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Source material and Glossary

Source material
Contents
People at risk (1:5) Causes and symptoms of food poisoning (1:6) Bacteria (1:7) Pests (1:8) Preserving food (2:5) General rules for food storage (2:6) Food storage (2:7) Hygiene habits (3:1) Washing up (3:4) Legal news (4:2) Hazard analysis (4:3) Principles of good design and use of food premises (4:4) 0:01 0:020:03 0:04 0:05 0:06 0:07 0:08 0:09 0:10 0:11 0:12 0:13

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People at risk

Food poisoning costs UK millions!


Shock facts released today by the Food Standards Agency show that millions of workers are off sick because of poor food hygiene. This is costing the country a staggering 350 million per year, enough to build a new hospital every twelve months! The report from the government watchdog, the FSA, states that an amazing 5.5 million people are affected by food poisoning every year. Thats 9% of the UKs population of 60 million people. 7 out of 10 of the victims (71%) of food poisoning believed their food-borne illness was caused by food prepared out of the home in restaurants, fast-food places, cafes, supermarkets, market stalls, by caterers you name it. Victim Jen Owen says, It makes you wonder whether its safe to eat out any more! The cost to the country, in terms of lost working time and soaring bills to the already-stretched NHS, is estimated to be at least 350 million a year. Thats enough to build a brand-new hospital every year! We say its time to act. Shock facts released today by the

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Causes and symptoms of food poisoning


Bacteria Caused by Symptoms Incubates for Lasts for

Bacillus cereus (toxin in food, or in intestine)

leaving cooked rice and cereals too long before eating them allowing soil or dust to come into contact with food by not wearing protective clothing or not washing hands leaving food uncovered so that it comes into contact with dust and dirt.

These bacteria cause different symptoms depending on whether the toxin they produce is in the food or in the intestine. Symptoms from food toxin: nausea vomiting. Symptoms from intestine toxin: colic diarrhoea. Deaths from either are very rare. 19 hours 1224 hours

816 hours

2448 hours

Clostridium botulinum (toxin in food)

eating raw or undercooked fish and meat not washing fruit and vegetables thoroughly leaving and then re-using food in opened tins, especially fish and corned beef allowing soil or dust to come into contact with food by not wearing protective clothing or not washing hands leaving food uncovered so that it comes into contact with dust and dirt.

breathing difficulties difficulty in swallowing slurred speech dizziness headache muscle paralysis that can cause death.

1236 hours

Several months

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Causes and symptoms of food poisoning


Bacteria Caused by Symptoms Incubates for
818 hours

Lasts for
1248 hours

Clostridium perfringens (toxin in the intestine)

allowing soil or dust to come into contact with food by not wearing protective clothing or not washing hands leaving food uncovered so that it comes into contact with dust and dirt food handlers and kitchen staff not washing hands properly after using the toilet eating raw or undercooked meat. food coming into contact with animals (e.g. pets, or rodent pests) eating raw or undercooked meat or chicken eating raw or undercooked contaminated eggs drinking untreated milk drinking untreated water coming into contact with sewage, for example by flies feeding on both sewage and food. food handlers and kitchen staff not covering open wounds or infected cuts or boils adequately food handlers and kitchen staff not wearing protective clothing or following hygienic procedures, and allowing food to come into contact with germs from skin, nose, mouths and throats drinking raw cow or goat milk eating undercooked foods containing or having come into contact with animal skin.

abdominal pain diarrhoea nausea (rarely vomiting) symptoms are fairly mild, deaths are rare.

Salmonella (infection)

vomiting diarrhoea abdominal pain fever symptoms can be severe, and can even lead to death in infants, the elderly or the infirm when you have had Salmonella, you can carry it around in your body and infect other people. abdominal cramps low body temperature vomiting, sometimes so severe that hospitalisation is required deaths are rare.

636 hours

17 days

Staphylococcus aureus (toxin in food)

26 hours

2448 hours

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Bacteria
In-depth study into pathogenic bacteria and their reproduction
Author: Dr R Roberts Assisted by: M. Hackney Dr F Boyd R. Freeman

Introduction This study will cover the following areas: 1. Mitrochondrial expansion. 2. Reproduction and growth in an acidic environment. 3. Pathogenic nucleic growth. 4. Slowing the rate of development. 1. Mitrochondrial expansion In the mitrochondrial expansion phase of the pathogenic growth hormone physicardia-crobatical the rate of exchange of the physical properties is in direct proportion to the rigomort function of the extremis particularituli membrane. This paper sets out to examine the difficulties in the measurement of the bipolar metamorphosis of the pathogenic organism.

Food Hygiene Programme Guide

A guide to what bacteria are, their reproduction rate and influences on this, and pathogenic and spoilage bacterias effects on the food we eat. 1. What are bacteria and where do they grow? Bacteria are micro-organisms. This means they are so small we cant see them with the human eye. Bacteria need warmth and moisture to grow. They reproduce by dividing themselves, so one bacterium becomes two and then two become four and so on. In the right conditions one bacterium could become several million in 8 hours and thousands of millions in 12 hours.

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Pests
Kinds of pest
Insects that come in from outside, for example:

Hazards to health
Carrying germs from unhealthy places, for example:

Methods of control

flies moths ants cockroaches fruit flies

Insects that live in stored food, for example:


rats carrying disease from the sewers they live in flies carrying disease from rubbish tips and animal droppings wasps carrying dirt and germs from dustbins.

beetles mites weevils

Carrying bacteria inside their bodies, for example:

Rodents:

rats
mice

passing on bacteria from saliva and defecating while eating food passing on food-borne diseases like dysentery and Weils disease carried by rats urine.

Birds:

pigeons sparrows starlings seagulls

Contaminating food with:


Pets in the kitchen:


dogs cats hamsters, mice and rats birds

droppings eggs fur nest materials mites parasites dead bodies.

Keep food covered at all times. Store food in sealed containers (this will help to keep it fresh as well as safe). Never leave food outside. Make sure rubbish bins are kept closed and emptied regularly. Check deliveries of fruit, vegetables and cereals for pests, and around all packaging. Check stored food carefully and regularly for signs of pests. Dont keep grains, cereals or spices for too long. Keep the food storage areas and preparation areas clean all the time. Check around bins especially. Clear up any food spillages immediately. Dont leave doors and windows open. Tell your manager immediately if you see any signs of pests.

Causing physical damage to property:


damage to furnishings, e.g. wooden store cupboards damage to electrical cables, causing a fire hazard materials used for nests.

