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Source material and Glossary

Source material
People at risk (1:5) Causes and symptoms of food poisoning (1:6) Bacteria (1:7) Pests (1:8) Preserving food (2:5) General rules for food storage (2:6) Food storage (2:7) Hygiene habits (3:1) Washing up (3:4) Legal news (4:2) Hazard analysis (4:3) Principles of good design and use of food premises (4:4) 0:01 0:020:03 0:04 0:05 0:06 0:07 0:08 0:09 0:10 0:11 0:12 0:13



Source material and Glossary



People at risk

Food poisoning costs UK millions!

Shock facts released today by the Food Standards Agency show that millions of workers are off sick because of poor food hygiene. This is costing the country a staggering 350 million per year, enough to build a new hospital every twelve months! The report from the government watchdog, the FSA, states that an amazing 5.5 million people are affected by food poisoning every year. Thats 9% of the UKs population of 60 million people. 7 out of 10 of the victims (71%) of food poisoning believed their food-borne illness was caused by food prepared out of the home in restaurants, fastfood places, cafes, supermarkets, market stalls, by caterers you name it. Victim Jen Owen says, It makes you wonder whether its safe to eat out any more! The cost to the country, in terms of lost working time and soaring bills to the already-stretched NHS, is estimated to be at least 350 million a year. Thats enough to build a brand-new hospital every year! We say its time to act.



Source material and Glossary



Causes and symptoms of food poisoning

Bacteria Caused by Symptoms Incubates for Lasts for

Bacillus cereus (toxin in food, or in intestine)

leaving cooked rice and cereals too long before eating them allowing soil or dust to come into contact with food by not wearing protective clothing or not washing hands leaving food uncovered so that it comes into contact with dust and dirt.

These bacteria cause different symptoms depending on whether the toxin they produce is in the food or in the intestine. Symptoms from food toxin: nausea vomiting. Symptoms from intestine toxin: colic diarrhoea. Deaths from either are very rare. 19 hours 1224 hours

816 hours

2448 hours

Clostridium botulinum (toxin in food)

eating raw or undercooked fish and meat not washing fruit and vegetables thoroughly leaving and then re-using food in opened tins, especially fish and corned beef allowing soil or dust to come into contact with food by not wearing protective clothing or not washing hands leaving food uncovered so that it comes into contact with dust and dirt.

breathing difficulties difficulty in swallowing slurred speech dizziness headache muscle paralysis that can cause death.

1236 hours

Several months



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Causes and symptoms of food poisoning

Bacteria Caused by Symptoms Incubates for
818 hours

Lasts for
1248 hours

Clostridium perfringens (toxin in the intestine)

allowing soil or dust to come into contact with food by not wearing protective clothing or not washing hands leaving food uncovered so that it comes into contact with dust and dirt food handlers and kitchen staff not washing hands properly after using the toilet eating raw or undercooked meat. food coming into contact with animals (e.g. pets, or rodent pests) eating raw or undercooked meat or chicken eating raw or undercooked contaminated eggs drinking untreated milk drinking untreated water coming into contact with sewage, for example by flies feeding on both sewage and food. food handlers and kitchen staff not covering open wounds or infected cuts or boils adequately food handlers and kitchen staff not wearing protective clothing or following hygienic procedures, and allowing food to come into contact with germs from skin, nose, mouths and throats drinking raw cow or goat milk eating undercooked foods containing or having come into contact with animal skin.

abdominal pain diarrhoea nausea (rarely vomiting) symptoms are fairly mild, deaths are rare.

Salmonella (infection)

vomiting diarrhoea abdominal pain fever symptoms can be severe, and can even lead to death in infants, the elderly or the infirm when you have had Salmonella, you can carry it around in your body and infect other people. abdominal cramps low body temperature vomiting, sometimes so severe that hospitalisation is required deaths are rare.

636 hours

17 days

Staphylococcus aureus (toxin in food)

26 hours

2448 hours



Source material and Glossary



In-depth study into pathogenic bacteria and their reproduction
Author: Dr R Roberts Assisted by: M. Hackney Dr F Boyd R. Freeman

Introduction This study will cover the following areas: 1. Mitrochondrial expansion. 2. Reproduction and growth in an acidic environment. 3. Pathogenic nucleic growth. 4. Slowing the rate of development. 1. Mitrochondrial expansion In the mitrochondrial expansion phase of the pathogenic growth hormone physicardia-crobatical the rate of exchange of the physical properties is in direct proportion to the rigomort function of the extremis particularituli membrane. This paper sets out to examine the difficulties in the measurement of the bipolar metamorphosis of the pathogenic organism.

