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Fa

Module 2 Using the course book

PAGE 2:1

Using the contents and index
Use of the training manual is a major element in developing First Aid knowledge. However, course books and manuals are best used by reading or revising particular sections, so learners need to develop the skills required to locate the one(s) relevant to them at any given time. An essential part of navigating the course book effectively is use of the contents and index, through the development of scanning skills.

Materials
Flipchart

Learning outcomes (objectives)
1 2 3 • • • •
To use a contents and index page to find information. To practise scanning for particular information. To practise using alphabetical order (1st and 2nd placed letters in a word) in order to find particular entries in an index. Go through the information on the learner page about what the contents is. Look at the information boxes explaining how to find a particular entry. Ask learners to find ‘Workbook’ in the contents, using this method. Ask how they found it – how many words did they actually read? Did they read every word from the start? Or did they just look for the one word? Explain that this is a useful technique which makes reading for information of this kind much quicker. Present another example: you are going to be an Appointed Person for First Aid in your organisation, but you are not quite sure what being an Appointed Person involves. Which page of the manual will you read? (Answer: section 3 page 16.) Ask learners to time themselves how long it takes them to find the answer, and say when they have found it. Ask the ones who did so fastest to try to explain as exactly as possible how they did so. (One suggestion may be to run your finger down the page quickly until you come to the key word you are looking for. This may reduce getting distracted by other words.) Explain that this is a well-known reading method called scanning used for finding a particular piece of information, and that you become quicker at it with practice. Move on to the index box – ask learners what they notice first (list in alphabetical order). Ask them to check if the same phrase (Appointed Person) is also in the index. (Where will they find it?) Explain that there are many entries under A, so we have to look for the second letter as well in order to find it. For further practice hand out a jumbled list of all the entries under A. Ask learners to put them in the correct order, and then check with their index extract. Ask learners to compare the entries in the index and the contents – are they the same or different? (There are more entries in the index.) What about the page numbers? (There is often more than one page number for the same entry). Extend practice to other topics, ideally ones suggested by the learners, and using the full index in their manual, rather than the extract (e.g. finding out what First Aid to give to someone who is unconscious, has suffered a deep cut, etc.). Check learners’ knowledge of alphabetical order. If necessary break the alphabet down into groups of letters, and get learners to put them in order. Dyslexic learners and others with visual processing difficulties will not be able to read quickly and may not be able to scan efficiently. Encourage the use of a finger or pencil to keep their place in the text as they move their eyes slowly down a list of words. ESOL learners may not know the order of the English alphabet. Practise these skills using Yellow Pages or other telephone directories (Thomson guides are ideal as they have a colour coded alphabet strip on every page).

Suggested teaching activities

• • • • •

Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties
• • •

Suggestions for advanced learners
Note that more advanced learners will not necessarily have used scanning, and if so, it is an important addition to their reading strategies. They could however equally apply these skills to material more challenging to them.

Curr ref Rw/E3.4 Rt/L1.4 Rt/L1.5 Rt/E3.7

Key Skills

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45. List of contents Course Briefing Workbook Introduction Section 1: Reception Section 2: First Aid in the Workplace Section 3: What is expected of an Appointed Person? Section 4: Emergency Aid: Incident Management Section 5: Casualty Management Life-Threatening Conditions Section 11: Casualty Management Disorders of circulation: shock Section 12: Casualty Management Disorders of circulation: external bleeding Section 13: Revision Section 14: Quick Reference and Answers Index 5 6 7 9 16 17 21 42 45 48 52 78 Another way of finding information quickly is to use the index. 17. Look quickly for the word Workbook. 42. The contents page is usually at the beginning of the manual. 77 Action plan to manage the incident. 72. These pages can help you quickly find the part of the book you want to read. 20. 76 Accident Book. 72. 46. 73. This will have a contents page and an index. You do not need to read every word on the contents page. 20. 16 B Bleeding. You can scan the page to find the information you need. 73. 74. 74 Appointed Person. 76 48 . 54 Action plan. 13. Do not read every word in the index. 52. (You may need to look for the first two letters: AP. If you want to find out how to use the trainee workbook. 55. you can look in the contents for a section that may explain this.Fa Module 2 Using the course book Using the contents and index 2:1 You will probably be using a First Aid manual on your course. It tells you what information is covered in the book. 23. 55. 45. Scanning is reading to find out one piece of information only.) Entries in an index are always in alphabetical order. for example. Index A ABC. 21. Look for no other word. You want to find out about the job of an Appointed Person. This manual is divided into 14 sections. 47. usually at the back of the book. 71. 37. Look for the first letter of the word: A. 19 Aftermath. The numbers on the right tell you on which page each section starts. 58. reading your phone manual to see what a particular display symbol stands for.