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Preserving food
Preserving food
These paragraphs are all about different methods of preserving food. The topic sentence is highlighted for you in each one. Remember to keep stopping to check you have understood what you are reading. Circle words you dont know and look them up in the glossary .

Heat treatment
Heat can be used in different ways to prolong the shelf life of food. A medium heat is used in pasteurising milk and egg products, which then have to be kept refrigerated. UHT (ultra heat treatment) is used to keep milk and milk products, like custard, safer for longer. Sterilisation is used for canned and bottled foods and uses different temperatures and lengths of time depending on the size of the can and whats inside it.

Chemical preservation
Chemicals can preserve food by making it difficult for micro-organisms to grow there. Salting, pickling, curing and preserving with sugar are examples of chemical preservation. Some herbs and spices can also help to preserve food. Artificial chemicals, such as sorbic acid, sodium benzoate and sulphur dioxide are found in many foods today Artificial chemicals are . given an E number.

Controlled packaging Low temperatures


Food can either be frozen or chilled to stop micro-organisms from reproducing. Both have to be done quickly to make sure the food isnt damaged or spoiled. Frozen and chilled foods must be kept at low temperatures. Many micro-organisms need oxygen to live and grow, so controlled packaging removes oxygen. Vacuum packaging removes oxygen so that they cant grow. Sous-vide packaging combines vacuum packaging with pasteurising and chilling. Gases can also be used to remove oxygen. When they are used food labels must say Packed in a protective atmosphere.

Drying
Drying food, or dehydration, takes out the moisture that feeds spoilage bacteria, so food like fish, meat, vegetables and fruit can be kept for long periods. (Paragraph 4) Smoking food adds flavour as well as preserving it. Cheese, fish, chicken, sausages and bacon are often smoked.

Irradiation
This is most useful for grains and spices. It kills insects as well as microorganisms by exposing food to a form of radiation.

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General rules for food storage


Store food immediately after you have checked the delivery. Always deal with high risk, frozen and perishable foods before dry and canned goods. Keep high risk and perishable foods out of the temperature danger zone. Always read the storage instructions on the label or box. Place foods in the correct storage areas. You must protect food from contamination. Never store food on the floor, always use shelves or pallets. Use clean, dry containers and wrappers if food needs to be divided into smaller quantities or re-wrapped. Stack shelves carefully without overloading them and leave enough space between goods for air to circulate freely. Keep storage areas clean and dry; clear up any spills immediately. Rotate stock. Never use food that has just arrived when you have stock on the shelves that should be used first. Tell your manager about any signs of pests. Separate any food that could be spoilt or has gone past its date mark to ensure that it is not eaten and tell your manager. He or she will tell you what to do once the food has been checked. Unacceptable food should be returned to the supplier or destroyed. Always store cleaning chemicals and materials in separate, clearly labelled areas.

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Food storage
MEMO
To: Re: All staff Upcoming Health Officer Inspection From: J.M. Alley, Head Office

As you know, acting on complaints made by two customers, an inspection of your premises is to be carried out by an Environmental Health Officer on Monday. A head office employee came to inspect your premises in advance, and made the following observations: Food workers were seen to be throwing a delivery of potatoes and other vegetables into the storage area. Handle everything with care: rough handling can accelerate spoilage. Several items in the freezer were found to be poorly wrapped or not wrapped at all. Freezer burn is caused by dehydration damage when food is frozen without proper wrapping and moisture evaporates. Inappropriate storage in the fridge may allow raw meat to drip onto cooked food. It is essential to follow company guidelines in this regard. Rubbish appears to be being stored for too long. This will cause an infestation of flies. If this continues, the premises could face closure by the Environmental Health Department. I recommend all staff are retrained in food hygiene as soon as possible, and the above problems are rectified immediately. Please ensure these recommendations are carried out with immediate effect under Mrs Smythes supervision. No food is to be sold to the public without her written approval.

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Hygiene habits
Hand hygiene
Wash your hands frequently throughout the day, especially when you begin work, whenever you have handled food, after going to the toilet or outside, and after smoking. Never test food with your finger, always use a clean spoon. Dont wear nail varnish it could flake off into food or jewellery, which could trap bits of food and cause cross-contamination. Cover cuts, scratches and spots with a waterproof plaster to prevent spreading bacteria to food and to protect the wound or spot. Waterproof plasters should be brightly coloured they are usually blue so that they can be easily seen if they come off. Some plasters contain a thin metal strip so that they can be automatically identified by a metal detector on production lines. If a plaster does fall into food, tell your employer immediately . If you have a weeping spot or boil, you must report this to your employer before you start work. People are the main source of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning bacteria, which can spread from infected spots or boils

How to wash hands thoroughly:


1. Rinse any bits of food or dust off your hands. 2. Use comfortably hot, running water. 3. Use one squirt of soap from the dispenser. 4. Rub soap all around, including between your fingers. 5. Scrub nails with a nailbrush, especially if you have been to the toilet or have been handling raw food. 6. Rinse the nailbrush off carefully . 7. Rinse hands thoroughly, back and front. 8. Dry hands carefully on paper towels.

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Washing up
Read the information on this page, then answer the multiple choice questions on the learner page.

Washing up
Dishwashers provide an effective way to clean and disinfect items used in the preparation of food. Rinse cycles run at 82C to 89C. Always follow manufacturers instructions, making sure that the machine is stacked without blocking the cleaning jets and is filled with the right amount of correct chemicals.

Washing by hand
Many food activities involve washing some items by hand. Wherever possible, use two sinks side by side. Wear rubber gloves to protect your hands from hot water and chemicals. Remove particles of food scrape and rinse if necessary. Wash the items, ideally in the first sink, with hot water (at about 55C) and detergent, using a cloth or a brush. Replace the water if it becomes cool or greasy. Rinse in very hot water at 82C is ideal using a second sink if possible. Leave items to soak for 30 seconds. If possible, use a purpose designed basket to lower and lift items out of the water. Dry the items, preferably by leaving them to air dry, in a clean, dry area safe from contamination.

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Legal news
Fast food restaurant ignored 20 warnings
The owner of a fast food restaurant in Huntingdon who failed to improve standards despite 20 visits from Environmental Health Officers over 18 months has been banned from running a food business for six months. The proprietor was also fined 10,000 and ordered to pay 3,000 costs after Huntingdon District Council prosecuted him for 11 breaches of food safety rules. The offences included lack of cleanliness of the premises and food preparation equipment, structural defects, and poor storage and removal of refuse. she had attempted to tackle the rat infestation herself but had failed to make an impact. Rat droppings were found in the food preparation, storage and serving areas.

