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Prioritizing Historical Archaeological Sites at
Fort Leonard Wood, Pulaski County, Missouri




Carl G. Carlson-Drexler, Ellen R. Hartman,
Carey L. Baxter, and Susan I. Enscore
April 2012

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

April 2012
Prioritizing Historical Archaeological Sites at
Fort Leonard Wood, Pulaski County, Missouri
Carl G. Carlson-Drexler, Ellen R. Hartman, Carey L. Baxter, and Susan I. Enscore
Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
2902 Newmark Drive
PO Box 9005
Champaign, IL 61826-9005

Final report
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Prepared for Fort Leonard Wood Directorate of Public Works
Environmental Division
Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri 65473

ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 ii

The Army is tasked with managing the cultural resources on its lands. For
installations such as Fort Leonard Wood that contain large numbers of
historic farmsteads, meeting these requirements through traditional
approaches entails large investments of time, personnel, and capital. Fort
Leonard Wood and the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
have developed a model for efficiently identifying the best examples of
historic sites, and also those sites that are least likely to be deemed eligible
for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.
This report details the application of the data collection and analysis
process developed by Enscore et al. (2005) to eight historic sites on Fort
Leonard Wood Military Reservation. The results of the fieldwork show
that this approach helps to quickly identify basic information about the
site and provide a basis for identifying sites that have little potential for
listing on the National Register. Recommendations also are offered
concerning the development of the model and its application at other

DI SCLAI MER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or promotional purposes.
Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products.
All product names and trademarks cited are the property of their respective owners. The findings of this report are not to
be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other aut horized documents.

ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 iii

Table of Contents
Abstract .......................................................................................................................................................... ii
List of Figures ................................................................................................................................................. v
Preface ............................................................................................................................................................ vi
Unit Conversion Factors .............................................................................................................................vii
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Background .................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Organization of this document ..................................................................................... 2
2 Research Methodology ........................................................................................................................ 4
2.1 Archival methods ........................................................................................................... 4
2.2 Archaeological field methodology ................................................................................. 6
2.3 Laboratory methods ...................................................................................................... 8
2.4 Analysis/interpretation .................................................................................................. 9
2.5 Curation ....................................................................................................................... 10
3 Results of Archaeological Investigations at 23PU284 (Dundas School) ................................ 11
3.1 Site history ................................................................................................................... 11
3.2 Previous fieldwork ....................................................................................................... 12
3.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork .................................................................................................. 13
3.4 Site description ............................................................................................................ 14
3.5 Artifact analysis ........................................................................................................... 16
3.6 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 16
4 Results of Architectural Investigations of the Root Cellar at 23PU502 (Williams
Site) ........................................................................................................................................................18
4.1 Site history ................................................................................................................... 18
4.2 Site description ............................................................................................................ 21
4.3 Root cellar types .......................................................................................................... 26
4.4 Compare and contrast ................................................................................................ 34
4.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 37
5 Results of Archaeological Investigations at 23PU508 ............................................................... 38
5.1 Site history ................................................................................................................... 38
5.2 Previous fieldwork ....................................................................................................... 39
5.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork .................................................................................................. 40
5.4 Artifact analysis ........................................................................................................... 43
5.5 Site description ............................................................................................................ 45
5.6 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 47
6 Results of Archaeological Investigations at 23PU509 (Bryun L. Christeson Site) ................ 48
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 iv

6.1 Site history ................................................................................................................... 48
6.2 Previous fieldwork ....................................................................................................... 49
6.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork .................................................................................................. 51
6.4 Site description ............................................................................................................ 52
6.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 53
7 Results of Archaeological Investigations at 23PU510 (Dr. C. Mallette Site) ......................... 54
7.1 Site history ................................................................................................................... 54
7.2 Previous fieldwork ....................................................................................................... 55
7.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork .................................................................................................. 57
7.4 Site description ............................................................................................................ 60
7.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 61
8 Results of Archaeological Investigations at 23PU511 (Zula Hicks Site) ................................ 63
8.1 Site history ................................................................................................................... 63
8.2 Previous fieldwork ....................................................................................................... 64
8.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork .................................................................................................. 64
8.4 Site description ............................................................................................................ 66
8.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 66
9 Results of Archaeological Investigations at 23PU512 (A.L. Hicks Site) ................................. 68
9.1 Site history ................................................................................................................... 68
9.2 Previous fieldwork ....................................................................................................... 69
9.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork .................................................................................................. 70
9.4 Site description ............................................................................................................ 71
9.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 73
10 Results of Archaeological Investigations at 23PU548 (Lewis Lancaster Site) ..................... 74
10.1 Site history ............................................................................................................. 74
10.2 Previous fieldwork ................................................................................................. 75
10.3 Fieldwork ................................................................................................................ 75
10.4 Site description ...................................................................................................... 78
10.5 Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 79
11 Application of the Model ................................................................................................................... 80
12 Discussion of the Model .................................................................................................................... 83
12.1 Use of the Site Inventory Form .............................................................................. 84
12.2 Historical context ................................................................................................... 86
12.3 Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 87
13 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 88
References ................................................................................................................................................... 90
Report Documentation Page .................................................................................................................... 94

List of Figures
Figure 1. Dundas School in 1895 (left) and 1902 (right). (Images courtesy of the Pulaski
County Historical Society.) ........................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 2. Map of 23PU284, Dundas School (PSAP). .............................................................................. 13
Figure 3. Broken pieces of concrete foundation, 23PU284, Fort Leonard Wood (picture
taken in heavy rain, ERDC-CERL). .............................................................................................................. 15
Figure 4. Site map, 23PU284, Dundas School (ERDC-CERL). ............................................................... 17
Figure 5. Hand-drawn map of Williams farmstead by Patsey Williams Niebruegge, 2009. .............. 20
Figure 6. Williams site farmstead remnants, based on archaeological investigation (Ahler
et al. 2009, 296). ......................................................................................................................................... 22
Figure 7. Stone buttressed walls of Williams root cellar, 2004 (ERDC-CERL). ..................................... 25
Figure 8. Williams root cellar looking southwest (ERDC-CERL).............................................................. 25
Figure 9. Five basic types of root cellar construction (diagrams based on Gage 2009, 44). ........... 27
Figure 10. Field or prairie root cellar, built entirely underground (Gage 2009, 89). ........................... 28
Figure 11. Example of an earthen-mounded cellar (Gage 2009). ........................................................ 29
Figure 12. Example of an embankment cellar (Gage 2009). ................................................................ 30
Figure 13. 1895 drawings for the new plan for the construction of a storage cellar
(Alwood 1895). ............................................................................................................................................. 31
Figure 14. Williams site root cellar archeological investigation diagram, 2009 (ERDC-
CERL).............................................................................................................................................................. 36
Figure 15. Buttressed stone walls of root cellar (23PU502), 2004 (ERDC-CERL). ............................. 37
Figure 16. Sketch map of 23PU508 (Adams 2003, 66). ....................................................................... 41
Figure 17. Artifacts from surface, 23PU508 (ERDC-CERL). .................................................................... 42
Figure 18. Site map of 23PU508 (ERDC-CERL). ...................................................................................... 46
Figure 19. PSAP map of fieldwork at 23PU509 (Kreisa et al. 1996). .................................................. 50
Figure 20. Site map of 23PU509 (ERDC-CERL). ...................................................................................... 52
Figure 21. Sketch map of 23PU510 by Fort Leonard Wood archaeologists, 1994. ........................... 56
Figure 22. PSAP map of 23PU510 (Kreisa and Adams 1999). ............................................................. 57
Figure 23. Artifacts recovered from 23PU510 (ERDC-CERL). ................................................................ 58
Figure 24. Site map of 23PU510 (ERDC-CERL). ...................................................................................... 59
Figure 25. Sketch map of 23PU511 (Adams 1997). .............................................................................. 65
Figure 26. Site map of 23PU511 (ERDC-CERL). ...................................................................................... 67
Figure 27. PSAP map of 23PU512 (Adams 1997). .................................................................................. 70
Figure 28. Site map of 23PU512 (ERDC-CERL). ...................................................................................... 71
Figure 29. House site, 23PU512 (ERDC-CERL). ...................................................................................... 72
Figure 30. Root cellar, 23PU512 (ERDC-CERL). ....................................................................................... 73
Figure 31: Site map of 23PU548 (ERDC-CERL). ...................................................................................... 76
Figure 32: Artifacts from 23PU548 (ERDC-CERL). .................................................................................. 77
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 vi

This study was conducted for Fort Leonard Wood under Military
Interdepartmental Purchase Request (MIPR) 8MDATP3072. The technical
monitor at Fort Leonard Wood was Ms. Stephanie Nutt, Cultural
Resources Program Coordinator.
The work was performed by the Land and Heritage Conservation Branch
(CN-C) of the Installations Division (CN), Engineer Research and
Development Center-Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
(ERDC-CERL). The Project Manager was Michael L. Hargrave. At the time
of publication, Dr. Christopher M. White was Chief, CEERD-CN-C, and Dr.
J ohn Bandy was Chief, CEERD-CN. The associated technical director was
Alan B. Anderson. The Deputy Director of ERDC-CERL was Dr.
Kirankumar Topudurti, and the Director was Dr. Ilker Adiguzel.
ERDC-CERL is an element of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The
Commander and Executive Director of ERDC was COL Kevin J . Wilson,
and the Director was Dr. J effrey P. Holland.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 vii

Unit Conversion Factors
Multiply By To Obtain
acres 4,046.873 square meters
feet 0.3048 meters
gallons (U.S. liquid) 3.785412 E-03 cubic meters
hectares 1.0 E+04 square meters
inches 0.0254 meters
miles (U.S. statute) 1,609.347 meters
yards 0.9144 meters

ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 viii


1 Introduction
In August of 2009, Fort Leonard Wood requested the assistance of the
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center-Construction En-
gineering Research Laboratory (ERDC-CERL) in testing a methodology for
evaluating historic period archaeological sites for National Register of His-
toric Places (NRHP) eligibility. Fort Leonard Wood currently manages 207
historic sites, many of which are farmsteads and isolated houses on its ex-
pansive training ranges. This report details the results of fieldwork focused
on evaluating seven sites by ERDC-CERL archaeologists within the context
of the model for evaluation developed be Enscore et al (2005).
1.1 Background
The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), as amended, de-
fines responsibilities Federal agencies have to historic properties under
their oversight. Section 106 of the NHPA stipulates that federal agencies
must take effects on historic properties into consideration when planning
and completing undertakings which it regulates, funds, or which occur on
its lands. It defines "historic properties" as those listed or considered eligi-
ble for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Addi-
tionally, Section 110 of the NHPA requires cultural resource managers to
develop preservation programs to identify, evaluate, protect, and nominate
historic properties to the NRHP.
There are Army-specific mandates regarding historic properties that sup-
plement and support Section 106 and Section 110. Army Regulation (AR)
200-1 requires installations to develop integrated cultural resource man-
agement plans (ICRMPs), grounded in a landscape approach, to identify
and manage historic properties on Army lands. Fort Leonard Wood's
ICRMP does this (Edging et al. 2003).
As part of its ongoing program of regulatory compliance and cultural
resources planning, Fort Leonard Wood has surveyed approximately 90%
of its installation land looking for both prehistoric and historic
archaeological sites. Prior to Army acquisition, the area's land uses
consisted mainly of small farms and the rural communities that supported
them. Purchase of the land for Fort Leonard Wood resulted in the loss of
many Missouri communities including Bloodland, Palace, Evening Shade,

Cookville, Moab, Tribune, Wharton, and Wildwood, along with hundreds
of farmsteads and isolated houses. Previous archaeological surveys have
found former towns, farmsteads, schools, churches, and other properties
such as cemeteries. To date, 207 historic archaeological sites have been
identified on Fort Leonard Wood lands. Located approximately 120 miles
southwest of St. Louis, Missouri, and 85 miles northwest of Springfield,
Missouri, the installation is adjacent to the Mark Twain National Forest.
Occupying southern Pulaski County, and partially bounded by two
waterways (Big Piney River and Roubidoux Creek), the area contains a
variety of topographic features including water and floodplains, bluffs,
rolling hills, and uplands.
One product of Fort Leonard Wood's cultural resources stewardship activi-
ties was Steven D. Smith's 1993 study Made in the Timber: A Historic
Overview of the Fort Leonard Wood Region, 1800-1940, which provides a
historic context for understanding and investigating the installation's his-
toric archaeological sites. The Smith study employs a landscape approach
in a chronological progression, providing information on the physical,
commercial, and social development of the area before the creation of Fort
Leonard Wood in 1940. Location-specific information and historic context,
along with site integrity, are the basic prerequisites for evaluating the his-
toric archaeological sites at Fort Leonard Wood for National Register eli-
gibility. In order to complete the National Register evaluations systemati-
cally and efficiently, a means was needed to relate the historic context to
the specific archaeological sites.
1.2 Organization of this document
Two distinct research approaches were applied to these sites. Seven sites
were investigated archaeologically, while the eighth (specifically its root
cellar) was studied as an example of the vernacular architecture of the
Missouri Ozarks. Different approaches entailed different methods, and the
divergences will be apparent in the organization of subsequent chapters.
This document reports investigations of the eight sites studied, presented
in order of the site number assigned by the Archaeological Survey of Mis-
souri (Chapters 310). As mentioned above, one chapter (Chapter 4) gives
the results of architectural investigations of the root cellar at 23PU502, the
Wesley S. Williams site. Seven separate chapters detail the archaeological
research on the other sites included in this study. The occupants of all the-
se sites were once a community connected by kinship and social institu-

tions, a community that was displaced by the founding of the fort at the
start of World War II. Their homes remain clearly visible on the Fort
Leonard Wood rangelands, although the occupants have moved on. Instal-
lation land managers must now determine how best to manage their for-
mer homesteads consistent with federal law. Key among these legal re-
quirements is the evaluation of sites for eligibility to be listed on the
National Register of Historic Places.
ERDC-CERL has worked with Fort Leonard Wood to develop a method for
evaluating sites for eligibility more rapidly, a subject which is covered sub-
sequent to the discussion of fieldwork in this report (Chapter 11). While an
important step forward in the ability to speedily fulfill federal cultural re-
sources mandates, there are some aspects of the model that bear revision.
Suggestions for those revisions constitute the final chapter of this report
(Chapter 12).

2 Research Methodology
The research conducted by ERDC-CERL archaeologists on the sites at Fort
Leonard Wood consisted of several elements, each of which recovered in-
formation that contributed to final estimates of the potential for each site
to be considered eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic
Places and aided in assessing the effectiveness of the significance model
developed by Enscore et al. (2005).
Each of the sites involved in this review already had been researched at
least minimally. This earlier research frequently meant little, however, be-
yond the level of documentation during archaeological surveys. Each chap-
ter in this report includes a brief synopsis of previous work and eligibility
assessments. These earlier findings informed, but did not constrain, the
eligibility recommendations developed through this project.
ERDC-CERL research on these sites included archival, architectural, and
archaeological field investigations (excavations and mapping), photo-
graphic documentation, artifact analysis, and the application of Enscore et
al.s model for eligibility recommendations. The sections of this chapter
describe each of these steps in turn.
2.1 Archival methods
A few archival sources were consulted for primary documents relating to
each site. This effort focused on identifying landowners and gathering a
small amount of historical information that would help establish a rough
chronology for each site. The archival sources also were useful to suggest
possible dates for the initial and final habitation of the site as well as to
identify significant changes in ownership or site function. This information
was added to the Site Inventory Form for each archaeological site as the
documents were reviewed.
Searches for documents pertinent to each site began with General Land
Office patents, which record the identity of the first person to purchase the
land. Missouri is one of the general land states, meaning its territory was
initially considered property of the United States government, from which
owners purchased their parcels. The General Land Office recorded those
initials purchases, known as patents (Linklater 2002). These patents are

available online in a searchable database provided by the Bureau of Land
Ownership and inhabitation did not necessarily occur at the same time,
however. Immigrants to the Trans-Mississippi West frequently squatted
on land long before they purchased it. This was particularly true for land of
marginal agricultural value, which would not have been in high demand.
Rocky Ozark land was frequently squatted for years prior to purchase (Bol-
ton 1998; Rafferty 1980). The earliest documentation of ownership under
United States law may postdate settlement by several years.
Historic maps constituted another source of pertinent information con-
sulted in this project. Maps detailing Pulaski County and Fort Leonard
Wood provided a trove of basic land ownership and land use information.
The maps used in this project date to 1873, 1906, 1937, 1944, and 1948 and
copies are on file in the Landscape Lab at ERDC-CERL. A plat book for Pu-
laski County dating to 1930 and available online from the University of
Missouri archives, also proved useful (W.W. Hixson & Co. 1930). Fort
Leonard Wood also provided ERDC-CERL with a copy of the circa 1924
Pulaski County map (Higgins circa 1924), which shows land ownership.
Not all maps were of equal utility. For instance, the 1873 map of Pulaski
County does not show structures or land ownership; therefore, it was of
little use in this project. The 1930 plat book, the General Land Office pa-
tents, and the 1906, 1924, and 1948 maps of the region, which showed
some of the kinds of information the other maps lacked, were more heavily
relied on.
Wherever a name appeared associated with land pertaining to one of the
archaeological sites in question, searches were made for more information
regarding the individuals named and their families. The first resources
consulted were the decennial census enumerated by the U.S. Bureau of the
Census. These censuses identify, with very few exceptions, the people
mentioned on the above-listed maps and patents, and occasionally offered
genealogical data useful in understanding how the inhabitants of various
sites were related.


In addition, the Secretary of States office in Missouri makes available digi-
tal copies of death certificates for individuals who passed away within the
states borders between 1910 and 1959. Death certificates for several indi-
viduals associated with the sites studied during this project were identi-
fied. The death certificates provide some texture to the site interpretations
by providing genealogical, biological, and historical data such as age, place
of birth, parents and spouses names, occupations, and causes of death.
In rare occurrences, when official documentation could not be found, ge-
nealogical information made available in online resources were consulted
and appear in a few places in chapters that follow. Where such sources are
used (identified by the citation provided), conclusions should be under-
stood to be tenable because the unverified nature of online genealogical
information from nongovernment sites makes such sources inherently less
reliable than official government documents.
2.2 Archaeological field methodology
The first part of the archaeological fieldwork phase involved locating the
sites again, which was done with the aid of Mr. J oe Proffitt of Fort Leonard
Wood's Department of Public Works (FLW/ DPW). Mr. Proffitt provided
some site forms and drove ERDC-CERL archaeologists either to each site
or to the vicinity of each site, which greatly aided completion of this task.
For sites remote from the installation road, a Trimble GeoXH global posi-
tioning system (GPS) was used to guide the field crew to the site. Dense
tree cover impeded the GPS ability to determine its position, which made
finding 23PU510 and 23PU512 a lengthy process. The spatial coordinates
for the sites were gleaned from site forms provided by FLW/ DPW or ob-
tained from the Archaeological Survey of Missouris (ASM) Archaeology
One other site, 23PU508, had to be surveyed apart from the others due to
an inability to locate it during the first field phase in October 2009. Poor
satellite availability coupled with confusion over the reference datum used
for generating the site coordinates listed on the site form, prevented
ERDC-CERL archaeologists from locating the site during their October
field visit. During a subsequent trip in J anuary of 2010, Mr. Proffitt guided
an ERDC-CERL archaeologist directly to the site, which he had flagged
with tape between visits.