Food Hygiene Programme Guide

A guide to what bacteria are, their reproduction rate and influences on this, and pathogenic and spoilage bacterias effects on the food we eat. 1. What are bacteria and where do they grow? Bacteria are micro-organisms. This means they are so small we cant see them with the human eye. Bacteria need warmth and moisture to grow. They reproduce by dividing themselves, so one bacterium becomes two and then two become four and so on. In the right conditions one bacterium could become several million in 8 hours and thousands of millions in 12 hours.



Source material and Glossary



Kinds of pest
Insects that come in from outside, for example:

Hazards to health
Carrying germs from unhealthy places, for example:

Methods of control

flies moths ants cockroaches fruit flies

Insects that live in stored food, for example:

rats carrying disease from the sewers they live in flies carrying disease from rubbish tips and animal droppings wasps carrying dirt and germs from dustbins.

beetles mites weevils

Carrying bacteria inside their bodies, for example:



passing on bacteria from saliva and defecating while eating food passing on food-borne diseases like dysentery and Weils disease carried by rats urine.


pigeons sparrows starlings seagulls

Contaminating food with:

Pets in the kitchen:

dogs cats hamsters, mice and rats birds

droppings eggs fur nest materials mites parasites dead bodies.

Keep food covered at all times. Store food in sealed containers (this will help to keep it fresh as well as safe). Never leave food outside. Make sure rubbish bins are kept closed and emptied regularly. Check deliveries of fruit, vegetables and cereals for pests, and around all packaging. Check stored food carefully and regularly for signs of pests. Dont keep grains, cereals or spices for too long. Keep the food storage areas and preparation areas clean all the time. Check around bins especially. Clear up any food spillages immediately. Dont leave doors and windows open. Tell your manager immediately if you see any signs of pests.

Causing physical damage to property:

damage to furnishings, e.g. wooden store cupboards damage to electrical cables, causing a fire hazard materials used for nests.



Source material and Glossary



Preserving food
Preserving food
These paragraphs are all about different methods of preserving food. The topic sentence is highlighted for you in each one. Remember to keep stopping to check you have understood what you are reading. Circle words you dont know and look them up in the glossary .

Heat treatment
Heat can be used in different ways to prolong the shelf life of food. A medium heat is used in pasteurising milk and egg products, which then have to be kept refrigerated. UHT (ultra heat treatment) is used to keep milk and milk products, like custard, safer for longer. Sterilisation is used for canned and bottled foods and uses different temperatures and lengths of time depending on the size of the can and whats inside it.

Chemical preservation
Chemicals can preserve food by making it difficult for micro-organisms to grow there. Salting, pickling, curing and preserving with sugar are examples of chemical preservation. Some herbs and spices can also help to preserve food. Artificial chemicals, such as sorbic acid, sodium benzoate and sulphur dioxide are found in many foods today Artificial chemicals are . given an E number.

Controlled packaging Low temperatures

Food can either be frozen or chilled to stop micro-organisms from reproducing. Both have to be done quickly to make sure the food isnt damaged or spoiled. Frozen and chilled foods must be kept at low temperatures. Many micro-organisms need oxygen to live and grow, so controlled packaging removes oxygen. Vacuum packaging removes oxygen so that they cant grow. Sous-vide packaging combines vacuum packaging with pasteurising and chilling. Gases can also be used to remove oxygen. When they are used food labels must say Packed in a protective atmosphere.

Drying food, or dehydration, takes out the moisture that feeds spoilage bacteria, so food like fish, meat, vegetables and fruit can be kept for long periods. (Paragraph 4) Smoking food adds flavour as well as preserving it. Cheese, fish, chicken, sausages and bacon are often smoked.

This is most useful for grains and spices. It kills insects as well as microorganisms by exposing food to a form of radiation.



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General rules for food storage

Store food immediately after you have checked the delivery. Always deal with high risk, frozen and perishable foods before dry and canned goods. Keep high risk and perishable foods out of the temperature danger zone. Always read the storage instructions on the label or box. Place foods in the correct storage areas. You must protect food from contamination. Never store food on the floor, always use shelves or pallets. Use clean, dry containers and wrappers if food needs to be divided into smaller quantities or re-wrapped. Stack shelves carefully without overloading them and leave enough space between goods for air to circulate freely. Keep storage areas clean and dry; clear up any spills immediately. Rotate stock. Never use food that has just arrived when you have stock on the shelves that should be used first. Tell your manager about any signs of pests. Separate any food that could be spoilt or has gone past its date mark to ensure that it is not eaten and tell your manager. He or she will tell you what to do once the food has been checked. Unacceptable food should be returned to the supplier or destroyed. Always store cleaning chemicals and materials in separate, clearly labelled areas.



