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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

E 0976 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, September - December (2012), pp.545-554 IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI)



Chitthaarth.M.R (1), Charles DhonyNaveen.I.A (2), Sunil Kumar.G (3),Dr.K.Manivannan(4) School of mechanical and building science, VIT university, Vellore-632014, TamilNadu, India. +919677915050

ABSTRACT The paper deals with the redesigning of the typical inlet valve in the HCCI**engine , which involves innovative designing and new material composition. We have done the analysis of this redesigned inlet valve using advanced CAD packages and the results proves the improvement in overall performance of the component, its working life and its capacity of efficient thermal conductivity. KEYWORDS: Inlet valve, HCCI engine **Homogeneous charge compression ignition engine INTRODUCTION: At present everyone needs their automotive is to be fuel efficient and exit lessemission now. This has led to the surface of an old idea as a new one. HCCI (homogeneous charged compression ignition). Earlier this technology had lot of hindrance but now with advance sophisticated computer improvement this has been made possible and the problem solved for the betterment of the world. So HCCI as stated above its acronym means homogeneous charged compression ignition. Its the combination of both conventional spark-ignition and diesel compression ignition technology. The engine has a high compression ratio than the other two types of engines. As the HCCI engine is concept engine, we have selected the inlet valve component as our study and analysis. We have views in the component hopping to develop the existing material composition and some design factors which could help in increasing the efficiency and the performance of the engine, and also the components life. So through this study, we brought a brief explanation of the development of the inlet valve, which could be more efficient and have a better life time by reducing the wear and tear in the valve contacting surface.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has attracted much interest in recent years because it can simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing with this type of engine because it has no physical ignition mechanism. Varying the amount of fuel supplied changes the operating load and the ignition timing also changes simultaneously. The HCCI combustion process also has the problem that combustion proceeds too rapidly. This study examined the possibility of separating ignition timing control and load control using an HCCI engine that was operated on blended test fuels of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane, which have vastly different ignition characteristics. The influence of the mixing ratios of these two test fuels on the rapidity of combustion was also investigated. Moreover, as a basic research subject, the behaviour of formaldehyde (HCHO), an intermediate that is produced by cool flame reactions, was observed by spectroscopic techniques. The experimental results revealed that, within the range of the experimental conditions used in this study, the quantity of DME supplied substantially influenced the ignition timing, whereas it was little affected by the quantity of methane supplied. This indicates that the ignition timing can be controlled by the quantity of DME supplied and that the load can be adjusted by the quantity of methane supplied. Spectroscopic measurements of the behaviour of a substance corresponding to HCHO also indicated that the quantity of DME supplied significantly influenced the cool flame. [1] We propose a model based control strategy to adapt the injection Settings according to the air path dynamics on a Diesel HCCI Engine. This approach complements existing air path and fuel path controllers, and aims at accurately controlling the start of combustion. For that purpose, start of injection is adjusted based on a Knock Integral Model and intake manifold conditions .Experimental results are presented, which stress the relevance of the approach. [2] Homogenous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) engines have the benefit of high efficiency with low emissions of NO and particulates. These benefits are due to the autoignition process of the dilute mixture of fuel and air during compression. However, because there is no directignition trigger, control of ignition is inherently more difficult than in standard internal combustion engines. This difficulty necessitates that a feedback controller be used to keep the engine at a desired (efficient) setpoint in the face of disturbances. Because of the nonlinear autoignition process, the sensitivity of ignition changes with the operating point. Thus, gain scheduling is required to cover the entire operating range of the engine. Controller tuning can therefore be a time-intensive process. With the goal of reducing the time to tune the controller, we use extremum seeking (ES) to tune the parameters of various forms of combustion-timing controllers. In addition, in this paper, we demonstrate how ES can be used for the determination of an optimal combustion-timing setpoint on an experimental HCCI engine. The use of ES has the benefit of achieving both optimal setpoint (for maximizing the engine efficiency) and controller-parameter tuning tasks quickly.[3] In the limit of homogeneous reactants and adiabatic combustion, ignition timing and pollutant emissions in homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines would be governed solely by chemical kinetics. As one moves away from this idealization, turbulence and turbulence/chemistry interactions (TCI) play increasingly important roles. Here the influence of TCI on autoignition and emissions of CO and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) is examined using a three-dimensional timedependent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that includes detailed chemical kinetics. TCI is accounted for using a hybrid probability density function (PDF) method. Variations in global equivalence ratio, wall temperature, swirl level, degree of mixture inhomogeneity (premixed versus direct injection, and start of-injection timing for direct-injection cases), and a top-ring-land