On-site methodology involved several different tasks. First, ERDC-CERL
archaeologists performed a pedestrian survey of the entire site and the
ground surrounding it for a space of 15-20 meters. This involved inspect-
ing not only the obvious architectural features of the site, such as wells,
stone-lined root cellars, and poured concrete foundations, but the ground
outside the core of the site as well in hopes of identifying artifact scatters
or other indications of activity in the area. In several cases, this survey
identified additional features associated with the historic occupation of the
site as well as its subsequent uses (e.g., locating foxholes related to mili-
tary training exercises).
In some instances, site features noted in previous visits to the location
were not locatable. For example, previous surveys of 23PU510 (the Dr. C.
Mallette Site) identified silo footings and other outbuildings associated
with what was once, in comparison to the other sites included in this pro-
ject, a large agricultural site. Despite a thorough search extending well be-
yond previously-recorded site limits, the silo footings and one barn foun-
dation were not located. This lack of finding was almost invariably the
result of heavy ground cover, as undergrowth around many sites was very
dense, even in October and J anuary when forest understory is usually rela-
tively thin.
Second, two shovel tests were excavated at each site. These shovel tests
were placed in areas judged by the archaeologists as most likely to yield
useful information about the site, its stratigraphic context, and representa-
tive artifacts. The soil strata present were recorded by documenting tex-
ture and color (using the Munsell soil color system). All of these notations
appear in the site descriptions that follow. Artifacts recovered from the
shovel tests were bagged and brought back to ERDC-CERL for cleaning,
analysis, and preparation for long-term curation.
Third, in several instances collections were made from sampling artifacts
on the sites surface. This was done when temporally diagnostic artifacts,
such as the medicine bottles at 23PU508, were seen on site. When surface
collections were made, obviously recent material (plastic soda bottles, cig-
arette packages, etc.) from after the founding of Fort Leonard Wood were
not collected.
Fourth, ERDC-CERL archaeologists used two techniques at each site to
gather spatial data used in the creation of the maps presented in the fol-

lowing chapters. Initially, sketch maps were made to capture subjective
impressions of each site and its salient identifiable aspects. Next, a geospa-
tially accurate map was made using the aforementioned Trimble GeoXH
GPS, which was affixed to a Zephyr external antenna. This GPS/ antenna
combination provides spatial precision to 30 centimeters. The site maps
that appear in this document are composites of the sketch maps, GPS data,
and maps of the sites made by previous archaeologists.
Finally, all sites were photographed using a Canon EOS Rebel digital SLR
camera. Adverse field conditions, such as very thick forest understory and
prodigious precipitation, made it difficult to capture large expanses of the
sites in question with clarity. The photographs presented here document
the state of the visible aspects of each site as effectively as was possible
within the constraints of the climate.
The root cellar of 23PU502, a site previously investigated archaeologically,
was subjected to a close analysis by a cultural geographer and two land-
scape architects from ERDC-CERL. These researchers documented the
feature and produced a thorough analysis of the cellar itself, comparing it
to other known examples of root cellars. (See Chapter 4 for a full descrip-
tion of the site.)
Archaeological fieldwork generated the information necessary to answer
the questions posed in the Site Inventory Form, although excessively wet
and rainy field conditions prevented recording the information in the field;
thus, the inventory forms were completed based on fieldwork data once
the archaeologists returned to ERDC-CERL.
2.3 Laboratory methods
The shovel testing of these sites yielded a small number of artifacts, pri-
marily from the historic period. These and all field notes from the project
are property of the federal government and, most directly, Fort Leonard
Wood. The recovered artifacts and copies of all paperwork will be submit-
ted to Fort Leonard Wood at the close of this project. Researchers interest-
ed in examining the artifacts recovered from this project should contact
the Department of Public Works at Fort Leonard Wood to inquire about
In the field, all excavated artifacts were placed in paper bags marked with
the installation name, date of excavation, site number, shovel test number,

and the initial of the excavator or excavators. Artifact bags were kept in a
centralized location while the crew was in the field. Upon return to ERDC-
CERL, all artifacts were removed from their bags, washed, allowed to air
dry, and then placed in plastic bags marked with the same information as
was written on the paper bags. The section of the paper field bag that bore
the relevant contextual data was clipped from the bag and placed in the
plastic bag along with the artifacts for the purposes of verifying its prove-
2.4 Analysis/interpretation
Once cleaned and ready for bagging, each artifact was identified (where
possible) and recorded in an artifact log for the site. Photographs were
taken of some of the artifacts and appear in this report.
After all field and archival data were amassed, each site was analyzed for
significance based on the Eligibility Prescreening Form and Site Inventory
Form developed by Enscore et al. (Enscore, et al. 2005). The results of this
process, along with some comments on the efficacy of the significance
model, constitute the latter chapters of this report.
Eligibility in this case refers to whether or not the site should be consid-
ered sufficiently historically significant to be listed on the National Regis-
ter of Historic Places (NRHP), a list maintained by the National Park Ser-
vice of important historic properties around the United States. The
National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, as amended, requires
that sites that are considered eligible to be on the NRHP must be consid-
ered when federal entities, or non-federal entities that receive funding or
oversight from the federal government, perform an undertaking.
The NHPA gives four criteria to be used in determining if a site may be eli-
gible for listing. A site must have integrity and satisfy one of the criteria
listed below (Neumann and Sanford 2001a).
The site is associated with events that have made a significant con-
tribution to the broad patterns of American history.
The site is associated with the life of persons significant to Ameri-
can history.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 10

The site embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or
method of construction.
The site has yielded or has the potential to yield information im-
portant to history or prehistory.
The last of these criteria is the one most frequently applied to archaeologi-
cal sites, given the nature of archaeological inquiry. A sites integrity,
mentioned above, is a complex term linked to a sites condition. Neumann
and Sanford (2001b) offer additional information on this term.
2.5 Curation
The artifacts for this project were initially curated at ERDC-CERL, locked
either in an office or a secured storage room. Upon completion of this pro-
ject, they will be transported for permanent storage to the American Ar-
chaeology Division, Museum Support Center of the Museum of Anthro-
pology at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 11

3 Results of Archaeological Investigations
at 23PU284 (Dundas School)
This chapter and the seven following it detail the results of archaeological
and architectural investigations at each of the sites selected for analysis in
this project. They contain a summary of known site history, previous
fieldwork, and a description of fieldwork conducted by ERDC-CERL ar-
chaeologists. Each chapter closes with a synthesis and analysis of the site,
based on the aggregation of various data sources pertaining to that site.
The first site so discussed is 23PU284, a poured concrete foundation for a
building that once served as a school, worship center, and community
gathering place for those in the area. It was known as the Dundas School.
3.1 Site history
The land where the Dundas School was built was patented in 1859 by
Benjamin W. Ricketts (Bureau of Land Management 2010). Mr. Ricketts
and his wife, Mary, maintained a large family of six children and one
boarder in Roubidoux Township in 1870 (U.S. Bureau of the Census 1870).
They do not appear in the 1880 census for the area.
The next documentation of the sites use comes from 1895, when photo-
graphs show the Dundas School had opened its doors to the areas stu-
dents (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Dundas School in 1895 (left) and 1902 (right). (Images courtesy of the Pulaski
County Historical Society.)
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 12

The Dundas School served children from the local community, from the
first through eighth grades. Nell York Miller, a former resident of the area,
remembered the structure as being one room, furnished with a central
wood-burning stove and a bookcase in the back. She also remembers there
were six windows, three on each side, that allowed light in and a raised
area at the front of the room. Some of these memories are corroborated by
the photographs of the school, shown in Figure 1 (Kreisa, et al. 1996;
Pulaski County Historical Society 2009).
In addition to serving as a school, the building operated as a community
center and a Baptist church. Debates and tent revivals brought the com-
munity together at that spot on a regular basis to socialize and pray. These
activities helped to bind members of the community together into a close
social unit (Kreisa, et al. 1996; Pulaski County Historical Society 2009).
The schoolhouse was in place by 1895, when Figure 1 was taken. It appears
on the 1906 map of Pulaski County, just north of a farmhouse. The school
is still in place when the 1924 Pulaski County map was made. At that time,
it was situated in the middle of a 38.5-acre tract owned by J .E. Christeson,
who kept house on 160 acres located on the east side of the road running
past the school house. The 1937 Pulaski County map, which shows church-
es and schools but not residences, shows the school. The 1944 map of Fort
Leonard Wood shows the site, but refers to the facility as the Dondas
Church, instead of a school,
3.2 Previous fieldwork
bespeaking the multiple functions the place
performed as a community gathering place. The site finally appears as
tract B253 on the 1948 Acquisition Map for Fort Leonard Wood, with the
map showing a fee of $100 paid to the Dundas School District.
Site 23PU284 was first identified as an archaeological site and reported to
the Archeological Survey of Missouri in 1982 by the private firm of Envi-
ronmental Consultants, Inc. At the time, the site consisted of a cement
foundation that was partially destroyed and two associated depressions,
which were tentatively identified as a privy and a well. The site was deter-
mined to be 0.1 acres in size at the time (Kreisa et al. 1996).
The Public Service Archaeology Program (PSAP) from the Illinois State
Museum shovel tested, mapped (Figure 2), and surface-surveyed the site

Reference to the church uses the variation in spelling that is shown.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 13

in late 1995 or early 1996, during a Phase I survey of the McCann Ceme-
tery Tract (Kreisa et al. 1996). The site was described much as it appeared
in 1982, although dimensions of the foundation walls were provided (Sec-
tion 3.4). A visual inspection of the surface at the site identified 25 frag-
ments of brick, one piece of glass, and one piece of military metal hard-
ware. Whether the glass was flat (window) or vessel glass is not noted, nor
is a description of the military metal hardware given. No artifacts were
encountered in the eight shovel tests dug at the site by PSAP (Kreisa, et al.

Figure 2. Map of 23PU284, Dundas School (PSAP).
Based on this fieldwork, Kreisa et al. (1996) suggested that the site was not
eligible for listing on the National Register.
3.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork
ERDC-CERL archaeologists performed a pedestrian survey of the site, dug
one shovel test pit, and made a sketch map of the site. Fieldwork took
place on 27 October 2009 under very rainy conditions.
The pedestrian survey started at the schoolhouse foundation and worked
outward. To the west, the survey ceased at the parking area adjacent to the
site. The extensive disturbance to the soil caused by the construction of the
parking lot and the improvement of the adjacent road (which is contempo-
raneous with the site) negated any hope of identifying additional features
associated with the schoolhouse. To the south, east, and north, the survey
extended approximately 50 meters in each direction, in hopes of identify-
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 14

ing more features than were previously documented. To the south, one de-
pression, measuring 4 x 1.5 meters, stood adjacent to the road south of the
site (Figure 4). This depression appears to be a foxhole or some similar
feature associated with military training, given its dimensions and rela-
tionship to the road. It is not considered to be part of the site.
In 1996, Kreisa et al. found the only potential features, besides the school
foundation, in the site to be three depressions, all in close proximity to the
foundation, with nothing noted further afield. The ERDC-CERL surface
survey of the area around the site supports this conclusion, since no other
features besides the previously mentioned, probable foxhole were ob-
served during fieldwork.
ERDC-CERL archaeologists excavated one shovel test pit at 23PU284,
south of the schoolhouse foundation (see Figure 4). That test location was
chosen based on the openness of the forest at that point. Also, it was felt
that a shovel test pit inside the foundation, where it was once covered by a
plank floor, would be less likely to yield artifacts than would one outside
the schoolhouse, in the yard where photographs show people congregating
and children playing.
The shovel test pit showed a regular progression of soil strata, though it
was devoid of cultural material. A thin (05 cm below surface), black
(10YR2/ 1) humic layer overlay a thicker stratum of silty clay (525 cm be-
low surface, 10YR3/ 2). Underneath these strata lay dark yellowish-brown
clay subsoil (2542 cm below surface, 10YR4/ 4). Though both the subsoil
and the overlying topsoil strata were silty clays, the subsoil had a noticea-
bly lower level of silt content.
3.4 Site description
The site now sits immediately west of a parking lot near a storage facility
at the entrance to Fort Leonard Woods Range 14. It would appear this
parking lot is a recent addition because it does not appear on the site map
presented by Kreisa et al (1996), which marks the area as a fallow field
(Figure 2). The area immediately surrounding the site is covered in under-
growth and small deciduous trees. During the fieldwork detailed above,
the ground was completely covered by leaf litter, making surface inspec-
tion impossible. The site has been disturbed by some activity that resulted
in the southern end of the building being pushed into the building interior
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 15

(Figure 3). This disturbance took place prior to 1996, as Kreisa et al. doc-
umented it during their fieldwork.

Figure 3. Broken pieces of concrete foundation, 23PU284, Fort Leonard Wood (picture taken
in heavy rain, ERDC-CERL).
The building that once stood at 23PU284 was a small (6 x 6 m), single pen
building that served multiple functions. The presence of several small de-
pressions in proximity to the foundation walls, initially identified in 1996
by PSAP, suggests the possibility of buried outbuildings being associated
with the structure (Figure 4). From historical and archaeological research,
we know that the building had a poured concrete foundation topped with a
wooden superstructure that was covered with wooden clapboards. The
south face had a door on its western side, and the west face had four win-
dows with shutters. The roof was covered in wooden shingles. The chim-
ney for the wood stove appears in the 1902 image of the school, exiting the
roof at the north end of the building.
The site lies in the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter of Section
12, Township 34 North, Range 12 West.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 16

3.5 Artifact analysis
In all, five shovel test pits have been excavated at 23PU284, four by PSAP
and one by ERDC-CERL. PSAPs shovel tests recovered 27 artifacts (25
brick, 1 glass, 1 metal), while the shovel test excavated by ERDC-CERL re-
covered no artifacts. Suffice it to say that this small assemblage adds little
to our understanding of the site and its place within the historic landscape
of Fort Leonard Wood.
This is not to say that the artifacts are completely bereft of value. PSAPs
surface survey recovered 25 pieces of brick, which could indicate the pres-
ence of some additional feature or features. The images of the schoolhouse
and existing remains of the site show significant use of concrete and wood
as building materials, but the images do not give evidence of bricks being
used in the schoolhouse.
The one fragment of glass found by PSAP could either be related to a ves-
sel or window pane. Historic photos clearly show flat glass being used in
sash windows in the building, while the use of the building as a school,
church, or social hall would have presented many opportunities for vessel
glass to be deposited on site. The piece of miscellaneous military hardware
is likely more recent and related to military training activities in the area.
3.6 Conclusion
Previous archaeologists concluded that the Dundas School was not eligible
for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The intense disturb-
ance to the site and its scanty artifact content were key points in arriving at
such a conclusion. Additional fieldwork conducted as part of this project
does little to offer a counterargument. Though unique in the small collec-
tion of sites considered as part of this project, the loss of the sites physical
integrity and the limited archaeological information recovered to date sug-
gest there is little to be learned by further research of this site.

ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 17

Figure 4. Site map, 23PU284, Dundas School (ERDC-CERL).
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 18

4 Results of Architectural Investigations of
the Root Cellar at 23PU502 (Williams Site)
Unlike the research at the other sites presented in this report, only one el-
ement of Site 23PU502 was analyzed during this project. This site includes
a well-preserved root cellar, lined with local stone. ERDC-CERL geogra-
phers and architectural historians prepared the following summation of
that research.
The site was heavily investigated archaeologically by Ahler et al. (2009),
who argued that 23PU502 was eligible for listing on the National Register
of Historic Places under Criterion D, scientific significance. They refer-
enced the sites potential for contributing to our growing understanding
of the spatial organization of farmsteads; the integration of rural locations
into national economic networks; the perception of economic, geographic,
or cultural marginality of specific regions; and the origin and development
of local vernacular architectural styles (Ahler et al. 2009). ERDC-CERLs
fieldwork at the site was not meant to re-evaluate Ahler et al.s work. Ra-
ther, this research complements the archaeological fieldwork by studying
the root cellar at the site from the standpoint of architectural history.
4.1 Site history
The Williams family lived in the homestead now known as the Williams
Site (23PU502) from about 1881 until the U.S. Army bought the property
in 1941. Wesley S. Williams and Malinda J ane Vaughan married in J une of
1881 and settled the site soon thereafter. Wesley Williams patented the
land in 1895 (Bureau of Land Management 2010). The Williams household
first appears in the U.S. census in 1900 (almost the entire 1890 Census
was lost in a fire in 1922); the family consisted of the couple and their six
childrenMattie, Luther Leonard, Isaac Lee, Hattie, Alonzo, and Thomas,
ages one through 14 years. Wesleys occupation was recorded as a farm
owner (U.S. Bureau of the Census 1900). A 1906 county atlas shows the
W.S. Williams farmstead along the main road leading south from
Bloodland, Missouri, to the county line. At the time, Williams owned over
160 acres of land, although in J uly of that year he released some acreage in
the western portion of his farm for the new Waynesville-Houston Road
right-of-way (Ahler et al. 2009).
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 19

The 1910 U.S. census continues to record Wesley Williams as farm owner
with his oldest sons living and working on the farm. A photograph from
this time shows a framed farmhouse, one and a half stories tall, on a stone
foundation. Two doors on the west side of the house open onto the front
porch, which extended into a yard bordered with a picket fence. By 1924,
the farm had grown to 200 acres.
In 1928 Malinda Williams, then age 62, suffered a stroke and died at the
farmstead. Wesley continued living on the property, but his son Luther
Leonard assumed farm operations. Wesley, along with Luther Leonard
Williams, his wife Mary Etta Lancaster Williams, and their two sons were
recorded at the farm on the 1930 U.S. census. The sons, Grover and Ches-
ter, were ages two and four. A daughter of Luther Leonard and Mary Etta,
Patsey Williams was born in 1936. Both Patsey and Grover were inter-
viewed for this project. Wesley retained ownership of the farm until his
death in 1938, at which time Luther Leonard inherited the property.
Photographs and reminiscences from Grover Williams and Patsey
Williams Niebruegge suggest the house was built in a typical nineteenth-
century Midwest and Southeast plan. The house was a vernacular hall-
and-parlor, or double-pen construction, two rooms wide and one room
deep with a half-story attic accommodating additional sleeping space.
Originally the house had a kitchen ell centered on the east wall, but it was
subsequently replaced by a new kitchen attached to the side of the house
(Ahler et al. 2009). The kitchen ell extended from the south wall of the
living room, with screened porches flanking it on the east and west sides.
Locating the first kitchen ell on the back wall of the main house was
standard practice for the period; however, the placement of the new
kitchen ell on the side wall was unusual (Ahler et al. 2009). While
uncommon, this location perhaps facilitated the continued use of the old
kitchen as the new ell was constructed.
Patsy Williams Niebruegge drew a sketch map of the farmstead (Figure 5).
Around the house was a fairly large yard with an abundance of flowers and
catalpa and walnut trees. Looping past the west side of the house was the
main road south from Bloodland. Immediately west of the road in a ravine
was the springhouse. The springhouse had board walls with a stonework
foundation serving as the catchment basin for the water. South of the
house was the cellar. The cellar had stone walls and was built into the
slope leading to an intermittent stream. The downslope walls were rein-
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 20

forced with extensive stone buttresses. The cellar had space for potato bins
and storage shelves for preserves and for corn, peas, and cherries canned
by the gallon. Above the cellar stood a wood-sided granary with an interi-
or metal lining, a shed roof extended from its north wall providing a cov-
ered drive-through for farm wagons. Under the eave, tack and harnesses
were hung from nails on the north exterior wall of the granary (Ahler et
al. 2009). Other outbuildings included a board-sided smokehouse north of
the house and a well east of the house. A chicken coop, housing 1215
chickens and some guinea fowl, stood southeast of the main house. The
outhouse was near the chicken coop. Uphill and east of both the outhouse
and the chicken coop was a small barn, which served as a stable for horses.
In addition to horses, the farm had goats and sheep in a fenced pasture
across the drainage ditch west of the farmyard as well as pigs, cows, and
one old dog (Ahler et al. 2009). South of the residence was a garden
where the family grew vegetables, including beans, corn, parsnips, and
sweet potatoes. The family also had a large orchard northeast of the farm-
stead with apple, peach, pear, and plum trees.