Source material and Glossary



Food storage
To: Re: All staff Upcoming Health Officer Inspection From: J.M. Alley, Head Office

As you know, acting on complaints made by two customers, an inspection of your premises is to be carried out by an Environmental Health Officer on Monday. A head office employee came to inspect your premises in advance, and made the following observations: Food workers were seen to be throwing a delivery of potatoes and other vegetables into the storage area. Handle everything with care: rough handling can accelerate spoilage. Several items in the freezer were found to be poorly wrapped or not wrapped at all. Freezer burn is caused by dehydration damage when food is frozen without proper wrapping and moisture evaporates. Inappropriate storage in the fridge may allow raw meat to drip onto cooked food. It is essential to follow company guidelines in this regard. Rubbish appears to be being stored for too long. This will cause an infestation of flies. If this continues, the premises could face closure by the Environmental Health Department. I recommend all staff are retrained in food hygiene as soon as possible, and the above problems are rectified immediately. Please ensure these recommendations are carried out with immediate effect under Mrs Smythes supervision. No food is to be sold to the public without her written approval.



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Hygiene habits
Hand hygiene
Wash your hands frequently throughout the day, especially when you begin work, whenever you have handled food, after going to the toilet or outside, and after smoking. Never test food with your finger, always use a clean spoon. Dont wear nail varnish it could flake off into food or jewellery, which could trap bits of food and cause cross-contamination. Cover cuts, scratches and spots with a waterproof plaster to prevent spreading bacteria to food and to protect the wound or spot. Waterproof plasters should be brightly coloured they are usually blue so that they can be easily seen if they come off. Some plasters contain a thin metal strip so that they can be automatically identified by a metal detector on production lines. If a plaster does fall into food, tell your employer immediately . If you have a weeping spot or boil, you must report this to your employer before you start work. People are the main source of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning bacteria, which can spread from infected spots or boils

How to wash hands thoroughly:

1. Rinse any bits of food or dust off your hands. 2. Use comfortably hot, running water. 3. Use one squirt of soap from the dispenser. 4. Rub soap all around, including between your fingers. 5. Scrub nails with a nailbrush, especially if you have been to the toilet or have been handling raw food. 6. Rinse the nailbrush off carefully . 7. Rinse hands thoroughly, back and front. 8. Dry hands carefully on paper towels.



Source material and Glossary



Washing up
Read the information on this page, then answer the multiple choice questions on the learner page.

Washing up
Dishwashers provide an effective way to clean and disinfect items used in the preparation of food. Rinse cycles run at 82C to 89C. Always follow manufacturers instructions, making sure that the machine is stacked without blocking the cleaning jets and is filled with the right amount of correct chemicals.

Washing by hand
Many food activities involve washing some items by hand. Wherever possible, use two sinks side by side. Wear rubber gloves to protect your hands from hot water and chemicals. Remove particles of food scrape and rinse if necessary. Wash the items, ideally in the first sink, with hot water (at about 55C) and detergent, using a cloth or a brush. Replace the water if it becomes cool or greasy. Rinse in very hot water at 82C is ideal using a second sink if possible. Leave items to soak for 30 seconds. If possible, use a purpose designed basket to lower and lift items out of the water. Dry the items, preferably by leaving them to air dry, in a clean, dry area safe from contamination.



Source material and Glossary



Legal news
Fast food restaurant ignored 20 warnings
The owner of a fast food restaurant in Huntingdon who failed to improve standards despite 20 visits from Environmental Health Officers over 18 months has been banned from running a food business for six months. The proprietor was also fined 10,000 and ordered to pay 3,000 costs after Huntingdon District Council prosecuted him for 11 breaches of food safety rules. The offences included lack of cleanliness of the premises and food preparation equipment, structural defects, and poor storage and removal of refuse. she had attempted to tackle the rat infestation herself but had failed to make an impact. Rat droppings were found in the food preparation, storage and serving areas.

Public house fined for dirty kitchen

The landlord of a pub in County Durham has been fined 1,200 and ordered to pay 800 in costs after Environmental Health Officers found a build-up of dirt in the kitchen and on equipment. Bloodstains from raw meat were found inside the pubs fridge that was also used to store cooked foods. The landlord was prosecuted for breaches of the temperature control regulations and general food hygiene regulations.