Public house fined for dirty kitchen


The landlord of a pub in County Durham has been fined 1,200 and ordered to pay 800 in costs after Environmental Health Officers found a build-up of dirt in the kitchen and on equipment. Bloodstains from raw meat were found inside the pubs fridge that was also used to store cooked foods. The landlord was prosecuted for breaches of the temperature control regulations and general food hygiene regulations.

National supermarket sells out of date food


A national supermarket store has been fined 2,000 and ordered to pay 8,500 costs after pleading guilty to selling a mouldy carrot cake that was three weeks past its best before date. Only months previously the same store was given a formal caution after a 40mm long bolt was discovered in a loaf of bread.

Local butchers shop prosecuted for opening without meat products approval
North East Derbyshire District Council have prosecuted a local butchers shop for five offences including operating a meat products plant without approval and a number of Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations breaches. The owner was fined 1000 for each of the five offences and ordered to pay costs of 846. Meat products approval is required in certain cases where businesses supply meat to people other than the final consumer.

Restaurant closed down for rat infestation


A Chinese restaurant has been closed down for 10 days and the owner fined 2,000 for failing to deal with a rat infestation. The owner was aware of the problem for a month before Environmental Health Officers visited,

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Hazard analysis
Example Hazard Analysis Flowchart for a retailing operation

Steps
Purchase and delivery

Hazard
Harmful bacteria present in ready to eat foods. Physical and/or chemical contamination of incoming foods.

Control
Use reputable suppliers. Specify delivery temperatures.

Chilled storage

Growth of harmful bacteria. Cross contamination.

Store high risk foods below 5C. Cover and separate raw and ready to eat foods.

Reheating of foods e.g. pies, pasties*

Survival of harmful bacteria.

Reheat to a centre temperature of 75C or above.

Hot display/ service/sale*

Bacterial, chemical, physical contamination.

Good personal hygiene. Minimise handling of food through use of gloves, tongs etc. Disinfection of equipment and utensils e.g. slicers, boards. Hold foods above 63C.

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Principles of good design and use of food premises


Information leaflet #2612

FOOD
HYGIENE AGENCY

Principles of good design and use of food premises


Employers and staff of food-related premises should follow these principles: The design of food premises should help staff to prevent contamination and to control food temperatures. Check: Do the premises you work in allow raw and cooked food as well as clean and dirty tasks to be kept apart? It is imperative that the design of food premises prevents pest infestation! The best materials for the building and furnishings are long lasting, waterproof, smooth and easy to clean. Food equipment and utensils must also be long lasting, waterproof, smooth, resistant to damage and easy to clean. Check: Are the equipment and furnishings placed in such a way as to make thorough cleaning easy? There should be a well-planned route for food through the premises. Food handlers must plan their work so that they make the fewest number of journeys around the food area as possible. Have you followed all health and safety procedures and food hygiene regulations? Make sure by asking your local Environmental Health Officer for advice.

Call free phone number 085555555 for more information

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Listening to training
In learning about food hygiene you will be listening to a lot of new information. Listening to training sessions carefully helps you to do your job more efficiently and safely.
Listen to an extract from a training session to consider these points.

How can I remember all this?

What do I need to remember?

Listen for signpost words, like the first; another; also and the last. These words point you to key or new pieces of information.

Training sessions 1. Listen out for the main points first and then any extra information. 2. Make notes that you can refer back to later. 3. Ask questions to make things clearer or to get extra information.

Listen for key words. People often emphasise important words or phrases in speech, to make them stand out.

Making notes is a good way of remembering information. You need to write information down in a way that you can still read later.

You might ask for added information, or for information to be repeated.

4. Repeat back important points to check you have got it right. To make sure everything is clear, go through what you have heard in your mind or refer to your notes.
Ask yourself questions: What do I need to remember? Does it make sense?

At an appropriate time, repeat the information to the trainer in your own words to check you have got it right.

Try not to get distracted. Keep checking you are following what is being said.

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Taking notes
Writing things down can help you to remember what you have learned later on. Here are some strategies to help you take notes while you are listening or reading.
Save time by using abbreviations (shortened words). You can use:

Here are more examples of common abbreviations: approximately = approx. including = inc. telephone number = tel no. refrigerator = fridge

Use numbers and letters in place of words, like in text messages.

Shorten sentences by:


First symptoms usually start within twenty-four to forty-eight hours and can be very serious. 1st symptoms usu. Start in 24 2 48 hrs & can b v serious.

leaving out unnecessary words such as: and the are as to is which using arrows to link ideas

Food poisoning can affect everyone, but some people are more at risk of becoming very ill or even dying. Food poisoning affects all, some more @ risk of getting ill or dying.

Write your notes as a list of short main points using numbers, letters or bullet points.

Use a highlighter pen or underline the important parts you want to remember.

Symptoms 1. Stomach pains 2. Diarrhoea 3. Fever


An allergy to a food or an intolerance to a food is not the same thing as food poisoning. An allergy to a food or an intolerance to a food is not the same thing as food poisoning.

a) Stomach pains b) Dehydration c) Diarrhoea

Tip Dont worry too much about spelling in notes except for new technical words you need to remember.

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the first few letters of the word, for example: prob = problem. the first and last letter of the word, for example: yr = year. capital letters for titles, for example: Food Standards Agency = FSA. the apostrophe to show letters have been left out, for example: you are = youre.

Use symbols in place of words. Symbols are marks that have a meaning. Here are some examples: + plus or more % minus or less = equal, the same as @ because & per cent therefore at and

Nausea Vomiting Headache

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What does it mean?


Food hygiene is a subject area that is full of technical words that are not used in everyday language. The more familiar these words become, the easier the subject will be to learn.
When you are dealing with a new subject, you will probably come across words that you are not familiar with. There are several strategies that you can use to work out their meanings:

Ask somebody else to explain the word. Look the word up in a dictionary or glossary. Use the other words around the word or other words like it to work out the meaning. Do a combination of any or all of these.

A dictionary is an alphabetical list of all the different meanings of words.


borne 1. (verb) carried; food-borne illness is illness that is carried by food.