Figure 5. Hand-drawn map of Williams farmstead by Patsey Williams Niebruegge, 2009.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 21

The U.S. Army purchased Williams property in 1941 (paying less than fair
market value) and demolished the house. With uncertainty over where
they were to go upon vacating the property, the displaced Williams family
spent several years moving and living in temporary housing. Upon leaving
their farmstead, they first moved into a goat shed owned by a man who
operated the Palace store. After staying in the goat shed for a few weeks,
the family moved to Old Evening Shade Church where they shared a house
with another family. Later they moved in with one of their older sons,
Chester Ray Williams, who owned a gas station and store at the junction of
Highway AW and Missouri Route 17. After Chester Ray was killed in action
on Okinawa while serving with the 382
Infantry, the Williams family
moved to a farm near Roby, Missouri (13 miles south of Fort Leonard
Wood), settling there in March 1946 (Ahler et al. 2009).
4.2 Site description
The Williams farmstead was located on a ridge slope adjacent to an inter-
mittent tributary to the creek that runs down Musgrave Hollow. The farm-
stead can be reconstructed from archaeological investigations and oral his-
tories. The site was a typical late nineteenth-century Missouri settler
farmstead in its arrangement of spaces and outbuildings. Settler farm-
steads were generally organized according to environmental conditions
and the suitability of terrain, meaning that buildings were located accord-
ing to purpose and frequency of use (Hervert and Allen 1980).
Accordingly, the Williams farmstead employs the basic patterns of farm-
stead layout, but does depart from the norm in several ways. Similar farm-
steads usually focused around the residence, with outbuildings circling it,
but located away from the main house. The function of an outbuilding dic-
tated its spatial relationship to the house. The smokehouse, springhouse,
well, and storage cellarall buildings storing goods needed on a daily basis
and not a threat to healthclustered near the house. Conversely, the privy,
chicken house, and barns, which were either less important to daily
household activities or more of a health risk, were located farther away
(Smith 2003).
As shown in Figure 6, the Williams homestead was unusual in that a pub-
lic road runs along the top of a drainage ditch directly west of the house,
between the storage cellar and the residence. Drainage also determined a
buildings placement, and the Williams site unusually located the privy
and barn at a higher elevation then the house; although they likely drained
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 22

away from the farmstead. These two departures aside, the house and out-
buildings were located and organized in a manner fundamentally con-
sistent with nineteenth-century settler farmsteads (Ahler et al. 2009).

Figure 6. Williams site farmstead remnants, based on archaeological investigation
(Ahler et al. 2009, 296).

Farmstead Remnants
0 s 10
Contour lnterval1.0 meters
Spring \
Boxes \
Root Cellar
a n d G r ~

Retaining Wall
Coop or Pen
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 23

One of the more interesting structures on the Williams property was the
combination of storage cellar and granary. This building was located
southwest of the main residence and possibly dates to the early 1880s,
when Wesley and Malinda Williams first moved to the property (Ahler et
al. 2009). Though located near the house, a public road runs through the
house yard, separating the cellar from the main house. Such an arrange-
ment was unusual, but it may have been the optimal location for the cellar.
Specifically, the cellar was built into the steep side slope of an intermittent
drainage ditch. The walls on the downhill side were thickly buttressed with
dry-laid stonework meeting the uphill slope flush with the ground surface.
The buttressed walls extended out to support the floor of the granary. The
stonework and hillside setting are similar to another root cellar (23PU398)
at Fort Leonard Wood, indicating that the Williams cellar could represent
a local building tradition of the late nineteenth century (Ahler et al. 2009).
Such a construction method, which depends on the use of the local topog-
raphy, makes the arrangement of buildings subject to the landscape of the
Not only is the Williams storage cellar uniquely located in relation to the
residence, it also is a rare example of the combination of two types of stor-
age structures. The storage cellar on the Williams property served as the
foundation for their granary. While demolition conducted by the Army has
severely disturbed the site, much of the storage cellar walls remain intact.
The original appearance of the structure can be envisioned from the physi-
cal remains and oral descriptions by former residents of the site. The stor-
age cellar employed typical construction techniques of buttressed, dry-laid
stonework walls on the exterior with concrete and timber construction on
the interior (Figure 7). According to Grover Williams, son of Luther Leon-
ard Williams, the storage cellar contained wooden bins for vegetables and
shelves on one side for canned goods. The potato boxes were to the right of
the entrance, and the shelves were straight ahead. This allowed for stand-
ing room inside on the left, where everyone would gather during storms
(Williams 2009). According to Patsey Williams Niebruegge, the storage
cellar had a wooden door that opened out and was insulated with sawdust
compacted between two planks (Niebrugge 2009). Usually cellars built in-
to a slope used the surrounding earth for insulation (Figure 8). In this
case, with the storage cellar serving as a foundation for the granary, the
ceiling of the cellar would have been insulated in some way. Archaeological
investigations found five large timber fragments situated in the cellar inte-
rior, perhaps remnants of floor joists for the overhead granary (Ahler et al.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 24


It can be speculated that since the door used sawdust, the ceiling of
the cellar might have used sawdust as a method for insulation.
The granary built over the cellar was frame construction with metal floors
and walls measuring five or six feet high, and stood about eight feet tall
overall. It had a gable roof with round pole rafters. Two of these supported
a ten or twelve foot wide shed roof, the peak of which was oriented the
same as the house. On the north side was a lean-to shed covering a door-
way also on the north side. Stored under the covered space were harnesses
and horse tack, and wagons could be moved into the space for shelter. The
floor of the granary extended beyond the walls of the storage cellar and
was supported by the stone buttressing of the cellar. The granary originally
only stored wheat because corn was stored in the corn crib on the west side
of the barn. Eventually though, the granary stored wheat and corn before
they were taken to town for grinding. The wheat was traded at the mill for
flour and the corn was ground in a one-cylinder grounder at the Palace
store (Niebrugge 2009). The granary served a critical function on the Wil-
liams farmstead since the family only made two trips a year to town with
wheat for grinding.
The combination of storage cellar and granary seems to be unique to the
Williams farmstead. Whether they lacked space for a separate granary or
located the granary where it was convenient to build a cellar is not known.
Both structures were constructed in a manner typical to the late nine-
teenth century and the area, yet there were variations in the combination
that makes the combined structure fairly uncommon.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 25

Figure 7. Stone buttressed walls of Williams root cellar, 2004 (ERDC-CERL).

Figure 8. Williams root cellar looking southwest (ERDC-CERL).
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 26

4.3 Root cellar types
The primary purpose of a storage or root cellar is food preservation. Most
commonly known as root cellars, they provide long-term storage for root
crops such as potatoes, carrots, parsnips, and turnips. Cellars also store
cabbage, beets, onions, and apples as well as pickled and preserved foods
throughout the winter and early spring. Cellars keep foods in a dry, con-
sistently cool, and relatively humid environment. Cellar construction
ranges from simple to complex, ranging from field and subfloor pits to
semi-subterranean, freestanding structures. The origins of root cellars are
traced to early American colonists adopting Native American storage
structures and techniques (Gage 2009).
Below-ground storage pits were easy to build and were widespread, often
being dug under the floorboards of colonists houses. Less common in the
eighteenth century were the more elaborate, freestanding structures and
cellars constructed in farm outbuildings (Gage 2009). Recognizing the ne-
cessity of root cellars, the 1829 Encyclopedia Americana finds, They
[Americans] are rarely destitute of good cellars, which the nature of the
climate renders almost indispensable (Gage 2009). By the mid-1800s,
freestanding or semi-subterranean cellars of stone construction became
the prevalent form for root cellars. These were either dug below an entire
structure, under a portion of a house, under a farm outbuilding, or were a
freestanding structure. Freestanding cellars, as opposed to floor pits, ac-
commodated more storage room and provided more control over the cellar
Outbuilding cellars date from the eighteenth century, where cellars would
be built under a farm outbuilding. On the Sodus, New York, farm of Dr.
William Cook in the mid-1800s, the rutabaga cellar was under the tool
house and workshop and was filled by dumping the cart through a hole
above, provided for the purpose (Gage 2009). More commonly, the cellar
was incorporated into barn construction, where food for the farm family
could be stored along with winter feed for animals.
A rise in barn cellars for root crop storage correlates to the rise in com-
mercial farming in the nineteenth century. The most economical strategy
for incorporating a cellar into a barn was to construct an insulated room in
the basement. This was typically done by ramming earth between wooden
planks and insulating it with hay on the top and sides. Other building
methods of barn cellars that were more expensive, and therefore less
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 27

common, include extending the room out from the barn foundation into
an embankment or into the earthen ramp leading to the first floor of the
barn. These types utilized the insulating properties of the earth and offered
more protection from freezing. A major problem of this type of cellar was
the uninsulated ceiling. Protecting the crops from freezing could be ac-
complished with a thick layer of straw, but by the late 1800s farmers were
experimenting with insulating the floor above. Strategies for this were in-
sulating between floor joists, using a double floor system with air space, or
having the inside walls and ceiling sheeted and battened (Gage 2009).
Floors in these cellars are assumed to be dirt; however in 1872, a recom-
mendation suggested floors should be paved and sealed with a water-lime
mortar. As cellars became larger and held more produce, proper ventila-
tion was needed. Incorporation of slatted wooden floors and storage bins
increased air circulation around stored crops, while window and ceiling
vents were designed to draw in clean air.
Freestanding cellars applied many of the building techniques and insulat-
ing strategies used in barn cellars; likewise, these structures had a variety
of designs that were carefully thought out and constructed. Many im-
provements sought to reduce losses and extend the length of storage, use
new building materials and techniques, and adapt the structures to new
environments like the prairie. Despite the variety, five basic freestanding
cellar types have been identified by J ames Gage in his book, Root Cellars
in America. The five types are: above-ground, non-mounded cellar; the
half cellar; below-ground cellar; the earthen mound, natural or man-made
cellar; and the embankment or hillside cellar (Figure 9). Within these
types, the construction materials and methods of the roof, walls, floor, en-
try, ventilation, and drainage vary greatly (Gage 2009).

Figure 9. Five basic types of root cellar construction (diagrams based on Gage 2009, 44).
Above-ground and half cellars are characterized by having exposed walls.
These cellars are usually found in temperate climates, where the possibil-
ity of freezing is minimal. The difference between the two is that the half
cellar has a minimal portion of the structure built into the ground. Because
the walls were exposed, both types used similar construction techniques to
insulate the walls and roofs. Wall construction was either thick concrete or
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 28

a double-wall system that allowed insulating material to be placed in the
interior space. Brick and stone masonry walls needed to be thick, usually
18 to 24 inches, and concrete walls needed to be at least eight inches thick.
Walls made from logs or wooden planks used a double wall system, which
had an interior space that could be left as dead air space, or filled with
earth, leaves, or straw for insulation (Gage 2009).

In harsher climates, like the flat Plains states, cellars were often built en-
tirely below ground. Also known as field or prairie root cellars, this type of
cellar is specifically designed for flat lands with no hills or embankments
(Figure 10). Construction of these cellars was intensive. A trench was dug
to at least six feet deep, the walls were lined with stone, brick, or wooden
planks and poles supported a wood-plank gabled or flat roof. The roof was
generally covered with earth and then a layer of sod. Access was through a
hole in the roof or by a stairway entered through a bulkhead. The exposed
entrance was insulated with straw. With entrance either through a hole in
the roof or through a heavily insulated doorway, this type of cellar was
cumbersome to access and was replaced by different types when the
means became available (Gage 2009).

Figure 10. Field or prairie root cellar, built entirely underground (Gage 2009, 89).
Earthen-mounded cellars (Figure 11) used dirt as the primary insulator.
An earthen-mounded root cellar maintained proper humidity and temper-
ature more effectively than structures using other materials. A cellar struc-
ture covered in dirt is an earthen-mounded cellar. These cellars could be
on level ground or partially submerged in the earth. Commonly these cel-
lars were long and fairly narrow, with arched or stacked roofs. Construct-
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 29

ing the cellar was accomplished with materials readily available, but the
walls and roof had to be structurally sound enough to support the weight
of the earth. Variations of this cellar had the roof partially or completely
exposed. In general, roofs that were completely exposed were wood con-
struction and partially covered roofs were concrete. Wood roofs covered in
earth and sod had a lifespan of roughly ten years and then had to be re-
placed. Concrete roofs were usually thick enough to provide adequate in-
sulation without having to be mounded entirely with earth (Gage 2009).

Figure 11. Example of an earthen-mounded cellar (Gage 2009).
Embankment, or hillside, cellars were dug into a hillside, allowing the
earth to insulate the walls and roof (Figure 12). If topography allowed, this
type of cellar was ideal. The entire structure benefited from the earthen
insulation and if the soils were thick enough, the walls could be left as ex-
posed dirt with a lime-mortar wash to prevent water seepage.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 30

Figure 12. Example of an embankment cellar (Gage 2009).
Most embankment cellars, however, had walls to prevent earth from cav-
ing into the cellar and were built of wood, dry stone masonry without mor-
tar, or stones set in mortar, brick, or poured concrete. If the cellar was
deeply dug into a hillside, the roof needed to support the weight of the
earth. Roofs could be flat, arched, or gabled and, like the walls, made of
wood, brick, stone, or concrete. Constructed walls in hillside cellars acted
as retaining walls to keep dirt and water out of the cellar. Typically the en-
trances were situated at a level grade, but some had steps down to the
storage room. Embankment cellars could be entirely or partially built into
a hill (Gage 2009).
A frequently seen variation of the earthen mounded and embankment
cellar types was construction of an additional building over the storage
area. Doing this was similar to adding a cellar under a house or barn, but
differed in that the combined structure was planned, designed, and built
around the requirements of cellars. The November 1895 issue of the
Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College Bulletin reported on the
newly designed and constructed cellar with a storage room above. To the
authors knowledge, this type of structure had never been built or
documented, although we once heard discussed but had not seen carried
into practice (Alwood 1895). The article exhibits a well-thought-out
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 31

design and illustrates the growing importance of well-planned farms and
Detailed drawings show a so-
phisticated plan, including
drainage and ventilation sys-
tems as well as allowances for
loading and unloading carts
and wagons (Figure 13). The
ventilation system was opti-
mized for the proper amount of
air flow to keep vegetables.
Likewise the drainage system in
the cellar is well developed, as
is the drainage around the
structure. Because the cellar is
dug into an embankment, the
builders considered the drain-
age patterns of the site and
shaped the ground to direct wa-
ter away from the structure. Af-
ter cellar construction, experi-
ments were carried out that
documented the expected tem-
perature ranges and estimated
crop storage lengths of the giv-
en factors. Experiments of this
nature had seldom been pub-
lished in the late 1800s. Seem-
ingly the cellar type was unique
to the region because of the au-
thors statement of originality,
although documentation from
as early as the mid 1800s men-
tions examples of combining cellars with other outbuildings. It can be as-
sumed a building combining a cellar in the foundation would be a practical
alternative in building construction to farmers concerned with economies
of space and labor (Alwood 1895).