National supermarket sells out of date food

A national supermarket store has been fined 2,000 and ordered to pay 8,500 costs after pleading guilty to selling a mouldy carrot cake that was three weeks past its best before date. Only months previously the same store was given a formal caution after a 40mm long bolt was discovered in a loaf of bread.

Local butchers shop prosecuted for opening without meat products approval
North East Derbyshire District Council have prosecuted a local butchers shop for five offences including operating a meat products plant without approval and a number of Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations breaches. The owner was fined 1000 for each of the five offences and ordered to pay costs of 846. Meat products approval is required in certain cases where businesses supply meat to people other than the final consumer.

Restaurant closed down for rat infestation

A Chinese restaurant has been closed down for 10 days and the owner fined 2,000 for failing to deal with a rat infestation. The owner was aware of the problem for a month before Environmental Health Officers visited,



Source material and Glossary



Hazard analysis
Example Hazard Analysis Flowchart for a retailing operation

Purchase and delivery

Harmful bacteria present in ready to eat foods. Physical and/or chemical contamination of incoming foods.

Use reputable suppliers. Specify delivery temperatures.

Chilled storage

Growth of harmful bacteria. Cross contamination.

Store high risk foods below 5C. Cover and separate raw and ready to eat foods.

Reheating of foods e.g. pies, pasties*

Survival of harmful bacteria.

Reheat to a centre temperature of 75C or above.

Hot display/ service/sale*

Bacterial, chemical, physical contamination.

Good personal hygiene. Minimise handling of food through use of gloves, tongs etc. Disinfection of equipment and utensils e.g. slicers, boards. Hold foods above 63C.



Source material and Glossary



Principles of good design and use of food premises

Information leaflet #2612


Principles of good design and use of food premises

Employers and staff of food-related premises should follow these principles: The design of food premises should help staff to prevent contamination and to control food temperatures. Check: Do the premises you work in allow raw and cooked food as well as clean and dirty tasks to be kept apart? It is imperative that the design of food premises prevents pest infestation! The best materials for the building and furnishings are long lasting, waterproof, smooth and easy to clean. Food equipment and utensils must also be long lasting, waterproof, smooth, resistant to damage and easy to clean. Check: Are the equipment and furnishings placed in such a way as to make thorough cleaning easy? There should be a well-planned route for food through the premises. Food handlers must plan their work so that they make the fewest number of journeys around the food area as possible. Have you followed all health and safety procedures and food hygiene regulations? Make sure by asking your local Environmental Health Officer for advice.

Call free phone number 085555555 for more information



Source material and Glossary

abdominal in the region of the abdomen or belly accelerate speed up adequate suitable, good enough allergy an abnormal response of the bodys immune system to a normally harmless food approximately about that many, could be a bit more or a bit less artificial not from nature, man-made assess find out about and make a decision about bacteria very small, single-cell living thing which can multiply very quickly chemical a substance that can change other substances chemical preservation treating food with natural or artificial chemicals to keep it safe circulate let air move freely around something condensation steam turning to droplets that can settle over everything in the area conditions illnesses with particular signs or symptoms contaminate make something infected with bacteria contaminated food that is contaminated has come into contact with something else that could make whoever eats it ill contamination when food has come into contact with something else that could make whoever eats it ill corrosive a chemical with the power to dissolve or eat away human skin, metal and other substances control a measure that can be used to remove a hazard completely or reduce it to a safe level. Typical control measures include time and temperature targets, cleaning food contact surfaces and visual inspection critical control points steps at which it is essential that hazards are removed or reduced to a safe level in order to ensure that food is safe to eat curing mixing salt or salted water with food to help prevent bacteria growing day dots colour-coded dots on foods showing the last day they can safely be eaten defecating passing waste from the body degrees Celsius the unit of measurement for temperature dehydration taking any moisture out of food design premises decide where things should go in a food shop or other outlet detergent chemical mix that cleans dirt away; soap 25 diarrhoea very loose stools when you go to the toilet discard throw away disinfect kill bacteria disinfectant chemical mix that kills germs dysentery a dangerous disease that causes severe diarrhoea effective something that works well enforcement authority people employed by the government to make sure laws are obeyed entitled to expect should expect to have equip premises put equipment into a food shop or outlet evaporate water coming out of the food and going into the air exempt not included in the usual rules expired ended, finished, gone past expose allow to come into contact with facilities equipment and materials required for a particular purpose flammable likely to catch fire flexibility a bit of leeway; a little bit more or less is acceptable flow chart chart or diagram showing a complex activity or process food intolerance an unpleasant reaction to food that isnt related to the immune system the bodys response system to germs and disease food poisoning illness caused by bacteria in food, ranging from slight stomach upset to death food-borne illness an illness caused by eating food frequently often hazard a physical, chemical or biological agent present in food which has the potential to cause harm, injury or death hazard analysis collecting and making decisions about information on things that could be dangerous highly perishable foods that do not stay fresh for very long; foods without preservatives hospitalisation taken into hospital human consumption (fit for) that can be (safely) eaten or drunk (consumed) by people hygienically in a way that is clean and doesnt pass germs on illustration a picture in a book or article which explains something or adds information imperative absolutely necessary; critically important