Copy pages from the course book or other First Aid documents. subsections. bold text.g. same colour font for activities. ‘cope’ and ‘support’ in the subheadings). Source pages 0:01 and 0:02 make use of bold print to show emphasised words. Discuss with the group the importance of breaking information down into manageable and relevant chunks (chapters or sections. coloured pens. an information leaflet might use bullets to list key points. Discuss the idea of scanning headings to find relevant sections of a page. are used in many types of texts. Are there differences in the way these texts are presented? Discuss the different formats and write up in the table.4 Key Skills n/a Suggestions for advanced learners • • 49 . Are the featured layouts easier to read than a single solid block of text? For each layout ask learners to try to find other similar examples in their First Aid manual. Ask learners to highlight headings and subheadings with different coloured pens. Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties • • • ESOL learners may need explicit definitions of words such as format and layout. Discuss how scanning is made easier when text is also well laid out. etc. Obviously there will be overlaps – bullets. charts (TV screen 1) and speech bubbles. Learners should be aware of the purpose of these features. timetables and labelled diagrams. Point out that these are used to signpost information and to help us find our way around. etc. key words listed in margins.) and finding the part you need at any given moment on the course. Provide copies of First Aid texts where the headings have been blanked out. for example. you can make extensive use of previous Source pages. Ask learners to look at some First Aid materials. instructions are often presented as a numbered list. advice might use a flow chart. e.Fa Module 2 Using the course book PAGE 2:2 Using the layout Having used an index or contents page to locate specific pages (learner page 2:1) learners must then use headings. same fonts used for headings throughout.g.g. Suggestions for using this page • • • • • Source page Although there is no specific Source page related to this learner page. advice. etc. Recap scanning (see teachers’ notes for learner page 2:1). information. symbols. Ask learners to supply suitable titles for headings and subheadings. instructions. case studies might use subheadings and paragraphs. Talk about the overall ‘house style’ of the book (i.g. Practise with pages from the course book. Encourage use of a bilingual dictionary or simple English thesaurus. lists and other textual features such as the use of emboldened or italic print to locate key information. e. Use other Source pages as examples of different layouts. Draw now on the text features of the page to make sure learners understand the role of an Appointed Person. Extend discussion and practice to other features not included on the learner page. case studies). Curr ref Rt/L1.) and yet a variety of formats are still used on different pages to suit the purpose of each page or section. List these on the flipchart in a table. To practise using the format or organisational features of text to find information. Draw attention to other features not previously mentioned such as capital letters. Ask them to pick out key words (e. flow charts. Hand out the learner page and discuss the featured layouts in turn. Materials Flipchart.g. Ask what sort of information they can find (e. examples of different types of First Aid information and leaflets Learning outcomes (objectives) 1 2 • • • To understand that the layout and format of text often varies according to purpose. e.e. Look at other pages of the manual.

your aim is simply to try to: • preserve life • limit the effects of the casualty’s condition • help the casualty recover. if possible. In any situation you can only do your best. Your group discussions have probably shown you that you are not alone in these feelings. Bullets make a list clear and easy to read quickly. What support will I get? You are only human. this happens even to experienced emergency service personnel. as an Appointed Person. so make sure that you are prepared for it. This means that this part of the answer is very important. or layouts. Under the title and objective there is often an introductory sentence. This makes the words stand out and catch your eye. The most important part of the answer is written in BLOCK CAPITALS. It also makes the final suggestion stand out more. Blank space is an important part of layout – it makes a text more readable. The information that follows answers the question. coloured font. The aims are shown in a short bulleted list of examples. so AFTER AN INCIDENT IT IS NORMAL TO FEEL UPSET AND NEED SOMEONE TO TALK IT THROUGH WITH. The title of this page is in a large. Remember that. Am I the right person for this? You may be afraid of seeing blood. 50 . it tells you more about what is coming. This whole sentence is in bold. you may think someone else would be able to cope better than you. This helps you to find the information you need more quickly. or severe injuries. This makes sure that this very important information catches the reader’s eye. bold.Fa Module 2 Using the course book Using the layout 2:2 The information in a course book is organised in many different formats. The subheading is the first of three questions. You are not expected to achieve miracles or to take personal risks. it is important that you don’t expect too much of yourself. The use of italic font shows their importance. All of these are questions. Will I be able to cope? At the start of this course. What is expected of an Appointed Person? The help of an Appointed Person is obviously needed in emergencies involving accidents and sudden illnesses. Discuss with your colleagues how you can give and receive help of this kind in your workplace after an incident.