Food Hygiene
In order to achieve the foundation certificate in Food Hygiene you will learn about the pathogens that cause foodborne illness and the effect that they have on food. You will learn about micro-organisms, including bacteria and mould, and the importance of toxins and spores. You will also find out about the main food poisoning bacteria and their requirements for growth. Sources of food poisoning bacteria and the ways contamination and crosscontamination occur will be covered, along with the way physical and chemical contaminants can enter food. Another area of study is naturally poisonous food.

A glossary is an alphabetical list of specialist words and their meanings.


Pathogens: very small forms of life that cause illness.

Whats contamination?

Its when food has got germs or something else in it that shouldnt be there.

micro = small You may find parts of some words in lots of other words: microchip microscope microwave Once you know that micro means small you can take a guess that a micro-organism is a small organism.

Right, so crosscontamination is when the germs are moved from one food to another and contaminants are the things that do the contaminating?

Thats it.

When you find out the meaning of a word from a dictionary, glossary or by asking someone else, try putting it into your own words or explaining it to someone else to check that youve got the right meaning.

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Hazards
You will need to read important basic information about food hygiene in training course books and at work. This type of information is organised in many different formats or layouts to make it easier to read.
The title of this page is in a large, bold, coloured font. This makes the words stand out and catch your eye. There is a short definition and then the three types. These are bulleted and in bold type to make them stand out. Bullets make a list clear and easy to read.

What are food hazards?


A hazard is something that could cause harm. There are three types of food hazard: Biological: harmful bacteria like salmonella and E coli, viruses and moulds Chemical: cleaning products or pest baits Physical: glass, wood or metal

KEY FACTS ABOUT BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS Food may become contaminated with harmful bacteria through contact with people, pests, dirty equipment or raw foods. Bacteria cannot move around on their own, they are carried around on items like cleaning cloths, knives and hands.

This subheading tells you what the next bit of text is about. It is in bold type and in BLOCK CAPITALS. This makes sure that this very important information catches the readers eye.

KEY FACTS ABOUT PHYSICAL HAZARDS Physical contamination of food by foreign bodies is common. Typical examples include: glass, wood, hair, jewellery, insects and metal which somehow fall into food. Sources of these items are packaging, broken equipment and people.

This is the second subheading. The subheadings relate to the three types of bacteria given in the bulleted list: The examples here are shown in a list following a colon : .

KEY FACTS ABOUT CHEMICAL HAZARDS Chemical contamination may occur when cleaning chemicals, rodent baits or insecticides get into food.

The third subheading relates to the third type of bacteria given in the bulleted list at the top of the information. Blank space is an important part of layout it makes a text more readable.

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People at risk
Millions of people in the UK have been affected by food poisoning. If everyone followed safe food handling procedures it would save the country a lot of money.

Food poisoning costs UK millions!


Shock facts released today by the Food Standards Agency show that millions of workers are off sick because of poor food hygiene. This is costing the country a staggering 350 million per year, enough to build a new hospital every twelve months! The report from the government watchdog, the FSA, states that an amazing 5.5 million people are affected by food poisoning every year. Thats 9% of the UKs population of 60 million people. 7 out of 10 of the victims (71%) of food poisoning believed their food-borne illness was caused by food prepared out of the home in restaurants, fastfood places, cafes, supermarkets, market stalls, by caterers you name it. Victim Jen Owen says, It makes you wonder whether its safe to eat out any more! The cost to the country, in terms of lost working time and soaring bills to the already-stretched NHS, is estimated to be at least 350 million a year. Thats enough to build a brand-new hospital every year! We say its time to act.

But what do these figures mean?


Reading large numbers 60 million is 6 with 7 zeros. It can be written as:


9% is the same as nine per cent. Per cent means out of 100. Nine per cent means 9 parts out of 100. This is written as 9%. So, 9 people out of every 100 have had food poisoning in the last year. This is almost 1 person out of every 10 people.

60,000,000 60000000 60 000 000

How many people in your group have had food poisoning in the last year?

Sometimes the zeros are separated in groups of 3, to help read the number. The separator is usually a comma or a small space.

Have a go: 6 60 600 6000 60 000 600 000 6 000 000 60 000 000 six sixty six hundred six thousand sixty thousand six hundred thousand six million sixty million no zeros 1 zero 2 zeros 3 zeros 4 zeros 5 zeros 6 zeros 7 zeros

Now try writing three hundred and fifty million in figures. How many zeros will you need?

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Causes and symptoms of food poisoning


We now have a lot of information about the causes and symptoms of food poisoning. This type of information is often put into a table to make it easier to read and understand.

Reading information in a table You do not have to read all of the information. Use the columns and rows to help you find what you want. Read down the first column to find the bacteria you are looking for; read across the rows to find the information heading you need.

Bacteria

Caused by

Symptoms

Incubates for

Lasts for

Bacillus cereus (toxin in food, or in intestine)

leaving cooked rice and cereals too long before eating them allowing soil or dust to come into contact with food by not wearing protective clothing or not washing hands leaving food uncovered so that it comes into contact with dust and dirt.

These bacteria cause different symptoms depending on whether the toxin they produce is in the food or in the intestine. Symptoms from food toxin: nausea vomiting. 19 hours 1224 hours

Activity Use the full table Causes and symptoms of food poisoning in the Source material to answer these questions. 1 How long does Salmonella poisoning last for? 2 Breathing difficulties are a symptom of food poisoning caused by which bacteria? 3 Which bacteria cause food poisoning by leaving cooked rice and cereals too long before eating them? 4 What is the incubation period for Clostridium botulinum?

Tip Use the key words in bold to search for the information you need. Decide what information you already have and look for it on the table. Then use the headings to help you find the information you need.

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Bacteria
There is a lot to learn about bacteria. You can find information in many different places, but not everything will be relevant to you. You can decide if a text is relevant to you by skimming it, or looking through it quickly, to check what its about and whether it has the information you need.
The Food Hygiene certificate asks you to be able to do these things:

Skimming clues Use these skimming clues to help you decide what to read and what not to read. 1 Who published the information? Look for the logo or a heading. 2 Headings usually stand out. They are often bigger or bolder. They help you find information. 3 Look at the introduction. Sometimes this is in bigger or bolder writing. 4 Pictures and illustrations can tell you what kind of article you are reading, and what might be in it. 5 Language is a big clue. Is it technical? Full of difficult words? Easy to read?

Explain what bacteria are and where they are found. Explain how bacteria reproduce and how long this takes. Find out what helps bacteria grow or slows their growth. Find out the difference between pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

Before you look for information, it helps to be very clear about what you need to know. Then you can decide what to read and what not to read. Skim reading a piece of writing can give you clues about what to read and what not to read.