Figure 13. 1895 drawings for the new plan for
the construction of a storage cellar (Alwood
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 32

Although root cellars can be grouped according to five basic characteris-
tics, there are multiple ways of constructing each type. Most often, cellar
design was adapted in ways that took advantage of the surrounding envi-
ronment. There were four primary factors in locating a cellar. The first
priority was choosing a site in close proximity to the house. Storage cellars
accessed daily during the winter needed to be situated near the residence.
The second step was determining the most effective type of cellar for the
terrain. The third consideration was to locate the cellar in a well drained
area above the water table. Cellars had to stay dry; standing or seeping wa-
ter as well as flooding could ruin the stored crops. The fourth considera-
tion was orienting the entrance away from the prevailing winter winds and
maximizing solar radiation. In general, this meant the entrance was on the
south or east side of the structure (Gage 2009).
After the location of the cellar was determined, the construction materials
were chosen; common choices were wood, brick, stone, and (after 1900)
concrete. In addition to finding the appropriate site and available materi-
als, the builder had to consider wall, roof, and floor designs; decide on an
effective entrance system; and incorporate drainage and ventilation sys-
tems. Although a small structure on the farmstead, a storage cellar incor-
porated complex design and construction elements.
Among the five basic types of cellars, roofs were constructed in four basic
designs: flat, gabled, slanted, and arched. Roof design was important in
managing and directing water around the cellar. Flat, gabled, and slanted
roofs were constructed with wood planks and joists, sapling poles, logs, or
poured concrete. Arched roofs used bricks, stone blocks, or formed con-
crete construction. Gabled, slanted, and arched roofs shed water and were
usually covered with one to two feet of earth and then sod. The benefits of
these systems were increased water management and insulation (Gage
Floors in root cellars were commonly made of packed dirt. Earthen floors
were effective in maintaining the proper levels of humidity in cellars and
are the most common type of cellar floor used. As concrete construction
became popular in the early 1900s, concrete floors were increasingly add-
ed because they could be cleaned easily. Cellar floors could also be made of
unmortared bricks. Although uncommon, bricks laid without mortar al-
lowed air to circulate between the bricks and under storage crates and
baskets on the floor. The floor of a storage cellar should be level with the
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 33

exterior ground. A level entry was the most efficient design for loading and
unloading produce in the cellar. This could be accomplished easily with a
single door system or with a double door and passageway system. On the
other hand, some cellar entrance types had steps leading into the storage
area. Steps, or stairs, made it more difficult to store and remove produce
and were usually located outside the cellar. Leading down to an inner door
in the cellar wall, the steps needed to be covered. Full height porches or a
bulkhead entrance were the most common methods of protecting the
stepped entrances. Placing and removing the stored produce was more dif-
ficult with steps, and subsequently these types of cellars might have a load-
ing chute (Gage 2009).
The faade of the storage cellar could be brick, stone, or concrete with all
or part of the wall exposed and not insulated with earth; wing walls ex-
tended beyond the width and height of the actual cellar to serve as retain-
ing walls. Retaining walls might also be used leading to the entrance if the
storage cellar was recessed further into a hillside. Cellars typically had a
single, full-height door. A full-height door allowed ease of access and could
accommodate small carts or other means of transporting stored goods.
Other entry systems incorporated two-door designs, with outer and inner
doors for more efficient insulation. Because of the buffer between the out-
door and indoor temperatures, the two-door system was preferred and
recommended over the single-door system. Maintaining a constant tem-
perature in a cellar was necessary for optimal storage conditions, so on ex-
tremely cold or hot days a cellar with a single door had to remain closed.
Storage cellars needed to be located in well-drained areas. To maximize
storage length, root crops needed to be kept dry. Siting and construction
methods like grading the land and using a gable, slanted, or arched roof
were used to divert water away from the cellar. In addition to these tech-
niques, in the early 1900s floor drains were added for drainage and also
ventilation. The drain could be either a buried pipe extending from the
middle of the floor away from the cellar or an opening at the end wall of
the cellar. Drainage systems needed to be screened to prevent rodents
from entering the cellar (Gage 2009).
In addition to adequate insulation and proper drainage, ventilation was
critical in the long-term storage of root vegetables. During storage and es-
pecially in the weeks after harvest, root crops emit various gases. This was
a recognized problem as early as the 1600s, and root cellar designs tried to
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 34

manage the off gases. One way of mitigating gases was to bury the food in
an absorbent material. In subfloor pits, the roots were usually buried in
sand to prevent the gases from entering the residence. However, as root
cellars became larger, freestanding structures, methods of venting the gas-
es were developed. Vents were also used to adjust the interior temperature
and humidity of the storage cellar. The vents could be opened to draw cool
air into the cellar or closed to insulate against warm air. To effectively ven-
tilate a cellar, air must flow through it. Cross ventilation could be achieved
through several means. A simple system consisted of two windows in op-
posite walls. This system was effective at circulating the air near the ceil-
ing, but had little effect on the air surrounding storage bins near the floor.
A more complex system drew air from around the door, through the length
of the cellar, and then vented it out through the ceiling. In this system,
storage bins needed to be located away from the walls and raised off the
floor. Most root cellar constructions employed this type of whole-cellar
ventilation system (Gage 2009).
Design and construction of successful root cellars prevented freezing,
maintained a temperature between 32 and 40 degrees Fahrenheit, and
vented gases and excess moisture for long-term food storage. If one of
these systems failed, an entire seasons worth of stored crops could be lost.
Understanding environmental and site conditions facilitated locating the
cellar in the appropriate place and determined the construction materials
that would provide the most effective storage conditions (Gage 2009).
4.4 Compare and contrast
By the late 1800s, the most prevalent type of cellar in the Ozarks was the
earthen-mound or embankment cellars. The Williams cellar exhibits char-
acteristics similar to common embankment root cellar design and con-
struction. However, the cellar varies significantly from the previously out-
lined, generalized cellar forms and types. The cellar is an example of
Missouri Ozark farmstead outbuildings in its traditional siting, construc-
tion materials, and use. As an example of a vernacular farm outbuilding,
the cellar exhibits the individual choices inherent in this type of construc-
tion. Most likely the cellar was constructed with available materials and
without formalized plans. Moreover, Wesley Williams possibly enlisted
family members and neighbors to help with the work, and so the structure
also reflects their input and choices. In all, what is known about the cellar
leads to a complex reading of the structure. On one hand, it is a prime ex-
ample of root cellar construction, not only in the Missouri Ozarks but also
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 35

on a national scale. On the other hand, there are variations that place it as
a unique structure and an enduring remnant of the Williams choices that
incorporated unique regional and cultural contexts with a sophisticated
environmental understanding (Pollock 1978)
The location of the cellar follows conventional siting practices. The front of
the cellar faces southwest away from prevailing winds and would take ad-
vantage of any solar heat gain. Additionally, the cellar is located close to
the main residence and built into the side of a hill. The northeast and
southeast sides of the cellar are dug into the hillside making the cellar floor
level with the sloping grade. The roof of the cellar, or the floor of the gran-
ary, was level with the top of the slope. Although the cellar is built on the
slope of a drainage ditch, it was removed from the danger of flooding and
water damage. The location of the Williams root cellar represents practi-
cal cellar placement decisions not only among Missouri Ozarks settlers,
but for anyone building a storage cellar. A unique variation in the location
of the Williams cellar is the public road that separated it from the house.
However, given the other conditions of the site, the cellar was built in the
most appropriate location, regardless of the road.
Perhaps because of the hillside slope, the Williams cellar is unusually ori-
ented in the embankment. Typically, cellars extended lengthwise from the
entrance with a narrower width. The Williams cellar reverses this by being
dug shallowly into the hill with a longer width. In addition to the reversed
orientation, the entrance configuration also differs from standard cellar
types. Generally, the entrance to a cellar is centered in the front wall; the
entrance to the Williams cellar is offset left of center. To the right of the
door was where the storage bins and shelves were located (Figure 14).

The referenced journal Bittersweet was published by Ellen Gray Massey and her students at Lebanon
(MO) High School between 1973 and 1983. The journal is available online at:

ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 36

Figure 14. Williams site root cellar archeological investigation diagram, 2009 (ERDC-CERL).
The construction of the Williams root cellar is fairly representative of the
area. The construction uses field stones, which were widely available and a
high level of care was used to construct the walls without mortar. While
stone walls for a cellar had to be thick, the walls of the Williams cellar are
unusually thick. Because the cellar was the foundation for the above-level
granary, the walls had to be buttressed to support the additional weight
(Figure 15). Patsey Williams Niebruegge recalls the floor being concrete;
however the concrete was probably added in the early 1900s. Not much is
known about the ceiling construction, but it was likely insulated in some
capacity. Additionally, not much is known about the granary aside from its
post and frame construction. In the late 1800s and early 1900s it was fairly
typical for cellars to be built in foundations of farm outbuildings. While
there are no documented cases of cellar and granary combinations, the
practice of combining a cellar with another building type dates back to the
early 1800s (Ahler, et al. 2009).

The size of the cellar suggests that it was not only used for the familys
food storage; it was also used as a storm shelter and had enough space for
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 37

people to gather. The level entrance with the full-sized, single-system door
made the cellar readily accessible.

Figure 15. Buttressed stone walls of root cellar (23PU502), 2004 (ERDC-CERL).
4.5 Conclusion
The Williams root cellar is a suitable example of Missouri Ozark cellar
construction. While there are variances not documented elsewhere, the
basic factors in location, form, and use are typical. The Williams cellar is
interesting in its combination of two types of storage structures, the cellar
and the granary, which served several practical purposes in family life. It
was made from locally available materials, and its design and construction
styles were common in the Missouri Ozarks. However, combining cellars
in the foundations of farmstead outbuildings was a fairly common practice
nationally, and such cellars do not constitute a unique regional type to the
Ahler et al. concluded that 23PU502 was eligible for listing on the National
Register of Historic Places. Though a well-preserved example of an early-
to-mid-twentieth century root cellar, the research for the effort reported
here does not find that this root cellar adds to the strength of Ahler et al.s
conclusion under Criterion C (distinctive design or construction).
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 38

5 Results of Archaeological Investigations
at 23PU508
While the other sites investigated archaeologically and covered in this re-
port were surveyed in October 2009, Site 23PU508 was surveyed on 21
J anuary 2010, due to an inability to locate the site during the earlier trip.
Though visited at a different time of the year, field conditions were re-
markably comparable to the previous field session, with both trips being
cold and damp.
5.1 Site history
The land surrounding 23PU508 was first platted by William Williams,
who claimed 80 acres in the area of the site in 1859. He appeared to still be
living and farming there in 1870, when he and his wife, Olive, and four
children were recorded in the federal census (U.S. Bureau of the Census
1870). The only available map dating to that period, the 1873 Shumard
map (Broadhead et al. 1873), generally does not show individual habita-
tions and so does not corroborate occupation of the site during that time.
Adams (2003) notes that the 1906 Pulaski County map shows a residence
near but south of the site, marked as being owned by a W. Pippin. There
are no W. Pippins listed as residing in Roubidoux Township in either the
1900 or 1910 federal censuses, though a William J . Pippin and his family
lived in Cullen Township (north of Waynesville) in 1900, and a George W.
Pippin and family lived in Liberty Township in 1910 (U.S. Bureau of the
Census 1900, 1910).
In 1930, the land was owned by J ames Alfred Abbott (W.W. Hixson & Co.
1930), a West Virginia
native whose household included his wife, Martha
J ane Abbott, son Aubrey E. Abbott, and grandson Elemer Williams (State
Historical Society of Missouri 2010; U.S. Bureau of the Census 1930).
J ames Abbott stopped farming the year of the census and passed away in
1932. His death certificate was signed by Dr. C. Mallette, who owned the
farmstead that is now site 23PU510 (as documented in Section of this
report) (State Historical Society of Missouri 2010). The Abbotts appear in

The census and death certificate list Mr. Abbotts birthplace as West Virginia, though at the time of
his birth (1858) it was still part of the Commonwealth of Virginia, becoming a separate state in 1863.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 39

the 1920 census for Piney Township as well, albeit with a different assort-
ment of children and grandchildren (U.S. Bureau of the Census 1920).
The 1937 tourist map of Pulaski County shows no indication of there being
a residence at the site, since it shows the nearest buildings being part of
the Civilian Conservation Corps camp nearby along Missouri Route 17 (the
Houston Road). The 1944 map of the area is similarly devoid of indications
of human habitation at the location of Site 23PU508.
The 1948 real estate map for Fort Leonard Wood identifies the tract of
land containing the site as being formerly under the ownership of Charley
C. Woody and his wife. The 1920 federal census for Pulaski County lists
one Charley Woody, a farmer, in Pulaski County (U.S. Bureau of the
Census 1920). This Charley Woody was born in October 1896 in Missouri
and married Mary Ethel Bailey (b. Pulaski County 1897) in 1915 (Reierson
2010b). They bore six children together (Reierson 2010a). Following their
displacement by the Army, the family moved to west Hazelgreen, in neigh-
boring Laclede County. Ethel passed away there in 1951 of heart failure
(State Historical Society of Missouri 2010). Charles remarried in 1953, fa-
thered one daughter, and passed away in 1965. He is buried in Lebanon
Cemetery, Lebanon, Missouri (Reierson 2010a), the same cemetery where
Ethel was buried (State Historical Society of Missouri 2010).
5.2 Previous fieldwork
Adams (2003) states that 23PU508 was first reported to the Archaeologi-
cal Survey of Missouri in 1994 by Richard Edging and Curt Rankin, while
working with the Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands
(CEMML) at Fort Leonard Wood. They recorded only that there was a
sandstone house foundation with associated cellar and well. When Adams
and a PSAP crew returned to the site in 2003, they made a more detailed
inventory of features and artifacts at the site.
The PSAP inventory of the site included the excavation of four shovel test
pits, all of which were screened, but none of which yielded artifacts. In-
deed, no artifacts were recovered from the site. Seventeen artifacts, con-
sisting of a soda bottle base, one Albany-glazed stoneware crock fragment,
five bricks, and ten metal fragments (non-military), were seen lying on the
surface but were not collected (Adams 2003).
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 40

Adams created a map of the site showing its two cellars and an intervening
mound of broken sandstone and concrete, and an adjacent concrete pad
with galvanized metal pipe. Several small spoil piles are present north of
the site. The shovel test locations straddle the site at the cardinal direc-
tions (Adams 2003).
Based on the presence of Albany-glazed stoneware, Adams suggested that
23PU508 represented a late-nineteenth to early-twentieth century occupa-
tion with an overlying, more recent, disposal episode indicated by the scat-
ter of metal cans. Given the sites isolation and apparent low degree of dis-
turbance, Adams suggested the site could be considered eligible for the
National Register of Historic Places (Adams 2003).
5.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork
As with the other sites reported in this document, the first fieldwork task
included a walkover of the site and its immediate environs. Features iden-
tified by previous archaeological surveys were relocated, and additional
site features were noted. In this case, northeast of the homestead was an
area covered in inland sea oats (Chasmanthium latifolium), which is a
plant frequently seen on historic farmstead sites at Fort Leonard Wood
(J oe Proffitt, personal communication to authors). Southwest of this patch
of sea oats is an area of heavy disturbance, which is likely the result of re-
cent earthmoving activities. The road running next to the site, visible in
Figure 16, is in active use for military training, as troops were being taught
to drive large trucks (M35 2.5-ton cargo trucks) on it during the fieldwork.
The disturbance to the southwest end of the site and the scatter of modern
material (plastic bottles, recent metal beverage containers) bespeak the
threat to the site occasioned by its proximity to training activities. Recent
earthmoving activity is not the only threat to the site. A gully running
along the south side of the site is causing extensive erosion on the south
side of the site, making a natural boundary for the walkover survey.
Before shovel testing, the ERDC-CERL archaeologist conducted a walko-
ver survey of the site. A dense scatter of historic materials overlaid the vis-
ible cellar depressions noted by Adams in 2003. A representative sampling
of the material present on the surface was collected. This included two
pieces of milk glass lid liners from glass storage jars, one piece of animal
bone, six pieces of refined earthenware, one brown-slipped earthenware,
one clear glass bottle with neck decoration, one cobalt blue bottle, and one
large panel bottle marked TONIC/ VERMIFUGE on the face and
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 41

PHILADELPHIA on one side and DR. D. J AYNES on the other (Figure
17). Other artifacts including two large iron cans, one large plain stone-
ware crock, and other similar materials, were noted but not collected.

Figure 16. Sketch map of 23PU508 (Adams 2003, 66).
23PU508 . Revisit
Site Limits
Cedar Tree
Negative Posthole Test
m 8
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 42

Figure 17. Artifacts from surface, 23PU508 (ERDC-CERL).
Two shovel tests were excavated at the site. The first was located in the
floor of one of the depressions at the site, and the other was adjacent to the
site. The first shovel test measured 33 cm across and was dug to a depth of
9 cm below surface (cmbs). From 0-4 cmbs was a rich black (5YR2.5/ 1)
loam, which contained one brick fragment. The next stratum started at 4
cmbs but encountered groundwater at 9 cmbs (the site had been saturated
by recent rains). The second stratum was a very dark brown (10YR2/ 2)
clay loam. No artifacts were recovered from this stratum.
The second shovel test, as stated in the paragraph above, was located out-
side the immediate sites footprint. It was noticeably drier than its prede-
cessor. Its overall dimensions were 34 cm across and 24 cm deep. It con-
tained one stratum that terminated in a layer of local chert, which is a kind
of stone common to the area. The chert layer did not appear to be a pave-
ment or other kind on intentionally created surface. The single stratum
was a dark reddish brown (5YR2.5/ 2) clay loam. It contained two wire
nails and one large, flat piece of iron.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 43

The site was mapped using a Trimble GeoXH GPS, supplemented by a
hand-drawn sketch map. Satellite availability was excellent on this trip,
particularly in comparison to the October 2009 fieldwork, when poor sat-
ellite coverage was a main contributor to the difficulty in locating the site.
5.4 Artifact analysis
The tonic/ vermifuge bottle (Figure 17) was manufactured around 1894
and would have originally contained a patent medicine intended to rid the
body of worms. This could be evidence of a medical condition suffered by
one or more of the occupants of the site, one treated with medicine availa-
ble from a popular, nationally known source. Dr. David J ayne was a prom-
inent vendor of such medicines, opening business in the 1830s and operat-
ing from a store on Chestnut Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. J aynes
company sold a number of different medicines including alteratives, car-
minatives, liniments, vermifuges, and expectorants (Fike 1987).
The white milk glass, lid-liner fragments in Figure 17 are from Mason jar
lids. Such lid liners were patented in the 1860s and were a major develop-
ment in home food preservation technology. The glass kept the contents of
the jar from contacting the zinc cap, which would otherwise impart an un-
pleasant, metallic flavor to the food (Lindsey 2011). They remained in use
until the 1950s, at which time the development of prepackaged food and
proliferation of plastic packaging edged out home canning.
The blue bottle (Figure 17) gets its color from the addition of cobalt during
the glassmaking process. It is a straight-sided bottle with what J ones and
Sullivan (1989) would describe as being ovoid with flat sides in cross sec-
tion. Fike (1987) terms bottles with such cross sections as salamander
oval bottles. These bottles are common on historic sites, and are most
frequently associated with popular medicines, such as Bromo-Seltzer and
Milk of Magnesia, both antacids. This example once contained the latter,
bearing a base stamp reading GENUINE/ PHILLIPS/ MADE IN U.S.A.
along with an M and a 19. Bottles bearing an M as a makers mark
were produced by the Maryland Glass Company of Baltimore. The lack of a
circle surrounding the M indicates it was made between 1907 and 1916,
when the company adopted a circled M as a trademark (Toulouse 1971).
The lip of the bottle is broken off, which makes it impossible to tell wheth-
er there was a cork or screw-cap closure.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 44

The small, colorless glass bottle with a fluted shoulder (Figure 17) is a me-
dicinal bottle. It is graduated in cubic centimeter (cc) measurements on
one of its flat sides for measuring doses. Mold seams on the bottle run
around the base and up both sides to the lip, indicating it was made in an
automatic bottle machine; this information would date it definitely after
1904, though likely after 1920 (Miller 1984; Newman 1970).
The six fragments of refined earthenware shown in Figure 17 include five
whiteware rim sherds and one ironstone body sherd. The five rim sherds
include three flatware sherds and two hollowware sherds. Two of the three
flatware sherds are undecorated, and the third is stamped with a feather
design. The two hollowware sherds come from different vesselsone from
a bowl and one from a cup. The bowl fragment has a lipped rim. The cup
fragment includes the base of a handle and lacks any rim treatment.
Whitewares in the United States date to the period after 1830 (Miller
The lone body sherd is a fragment of an undecorated white ironstone ves-
sel of large size and thickly potted. It has a very white paste with a thick
slip on its interior, which is densely pockmarked. It has a white glaze,
which has a slightly bluish cast to it. Such wares were made in England
and imported to the United States starting in the 1840s. They remain in
use and development today (Miller 1991).
The remaining ceramic fragment is a small sherd of Albany-glazed stone-
ware. Identified by its characteristic brown color, this sherds glazing takes
its name from the city in New York that was well known for exploiting lo-
cal clays to produce a slip with that characteristic color. It was widely used
during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (Ahler et al. 2009).
The bone fragment is from an indeterminate mammal of moderate size
(Figure 17). Further analysis would likely be able to identify the species
from which the bone originates. It does not appear to have been deliber-
ately sawn or hacked, which would be an indication that it was from an an-
imal used for food by the occupants of the farmstead. It is possible that the
bone was recently dropped by a forest predator, or it is the remaining ele-
ment of an animal that died of some other cause at or near the site.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 45

5.5 Site description
Unlike the other sites visited during this project, 23PU508 appears to have
significant evidence of recent visitation and disturbance by visitors to the
area. The proximity of the site to the road, and the clarity with which site
features (two large cellar holes) could be recognized, are likely to draw vis-
itation. However, there was no evidence observed during the field visit of
looting of the site (no evidence of illicit excavation). Rather, disturbance
appears to be either earthmoving or the deposition of modern trash on top
of the artifacts visible on the surface.
The artifacts from the site point to a late-nineteenth or early-twentieth
century occupation, with numerous artifacts dating to the early decades of
the twentieth century. English ceramics and bottles from large cities along
the eastern seaboard indicate that even though this farmstead was nestled
deep in the Missouri Ozarks, it was by no means isolated from the global
trade networks of the period.
The farmstead itself consisted of at least a house with at least one under-
floor cellar. Four dressed stones laid out in linear fashion along the west
side of the site are likely piers that once supported the house itself. A po-
tential fifth pier lies to the east of the cellar holes. These piers were not
noted in prior fieldwork.
The two cellar depressions, referred to as Structures A and C in Adams
(2003), each measure 4 m
. The southeast cellar depression (Adamss
Structure A) is lined with undressed stone blocks, which are not in evi-
dence in the other cellar depression. Between the two lies a jumbled pile of
stone blocks (Adamss Structure B), at the west end of which lies a pipe
fixed to a cement pad, which is likely a well. Structure B measures approx-
imately 3 x 6 m.
Adams noted the presence of two potential spoil piles northeast of the site.
These were not observed during the 2010 fieldwork.

ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 46

Figure 18. Site map of 23PU508 (ERDC-CERL).
Adams redefined the site area from the 50 x 50-m outline established by
Edging and Rankin to a smaller 15 x 15-m area, which essentially borders
P<(t r

- Roads

0 2 4 8
. ~


ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 47

the cellar depressions (Figure 16). This is too restricted of a boundary to
encompass the farmstead as it likely existed during occupation. Though
PSAPs shovel tests were negative, there are other evidences for human use
and alteration of the area outside the site boundaries established by Ad-
ams. The area of sea oats lying northwest of the farmhouse remains is like-
ly due to activities stemming from the habitation of the site. The quotidian
activity space of the farmhouse would have to have been more expansive
than the present site boundaries, and a readoption of a site size commen-
surate with Edging and Rankins estimation of the site is warranted.
The site lies in the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of Section
28, Township 34 North, Range 11 West.
5.6 Conclusion
Adams (2003) suggested the site was eligible for listing on the National
Register of Historic Places based on Criterion D (potential for containing
scientific data). This round of fieldwork suggests little to contradict that
assertion, given the apparent intact nature of archaeological deposits at
the site. There has been recent disturbance to the northeast edge of the
site, but not to the area around the house proper because it appears to be
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 48

6 Results of Archaeological Investigations
at 23PU509 (Bryun L. Christeson Site)
6.1 Site history
The land on which 23PU509 sits was first claimed by Alfred M. McElroy of
Pulaski County in May of 1857 in a patent of 80 acres (Bureau of Land
Management 2010). Alfred McElroy appears in census records for Pulaski
County as early as 1840 and as late as 1860 (U.S. Bureau of the Census
1840, 1850, 1860). McElroy was born in 1795 in South Carolina. His four
land patents are dated 1843, two in 1857, and one in 1860 (Bureau of Land
Management 2010). The 1843 patent is for land near the site location. It
may be that the McElroy homestead was located at this other location, and
the area around 23PU509 was merely farmed, not inhabited, at that time.
The 1873 Shumard map of Pulaski County shows the area around
23PU509 as being broken country bordering Robidoux [Roubidoux]
Creek. No habitations are noted at the site, though two star-shaped nota-
tions to the south and southwest may indicate structures or small settle-
The 1906 map of Pulaski County shows the area of the site as being free of
habitation and essentially the terminus of the road coming south from the
Dundas schoolhouse (23PU284, Section 3 of this report). The 1930 plat of
Pulaski County shows the site area as being on the border between the
lands of L. Stockdale and O. Laughlin (W.W. Hixson & Co. 1930). An Or-
ville Laughlin resided in Cullen Township, Pulaski County, in 1930, and he
may have owned the land near the site at the time (U.S. Bureau of the
Census 1930). L. Stockdale may refer to Linza (Linsey) Stockdale, who
along with his small family resided in Roubidoux Township in 1920 (U.S.
Bureau of the Census 1920), but by 1930 had relocated his family to Salem
Township, Ohio (U.S. Bureau of the Census 1930). Given the roughness of
the 1930 plat map, it is difficult to determine with great certainty whose
land 23PU509 sat on, though it would appear Orville Laughlin is the more
likely candidate.
The tourist map of Pulaski County produced in 1937 shows no structure at
the site, noting only the Dundas schoolhouse (23PU284) in the vicinity.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 49

The 1944 map of Fort Leonard Wood shows no clear denotation of a struc-
ture at the site, but a small road spurring off from the main road could be
in the immediate vicinity of 23PU509.
The final cartographic reference to 23PU509 comes in the 1948 real estate
map of Fort Leonard Wood. The claim for the land where the site sits went
to Bryun L. Christeson. Members of the Christeson family were among the
first American settlers in Pulaski County, though an extensive search of
the U.S. census data failed to identify a single Bryun Christeson to match
the Armys real estate map. A Byrum Christeson (b.1904, d. 1970) was
identified during the search, and this may be the individual who held the
claim. Byrum Christeson lived in Roubidoux Township in 1930 (U.S.
Bureau of the Census 1930), and passed away in Crocker, Missouri, in
1970 (Social Security Administration 2010).
6.2 Previous fieldwork
The site was first reported to the Archaeological Survey of Missouri in
1994 by staff from Fort Leonard Wood (Kreisa et al. 1996). It was re-
visited in 1995 in conjunction with PSAPs survey of the McCann Cemetery
Tract. PSAP archaeologists made a sketch map of the site, conducted a pe-
destrian survey, and dug 12 shovel test pits, three of which contained arti-
facts (maximum depth was 23 cm) (Figure 19). PSAP noted the presence of
five brick fragments, a metal bucket, and one milk glass canning jar lid
liner embossed with CAP lying on the surface (Kreisa et al. 1996).
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 50

Figure 19. PSAP map of fieldwork at 23PU509 (Kreisa et al. 1996).
Historic artifacts recovered from the shovel tests at 23PU509 include two
can fragments, one piece of clear flat glass, one undecorated ironstone
sherd, two undecorated whiteware sherds, one salt-glazed stoneware sherd
with interior Albany slip, and one clear bottle (?) glass fragment (Kreisa
et al. 1996).
PSAP archaeologists also analyzed historic aerial photographs for evidence
of the site and the period when it was occupied. They found that the site
was visible on the 1938 and 1942 aerial photographs of the Fort Leonard
Wood area, but did not appear on the 1948 Waynesville 15' quadrangle
map (Kreisa et al. 1996).
At the conclusion of their project, PSAP recommended that 23PU509 be
subject to Phase II excavations to make a final conclusion on National
Register significance. The presence of salt-glazed stoneware suggested to
them that there might be a post-Civil War component to the site, one pre-
dating the twentieth century concrete foundation currently visible, which
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 51

could add to our understanding of the late-nineteenth century in the
Missouri Ozarks (Kreisa et al. 1996).
6.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork
ERDC-CERL archaeologists visited 23PU509 in October 2009 for shovel
testing, performing a pedestrian survey, drawing a sketch map, and
photographing the site. The pedestrian survey centered on the house
foundation and radiated to a distance of 50 m, although it did not cross the
nearby road. Little cultural material appeared on the surface during said
The first of the shovel tests (Shovel Test 1) was 2.5 m east of the southeast
corner of the foundation (Figure 20). The soil strata here include a thin
silty topsoil layer (10YR3/ 2) overlaying a silty clay stratum (10YR4/ 4). Be-
low that lies the clayey subsoil (10YR5/ 4), at the shallow depth of 28 cm
below surface. The shovel test pit held no artifacts.
Shovel Test 2 is approximately 3 m north of the foundations north wall
(Figure 20). Like Shovel Test 1, this pit also was shallow and bereft of arti-
facts. Again, a thin silty topsoil layer overlaid a silty clay stratum, under
which lay clayey subsoil. Total depth for the shovel test pit was only 32 cm
below surface.
Only two artifacts were seen on site other than the foundation walls. The
first was a large metal wash tub approximately 15 m west of the southwest
corner of the foundation (not shown on map). One metal can, likely a bev-
erage container, was within the confines of the foundation. It is a pull-tab
type opening, which were most popular between 1962 and 1972 (Busch
1981), and is, therefore, likely trash deposited by traffic passing on the
nearby installation road.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 52

Figure 20. Site map of 23PU509 (ERDC-CERL).
6.4 Site description
The foundation itself has curtain walls made of poured concrete. Once rec-
tangular, the northeast corner has been disturbed by subsequent tree
- Roads

28 f.,
M e t e r s ~
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 53

growth and collapse. Near the north end of the west wall, a large field
stone was made part of the foundation. Maximal height for the foundation
is around 40 cm above surface. The spoil piles noted by Kreisa et al (1996)
were not observed during the field visit.
The foundation itself measures approximately 7 m
and is intact save for a
portion of the east wall, which has been destroyed (Figure 20). There was
no significant scatter of historic materials on the surface at the site, and
only a few artifacts were recovered during subsurface testing, all of those
having been found by PSAP in the 1990s. The site may have had a Civil
War or postbellum component, based on the presence of salt-glazed
stoneware at the site.
The site lies in the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of Section
12, Township 34 North, Range 12 West.
6.5 Conclusion
23PU509 was likely a farmstead occupied sometime after the Civil War
and up through the early twentieth century. The whiteware and salt-glazed
stoneware suggest the possibility of a mid-to-late-nineteenth century
component of the site. Predating the use of poured concrete foundations,
this component would not be immediately visible aboveground and likely
would require more extensive excavation to accurately characterize.
Kreisa et al (1996) deferred judgment on the potential eligibility of
23PU509 to the NRHP until after a proper Phase II survey of the site had
been conducted. Based on this recent round of fieldwork, it would be hard
to make a case for eligibility looking only at the early-twentieth century
foundation, as the apparent lack of outbuildings or supporting structures
(well, privy, etc.) suggest an ephemeral presence at the site. However, the
possibility of there being an earlier component to the site, and the fact that
it appears to have been only minimally disturbed since the 1940s, suggest
the potential for the site having an earlier, mid-to-late nineteenth century
component, which could still be intact and could be the basis for an argu-
ment for eligibility based on Criterion D.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 54

7 Results of Archaeological Investigations
at 23PU510 (Dr. C. Mallette Site)
The Dr. C. Mallette Site differs from the others studied during this project.
It was not an upland site as the others were, lying instead along the valley
floor of Roubidoux Creek. It is also a larger, more complex site that con-
tains structures not seen elsewhere during this research.
7.1 Site history
Daniel Bench patented the land in 1857 on which 23PU510, the Dr. C.
Mallette Site, stands (Bureau of Land Management 2010). Bench arrived
in Pulaski County some time before 1845, when his first land patent was
issued. Coming from North Carolina, his family, along with those of sever-
al of his siblings and his parents, spent time in Bartholomew County, Indi-
ana, before moving to Pulaski County in the early 1840s (Laclede County
Genealogical Society 2000).
The Shumard map (Broadhead et al. 1873) does not indicate any habita-
tion at the site of 23PU510; however, since it was a geological map, this
fact is not remarkable because farmsteads were typically not recorded on
it. Two larger structures, one labeled Cooks Mill, are located to the south
and southwest of the site.
The 1906 map of the area shows no evidence of there being habitations at
the site, though it is possible the map is incomplete. The 1906 map shows
a consistent distribution of houses throughout Pulaski County except for
the area around 23PU510, 23PU509, 23PU511, and 23PU512. It is possible
that this is due to a gap in the placement of houses that reflected the diffi-
culty of traversing and settling on what Shumard referred to as broken
country. However, the course of Roubidoux Creek through this section of
the map is unfinished, as is the lettering on the map name, which suggests
that the gap is not in the distribution of housing itself but in its re-
cordation on the 1906 map.
By 1930, S.M. York owned the land where 23PU510 stands (W.W. Hixson
& Co. 1930). This is likely Samuel Monroe York (b. 1870, d. 1934), hus-
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 55

band of Elizabeth Thornsberry York (b. 1873, d. 1946) (State Historical
Society of Missouri 2010).
The 1937 tourist map of Pulaski County shows no evidence of a farmstead
at the site of 23PU510. The 1944 Fort Leonard Wood map does, however.
The old road noted in the previous fieldwork (Section 7.2 below) that ran
to the farmstead is clearly marked, as is the presence of a structure.
When the Army acquired the land at the onset of WW II, the site was
owned by Dr. Cyrus Mallette, for whom it is now named. Dr. Mallette was
a physician in Bloodland, who along with his wife Monta York Mallette,
kept a house on Missouri Route 17 from before 1910 until 1922. Monta
York Mallette was the daughter of the sites previous owners, Samuel and
Elizabeth York; Monta and Dr. Mallette likely inherited the property upon
the passing of one or both of her parents. In 1922, the Mallettes moved to
Crocker, located in Tavern Township to the north of Fort Leonard Wood.
Dr. Mallette continued to serve patients throughout Pulaski County
through house calls until well after the fort was established (Nutt 2012).
This begs the question of whether the site should more properly be consid-
ered a York homestead, as there is little evidence that Dr. and Mrs.
Mallette ever lived there.
7.2 Previous fieldwork
23PU510 was first documented in 1994 by Fort Leonard Wood personnel.
They noted the presence of a house foundation, cellar, five outbuildings,
two concrete tanks, and two silos. Most of these structures could not be
subsequently relocated (Kreisa and Adams 1999). Fort Leonard Wood ar-
chaeologists did make a map of the site, showing the relict road running to
the site as well as numerous outbuildings to the west of the farmhouse that
suggest the occupants of the site were engaged in fairly extensive agricul-
ture, no doubt facilitated by the sites location on the bottomland along
Roubidoux Creek (Figure 21).
Kreisa and Adams (1999) reported on PSAP investigations at 23PU510
during the 1998 field season. Plans to shovel test the site in the environs of
the house foundation and root cellar were called off due to the site being
overgrown with poison ivy. They mapped four features: the house founda-
tion, the root cellar, one outbuilding, and the road that used to lead to the
front (uphill side) of the house foundation (Figure 22). Other elements of
the site, as previously identified by Fort Leonard Wood personnel, could
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 56

not be located during the PSAP investigations due to the dense under-
growth covering the site (Kreisa and Adams 1999).
The PSAP crew recovered two artifacts from one shovel test 80 m south of
the southernmost outbuilding at 23PU510. These consisted of one frag-
ment of aqua bottle glass and a sherd of dark, nearly black, glazed earth-
enware. Due to the large size of the structure and its supposed association
with Dr. Mallette, Kreisa and Adams suggested that 23PU510 was poten-
tially eligible for the NRHP.

Figure 21. Sketch map of 23PU510 by Fort Leonard Wood archaeologists, 1994.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 57

Figure 22. PSAP map of 23PU510 (Kreisa and Adams 1999).
7.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork
ERDC-CERL archaeologists visited 23PU510 on 27 October 2009. Heavy
undergrowth and substantial remaining tree canopy made locating the site
through visual recognition difficult and interfered with efforts to acquire a
GPS signal for mapping the site. When located, the site proved to be thor-
oughly overgrown by underbrush and small trees.
The site was mapped with a GPS, and the layout of the farmhouse founda-
tion was sketched in the field book for subsequent refinement of the digital
map of the site. The house foundation, stone-lined root cellar, well, retain-
ing wall, and outbuilding foundation northeast of the house were readily
located. Attempts to identify features noted in 1994 were frustrated by the
dense undergrowth that has taken over the site.
Three shovel test pits were excavated. The first was excavated near the
back of the house, close to the easternmost of the short pillars along the
houses southeast face. The second was dug just north of the historic road
across from the front of the house, and the final was dug just west of the
root cellar. All three shovel tests exhibited the same basic stratigraphy. A
thin (1.53 cm) organic horizon (10YR2/ 1) overlay a thicker layer of silty
clay (10YR3/ 2, 10YR4/ 3, and 10YR2/ 1). Underneath this layer lay a
stratum of dark yellowish brown clay subsoil (10YR4/ 4 or 10YR5/ 4)
containing a small amount of silt. The depth at which the subsoil was
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 58

encountered varied, being shallower (12 cmbs) in the second shovel test
and deeper (32 cmbs) west of the root cellar. Only Shovel Test 3, west of
the root cellar, contained artifacts. This final shovel test pit (Shovel Test 3)
was placed southwest of the root cellar in hopes of finding some material
culture. In this instance, four artifacts were recovered. These consisted of
two pieces of ceramic (one whiteware sherd, one brown-glazed
earthenware sherd) and two pieces of iron hardware (Figure 23).
Following the mapping of the house site, root cellar, well, and outbuilding,
an effort was made to locate the other structures noted by previous ar-
chaeologists. These structures included two silo footings and foundations
for three other outbuildings. Two of the outbuildings had pier foundations,
and the other manifested as a poured concrete foundation. Because of a
lack of satellite availability due to the time of day, poor access to satellites
under heavy forest canopy, and the thick undergrowth, these other fea-
tures could not be located even after a prolonged search.

Figure 23. Artifacts recovered from 23PU510 (ERDC-CERL).