Source material and Glossary

inappropriate incorrect; not suitable incubation period the time it usually takes from consuming food to the first symptoms of poisoning infestation large numbers of pests inspection looking at carefully, to make sure something is being done properly irradiation to treat food with radiation to stop bacteria from reproducing irritant something likely to cause reddening, swelling, itching, burning, or blistering logical sequence steps that have to come in a particular order to make sense low immunity a weak response to germs or disease micro-organisms tiny living things, like bacteria, fungi, yeasts, moulds, viruses and parasites misleading pretending to be something else mite a very tiny creature of the spider family moisture dampness monitor keep checking mould a very small type of fungus which grows on food nausea a feeling of sickness neglected not thought about enough, not considered or not done observation something you have seen for yourself operate premises run a shop or other outlet that prepares food organism a very small cell or form of life oxygen an important gas in the air that we breathe paragraph two or more sentences about a particular topic paralysis being unable to move at all parasites animals or plants that live in or on other animals or plants particles small bits pasteurising heating food to a moderate temperature to kill some but not all microorganisms pathogenic bacteria small organism able to cause disease per cent (%) a type of fraction where the value is given as a measure out of every 100. For example, 25% means 25 out of 100 or 25/100. perishable foods that can spoil or go bad quickly physical something that you can see and touch pickling mixing vinegar with food to help prevent bacteria growing poison something that can harm or kill a living thing poisonous description of a substance that can harm or kill a living thing 26

premises buildings in which work is carried out. Food premises include factories, shops, restaurants, market stalls, delivery vehicles, ships, trains and aeroplanes anywhere food is handled. prevent contamination stop anything getting into food that shouldnt be there principles important ideas about how something must be done prosecuted taken to court to be judged publisher company that prints and distributes texts or designs and updates websites purpose designed built specially for a reason radiation a form of energy from heat or light that you cant see rectified put right refrigerated stored or displayed in a fridge regulations rules made to control things relevant related to or important to something; related to what you are talking about reproduce make a new generation requirements what is needed responsibility something for which you are responsible, are in charge of or have to do rotate change around, so that the oldest food is used first salting mixing salt or salted water with food to help prevent bacteria growing sanitizer a mix of detergent and disinfectant satisfactory good enough shelf life the length of time that a food item is safe to eat similar symptoms signs of illness that are the same as the signs of food poisoning smoked food food treated with smoke from oak or ash wood, which helps to slow down bacterial growth sodium benzoate a chemical used to preserve prawns, margarine, soft drinks, barbecue sauce, orange squash and other foods sorbic acid a chemical used to preserve yoghurts, sweets, soft drinks, processed cheese and other foods sources beginnings, where something comes from sources of ignition sparks, open flame, etc. which could set something on fire sous-vide a method of preserving food that combines pasteurising, chilling and vacuum packaging spoilage bacteria small organisms able to spoil food spores the protective form of some bacteria sterilisation the process of making something completely clean and free from bacteria


Source material and Glossary

stock rotation making sure that the oldest stock is used first sulphur dioxide a chemical used to preserve dried fruits and vegetables, fruit juices and syrups, beer, wine, cider, sausage meat and other foods technical language language related to science and technology, or about a particular subject; words which are not widely used temperature gauge tool used to measure temperature toxin poison, produced by some bacteria and some moulds untreated (e.g. milk) food that hasnt had anything done to it to stop bacteria from growing vacuum packaging food packages with all air removed, to help prevent bacteria growing ventilated air is able to move freely around ventilation letting fresh air into a space and stale air out vomiting being sick, throwing up weevil a little beetle which eats grains and cereals Weils disease an illness which can be fatal caused by rats urine in water with immediate effect straight away workflow the route that food, people and equipment follow through all the stages of preparing food, from delivery to sale or service