Will you find what you need to know here?

Or here?

1 2
In-depth study into pathogenic bacteria and their reproduction
Author: Dr R Roberts Assisted by: M. Hackney Dr F Boyd R. Freeman

4 2
Food Hygiene Programme Guide

Introduction This study will cover the following areas: 1. Mitrochondrial expansion. 2. Reproduction and growth in an acidic environment. 3. Pathogenic nucleic growth. 4. Slowing the rate of development.

A guide to what bacteria are, their reproduction rate and influences on this, and pathogenic and spoilage bacterias effects on the food we eat. 1. What are bacteria and where do they grow? Bacteria are micro-organisms. This means they are so small we cant see them with the human eye. Bacteria need warmth and moisture to grow. They reproduce by dividing themselves, so one bacterium becomes two and then two become four and so on. In the right conditions one bacterium could become several million in 8 hours and thousands of millions in 12 hours.

1. Mitrochondrial expansion In the mitrochondrial expansion phase of the pathogenic growth hormone physicardia-crobatical the rate of exchange of the physical properties is in direct proportion to the rigomort function of the extremis particularituli membrane. This paper sets out to examine the difficulties in the measurement of the bipolar metamorphosis of the pathogenic organism.

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Pests
Control of pests is an important aspect of food hygiene. When you need to find information about a particular pest, remember that you dont need to read all of the information. Scan the page for the word you are looking for.
Scanning is like looking for your name on a list. Think about what you are looking for: Is it one word or a group of words? How long is the word? Have a go how many times can you see these creatures mentioned in the information? Flies Rats Wasps

Kinds of pest
Insects that come in from outside, for example:

Hazards to health
Carrying germs from unhealthy places, for example:

Methods of control

flies moths ants cockroaches fruit flies

Insects that live in stored food, for example:


rats carrying disease from the sewers they live in flies carrying disease from rubbish tips and animal droppings wasps carrying dirt and germs from dustbins.

beetles mites weevils

Carrying bacteria inside their bodies, for example:

Rodents:

rats
mice

passing on bacteria from saliva and defecating while eating food passing on food-borne diseases like dysentery and Weils disease carried by rats urine.

Birds:

pigeons

Contaminating food with:

Keep food covered at all times. Store food in sealed containers (this will help to keep it fresh as well as safe). Never leave food outside. Make sure rubbish bins are kept closed and emptied regularly. Check deliveries of fruit, vegetables and cereals for pests, and around all packaging. Check stored food carefully and regularly for signs of pests. Dont keep grains, cereals or spices for too long. Keep the food storage areas and preparation areas clean all the time. Check around bins especially. Clear up any food spillages immediately. D t l d d i d

You need to have thought about the words you are looking for before you scan for them, so that the shape of the word jumps out at you. Use the full page of information from the Source material to answer these questions. Answer them as quickly as you can by scanning for the key words shown in bold type.

1 Which of these birds is mentioned as a kind of pest? a) Dove b) Seagull c) Crow 2 How is the hazard Weils disease carried? 3 What should you tell your manager? 4 Where might weevils live? 5 How should you store food?

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Temperature danger zone


Perishable food must be kept out of the temperature danger zone as much as possible. Bacteria and other micro-organisms grow best between 5C and 63C.
110C 105C Water boils

Temperature gauges come in different shapes and sizes and work in different ways. Make sure you understand how to use each one before you use it.

How does a temperature gauge work? A law of nature: if two things are in contact with each other for a long time they will come to have the same temperature. This is how a thermometer is used to measure the temperature of food. Put the thermometer into contact with the food and the thermometer will come to the same temperature as the food.

100C 95C 90C 85C 80C

Re-heat food

75C 70C 65C

Hot tap water

60C 55C 50C 45C D A N G E R Z O N E

Body temperature

40C 35C 30C 25C

Room temperature

20C 15C 10C

On this temperature gauge you must push the spike into the food and press the button. Read the temperature when the figures stop flashing. Is this temperature in the danger zone?

Fridge Ice melts Ice tray

5C 0C 5C 10C Water freezes

Freezer

15C 20C
5

0
FRIDGE

5 10

Perishable food Perishable means likely to go bad. All food perishes in time, but some food does so more quickly, especially if it is untreated. Which of these are perishable foods that must be kept out of the danger zone?
PLAIN
FLOUR

MILK

Dried

This thermometer stays in the fridge unit. You can read the temperature by counting the number of marks past the closest number that the needle is pointing to. Is this temperature in the danger zone?

Pasta Bake Pasta Bake

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Time and temperature


Good food hygiene involves careful planning of time. You must be able to work out times for defrosting food, keeping a hot dish waiting and how long to cool a dish before you can put it into the fridge.
110C 105C 100C 95C 90C 85C 80C 75C 70C 65C 60C 55C 50C 45C 40C 35C 30C 25C 20C 15C 10C 5C 0C 5C 10C 15C 20C D A N G E R Z O N E

Try to cool freshly cooked food within 90 minutes. Thats an hour and a half. This chicken will be ready for the fridge at 2 oclock.

This joint will take 12 hours to defrost thoroughly in a fridge. It will take 2 1 hours to cook. It is 2 needed for a meal at 1 oclock. It must come out of the freezer at least 14 1 hours before 1 oclock. 2

This lasagne can safely be kept warm at 63C for two hours. Food serving time is from 1:45 to 2:30. It is safe to put the lasagne in the food warmer at 12:30.

Have a go 1 You are serving a meal to guests at 8:15 pm. Individual chicken pies will take four hours to defrost and 45 minutes to bake. What time should they come out of the freezer, and what time should they go into the oven?

Its easier to count forwards and backwards in time using an analogue clock. A digital clock makes it easy to tell what the time is and whether it is morning or afternoon.

14:00
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2 You are serving steamed puddings at approximately 9:00 pm. You have a warming area that can safely keep them warm for 30 minutes. What is the best time to have the puddings ready by?

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Frozen food
Frozen food has to be kept very cold, at minus 18 degrees Celsius or below. Minus temperatures are shown by a minus sign, like this: 18C. The little circle is a shorthand way of writing degrees and the C is the abbreviation for Celsius, the name given to the scale used.

Minus or negative temperatures


20C 15C 10C 5C

Plus or positive temperatures


0C 5C 10C

The air temperature of a freezer must measure 18C or below.

The air temperature of an ice cream freezer must measure 12C or below.