crevice (TRLC) are investigated. In addition to providing new insight into HCCI combustion processes, this work also demonstrates the feasibility of bringing transported PDF methods to bear in modeling a geometrically complex three dimensional time-dependent turbulent combustion system. [4]

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

ABOUT THE HCCI ENGINE: HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition engine) engine is a hybrid engine which works the compression ignition method. The working of the SI engine is that the air fuel mixture is sent into the engine and the ignition is done using the spark plug. Thus in the CI engine the air sent in separately and the fuel is been injected during the compression stroke and the ignition takes place by the compression process. The method used in the HCCI engine is that the air fuel mixture is sent inside the combustion chamber and during the compression stroke the mixture reaches the auto ignition point, it is that the combustion takes place without any ignition system. HCCI is an alternative engine which works on the high compression process. It gives high efficiencies as the CI engines, it operates on the principle of the premixed fuel is burnt with high volumetric compression achieved by the piston. It has the features of the both the SI and CI engine. The difference in the engine is been shown in the figure. In the fuel mixture is well mixed in the compression process, which leads to low emission and no throttle loss which leads to high working efficiency.

Figure 1.Showsthe differenceof the diesel engine, gasoline engine, HCCI engine.

However, it is same like the other engine at present, the combustion occurs for the complete fuel mixture rather than first in the hot spot. The main advantage is that HCCI is that combustion takes place at very low temperature which will reduce the emission of the toxic gases. The HCCI in date has the dual mode of operation, for the initial cold start the SI type working is been used, then in running it is been shifted to the HCCI mode. This HCCI mode is used for the ideal running and the mid-load operation, for high load condition it is again shifted to the normal SI mode this is achieved by using computer control in cars.


International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

Considering the environmental restriction and the pollution standards for the HCCI engine, it has very low pollution rates. It is because that the fuel get well mixed and fully burnt in the power stroke, its operation is similar to the diesel engine working. The pressure is very high when the stoichiometric or rich mixture is used. The figure shows the pressure readings of the SI and HCCI engines. The HCCI auto ignition is achieved with the lean fuel mixture, comparably lesser than the SI engine. There should be an obvious that there is no explicit timing for the HCCI engine combustion.

CHALLENGES FACED IN HCCI ENGINES: HCCI operation is achieved by controlling the process temperature and air fuel mixture composition so that the auto ignition is achieved in TDC . achieving this is very difficult than using some spark plugs for ignition. This is the only engine which uses the full electronic engine controls for achieving a good combustion in the HCCI engine. Some of the technical barriers must be overcome before it is production, The factors mention below. 1. IGNITION TIMING: Controlling the speed and load of the HCCI engine in various conditions is the difficulty faced at present. The combustion or the ignition in the HCCI engine fully depends on the charge mixture composition, the temperature present and pressure.The out ratio of the HCCI engine varies according to the input of the fuel mixture ratio. For proper combustion timing the temperature plays a major role, several methods were proposed to meet the various load and the speed factors. By using the EGR unit the inlet temperature is been maintained, to achieve a constant inlet temperature andusing a VCR mechanism to alter TDC temperatures, to obtain a better compression ratio VVT technology is used.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