or scan. how many key words are explained? (one).Fa Module 2 Using the course book PAGE 2:3 First Aid at work – what’s it all about? It is not always necessary to read every word on the pages of the course manual. e. how many different items in a First Aid box? (seven bullets – seven different items). through the sections on the home page and decide where to look next. Gather ideas on whiteboard and discuss. etc.) Allow a few minutes to skim the document and then ask each learner to give a brief outline of the document. Extend discussion to the order of sentences within a paragraph (first sentence is often a ‘topic’ sentence. until you find the information you want to read. (Give each learner a different page from the course book/training manual. Point out that readers often look over a text quickly to get the gist and decide whether it warrants further detailed reading. This page develops knowledge and offers practice in this important reading strategy. If the lower text box is too challenging. Practise skimming with a range of relevant documents. Is this about the topic I’m interested in? Is it worth going on to read this? Have I got enough information now? Do I now need to scan for certain words and then read in detail? Hand out the learner page and immediately (i. Explain that this is called skim reading and that you do not need to read every word when you skim.) and how they give us clues and make words stand out. and the impossibility of reading it all in detail. Ask learners to point out each of the text formats listed in the left hand box in the First Aid at work text. We do this by again moving our eyes over the text quickly. last sentence may summarise paragraph). what’s the main topic covered by the text? (First Aid kits/boxes). bold. more detailed reading may then be needed (see learner page 2:4). Materials Flipchart. page by page. Suggested teaching activities • • • • • Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties Note that many dyslexic learners will need a lot of practice with skimming. Curr ref Rt/L2. Learners can skim text in order to get the general idea or gist about something. use other texts from the course book and keep the focus on visual clues such as the use of bold and italic fonts. which items should never be kept in a kit? (medicines and tablets). (Note: for more on format and layout see learner page 2:2.g. without giving learners time for a detailed read) ask questions that can be answered purely by skimming the upper half of the page. b) Then you look quickly. Discuss the amount of information surrounding individuals at work/in daily life etc. looking for key words and remembering them. italic. selection of coloured pens Learning outcomes (objectives) 1 2 • • • • To skim read in order to get the gist of a text about First Aid provision in the workplace. Ask learners what questions they should be asking themselves as they ‘skim’ or ‘sift’ for information.2 • • Suggestions for advanced learners • • 51 . Encourage learners to get clues from the surrounding text (see learner page 3:4) as well as using a bilingual dictionary. Explain that a) first you have a quick look at. Then you read this information carefully.) Move on to the lower text box and explain that we may sometimes need to skim read a ‘dense’ piece of text that has little or no ‘clues’. or skim read the home page to see if it’s interesting or relevant to you. what’s the title? (First Aid at work). Talk through the list of text formats (headings. Explain that having skimmed a text. c) You repeat this process. e.7 Key Skills C2. ESOL learners may need explicit definitions of words such as ‘qualified’ and ‘adhesive’.e. Looking for information on a website can be a good way for these learners to practise all three reading skills. To skim text in order to decide the parts that need to be read in detail.g.

First Aiders may need additional training where there are special workplace hazards. They should give treatment only in the techniques they have been trained to carry out. making sure it is always available. Sometimes a text may not have so many clues but you can still skim the text for key words to help you get the gist. or part of a page.Fa Module 2 Using the course book First Aid at work – what’s it all about? 2:3 In order to get the general idea about a new topic you might be asked to read sections of the course manual. Sub heading? An Appointed Person must be available whenever people are working. otherwise they could cause further injury. Medicines or tablets must never be kept in a First Aid kit because only qualified medical personnel can dispense them. When you read to get the general idea or gist of what something is about. Extra items may be needed where certain chemicals are handled. Task: Skim the text. Sub heading? First Aiders must be specially trained and certified by organisations approved by the Health and Safety Executive. that you want then skim your eyes across and down the page. Tip: useful key words are often found in the first sentence of a paragraph. First Aid at work First Aid is the first help given to someone to prevent injury or illness from becoming worse. You can use the layout or format of a page to help you skim. taking control when somebody is injured or ill and calling the emergency services if needed. 52 . An Appointed Person does not have to be a trained First Aider although basic training is recommended. First Aid kits The contents of a First Aid kit should be linked to the risks at the site. • Minimum contents of a First Aid box • • • • • • • guidance leaflet 4 triangular bandages 6 safety pins 2 sterile eye pads 1 pair disposable gloves 20 wrapped adhesive dressings 2 large and 6 medium sterile unmedicated wound dressings KEY WORDS First Aider – someone trained to a recognised standard to administer First Aid. It is recommended that provision should also cover nonemployees. such as customers. Find the pages. Their responsibilities include looking after First Aid equipment. Skim each paragraph for key words and give each paragraph a suitable heading. All these clues can help give you a general idea of what a text is about. your eyes skim across and down the page. layout and number of employees. Titles headings italics sub headings bullets CAPITAL highlighted words – dashes bold words Heading? The numbers of Appointed Persons and First Aiders needed in the workplace depend on factors such as risk. The heading and subheadings are missing.