The air temperature of a fridge must be between 0C and 4C.

Negative or minus numbers count backwards from zero. The colder the temperature, the bigger the number. 1C is colder than zero. 2C is colder than 1C. 5C is 10 degrees colder than +5C. To make it six degrees colder, take away six degrees from 12C to get to 18C. To make it six degrees warmer, add six degrees to 18C to get to 12C.

Have a go The kitchen receives a new freezer unit, which is needed as urgently as possible. Your job is to keep checking the temperature gauge. As soon as it is cold enough minus 18C you must inform the kitchen manager. Follow the temperature drops and circle the step number when the freezer reaches 18C or below. 1 When you receive the freezer, the temperature measures +10C. 2 In half an hour, it has dropped by eleven degrees. 3 In the next ten minutes the temperature drops by three degrees. 4 Twenty minutes later, it has dropped again by six degrees. 5 The next time you measure the temperature it has dropped another four degrees. 6 Thirty minutes later it has dropped by six degrees. 7 Five minutes later the temperature has dropped again by one degree.

Remember!

Never place hot or warm food in a freezer or fridge unit because it will make the temperature rise and cause condensation that could contaminate other food. Defrost food completely before cooking it. Cooking partially frozen food is a common source of food poisoning. Never refreeze food which has been defrosted.

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Best before and use by


Best before and Use by dates are required by law on prepackaged foods. These dates are used by supermarkets and suppliers to make sure customers can be confident that foods are safe to eat. Dates are written in many different formats.
USE BY dates are found on highly perishable foods. BEST BEFORE dates are found on foods with a longer shelf life.
BEST BEFORE END MAR 2006

BEST BEFORE

Use by

04-08-06

Different manufacturers write dates in different ways. If a date contains just numbers, the day of the month is written first, then the month, then the year. 04/08/05 Day Month Year The fourth day of August 2005 The months of the year are numbered in the order they come in: 01 = January 07 = July 02 = February 08 = August 03 = March 09 = September 04 = April 10 = October 05 = May 11 = November 06 = June 12 = December

Sometimes the month is written out in full: MARCH Sometimes the month is shortened to the first three letters: MAR Sometimes a number represents the month: 03

DAY DOTS are placed on refrigerated fresh or defrosted products.

Day dots show the last day that a product can be used. The shelf life is normally 3 days. Example: This casserole was refrigerated on Monday. It must be used by the end of Thursday (Thu).

Activity The kitchen will be closed from Monday 23rd December 2006 until Monday 6th January 2007. Which items of stock should be thrown out on 22nd December?

USE BY 07 / 01 / 07
d

BEST BEFORE 31 -12 -06


e

Tue

BEST BEFORE END DEC 07


g

BEST BEFORE 1 JUN 07


h

Wed

BEST BEFORE END DECEMBER 07

BEST BEFORE 5 JAN 07

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Preserving food
Many methods are used to slow down the process that leads to food spoilage. Reading about them can help you to remember and understand the different processes. Longer pieces of text are usually split into separate paragraphs. This can make the text easier to read.

Paragraphs Knowing about paragraphs helps you to read them. Paragraphs:


are groups of sentences about the same idea can have one or two, or many sentences in them are often separated by spaces.
temperatures. r fo p

Chemical preservation
to A ing hen HT eep rd, sed ses of can Chemicals can preserve food by making it difficult for micro-organisms to grow there. Salting, pickling, curing and preserving with sugar are examples of chemical preservation. Some herbs and spices can also help to preserve food. Artificial chemicals, such as sorbic acid, sodium benzoate and sulphur dioxide are found in many foods today Artificial chemicals are . given an E number.

Drying
Drying food, or dehydration, takes out the moisture that feeds spoilage bacteria, so food like fish, meat, vegetables and fruit can be kept for long periods. (Paragraph 4) Smoking food adds flavour as well as preserving it. Cheese, fish, chicken, sausages and bacon are often smoked.

Ir
T s o r

Questions 1 How many sentences are there in each paragraph? 2 What is a suitable heading for paragraph 4? 3 Which of the preserving processes described in the paragraphs are used for these products? a b c

Reading tips You may need to read a paragraph more than once.

Read first to get a general idea of what it is about. Read again and try to find one sentence that gives you the main idea. This is called the topic sentence. Use the glossary or a dictionary to look up technical words. What are the topic sentences in the three paragraphs above?

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The dos and donts of food storage


Its important to store food away correctly straight after you have checked a delivery. There are lots of guidelines to do with the correct storage of food.
These guidelines are a set of instructions. They are clearly written in short bulleted sentences.

When you read instructions look out for the action words that tell you exactly what to do.

Store food Place foods Stack shelves Rotate stock

General rules for food storage


Store food immediately after you have checked the

delivery .
Always deal with high risk, frozen and perishable

foods before dry and canned goods.


Keep high risk and perishable foods out of the

Look out for negative instructions things you should not do.

temperature danger zone.


Always read the storage instructions on the label

Never store food on the floor.

or box. Place foods in the correct storage areas. You must protect food from contamination.
Never store food on the floor, always use shelves

or pallets.
Use clean, dry containers and wrappers if food

needs to be divided into smaller quantities or rewrapped.

Keep an eye out for dos and donts so that you can follow the guidelines correctly.

Stack shelves carefully without overloading them

Always read Always store Never store

and leave enough space between goods for air to circulate freely .
Keep storage areas clean and dry; clear up any

spills immediately .
Rotate stock. Never use food that has just arrived

when you have stock on the shelves that should be used first.

Look out for things that must be done if something else happens.

Use clean, dry containers and wrappers if food needs to be divided into smaller quantities or re-wrapped.

Tell your manager about any signs of pests. Separate any food that could be spoilt or has gone

past its date mark to ensure that it is not eaten and tell your manager. He or she will tell you what to do once the food has been checked. Unacceptable food should be returned to the supplier or destroyed.
Always store cleaning chemicals and materials in

separate, clearly labelled areas.

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Food storage
Its important to handle and store food in the best possible conditions, at the right temperature and for a safe period of time. Some of the words used to describe these conditions can be difficult to read or understand, but you can sometimes work out their meanings from the context.
Activity Read the memo from the Source materials and choose the best meaning for the underlined words below. Use the context to help you do this.