2. OPERATING RANGES We know that the HCCI engines operates at low and medium loads, it is difficult to make it operate at high load conditions. It leads to more noise and causing more emission problems, and engine damage. Thus some experiments prove that it can be achieved by increase the partially stratifying the charge at high load operating conditions. More no of equipments are available for achieving the partially stratifying the charge to be achieved at high load conditions. 3. COLD-START: In the cold start the compressed gas will be cooled due to the cold temperature in the cylinder walls. The compressed gas must having the normal temperature for the firing process and some ideas must be implemented for maintain the temperature. Considering cold starting various process have been carried out, the solution is that starting the engine in SI mode and warming up it and again changing it to HCCI mode. Using the VVT, we can reduce the warming up cycles and time. 4. ENGINE EMISSIONS: HCCI engines have low emissions of NOx, but have high emissions of HC (hydrocarbons) andCO(carbon monoxide). Mostly controlling HC and CO emissions for HCCI engines will require the exhaust emission control devices. Catalyst technology for HC and CO removal is the popular device used in automobiles for many years. The low temp exhaust gas which enters the catalyst will reduce the performance of the device. Considering the factor the catalyst must be developed for low temperature to meet its purpose. STUDY ON INLET VALVE: In present days we are comfortable with high performance and maintenance free vehicle. This fact lead to usage of more advanced material composition to achieve, a better advantage than the exiting one and having a best design structure for each and every component in the engine which leads to best performance. In thisstudy we have study and analysis of the inlet valve in the HCCI engine. The inlet valve plays a major role in having the required quantity of mixture for the combustion process. It has arapid cooling during the suction of the air inside of the combustion chamber, and rapid heating during the power stroke. This factor is considered as the major problem in the inlet valve for all the engine, so we considered in having a good and better solution for such factor and observing the present valve material composition and the design of it, through this we have come across the fact that we can control the rapid cooling and rapid heating by making some changes in the design and in the material composition. Through this changes we can achieve the required conditions. We absorbed that the nickel chromium alloy and the silicon chromium alloy are majorly used as the valve material. In our study we have selectedthe titanium alloy as a valve material and decided to analysis its material composition and analysing the temperature flow in the material. To improve the material strength and the material conductivity, wearimplementing the titanium alloy for its lighter weight and more efficient in high temperatures. Also we have planned to maintain a constant temperature in the valve the

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

sodium liquid metal is filled inside for this higher performance valve. It is very efficient in transferring the heat from one place to another.The titanium alloy has the maximum temp of 1700o c this melting point is 200oc above the steel. Titanium very light weight compared to steel and other alloys. It has the tensile of 210-1380 mpa, this is the strength which is been equivalent to the steel alloys. The ductile strength of titanium is 56% greater than steel. It has low thermal conductivity so it has high dissipation of heat from the component and it has better life. DESIGN PARAMAMETERS Overall length of the valve: 110 mm Diameter of the stem: 8 mm Diameter of the head: 300mm Diameter of the seat: 250mm Seat angle: 45o Head diameter: 300 mm Ground length: 850mm Height of head rim: 1mm Stepped stem end length: 20mm Tip chamfer: 1mm Height of the seat: 2mm Overall thickness of the head: 10mm The material of the present valve is nickel chromium and we have upgraded to titanium alloy, and the detail analysis is explained below. Design models

Fig. a: This the prototype model of the valve assembly in the engine head, which consists of the timing gear, cam shaft, valve guide, springs.


International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

Fig. b: the actual valve designed in PRO-E

Fig. C: the new designed valve using PRO-E

Fig.d: the new designed valve with the hollow path inside


International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME Here is the design of the valve the existing design (fig.c) and the change of the design(fig.d), which has the hollow hole in the centre of the valve in where the sodium liquid metal is filled to maintain the constant temperature and below is the analysed results fig.

