistics of Writing.. These will include. "Cultural Ambivalence tion. This from protection legacies curricula should not seek to replace realized. a new edition of theRoyal Commentaries was a suppressed by Spanish authorities because itspreface included Sir Walter Raleigh that theEnglish would invadePeru and prophecy by restorethe Incamonarchy.Manchester: Manchester UP. Adorno and Mercedes spaces where Guaman homogeneous. job out how to make that crossroads the best site for figure arts of the contact zone. Guaman Poma de Ayala: Writing and Resistance in Colonial Peru. 1613. The book certainly played a role inmain Spanish Andes. shared understandings. temporary high degrees iswhy. These concept to the all arts were in every room at the extraordinary Pittsburgh con play ference on literacy. John ico: Siglo XXI. ways to move for people out to engage Adorno. as we of oppression. Nigel Fabb et al.