Handle everything with care: rough handling can accelerate spoilage. The best meaning of accelerate in this context is: 1 speed up 2 drive 3 slow down

Freezer burn is caused by dehydration damage when food is frozen without proper wrapping and moisture evaporates. The best meaning of dehydration in this context is: 1 water penetration 2 drying out 3 burning

Inappropriate storage in the fridge may allow raw meat to drip onto cooked food. The best meaning of inappropriate in this context is: 1 shelf 2 inside 3 incorrect

Storing rubbish for too long caused an infestation of flies. The best meaning of infestation in this context is: 1 a small number 2 an overwhelming number 3 a home for

Tip Use the other words around the word or words like it to work out the meaning.

You cant always work out the exact meaning of words from the sentence you find them in but you can make a good guess.

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Module 3 Cleaning and personal hygiene

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Hygiene habits
Hand washing is one of the most important features of food hygiene, and the one most often neglected. You have to follow good hygiene habits if you want to protect food.
Instructions on what to do to keep good hygiene habits and information on hygiene could be mixed together in the same piece of text. Recognising the difference can make the text easier to read and follow.

Look out for the instruction or action words that tell you what to do, like wash and cover. Can you find any more?

Hand hygiene
Wash your hands frequently throughout the day, especially when you begin work, whenever you have handled food, after going to the toilet or outside, and after smoking. Never test food with your finger, always use a clean spoon. Dont wear nail varnish it could flake off into food or jewellery, which could trap bits of food and cause cross-contamination. Cover cuts, scratches and spots with a waterproof plaster to prevent spreading bacteria to food and to protect the wound or spot. Waterproof plasters should be brightly coloured they are usually blue so that they can be easily seen if they come off. Some plasters contain a thin metal strip so that they can be automatically identified by a metal detector on production lines. If a plaster does fall into food, tell your employer immediately . If you have a weeping spot or boil, you must report this to your employer before you start work. People are the main source of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning bacteria, which can spread from infected spots or boils

Some sentences give you information. Find two more sentences that are not instructions but instead give you information.

Some instructions include information about reasons. Sometimes you have to work out the reasons for yourself. Circle the reasons for not wearing jewellery or nail varnish.

Some instructions are conditional. This means you only have to follow them in certain circumstances Look out for the word if.

How to wash hands thoroughly:


1. Rinse any bits of food or dust off your hands. 2. Use comfortably hot, running water. 3. Use one squirt of soap from the dispenser. 4. Rub soap all around, including between your fingers. 5. Scrub nails with a nailbrush, especially if you have been to the toilet or have been handling raw food. 6. Rinse the nailbrush off carefully . 7. Rinse hands thoroughly, back and front. 8. Dry hands carefully on paper towels.

Numbered instructions should be followed in order.

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Preparation areas
Food preparation areas need to be kept spotlessly clean and disinfected. You will be cleaning as you work, but a thorough clean has to be carried out at regular intervals. Make sure you know what to do by listening carefully.
Get ready to listen.
2

Ill tell you what to clean, then Ive got to dash out to the office. Just remember, you have to spray the disinfectant on after you cleaned, and leave it for at least 3 minutes, or it doesnt work. Start with the sinks and the drainer, and check the drains are clear and not clogging up. Then do the work surfaces, give them a good scrub, and use the special cleaner on the hob, just read the instructions first. You dont have to do inside the oven today, but make sure you wipe down the outside of the door and be specially careful of the handles.

Look as if you are listening:


nod look at the speaker.

Listen for the words that let you know what order to do things in.

Keep a notepad to jot down what you have to do or keep a mental note.

Order words might be things like first, second, then, afterwards, before that, later, next and finally. Check that what you hear makes sense to you. If you dont understand, ask questions.

Right, thats four things Ive got to do.

I have to listen for key words like do and dont. Is there anything I must not do?

Repeat key points to check youve got it right.

The special cleaner is that the Zapco one? Did you say three minutes?

Listen for the words which tell you what action to take or not to take. Action words might be things like do, dont, go, scrub, leave, remember.

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Protective clothing
What you wear at work plays an important role in protecting food from contamination. Employers will often have a dress code for staff to follow.
You need to listen very carefully to know what to wear. You need to be able to answer these questions:

What is the name of the piece of protective clothing? Why is the item used? When should you wear the item? How should the item be worn or put on?

Task
3

Listen to a supervisor explaining what staff at one company need to wear at work. Can you pick out all the items of protective clothing? Can you answer all the four questions in the box above?

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Washing up
You may need to take a multiple-choice test at the end of your course. Here are some tips to help you.
Tips for multiple-choice questions

Read the instructions carefully and check that you understand how to record your answers. Read all the choices before choosing an answer. If you think there is more than one answer, choose the answer that is most correct. Do the questions you find easiest first and come back to the harder ones. Dont rush. Check your answers through at the end.

Read the instructions on Washing up in the Source material and answer these questions. 1 When using a dishwasher, you should: a Set it to run at 80C. b Make sure the cleaning jets are blocked. c Stack the machine according to the manufacturers instructions. d Fill the machine with chemicals. 2 What items of protective clothing should you wear when washing by hand? a An apron to protect your clothes from splashes. b Rubber gloves to protect your hands. c An overall to protect your clothes from chemicals. d Insulated gloves to protect your hands from hot water. 3 What is the ideal temperature for rinse water when washing by hand? a 82C b 89C c 55C d 30C 4 What is the best way to dry items after washing them by hand? a Paper towels b Clean, dry cloths c Leave them to dry in the air d A purpose designed basket

Questions may begin with a sentence which is not finished. You need to choose which phrase will complete the sentence correctly.

Sometimes you can think a question through and decide which makes best sense.

Sometimes you have to know the facts.

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Using chemicals
Chemical cleaning products can be dangerous. They have to be used carefully and stored correctly. Look out for these symbols on product labels. They are there to warn you that these chemicals can harm you.

Irritant
Keep out of reach of children Store away from food products Avoid contact with eyes Seek medical advice if swallowed

Irritant means: a Annoying b Likely to cause reddening, swelling, itching, burning, or blistering c Likely to cause an allergic reaction

CAUTION

Corrosive
Causes severe burns Wear gloves, eye and face protection In case of contact with eyes or skin, rinse immediately with water and seek medical advice Do not breathe spray Use only in well ventilated areas

Corrosive means: a A chemical with the power to dissolve or eat away human skin, metal and other substance b Dangerously poisonous c Likely to catch fire

CAUTION

Flammable
Do not expose to temperatures above 50C Keep out of direct sunlight Keep away from sources of ignition NO SMOKING

Flammable means: a Powered by flame b Extremely hot to the touch c Likely to catch fire

CAUTION

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Module 4 Food hygiene and the law

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4:1

Responsibilities
Food handlers and proprietors (owners and employers) have responsibilities in law for protecting the public from illness caused by food. You need to know what your responsibilities are, and what your employer is responsible for.
Activity Underline the employers responsibilities. Circle the employees responsibilities. Whose responsibility is it?