Fig.1 this is the designed valve pressure analysis

Fig.2 this is the actual valve pressure analysis

Fig.3temperature analysis in designed valve

Fig.4 temperature analysis in the actual valve

DESIGN STEPS: First we have to develop the model after the design parameters using the cad package, PRO-E is our working CAD package for using work For importing the file to the ANSYS for analysing, we have to change the pro-e format to PARASOLID. Now open the ANSYS and go to files, import, Para. The design will appear in the ANSYS window, check model for any data losses. Goto preferences and select the structural. Goto post processor element type-add-solid-brick 185 Goto material- prop-material model-structural-linerar-elastic-isentropic, then enter the values. Goto meshing-size cntrl-manual size-global-size,enter the values. Goto mesh-mesh-pick all-ok. All the areas of the object will be meshed with respect to the entered value Goto loads-define loads-apply-structural-areas, and select the areas to be defined. Then loads-define loads-apply-pressure-areas, and select the areas in which the pressure acts. Goto solutions-solve-current LS-solution done. Goto general postprocessor-plot results-condor plot-nodal solution, you will get the deformed results. Goto read results-condor plot-nodal solution, you will get the results for the deformed solutions. 552

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

DISCUSSION AND RESULTS Through the analysis and the results we arrived that the new material composition and the design parameters has more efficiency and high strength, then the exiting one. The results are shown below. Theresult for the actual valve pressure analysis
MAXIMUM ABSOLUTE VALUES NODE 1526 2941 1519 2941 VALUE -0.12585E-04 0.60067E-04 0.13121E-04 0.60071E-04

Through this table, we found that the maximum deflection acting is 0. 60071E-04 at the mid face of the valve at node 2941 and the minimum value is -0.12585E-04 at the node 1526. It is absorbed that the pressure is acting at a moderate rate of 0.13121E-04 this leads to worn out of the material soon. The result for the designed valve pressure analysis
MAXIMUM ABSOLUTE VALUES NODE 21 42 23 42 VALUE 0.12470E-04 0.55310E-04-0.12278E-04 0.55394E-0

Through this table, we found that the maximum deflection acting is 0.5539E-04 at the mid face of the valve at node 42 and the minimum value is 0.12470E-04 at the node 21. It is absorbed that the pressure acting on the material of the valve is comparatively low than the pressure acting on the actual valve design. The result for the (existing) actual valve temperature analysis

Through this table, we found that the maximum temp acting on the node 5950 at a temp of 1280, and it has a moderate temperature flow throughout the valve. This leads to a fast cracking in the material, and elongation. The result for the designed valve temperature analysis

Through this table, we found that the maximum temp acting on the node 1 at a temp of 1280, and it has a less temperature flow throughout the valve compared to the existing valve design. This result compared to the above temp analysis gives a better material life of the component. By comparing all the results we can conclude that our new design and the new material composition gives best result than the exiting one.


International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

REFERCENCES: 1. [1] Analysis of the Combustion Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Operating on DME and Methane Yujiro TSUTSUMI, Katsuhiro HOSHINA, Akira IIJIMA, Hideo SHOJI Nihon University Graduate School, Nihon University 2. [2] Active Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI Engine: CombustionTiming M. Hillion, J. Chauvin and O. Grondin IFP, France.N. PetitEcole des Mines de Paris, France 3. [3] HCCI Engine Combustion-Timing Control: Optimizing Gains and Fuel Consumption Via Extremum Seeking Nick J. Killingsworth, Member, IEEE, Salvador M. Aceves, Daniel L. Flowers, Francisco Espinosa-Loza, and MiroslavKrstic, Fellow, IEEE 4. [4] A PDF Method for Multidimensional Modeling of HCCI Engine Combustion: Effects of Turbulence/Chemistry Interactions on Ignition Timing and Emissions Y.Z. Zhang, E.H. Kung, and D.C. Haworth Department of Mechanical & Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA r_hot_engines.aspx,mod=0&sou rceid=chrome&ie=UTF8&q=(KJ%2Fm%C2%B7h#hl=en&sclient=psyab&q=KJ%2Fm %C2%B7h+full+form&oq=KJ%2Fm%C2%B7h+full+form&gs_l=serp.3...15489.21935. 0.22111. 1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&fp=7a2bc1bd829fb614&bpcl=35277026&biw=1241&b ih=584