0 5 10 20Meters
23PU510 (Dr. C. Mallete Site)
Fort Leonard Wood, MO
- Structures
Shovel Test Pit
. ~ o

.. , ..
Outbuilding Foundation
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 60

7.4 Site description
Mapping began with using the Trimble GPS. The main house foundation
elements, along with two breaks in the wall (one interior doorway, one
wall break) were recorded. The pillars along what is interpreted to be the
front of the house (the uphill face that opens onto the road) were mapped,
as was the set of stairs previously noted. Coordinates were taken for the
cistern that lies at the front of the house and connects to the basement
through a metal pipe. Several points were taken along the old roadbed
where it runs past the house. The outbuilding to the northeast of the house
foundation was similarly mapped. A point coordinate was taken for the
brick-lined well that stands near the stone-lined root cellar.
Combining the archival research, the previous fieldwork, and the fieldwork
undertaken by ERDC-CERL gives a fairly fulsome description of the site
and some indication of the range of activities the occupants of the site en-
gaged in.
The core of Site 23PU510 is the house site. The house was a large
structure, measuring 13 x 10 m. The basic footprint size is not particularly
notable in comparison to other farmsteads visited during this project.
However, this was the only site where the foundation outlined a full-story
basement on which the house would have stood. The presence of
numerous window and door apertures in the basement foundation
suggests it was not merely to support a cabin perched on a hillside, but was
an actively used living space. The basement at least was double pen,
consisting of front and back rooms. This layout could have been repeated
on the upper floor, though that floor could also have been a single pen.
The house probably had a front porch and possibly one on the back of the
house. The four columns (two of which are toppled) along the front of the
house demarcate a porch footprint, and holes in those columns served as a
support for porch beams. The presence of these pillars is evidence of
greater architectural elaboration at 23PU510 than at other sites occupied
around the same time. The four pillars situated across the rear of the
house may have supported a small porch.
To the west of the house, but in close proximity, is a large root cellar and a
brick-lined well. The root cellar measures roughly 8 x 8 m and had a door
opening downslope (to the southeast). It was lined with coursed limestone.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 61

The well remains a sturdy, carefully constructed part of the landscape. Wa-
ter was observed at the bottom of the well during the field investigations.
The house fronted on the road that was used to connect the site to the
main road running past the Dundas School and up to Bloodland. The
roads vestiges are clearly visible at the site, and the basic route of the road
is visible in LiDAR imagery of Fort Leonard Wood that was collected by
the U.S. Army Geospatial Center in Alexandria, Virginia. Northeast of the
house core and near to the road stood an outbuilding, possibly a barn or
storage facility.
To the southeast of the house stood a series of buildings that were likely
associated with agricultural activities at the site. Two silo footings that are
girding a structure evidenced by numerous stone piers suggest significant
agricultural activities going on at the site. Since the site is located near to
and on the floor of the valley leading to Roubidoux Creek, it was likely bet-
ter farmland than that owned by the neighbors and situated on the high,
rocky bluffs. Two other outbuildings may also have been associated with
farming at the site.
The site lies in the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of Section 14,
Township 34 North, Range 12 West.
7.5 Conclusion
Based on archival research, it seems likely that the site was not actually a
significant residence of Dr. and Mrs. Mallette, but was instead the home-
stead of Mrs. Mallettes parents, Samuel and Elizabeth York. The 1948 real
estate map of Fort Leonard Wood, from which the sites name derives, de-
notes ownership as Dr. C. Mallette et al., which indicates ownership was
held by more than just Dr. Mallette. The et al. probably references at
least Monta York Mallette, Cyruss wife, who likely inherited the property
from her parents, since both had passed away by the time the 1948 map
was made. As stated earlier in this section, Nutt (2012) notes that Dr. and
Mrs. Mallette moved to Crocker, Missouri, in 1922. Since that date was
well before her parents passed away, it suggests the Mallettes did not live
at the site that now bears Dr. Malletes name.
Regardless of whether it was the homestead of the Mallettes or the Yorks,
the site as it now stands is the largest and most elaborate of the farmsteads
studied during this project. No other site has a comparably large or com-
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 62

plex foundation (one full story tall, with apertures for windows and doors),
piers and stairs suggesting large porches, and numerous outbuildings of
significant size. Silo footings like those identified in 1994 are not men-
tioned at other sites, and few other sites have such large and well-made
root cellars attached. In view of these unique characteristics and the over-
all state of preservation of the site, 23PU510 should be considered poten-
tially eligible for listing on the NRHP.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 63

8 Results of Archaeological Investigations
at 23PU511 (Zula Hicks Site)
8.1 Site history
The first person to lay legal claim to the land at 23PU511 was Henry
Bench, who patented the land in 1859 (Bureau of Land Management
2010). Henry was a son of Daniel Bench, who was the original owner of
23PU510, the Dr. C. Mallette Site. Henry was born in Indiana and died a
young man, leaving behind a daughter (Laclede County Genealogical
Society 2000).
Neither the 1873 nor the 1906 maps of Pulaski County give any indication
of a residence being built at Site 23PU511. By 1930, the land was owned by
a C. Hicks (W.W. Hixson & Co. 1930), most likely Clyde E. Hicks,
Zula Mary Hicks, nee Goforth (b. 1898, d. 1948), for whom the site is
named, lived at the farmstead with her husband, Ernest Clyde Hicks
(b. 1893, d. 1937), who worked as a mechanic in a local garage (State
Historical Society of Missouri 2010). The two were married in 1916 and
spent most of their adult lives together in Pulaski County, living near her
parents and brother and having at least three children together (U. S.
Bureau of the Census 1930). Their home appears on the 1944 map of Fort
Leonard Wood, though not on the 1937 tourist map of Pulaski County.
band to Zula Mary Hicks. The couple appears in the 1930 U.S. census for
Pulaski County, along with three children: Evan, J oyce, and J ames (U. S.
Bureau of the Census 1930).
Ernest passed away in 1937 from pulmonary tuberculosis in Barnes Hospi-
tal in St. Louis at the age of 43. Zula moved to the Kimbrough Rest Home
in Springfield, Missouri, around 1948 and stayed there until she passed
away from a cerebral hemorrhage in 1958 at the age of 60 (State Historical
Society of Missouri 2010). Her name appears on the 1948 real estate map
for Fort Leonard Wood, and the claim for the property was in her name.

Clyde Ernest Hicks appears as Ernest Clyde Hicks in some documents. Zula Mary Hicks, likewise, ap-
pears as Mary Zula Hicks from time to time.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 64

8.2 Previous fieldwork
Adams (1997) reported on PSAP fieldwork at 23PU511 that was undertak-
en in 1996. PSAP archaeologists performed a surface survey of the site to
look for features and artifacts and prepared a sketch map. Their survey
identified a number of features, but only a few artifacts (three or four
pieces of sheet metal) (Adams 1997). Based on the factors of scarcity of
surface artifacts, apparent recent disturbance in the form of foxhole exca-
vation, grading, damage to above-ground features, and the young age of
the site, PSAP suggested the site should be considered ineligible for the
National Register (Adams 1997).
8.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork
As with the other sites visited during this project, ERDC-CERL archaeolo-
gists made a sketch map of the site and complemented it with GPS map-
ping, conducted a walkover survey, and excavated shovel tests to gauge the
degree of integrity of the sites stratigraphy. All fieldwork was conducted
on 26 October 2009.
The walkover survey identified most of the features that were identified by
Adams and the PSAP crew in 1997, although the fieldstone foundation and
concrete wall at the south end of the site (Figure 25) were not seen. Other
potential features were identified, though they may be related to recent
military training. Few artifacts were visible on the surface due to the heavy
groundcover. Only large pieces of sheet metal, likely tin, were observed.
All three shovel tests contained the same soil sequence. A thin (38 cm),
very dark brown (10YR2/ 2) silt with sand and humus inclusions overlay a
thicker (10-24cm), very dark grayish brown (10YR3/ 2) or dark brown
(10YR3/ 3) silt, under which lays a dark yellowish brown (10YR4/ 4) silty
clay subsoil. Shovel tests were dug to a minimum of 8 cm in the subsoil.
All artifacts came from the upper two strata of the shovel tests.
Shovel Test 1 contained a large piece of dressed stone, five brick frag-
ments, one piece of unidentified metal, and 14 nails. The nail fragments
were primarily cut nails (10/ 14), all of which were sevenpenny (7d) nails
measuring 2.5-in. long. Wire nails included one 3d, one 7d, and two 20d
nails, tied together with a piece of iron wire. The presence of wire nails in-
dicates a twentieth-century occupation of the site. Cut nails were widely
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 65

used during the nineteenth century, though they remain in use today and
dont necessarily stem from an earlier occupation.

Figure 25. Sketch map of 23PU511 (Adams 1997).
Shovel Test 2 contained a single bottle neck made of colorless glass. It has
a continuous thread finish, meant for a twist-off cap, indicating it was
made after the 1890s (Lindsey 2011). Mold seams run up to and around
the lip, indicating the bottle was made on a fully automatic bottle machine.
This observation dates the bottle conclusively after 1904, though likely af-
ter 1920 (Miller 1984). The shovel test contained a second piece of color-
less vessel glass, though this artifact lacked further diagnostic features.
Shovel Test 3 was devoid of artifacts.
The similarity in stratigraphy among the shovel tests suggests that the
soils at 23PU511 have not been significantly disturbed for much of the site.
The artifacts suggest an early twentieth-century occupation with a possible
nineteenth-century component.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 66

8.4 Site description
The site abuts the north-south road that runs through FLW Range 14,
passing 23PU284, 23PU509, and skirting the bluff south of 23PU512. The
core of the site consists of a poured concrete house foundation, a fallen-in
concrete structure that may once have been a root cellar, and a second
outbuilding with adjacent concrete trough. A fieldstone foundation to the
south of the site core that was observed by the PSAP crew in the 1990s
could be another outbuilding. To the north are three shallow depressions
that could be the evidences of military training referred to by Adams
(1997). The concrete wall and area of concrete rubble identified by PSAP
could be associated with the site or could be the result of more recent ac-
tivities associated with the use of the area as a training range (Figure 26).
The site lies in the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of Section
13, Township 34 North, Range 12 West.
8.5 Conclusion
Based on the documentary and artifactual evidence, it appears that the
Zula Hicks Site is an early twentieth-century homestead with little evi-
dence of a nineteenth-century component. The site may have been built by
Ernest and Zula Hicks following their marriage in 1916 and was occupied
until the creation of Fort Leonard Wood during WW II.
Adams (1997) suggested that the site was not eligible for listing on the
National Register of Historic Places, based on the damage to the site, the
disturbance caused my military training, and the scant representation of
artifacts on the surface. This round of fieldwork identified little that would
contradict Adams finding.

ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 67

Figure 26. Site map of 23PU511 (ERDC-CERL).


Sh eiTests
0 3.5 !_ 14
Dressell Stone


Fieldsto0 ndation
-9,.-- -=.,11
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 68

9 Results of Archaeological Investigations
at 23PU512 (A.L. Hicks Site)
9.1 Site history
The site sits in the area mentioned in previous chapters as broken coun-
try on the 1873 Shumard map of Pulaski County (Broadhead et al. 1873).
The first indication of the land coming under ownership dates to 9 J uly
1892, when Henry O. Moyer submitted a patent for 80 acres in Section 13,
Township 34 North, Range 12 West (which includes the site location) to
the U.S. General Land Office (Bureau of Land Management 2010).
The 1906 map of Pulaski County shows the area of 23PU512 as completely
barren. One road stretches towards it, coming south from the Dundas
schoolhouse, but there is no evidence of any settlement or improvement of
the land. The 1930 plat book for Pulaski County lists the land as owned by
a W. McCann (W.W. Hixson & Co. 1930), though no one by that name ap-
pears in the U.S. Census for Pulaski County that year (U.S. Bureau of the
Census 1930).
When another map of Pulaski County was made by 1937, a road had been
noted that ran just south of 23PU512 and connected Dundas school to
Cookeville. Again, there were no apparent improvements to the site of
23PU512, but the 1937 map was made to show tourist attractions, not resi-
dences, so it is unlikely that any house present at the site at that time
would have been marked on the map.
After the creation of Fort Leonard Wood, there are no representations of
23PU512. The 1944 map of the installation shows neither structure nor the
road that used to lead to the site. The 1948 real estate map of the installa-
tion shows the parcel where 23PU512 is located as being bought from A.L.
Hicks. This map is the source of the name allocated to this site in the ASM
database (Adams 1997).
The 1930 U.S. Census lists an Albert L. Hicks, then 25 years of age, as part
of the household of his mother, Eliza A. Hicks, of Roubidoux Township,
Pulaski County. Eliza Hickss two grandchildren, Dale L. and Leland D.,
both 10 years of age, were also members of her household. It is likely that
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 69

Albert L. Hicks is the A.L. Hicks listed on the real estate map, as Eliza
Hicks owned a parcel across the road on that same map.
A. L. Hicks may have gone by the names Albert or Lester, as both names
appear in census records. The 1910 Census lists Lester Hicks, age 5, as part
of the household of Eliza and J ames W. Hicks of Roubidoux Township. Of
his parents, Eliza survived her husband J ames by several years. Around
1941 she moved to Burge Hospital in Springfield, Missouri, where she died
in 1959 of coronary thrombosis (heart attack) at the age of 91. A.L. Hicks
does not appear in the public, national record outside of these few scant
9.2 Previous fieldwork
Fort Leonard Wood archaeologists documented 23PU512 in 1994. They
identified four site features: a house foundation, well, an outbuilding
foundation, and a stone-lined, banked root cellar (Adams 1997). The cellar
had a berm running around it, making it an embankment/ hillside cellar
under Gages (2009) classification system.
PSAP archaeologists visited the site in 1996, performing a surface inspec-
tion and creating a sketch map (Figure 27). They documented the same
four features seen in 1994 (cement house foundation, well, outbuilding
foundation, and root cellar ) in the same condition as originally de-
scribed (Adams 1997). Artifacts, none of which were collected, included at
least a bucket, glass soda bottles, food cans, and an enamelware kettle,
though no specific counts were provided (Adams 1997). The site was not
shovel tested during PSAP fieldwork, nor does it seem to have been shovel
tested by Fort Leonard Wood personnel in 1994.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 70

Figure 27. PSAP map of 23PU512 (Adams 1997).
9.3 ERDC-CERL fieldwork
Two visits were made to 23PU512, one in October 2009 and the other in
J anuary 2010. During the earlier visit, a malfunctioning camera precluded
taking site photographs, which were made during the later field visit. All
fieldwork except for photography took place during the earlier visit.
As with the other sites, a thorough walkover of the site was conducted to
locate previously identified features and to look for others that may have
eluded earlier surveys. Shovel tests were dug and a sketch map created of
the site. As was the case during the PSAP fieldwork in 1996, no new fea-
tures associable with the homestead were located.
ERDC-CERL archaeologists dug three shovel tests at the site (Figure 28).
All began at the surface with a thin (24 cm) stratum of dark (10YR2/ 4,
10YR2/ 2, 10YR3/ 2) humic silt. Under this stratum lay 1417 cm of dark
(10YR4/ 2, 10YR3/ 3, 10YR4/ 4) silty clay/ clay loam, which capped a yel-
lowish brown (10YR5/ 4) clay subsoil. Artifacts were found in the upper
two strata, the subsoil being culturally sterile.
The shovel tests recovered two artifacts. The upper stratum of Shovel Test
2 contained a large piece of sheet metal, which was folded and stamped
along one edge. This appears to be tin, perhaps former roofing material for
one of the buildings located in the vicinity of the shovel test. It is not con-
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 71

sidered to have much utility as a temporal diagnostic. Shovel Test 1 recov-
ered a carbon rod from a dry cell zinc-carbon battery. Such batteries origi-
nated in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. The batteries
could either be associated with the occupants of the site or subsequent vis-
itation by persons associated with the fort.

Figure 28. Site map of 23PU512 (ERDC-CERL).
9.4 Site description
Site 23PU512 sits atop a ridge overlooking Roubidoux Creek. At one time,
a road ran to the site (identified in Figure 27), though that road is now
only barely traceable on the landscape. The current installation road runs
to the south, along the foot of the bluff on which 23PU512 stands. Access
to the site is easiest by parking at the point where the old road meets the
modern installation road, just where it bends to the southeast to track
along Roubidoux Creek, and hiking in. Abundant undergrowth on the
relict road precludes driving directly to the site.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 72

The site consists of four features: three foundations and one well. The
foundations include a residence with attached root cellar, an outbuilding
foundation, and a stone-lined root cellar. The house foundation is made of
poured cement, roughly 5060 cm above ground at its highest point and
approximately 1520 cm wide. The foundation was poured in forms made
from boards, the impressions of which are easily visible on the foundation
as well as on the root cellar. It measures approximately 9 x 8 m (30 x 26 ft)
and was likely a double-pen structure given its overall size and the curtain
wall running down the center of the foundation (Figure 29).
The roof of the root cellar may have served as a porch as well, as a small
set of concrete steps leads up to its top. The root cellar itself is deep, per-
haps 67 ft and has both a ventilation hole in its front (facing away from
the house foundation) and a large access through its roof, visible in Figure
30. This access was likely covered by a door, under which would have been
stairs or a ladder down to the cellar itself. The entryway still has a board
fastened to one side, which could have served as an anchor point for a
hinge to hold the door.

Figure 29. House site, 23PU512 (ERDC-CERL).
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 73

Figure 30. Root cellar, 23PU512 (ERDC-CERL).
9.5 Conclusion
Following PSAPs investigations of the site, Adams declined to comment
on whether or not 23PU512 should be considered eligible for listing on the
NRHP. He did suggest that the site bore further investigation and recom-
mended test unit excavation and detailed site mapping (Adams 1997).
That the site was not then written off as ineligible should be seen as evi-
dence that there was some recognition of the possibility that the site would
be considered eligible.
While ERDC-CERLs investigations are far from the additional fieldwork
Adams suggested, they do support an inferred understanding of the site as
potentially eligible for listing. The site appears to be intact and contains
the remnants of houses, barns, and root cellars which were part of the ad-
aptation of the inhabitants to life in the Ozark uplands. There appears to
be little recent disturbance from military training, and the site is better
protected than others seen in this project, given its remoteness from major
thoroughfares and the difficulty of the traversing the terrain surrounding
it. Though the historical record is very thin on 23PU512, the archaeological
potential of the site is much greater.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 74

10 Results of Archaeological Investigations
at 23PU548 (Lewis Lancaster Site)
10.1 Site history
Marvin Owens of St. Louis County was the first to lay claim to the land on
which site 23PU548 is located. He filed a patent on 1 March 1860 with the
General Land Office for 320 acres that included the site location (Bureau
of Land Management 2010). There is no evidence in U.S. Census records
that Marvin Owens ever moved to the land, however, as no men by that
name appear in the census records for Pulaski County during the nine-
teenth century.
In 1873, the site is shown as part of a plateau covered typically by stands of
post oak but largely lacking human habitation (Broadhead et al. 1873). The
site location remained vacant in the 1906 map of Pulaski County, though
the home of W.S. Williams stood just to the south along the Houston Road
(later named Missouri Route 17).
The 1930 plat book for Pulaski County shows W.S. Williams as being the
owner of the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 21,
Township 34 North, Range 11 West, where the site is located. The 1930
U.S. Census lists one W.S. Williams in Pulaski County. This was Wesley S.
Williams, an elderly farmer who had lived in Pulaski County since at least
1900, as evidenced by the decennial U.S. Census for the years 19001930.
Wesley and Malinda Williams raised a family there, one of whom, a son
named Walter, would be the claimant on his parents land in 1948. These
are the same Wesley and Malinda Williams from the preceding chapter on
There was no marked residence on the 1937 tourist map of Pulaski County,
the only built structures in the vicinity being the Palace schoolhouse and
the Palace Civilian Conservation Corps camp, lying to the west and south,
respectively. A network of roads ran through the area, some significant,
such as the north-south Missouri Route 17, others apparently rather in-
formal. Similarly, the 1944 map of Fort Leonard Wood shows a number of
improved and unimproved roads through the area, but no habitations.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 75

The 1948 real estate map for Fort Leonard Wood shows the land around
23PU548 as part of a 50-acre claim held by Walter E. Williams. Walter E.
Williams, as mentioned above, was the son of Wesley and Malinda
Williams. The name of the site stems from the claim made to the land just
south of the site location. Lewis Lancaster claimed 260 acres in Section 21,
but not the portion on which the site now rests.
10.2 Previous fieldwork
The site was first reported by Richard Edging and Curt Rankin in April of
1994. They noted it as a nineteenth- to twentieth-century farmstead and
drew the sites surrounding boundaries as square, 10 meters per side and
oriented to the cardinal directions. They did not make a record of the sites
features or note any observed surface artifacts.
McGowan (1996) reported that PSAP was aware of the site during their
survey of the Northern Musgrave Hollow Tract on FLW in late 1995. How-
ever, there does not appear to have been additional archaeological work
performed at that time because the resultant report makes no mention of
any being done and gives only cursory reference to the site.
10.3 Fieldwork
ERDC-CERL archaeologists visited the site in October 2009, using UTM
coordinates provided by Fort Leonard Woods Department of Public
Works to locate it. As with the other sites included in this project, ERDC-
CERL archaeologists began field investigations by conducting an extensive
walkover survey of the site, following by the excavation of two shovel tests.
A sketch map was made in tandem with a digital map created with the
The core of the site consisted of two foundations correlating approximately
to the site dimensions recorded by Edging and Rankin. In addition to the
two foundations, ERDC-CERL archaeologists noted a large rectilinear
depression (see Figure 31). Sea oats were observed to be growing in
proximity to the foundations, much like they were at 23PU509.
Two shovel test pits were excavated at the site (see Figure 31 for locations).
Both contained heavy concentrations of poorly indurated chert, as is
common in Ozark soils. Shovel Test 1 consisted of three strata, a thin hu-
mic surface layer (01 cmbs, 10YR3/ 1: very dark gray) that was covering
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 76

an artifact-bearing silty clay loam (119 cmbs, 10YR3/ 2: very dark grayish
brown), under which lay subsoil, a yellowish brown silty clay (10YR5/ 4).
Shovel Test 2 had, similarly, a thin humic layer (00.5 cmbs, 10YR3/ 1:
very dark gray) over a thicker silty clay stratum (0.518 cmbs, 10YR4/ 3:
dark brown), under which was clay subsoil (1824 cmbs, 7.5YR5/ 6: strong

Figure 31: Site map of 23PU548 (ERDC-CERL).
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 77

Shovel tests at 23PU548 yielded seven artifacts (Figure 32). The assem-
blage includes two pieces of amber bottle glass, four nails, and one white
milk glass canning jar lid-liner fragment. All artifacts were found in the
second stratum of Shovel Test 1.