asking someone and recording this in a personal (dictionary) notebook.Fa Module 2 Using the course book PAGE 2:4 Reading the detail Health and safety materials are often expressed in formal. Discuss how breaking up long sentences can help with understanding. Look at the example on the learner page about sentence length.) Point out the task at the bottom of the page. and looking up unknown or difficult words. (Sometimes learners may be able to guess the meaning from other words around them.) Materials Flipchart. Knowing about conjunctions. Ask them to highlight any other words they find difficult. To identify and practise a range of strategies for dealing with unfamiliar vocabulary. Look at the box about unfamiliar words and discuss each strategy mentioned along with other tips such as: using the glossary/dictionary then explaining the meaning to a friend. Curr ref Rt/L1.) Draw learners’ attention to the examples of difficult words highlighted in the text.3 and 3. It is written in simpler language than the authentic legislation but nevertheless provides a good starting point for development of detailed-reading strategies. Also discuss whether they ask about or look up unfamiliar words the first time they come to them. highlighter pens (different colours and enough for one between every two learners). such as ‘and’.) Discuss the need for understanding complex documents such as different pieces of health and safety legislation or workplace policies and the difficulties associated with this. dictionaries Learning outcomes (objectives) 1 2 3 • • • • • To extract precise information from a text.2 53 . The text on this page contains information about health and safety legislation relevant to First Aiders and Appointed Persons. (Note that the last point is covered in more detail on learner pages 3. (Learner pages 3:3–3:4 have more on unfamiliar words and technical vocabulary. splitting up longer sentences into shorter points. or just mark them in order to deal with them later when they have a better idea of the sentence or paragraph as a whole. Ask learners to first scan the text to look for the key words Appointed Persons and then read that part of the information in detail to answer the question. Suggested teaching activities • • • Suggestions for learners who are having difficulties ESOL learners will need a lot of help with difficult words and should be encouraged to use bilingual dictionaries or the glossary. ‘or’ and ‘but’ helps this.4.2 CS3.1. Acknowledge that these documents are often difficult to understand. as they are expressed in legal or formal language. To understand that long and difficult sentences can be read and understood more easily if they are broken down into shorter points.1 Key Skills C1. Suggestions for advanced learners • • Ask learners to find the actual health and safety legislation referred to in the text. Learners should use the strategies outlined on the learner page to read and understand the detail of the more complex legislation.5 Rw/L1. Ask learners for their experience (if any) of reading health and safety information. legal-sounding language and can be very difficult to understand. Ask learners to compose a written or oral quiz to check each other’s understanding of one of the pieces of legislation identified. Did they understand it? How do they find information in documents like this? (See learner pages 2:2 and 2:3 for information on skimming and scanning. substituting everyday words. Make sure that learners realise that the sentence in the box with the dark border has the same meaning as the sentence in paragraph 2 about HASAWA. These include reading each sentence several times.

Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) Employers are responsible for reporting to the appropriate authority any serious accidents in connection with the workplace (which includes any resulting in more than three days’ absence from work). according to the needs of the organisation. or Appointed Persons. All employees should follow safety guidelines and take precautions identified by their employers. Tips for reading long sentences: • Read the information several times. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2005 (COSHH) Employers are responsible for assessing risks from hazardous substances.Fa Module 2 Using the course book Reading the detail Responsibilities in the Workplace Employers. The Reporting of Injuries. responsibilities of employers include making sure that adequate training is given to all employees about health. and specified occupational disease. Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 Employers and their First Aiders. safety and welfare of their colleagues. together should organise and provide First Aid. Appointed Persons. complicated sentences and unfamiliar words. First Aiders. • Make notes – try to sum up the overall message. safety and welfare. Everybody at work should comply with their responsibilities under HASAWA. Here are some tips to help you read this type of information. and deciding on action to reduce them. safety and welfare. Rewritten in four shorter sentences Everybody at work should understand their responsibilities under HASAWA. Read the information: what does it say that Appointed Persons have to do? 54 . Try to work out what they mean from the rest of the sentence or look them up. safety and welfare. It can include long. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASAWA) Everybody at work should understand and comply with their responsibilities under HASAWA – this includes a responsibility to ensure their own health. First Aiders and Appointed Persons should also be familiar with appropriate First Aid action according to the type of substance and level of risk in their workplace. dangerous occurrences. Employees are responsible for ensuring their own health. The Appointed Person is often involved in completing the record. • Break long sentences down into shorter sentences – use the punctuation or connecting words (conjunctions) to help you. 2:4 Health and safety information can be difficult to understand. but all employees need to be aware of their responsibility to supply information or enter details if they are involved in an accident. Health and Safety information may include unfamiliar words. Employees are responsible for ensuring the health. The current Approved Code of Practice is published by the Health and Safety Executive. as well as that of their colleagues. and employees should be familiar with the health and safety legislation as follows: The Social Security Act 1975 The reporting system within an organisation usually includes an accident book recording all accidents causing injury on the organisation’s premises.