Keep yourself clean. Register with the local enforcement authority. Store, display and prepare food at safe temperatures. Design, equip and operate premises in ways which prevent contamination and anything that could lead to illness or injury. Provide adequate washing facilities and arrangements for personal hygiene. Never sell food after the date on the label. Keep the workplace clean. Wear suitable, washable protective clothing. Train staff and supervise them to work hygienically. Tell employers if any symptoms of a foodborne illness or certain other illnesses or conditions occur. Assess food hazards and take action to stop or reduce risks to food safety (HACCP).

The words or phrases in bold can be found in the glossary.

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Food Acts
Food workers need to know the law about food hygiene. There are four key laws that all owners and managers of food business must follow.
The Food Safety Act Under this act owners and managers

Activity Read the case studies below. Which of the regulations do you think was not followed in each case?

must not sell (or keep for sale) food that is unfit for people to eat must not cause food to be dangerous to health must not sell food that isnt what the customer is entitled to expect, in terms of content or quality must not describe or present food in a way that is false or misleading.

1
The owner of a fast food restaurant was prosecuted because he failed to train his food workers in basic hygiene procedures.

2
The owner of an Indian takeaway in Roxhill has been fined heavily after food was found to be contaminated with Salmonella a toxin-forming bacteria.

Food Safety (Temperature Control) Regulations cover the following issues:


the stages of the food chain that are subject to temperature controls the temperatures at which certain foods must be kept which foods are exempt from specific temperature controls.

Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations


These set out the basic hygiene requirements that food businesses must follow in relation to staff, premises and food handling. There must be effective food safety management measures (or controls) in place, to ensure that food is produced safely and that the health of customers is not put at risk.

3
A local take-away has recently been prosecuted for displaying cooked chickens at low temperatures.

4
Last year a sandwich bar was forced to close because it had registered for making sandwiches with purchased cooked meat. The owner adapted her kitchen to cook her own meat without telling the Council.

Food Premises (Registration) Regulations

If you are planning to start a new food business, you need to register with your local environmental health department 28 days before opening. If you change the activity at your food premises, you must tell your local environmental health department within 28 days of the change.

5
A newsagents has been fined for selling food that is past its use-by date.

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Hazard analysis
Hazard analysis asks you to think logically about what might go wrong with the food you sell and what steps you could take to make sure that it is safe for customers. A hazard analysis might be presented in a flowchart.
Activity Your company sells hot sausage rolls. Work in groups to complete the flow chart. Identify the hazards at each step. Think about what you can do to stop things going wrong (the controls). Note: some of the boxes are already completed to help you get started.

Example Hazard Analysis Flowchart for a retailing operation

Steps
Purchase and delivery

Hazard
Harmful bacteria present in ready to eat foods. Physical and/or chemical contamination of incoming foods.

Control
Use reputable suppliers. Specify delivery temperatures.

Chilled storage

Reheating of foods e.g. pies, pasties*

Hot display/ service/sale*

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Food premises
How well workspaces are designed and how well workers use their workspaces has an important effect on food hygiene. Reading about food premises often means reading complicated information.
Information leaflet #2612

To make writing easier to read we use punctuation. Punctuation = the signs and symbols that give extra information about what the writer means.

All sentences end with a stop sign. Different kinds of stop sign tell you more about the sentence.

FOOD
HYGIENE AGENCY

Principles of good design and use of food premises


Employers and staff of food-related premises should follow these principles: The design of food premises should help staff to prevent contamination and to control food temperatures. Check: Do the premises you work in allow raw and cooked food as well as clean and dirty tasks to be kept apart? It is imperative that the design of food premises prevents pest infestation! The best materials for the building and furnishings are long lasting, waterproof, smooth and easy to clean. Food equipment and utensils must also be long lasting, waterproof, smooth, resistant to damage and easy to clean. Check: Are the equipment and furnishings placed in such a way as to make thorough cleaning easy? There should be a well-planned route for food through the premises. Food handlers must plan their work so that they make the fewest number of journeys around the food area as possible. Have you followed all health and safety procedures and food hygiene regulations? Make sure by asking your local Environmental Health Officer for advice.

-?,!;:.
A list with a lot of different items in it will often start with a colon.

A statement ends with a full stop. The next word after a full stop always begins with a capital letter.

This sign tells you

that more information will follow.

An exclamation mark is used to express strong feelings or commands. It acts like a full stop.

Questions end with a question mark. Questions begin with question words like: When? Where? Why? What? Who? How? Do? Does? Are? Is? Have? Might?

A list inside a sentence is separated by commas. A comma never ends a sentence, so it isnt followed by a capital letter.

Have a go How many questions are there in this leaflet? Highlight all the punctuation. Can you tell what it is all for?

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Where next?
It is important to keep up to date about food hygiene. Knowing where to find information is a very useful skill.
There are many useful websites, but it is important to know who is publishing the information you read. This is not always easy on a website. There are some clues in the address: www.food.gov.uk You can find books, journals, leaflets and catalogues in the library. There is also free Internet access. Finding information in a library is quite easy because you can ask the librarian for help. The librarian will need to know: what the information is for how much information you need.

world wide web

name of site

government site

country of origin

Try and look at these sites: www.dh.gov.uk www.eatwell.gov.uk/keepingfoodsafe/ http://cleanup.food.gov.uk/ www.hmso.gov.uk www.riph.org.uk

Journals are a good source of up-to-date and indepth information. They will have a range of different articles in them. Use the contents page to find an article you are interested in reading.
Features HACCP and the small business sector Challenges and consequences of food poisoning Health and poverty Hot tips on hand washing News New government minister Results of survey delayed

Books are a good source of in-depth information. You can search for a book by:

page 12 page 16 page 22 page 24

page 4 page 9

Author Publisher Title ISBN number Date published. Title: Publisher: Author: ISBN: Date: The Cleaner Kitchen Healthy Books V. Kleene 100 123 000 678 01 First published 2005; second imprint, 2006

Try the Health & Hygiene (quarterly) journal from the Royal Institute of Public Health. You can order it from their website (www.riph.org.uk) or download and read articles.

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