Figure 32: Artifacts from 23PU548 (ERDC-CERL).
Brown or amber glass has been used for bottles and other containers for
centuries, though the examples found here are machine-made, meaning
they date to the early twentieth century, following the development of au-
tomatic bottle-making technology.
Milk glass canning jar lids were first used in the late 1850s to keep the con-
tents of glass canning jars from contacting inside of the lid, which being
zinc, would cause the contents to spoil. These jar lids continued in use un-
til the mid-twentieth century, when changes in canning jar technology and
a decline in the demand for canning jars in general (spurred by the rise of
convenience stores and prepackaged food) rendered them obsolete
(Hinson 1996).
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 78

The nails include one sixpenny (6d), one sevenpenny (7d), and two
sixteenpenny (16d), which are shown from left to right in Figure 32. One
other artifact, an enamelware basin, was observed but not recovered. It
lies approximately 30 meters due north of the foundation piers.
Enamelware basins such as this were first mass-produced in 1874 and
remain in use today.
North of the site runs the vestige of an east-west road that at one point
would have connected to Missouri Route 17. The rutting of the roadbed
and the arrangement of large trees along its margins make its route still
visible, despite the heavy undergrowth that currently dominates the site.
10.4 Site description
The core of this farmstead site is the set of foundations, one of poured con-
crete (measuring approximately 2.5 x 2.75 m), and the other consisting of
ten sandstone piers. Given the small size of the poured concrete founda-
tion, it is more likely that this was an outbuilding, one too small for a
house, whereas the larger footprint of the piers suggests they were the ba-
sis for the house.
Farther west from the foundations is a large rectangular depression sur-
rounded by earthen berms, likely the spoil piles from the excavation of the
depression. This depression measures 7.75 x 10 m (25 x 32 ft), and is as
much as a full meter deep (measured from the top of the adjacent berm). It
lies approximately 30 m (100 ft) due west from the poured concrete foun-
The site currently lies in a heavily wooded area near Missouri Route 17,
though access was easiest by hiking in from the west after parking near the
entrance to a nearby grenade range. A steep-sided drainage cut between
Missouri Route 17 and the site makes approaching from the east difficult.
In comparison with the other sites visited during this field project,
23PU548 is a much less elaborate site, having only one small, poured con-
crete foundation with little elaboration and one pier foundation. The dif-
ference in the two foundations could be based on the occupational history
of the site, in that poured concrete foundations likely date to later than
pier foundations, or the site could have been abandoned before the occu-
pants deemed it worthwhile to replace the pier foundation with a concrete
one. The difference could also be a result of the relative wealth of the in-
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 79

habitants, as a poured concrete house foundation would have been more
costly than sandstone piers, which could be gathered from the surround-
ing countryside.
The artifacts recovered from the site suggest a late-nineteenth to early-
twentieth century occupation. None of the artifacts were particularly sensi-
tive chronological indicators, making finer estimations of occupation
length impossible in the absence of more archaeological data.
10.5 Conclusion
It is difficult to make a suggestion of significance on an archaeological site
that has been studied so little. Previous archaeological fieldwork did not
advance any suggestion of potential eligibility that could be reviewed in
light of new evidence, as was the case with the other sites visited in this
It would appear that the site was owned by Walter Williams, son of Wil-
liam and Malinda Williams, whose farmstead is now recorded as 23PU502
(see above). Walter was born around 1905 (U.S. Bureau of the Census
1920), which would suggest that any actual farmstead there would date no
earlier than the 1920s. The artifact assemblage associated with the site
does not help refine occupational history of the area. Available indications
suggest the site was occupied briefly in the early twentieth century, prior
to the founding of the fort. Based on this scanty evidence of a brief, recent,
and light occupation of the site, it would seem difficult to support an ar-
gument for the sites eligibility to the NRHP.

ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 80

11 Application of the Model
As is clear from the above discussion of the archaeological and architec-
tural research on these farmsteads, Fort Leonard Wood was once home to
a close-knit community of families. The physical remains of those families
homes are still much in evidence on the forts rangelands, 70 years after
their abandonment. That community was cherished by its former inhabit-
ants and its loss was keenly felt. Importance and significance are two dif-
ferent categories of value, however, and it is the purpose of this research to
apply Enscore et al.s model for significance determinations to the sites
studied in this project. While each have been assessed individually for
their eligibility for listing on the NHRP, the model used here discusses
them in aggregate.
Enscore et al (2005) developed the approach to significance modeling.
This approach relies on the information gathered to answer the Site
Inventory Form that is completed for each site. Used in tandem with the
Eligibility Prescreening Form, the Site Inventory Form guides cultural
resources specialists to collect both historical and cultural data necessary
to make significance determinations rapidly and accurately.
The model used by Enscore et al. (2005, 5) assumes that the historic sites
at Fort Leonard Wood were similar in terms of size, materials, construc-
tion, and layout. Having made that assumption, it seeks to identify the
most typical, best examples of historic properties, which can then be pre-
served, allowing less valuable resources to be removed from the cultural
resources inventory.
The sites used in this project were flagged as potentially eligible by the
Eligibility Prescreening Form, and the fieldwork described above
constituted the fieldwork phase of the testing process described in Enscore
et al. (2005, 10). In spite of previous significance assessments, the sites
used in this research were believed to be potentially significant before the
fieldwork phase.
Most of the sites used in this project had been assessed in terms of signifi-
cance by earlier researchers. In those earlier assessments, Site 23PU284
(Dundas School) and 23PU511 (Zula Hicks Site) were considered ineligi-
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 81

ble, while 23PU502 (Root Cellar), 23PU508, and 23PU510 (Dr. C. Mallette
Site) were suggested as being eligible. No determinations were offered in
the cases of 23PU509 (Bryum L. Christeson Site) and 23PU548 (Lewis
Lancaster Site).
Based on the cumulative fieldwork conducted on these sites, 23PU502,
23PU508, 23PU510, and 23PU512 could be considered eligible for listing
on the NRHP under Criterion D (potential for recovery of future scientific
data). The 23PU284 site is likely ineligible given its extensive disturbance.
Also, 23PU509 is likely ineligible, but this ineligibility is due more to the
lack of evidence for significant artifactual deposits at the site and some
disturbance to the foundation wall. In the case of 23PU548, a situation
where there has been very little total fieldwork, making a recommendation
of eligibility is a tenuous task at best. The site could contain a temporally
discrete, early-twentieth century assemblage of artifacts, but this has not
been demonstrated. At our present level of knowledge, it may be consid-
ered not eligible for listing, as there is no strong indication that the site
will yield important information relative to the NRHP listing criteria. Fi-
nally, 23PU511 was seen as ineligible by previous field researchers, an in-
terpretation that ERDC-CERL archaeologists did not find evidence to
Among the four sites suggested as eligible, the model developed by
Enscore et al. (2005) suggests identifying the best-preserved, most typi-
cal sites and flagging them for preservation at the expense of the others.
Of these four, then, 23PU510 and 23PU512 should be seen as the most
The Dr. C. Mallette site, 23PU510, is by far the most elaborate of the farm-
steads visited during this project. Its full-story cellar, which is in better
condition than other cement curtain wall cellars seen in this project, was
unique among the sites visited. The documented presence of additional
outbuildings, including storehouses and silo footings, suggests the possi-
bility for recovering substantial quantities of data about the farming prac-
tices of the region in the early twentieth century.
The 23PU512 site is similarly well-preserved, has numerous outbuildings,
and has a stone-lined root cellar like 23PU502 and 23PU510. Markedly
less elaborate than 23PU510, it may mark a socioeconomic class difference
between its former inhabitants and the York family at 23PU510. It could
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 82

also reflect a different adaptation to the landscape, as 23PU512 sits atop a
bluff, while 23PU510 is situated on the lowlands near Roubidoux Creek.
Taken together, these sites contain many of the different kinds of architec-
ture seen in the course of this project including stone-lined root cellars,
brick-lined wells, foundations for houses and outbuildings, and vestiges of
roads and paths connecting the sites to the wider world. Preserved for fu-
ture study, these sites offer the best opportunities for learning about local
adaptations to living in the rough Ozark uplands.
Suggesting that 23PU510 and 23PU512 be preserved entails simultaneous-
ly suggesting that 23PU502 and 23PU508 be let go. There are reasons for
selecting against each of these latter sites. The 23PU502 site, while well-
documented and containing an excellent example of a stone-lined root cel-
lar, does not offer architectural or archaeological data that is not recovera-
ble elsewhere among these sites. Because the architectural research for
this project found little to suggest this was an atypical form for a root cel-
lar, there is little more to be gained from retaining it in preference to
23PU510 or 23PU512, each of which has such a root cellar in addition to
other unique architectural features.
Site 23PU508 has the potential to yield additional data on the history and
culture of the Ozark uplands, but it has clearly had greater recent visitation
(witnessed in the form of scatters of modern trash across the site), which is
a disturbance to the site. Additionally, the evidence for earthmoving at the
northeast end of the site suggests some potential damage to site features,
which diminishes its integrity, though not enough to render it ineligible.
Being closer to an active training road than either of the two sites suggest-
ed for preservation makes 23PU508 more threatened to be further dam-
aged in the future.
Given the emphasis on identifying the most typical and best preserved
sites for preservation, as dictated by the model used in this project, the re-
search done for this task would hold that 23PU510 and 23PU512 are the
best candidates for preservation.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 83

12 Discussion of the Model
Before concluding this project, it is necessary to offer some comments on
the effectiveness of the model developed by Enscore et al. (2005) to help
refine the model for future, hopefully wider, use. While the approach and
undergirding principles represent the possibility of significant cost savings
to the Army while continuing to fulfill its mandates toward cultural re-
sources, there are a few issues that arose during the course of this project
that should be considered in future by researchers interested in advancing
this work.
This is not the first time that archaeologists find themselves confronted by
large numbers of recent, primarily rural, sites for which they must develop
methods for determining significance, eligibility, or relevance. The tech-
niques provided by other instances of this can serve as comparative case
studies against which the landscape model used at Fort Leonard Wood
may be held.
For instance, Wilson (1990) confronted this same issue of scale in dealing
with numerous farmsteads around Surry, New Hampshire, during his
work for the New England Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. His
chosen approach to separating wheat from chaff was to look at the known
history associated with each site and, based upon the brevity of occupation
and the level of re-modeling occurring at each site (less being considered
better), choose to save only a small number of sites which he deemed most
likely to yield large amounts of archaeological data. His argument was
based on Criterion D for inclusion in the National Register of Historic
Similarly, in the late 1990s, the Atomic Energy Commission had to sample
1,002 historic farmsteads on the Aiken Plateau in South Carolina (Cabak,
et al. 1999). Located on land claimed by the Atomic Energy Commission in
1951, these sites were shovel tested and mapped in much the same fashion
as were the sites at Fort Leonard Wood for this project. Though excavated
by the same company as part of the same project, the Aiken Plateau sites
do not appear to have been considered jointly from a managerial stand-
point, as the reports for the project broke the area up into distinct tracts
and reported on in piecemeal fashion. They were considered jointly in ac-
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 84

ademic publications, where Cabak et al. (1999) considered them in aggre-
gation to study rural modernization in the wake of the Second World War,
finding that the area did not share in the rapid changes in housing types
being produced elsewhere in the United States at that time.
Though Wilson (1990), unlike the researchers studying the Aiken Plateau,
did make an attempt to apply a significance model to a large number of
farmsteads, it should be noted that his model was heavily criticized by Le-
one and Potter (1992). The critics charged that Wilsons model was too
heavily based in logical positivism, causing it to focus on questions rele-
vant only to archaeology, and not society as a whole. Also, it employed an
essentialist understanding of significance, wherein significance is some-
thing inherent to the site, whereas Leone and Potter see significance as
something ascribed by the investigators and society at large.
This last critique is of interest to this project, as it underscores the difficul-
ty of making significance and eligibility determinations. While the Site In-
ventory Form was useful to the project, too heavy a reliance on the form
and the answers to its questions can divert the archaeologist and cultural
resources manager from an appropriate attention to the historical content
and relevance of the site to answering questions about American history.
Too great an attention to the details of a site runs the risk of causing inat-
tention to wider issues that bear importantly upon it.
12.1 Use of the Site Inventory Form
In general, the Site Inventory Form was a very useful tool for fleshing out
the documentation of each site. It asks questions of the field archaeologist
that might not otherwise have been noted, and provides space for detailing
historical, architectural, landscape, and artifactual data, all important in
properly characterizing the site as has been done here. That being stated,
there are a few alterations to the Site Inventory Form that would improve
its utility, both on conceptual grounds and in view of the exigencies of do-
ing fieldwork.
One alteration to the Site Inventory Form that would be advantageous for
field personnel would be splitting the form into two or three smaller
forms, one for documentary data, one for field data, and a third for
artifactual data. These could and perhaps should be completed at different
stages of the research process. Some of the data fields need to be answered
in the field, but others, such as artifactual data and questions of the typi-
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 85

cality of the architecture, can be answered more readily after the project
has been completed and the artifacts properly curated and analyzed.
Based on purely practical considerations, putting field data on a separate
form would be advantageous in that the conditions of fieldwork often have
a remarkably deleterious effect on the physical integrity of forms carried in
the field, and isolating the field data onto separate forms would reduce the
threat to the other forms of documentation that are not needed in the field.
For instance, the weather during virtually every day of fieldwork associat-
ed with this project was exceedingly rainy, and forms had to be filled out in
the hotel room at the close of the day, as exposing the paper itself to the
elements would have caused it to disintegrate in a few minutes.
One alternative would be to create a digital form for the field data (or all
data categories) that could be loaded onto a weatherproof digital recording
device, such as the GPS used in this project, that would allow for speedy
recordation of field observations in a format more water-resistant than
Conceptually, the Site Inventory Form could bear two additions, enhanced
flow direction and greater specificity. For flow direction, instructions on
which questions still apply should a site not be a farmstead, as was the
case for 23PU284 (Dundas School), would be helpful in letting the archae-
ologist know what questions the model developers did not expect to be ap-
plied for such cases. Several of the subsequent questions assume that the
site is a farmstead, and therefore do not apply in cases where the site
served some other function.
Also, there is not a clear distinction between farmstead and homestead.
Ernest Hicks, who lived with his wife, Zula, at 23PU511, was primarily not
a farmer but a mechanic. There is no historical information that would
suggest he farmed the land surrounding his house. Does his occupation
make the site of his former abode a homestead rather than a farmstead,
and should we consider that in the context when attempting to model sig-
nificance for these sites?
Greater specificity is called for in the artifact section. Ceramics are divided
by type, but not by decoration style (transfer-printing, hand painting, etc.)
which would be useful temporal and status indicators. Container glass is
broken into beverage bottles, food containers, and medicine bottles, which
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 86

are useful functional categories but do little to help date the site. Archaeol-
ogists much more frequently use technological indicators, such as mold
seams, pontil marks, decolorants, etc., to establish the approximate age of
a site, none of which are reflected in the Site Inventory Form. The same
could be said for bricks (handmade versus machine-made). Finally, there
are no categories for personal effects, miscellaneous other categories, or
military hardware stemming from recent disturbances to the site that
would be important to document and could aid in making significance de-
Additional specificity would be useful in the forms Archival Sources for
Property section. Under Maps, the check box for historic maps could be
expanded to encompass specific maps so that others reviewing the docu-
ments could see what maps had been consulted. The same holds for aerial
photographs. There are a finite number of these, most or all of which are
on file with Fort Leonard Woods DPW, and could be easily compiled into
a more specific list. Finally, there are different check boxes for historic
maps and county maps, though it is unclear what the distinction be-
tween the two is.
12.2 Historical context
Finally, the model is based on Smiths Made in the Timber, a historical
context written for the installation that lays out temporal categories to aid
in classifying sites. While the book has numerous strengths, its one key
weakness is an inattention paid to three lines of division in society that are
commonplace in current historical archaeology. Race, class, and gender
distinctions receive little focus, which shapes how we understand Fort
Leonard Woods past. Clearly, Pulaski County has never been an all-white
society, though there is little recognition of the presence of African-
Americans (free or enslaved) in the region early in its history, though cen-
sus records clearly indicate that there were.
Further, the Dr. C. Mallette site (23PU510) was quite an elaborate farm-
stead, one more favorably suited to agriculture than the upland sites of
23PU512 or 23PU511. Could this be evidence of economic stratification in
the rural South? If so, these sites offer a valuable opportunity to study the
topic archaeologically. However, Made in the Timber gives this and other
areas of research common to historical archaeology in general, and farm-
stead archaeology in particular, very short shrift.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 87

12.3 Conclusion
These suggestions aside, the model as presented offers a useful, valuable
tool for grappling with the problem of assessing the eligibility of these sites
for listing on the NRHP. With some tweaking, future applications of the
model at Fort Leonard Wood and elsewhere will be a benefit to the Army
by allowing it to fulfill its duties to American heritage quickly and efficient-
ly. It could also be a boon to cultural resources management, as being able
to quickly identify which sites need to be protected and which can be let go
will ensure that those from which we can learn most can be identified and
preserved quickly.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 88

13 Conclusion
Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended,
requires federal agencies to establish a preservation program for the iden-
tification, evaluation, nomination to the National Register, and protection
of historic properties. The project reported here is part of Fort Leonard
Woods ongoing and consistent effort to fulfill its mandates and to be a
good neighbor to the communities surrounding the installation that have
deep historical, cultural, and familial ties to the sites now located inside
the fort.
While the model developed by Enscore et al. (2005) does need some ad-
justments to enhance its effectiveness as a cultural resources tool, the ap-
proach it advocates offers a very useful resource for the installation. Faced
with literally hundreds of historical archaeological sites to manage, the in-
stallation needs tools such as this model to identify those historic proper-
ties that are most valuable and most in need of preservation.
Tools such as the model used in this report offer savings (primarily in
time) to the Army. Faced with the massive challenge of managing hun-
dreds of sites, many of which have not been fully assessed regarding their
eligibility for listing on the NRHP, the cultural resources managers at Fort
Leonard Wood need ways to rapidly identify important sites and, equally
important, sites that are clearly ineligible for listing. This assessment al-
lows attention and resources to be focused on those sites that will, through
study, most benefit our understanding of the Ozark past.
The effects of this approach have ramifications outside the world of cultur-
al resources management. Being able to separate the wheat from the chaff
of historic sites has important benefits to military training. Knowing which
sites stand no chance of being eligible for listing on the National Register
removes them from consideration when planning training exercises. This
increases the size of a rangelands landmass that is open to training as well
as defragmenting it.
The approach developed by Enscore et al. (2005) proved effective at iden-
tifying sites that may or may not have been eligible for listing by using the
Eligibility Prescreening Form. Then, subsequent fieldwork driven by the
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 89

Site Inventory Form, supplemented by basic historical research, separated
those sites that were worthy of further investigation from those that were
not. Though the historical context driving the model and the forms associ-
ated with the project need some adjustment, they constitute a very valua-
ble cultural resources tool with wide applicability. Given that there are
many installations around the country that were formed in similar circum-
stances to Fort Leonard Wood, the successful implementation of this ap-
proach there could lead to its adoption around the country. This would al-
low the Army to preserve American heritage very economically while
enhancing its ability to train and prepare to complete its missions.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 90

Adams, B. 1997. Phase I Archaeological Survey of 3,000 Acres at Fort Leonard Wood,
Pulaski County, Missouri. Public Service Archaeology Program, Department of
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__ __ _ _. 2003. Cultural Resources Survey of 646.15 Hectares in the East Musgrave
Hollow Area and Falls Hollow Area Tracts at Fort Leonard Wood, Pulaski
County, Missouri. Public Service Archaeology Program, Department of
Anthropology, University of Illinois. Submitted to U.S. Army Construction
Engineering Research Laboratory. Copies available from DACA42-00-0011.
Ahler, S. R., D. Naglich, B. W. Styles, M. B. Schroeder and E. C. Brand. 2009. National
Register Eligibility Assessment of Two Prehistoric Sites (23PU223 and
23PU264) and Six Historic Sites (23PU243, 23PU278, 23PU397, 23PU398,
23PU449, and 23PU502) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Illinois State
Museum Society. Submitted to U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development
Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. Copies available from
Alwood, W. B. 1895. A New Plan for the Construction of a Storage Cellar. Bulletin No.
58. Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College, Blacksburg.
Bolton, S. C. 1998. Arkansas, 1800-1860: Remote & Restless. University of Arkansas
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Broadhead, G. C., F. B. Meek and B. F. Shumard. 1873. Reports on the Geological Survey
of the State of Missouri, 1855-1871. Regan & Carter, J efferson City, Missouri.
Bureau of Land Management. 2010. General Land Office Records.
Busch, J . 1981. An Introduction to the Tin Can. Historical Archaeology 15(1):95-104.
Cabak, M. A., M. D. Groover and M. M. Inkrot. 1999. Rural Modernization During the
Recent Past: Farmstead Archaeology in the Aiken Plateau. Historical
Archaeology 33(4):19-43.
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Fort Leonard Wood Integrated Cultural Resources Management Plan. Special
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Enscore, S., S. K. Loechl, M. W. Tooker and S. L. Nutt. 2005. A Landscape Approach to
Determining Significance of 19th and 20th Century Farmsteads and Rural
Communities, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. U.S. Army Engineer Research and
Development Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. Submitted
to Natural Resources Directorate of Public Works, Fort Leonard Wood. Copies
available from MIPR2ACER006.
Fike, R. E. 1987. The Bottle Book: A Comprehensive Guide to Historic, Embossed
Medicine Bottles. The Blackburn Press, Caldwell, New J ersey.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 91

Gage, J . E. 2009. Root Cellars in Ameria: Their History, Design and Construction 1609-
1920. Powwow River Books, Amesbury, MA.
Hervert, J . and E. Allen. 1980. Midwestern Vernacular: Farm Structures in Kane
County, Illinois. Kane County Urban Development, Geneva, IL.
Hinson, D. 1996. "A Primer on Fruit J ars." Originally a feature article from Bottles &
Extras. Available at http:/ / ~glassman/ info/ b&e/ primer.htm
Higgins, Minnie A. 1924. Map of Pulaski County, Mo. In the files of Fort Leonard Wood
J ones, O. and C. Sullivan. 1989. The Parks Canada Glass Glossary for the Description of
Containers, Tableware, Flat Glass, and Closures. Minister of Supply and
Services Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Kreisa, P. P. and B. Adams. 1999. Phase I Survey of 3,511 Acres at Fort Leonard Wood,
Pulaski County, Missouri. Public Service Archaeology Program, Department of
Anthropology, University of Illinois. Submitted to U.S. Army Construction
Engineering Research Laboratory. Copies available from DACA88-97-D-0018.
Kreisa, P. P., J . M. McDowell, K. P. McGowan, G. R. Walz, B. Adams and D. J . Halpin.
1996. Phase I Survey of 3,500 Acres at Fort Leonard Wood, Pulaski Co.,
Missouri. Public Service Archaeology Program, Department of Anthropology,
University of Illinois. Submitted to U.S. Army Construction Engineering
Research Laboratory. Copies available from DACA88-94-D-0008.
Laclede County Genealogical Society. 2000. Laclede County, Missouri: History and
Families. Turner Publishing Company, Paducah, Kentucky.
Leone, M. P. and P. B. Potter, J r. 1992. Legitimation and the Classification of
Archaeological Sites. American Antiquity 57(1):137-145.
Lindsey, B. 2011. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website.
Linklater, A. 2002. Measuring America: How an Untamed Wilderness Shaped the
United States and Fulfilled the Promise of Democracy. Walter & Co., New York.
McGowan, K. P., 1996. Phase I Survey of Four Thousand Acres at Fort Leonard Wood,
Pulaski Co., Missouri. Public Service Archaeology Program, Department of
Anthropology, University of Illinois. Submitted to U.S. Army Construction
Engineering Research Laboratories. Copies available from DACA88-94-D-0008.
Miller, G. L. 1984. Machine-Made Glass Containers and the End of Production for
Mouth-Blown Bottles. Historical Archaeology 18(2):83-96.
__ __ _ _. 1991. A Revised Set of CC Index Values for Classification and Economic Scaling
of English Ceramics from 1787 to 1880. Historical Archaeology 25(1):1-25.
Neumann, T. W., and R. M. Sanford. 2001a. Cultural Resources Archaeology: An
Introduction. Alta Mira Press, Lanham, NY.
__ __ _ _. 2001b. Practicing Archaeology: An Introduction to Cultural Resources
Archaeology. Alta Mira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 92

Newman, T. S. 1970. A Dating Key for Post-Eighteenth Century Bottles. Historical
Archaeology 4(1):70-75.
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Pollock, D. 1978. Cellars: A Store of Produce. Bittersweet 5(3):46-52.
Pulaski County Historical Society. 2009. Pictures, Stories, History of Pulaski County
Rural Schools. Pulaski County Historical Society, Waynesville, Missouri.
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Christopher Woody.
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Smith, S. D. 2003. Made in the Timber: A Settlement History of the Fort Leonard Wood
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Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri.
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Secretary of State, Missouri. 2010. Missouri Digital Heritage: Death Records Certificates.
Toulouse, J . H. 1971. Bottle Makers and Their Marks. Blackburn Press, Caldwell, New
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Department of Commerce, Washington, DC
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ERDC/CERL TR-12-6 93

W.W. Hixson & Co. 1930. Plat Book of Pulaski County, Missouri. W.W. Hixson & Co.,
Rockford, Illinois.
Williams, G. 2009. Oral Interview, edited by E. Hartman.
Wilson, J . S. 1990. "We've Got Thousands of These! What Makes an Historic Farmstead
Significant?" Historical Archaeology 24(2):23-33.

Form Approved
OMB No. 0704-0188
Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining
the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for
reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington,
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15 April 2012
3. DATES COVERED (From - To)

Prioritizing Historical Archaeological Sites at Fort Leonard Wood, Pulaski County,



Carl G. Carlson-Drexler, Ellen R. Hartman, Carey L. Baxter, and Susan I. Enscore


U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
P.O. Box 9005
Champaign, IL 61826-9005
Fort Leonard Wood Directorate of Public Works
Environmental Division
Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri 65473
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

The Army is tasked with managing the cultural resources on its lands. For installations such as Fort Leonard Wood that contain large
numbers of historic farmsteads, meeting these requirements through traditional approaches entails large investments of time, person-
nel, and capital. Fort Leonard Wood and the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory have developed a model for efficiently
identifying the best examples of historic sites, and also those sites that are least likely to be deemed eligible for listing on the National
Register of Historic Places.
This report details the application of the data collection and analysis process developed by Enscore et al. (2005) to eight historic sites
on Fort Leonard Wood Military Reservation. The results of the fieldwork show that this approach helps to quickly identify basic in-
formation about the site and provide a basis for identifying sites that have little potential for listing on the National Register. Recom-
mendations also are offered concerning the development of the model and its application at other installations.
Fort Leonard Wood, Historic Archaeology, Cultural Landscape, NRHP Eligibility, Farmsteads

UU 104
19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include
area code)

Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)
Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18

compiled by
Major, Artillery, US Army
With Foreword by
US Army
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
Report Documentation Page
Form Approved
OMB No. 0704-0188
Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and
maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information,
including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington
VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it
does not display a currently valid OMB control number.
The History of Fort Leavenworth 1952- 63.
Army Command & General Staff College,Combined Arms Research
Library ,250 Gibbon Avenue,Fort Leavenworth,KS,66027-2314
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited
Since the founding of Fort Leavenworth in 1827, the years have brought about a transition in atmosphere
at the post from that of a frontier garrison to one of advanced military education. During these changing
times in the development of our Nation, Fort Leavenworth has continuously fulfilled mission of increasing
importance to the Armed Forces of the United States. The activities, events, and accomplishments that
have taken place here deserve to be a source of pride for all personnel, past and present, who served at
Fort Leavenworth. This History of Fort Leavenworth, 1952-63 brings up to date the original history
written in 1927 by Col Elvid Hunt, revised by Capt Walter E. Lorence in 1937, and published for the
period 1937-51 by Col Orville Z. Tyler.
19a. NAME OF
Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)
Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18
Since the founding of Fort Leavenworth in 1827, the years have brought
about a transition in atmosphere at the post from that of a frontier gar-
rison to one of advanced military education. During these changing times
in the development of our Nation, Fort Leavenworth has continuously
fulfilled missions of increasing importance to the Armed Forces of the
United States.
The activities, events, and accomplishments that have taken place here
deserve to be a source of pride for all personnel, past and present, who
served at Fort Leavenworth. This History of Fort Leavenworth, 1952-63
brings up to date the original history written in 1927 by Col Elvid Hunt,
revised by Capt Walter E. Lorence in 1937, and published for the period
1937-51 by Col Orville Z. Tyler.
US Army
FOREWORD ------- _------------------ 2
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ------------------- ---------- 5
The years 1952-55 ..- 9.. ......... ______ ________ 9
The years 1956-59 ----------- _-------_---------------- 12
The years 1960-63 ------ _____----------------------- 17
The Combined Arms Group -____------------------------- 24
The US Disciplinary Barracks ---- ____--- __--------------- 25
Munson Army Hospital -------. __ __________ __---------------- 27
Midwest Relay Station ------------- ---------- 28
The Air Defense Battery ---------- ___------------------ 30
Sherman Army Airfield ------------ ___-----_-----------__---- 32
The Museum ----...- --------------------------- 32
CHAPTER IV. THE COLLEGE, 1952-63 ----- _---- - __--------------- 35
The Korean War Period ---- __ ________------------------ 36
The Doctrinal Mission ----- __ _ ____-------------------- 37
Staff Reorganization -------- __ __-------------------- 37
Student Activities --------- __--------------------- 38
Educational Survey Commission ------------ _--------------- 38
Diamond Jubilee Celebration -------------------------------- 39
Major Revisions ------ ____ ------------------------ 40
Bell Hall ---- _- -_--------------------------- 41
Nuclear Weapons Instruction ----------------------------- 42
Educational Advisor ------------------ -------- 42
Academic Awards ---- _ -- _______------------------ - 42
Effects of the Army Reorganization ----- _------------------ 43
Conclusion ....----------..---------------------- 43
CHAPTER V. THE COLLEGE TODAY ----- ________--------------- 44
The Staff and Faculty ---- __________----------------------- 45
Resident Courses -_------------------------------- 46
Nonresident Instruction --------------------- ----------- 47
The Allied Personnel Program ------------ ________ ___--- 48
The Military Review ----- _--_--------- ---------------- 49
The Printing Plant ------------------------------------- _51
Library Division ------------------------------------- _51
Guest Speakers ------------------------------- 52
The Honors Program ___---..----------------------------- ------ 52
Conclusion --------------------------------- 52
CHAPTER VI. COMMUNITY LIFE -------------------------- 53
Community Activities --------------------------- _------------ - 53
Civic Relations -------------------------------------------------- 57
Special Services -_---------------------------------__------ - 58
Social and Professional Organizations --__-_---_ ---------- __---- ------ 59
APPENDIX I. CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS ---------------- --- 62
II. MAP OF FORT LEAVENWORTH --------- -------- 63
III. COMMANDANTS, 1952-63 -------- ____________ --- 65
IV. ASSISTANT COMMANDANTS, 1952-63 -------- 66
CHIEFS OF STAFF, 1952-63 -------- _---------- 66
VI. COLLEGE SECRETARIES, 1952-63 -.----------.-- __--_-- 66
VII. HEADS OF KEY ACTIVITIES ------------- ------ 67
IX. BUILDING AND PLACE NAMES ----------------- 72
X. ORGANIZATION CHARTS --------- 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, 83, 85
BIBLIOGRAPHY -_ ------------ ---------------- 87
INDEX ------------------------------ 88
Main entrance to Fort Leavenworth
Fort Leavenworth today is a picturesque,
tree-shaded military reservation of some 6,000
acres abounding with historical markers, monu-
ments, and structures that graphically aid the
observer in bridging the gap from the present
to the rich heritage of the past. In addition to
the U. S. Army Command and General Staff
College and a multitude of fine Post facilities,
Fort Leavenworth is the site of a National
Cemetery, the US Disciplinary Barracks, the
Midwest Relay Station, and an air defense mis-
sile battery.
Centrally located in the heart of the United
States on the western bluffs of the Missouri
River, Fort Leavenworth was founded in 1827.
In May of that year, an expedition of four in-
fantry companies under the command of Col
Henry Leavenworth landed in keel boats at the
present site of the Post to establish a permanent
military garrison for the protection of overland
trade along the Santa Fe Trail. The location
selected by Colonel Leavenworth was approved
by the War Department and the new outpost
was designated "Cantonment Leavenworth."
The following years were busy ones for the
garrison which was charged with the mission
of keeping peace between Indians and traders
while protecting the interests of the Govern-
ment. Later, as the westward movement of
immigrants opened the Oregon Trail in 1845,
protection of caravans and the exploration of
territory along this route were added to the mis-
sions of Post troops. By mid-nineteenth century
the Post, now designated "Fort Leavenworth,"
had become a main depot from which the mili-
tary outposts of the West were supplied, and
an important station of cavalry troops engaged
in the protection of settlers and Government
agencies from the marauding Plains Indians.
The signing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in
May 1854 triggered a rush of claim-staking
"Free Staters" and "Slave Staters" into these
new territories west of the Missouri River. The
ensuing border troubles between the two fac-
tions frequently required the intervention of
military forces from Fort Leavenworth. During
US Army Photo
-- FI _ L_--_C ,-- _ =ICICC -- _ - ----- CC-L -- t-- - I --- 1_1 9 -- - _C- I - -C
this same period, military operations were
directed to suppress the ever more hostile In-
dians, as the tribes in the area were forced
from land and livelihood by the settlers. The
city of Leavenworth, then situated 3 miles south
of the Post, became the first incorporated town
in the Kansas Territory in June 1854, and the
first territorial governor established his office
and quarters at the Fort in October of that
With the outbreak of the Civil War, Fort
Leavenworth served as a base of operations
for Federal troops in Kansas and Missouri.
Camp Lincoln was established on the reserva-
tion as a center for mustering in, equipping
and training regional volunteers, and muster-
ing them out of the Union forces as their
terms of enlistment expired. This camp was in
operation from 1861 until 1865 when the end
of the war presaged a new role for Fort Leaven-
The incredible hardships suffered by pris-
oners of the Civil War resulted in far-reaching
reforms of the existing military prison system.
In 1874 provisions were made for a military
prison to be located at Fort Leavenworth to
serve as a facility for long-term prisoners then
confined in guardhouses at each of the various
military installations throughout the country.
Conversion of quartermaster buildings to a
military prison was completed in the spring of
1875 and the transfer of prisoners to Fort
Leavenworth was begun.
The Civil War also brought about the realiza-
tion that the officer corps of the Army required
a progressive system of military education in
addition to the essential qualities of leadership
recognized in the past. Fort Leavenworth was
destined to play a major and continuing part
in this educational system. While President of
the United States, Gen Ulysses S. Grant ordered
a reorganization of the Army which provided
for formal officer schooling. As a result, Gen
Philip H. Sheridan was directed to establish
the first school for advanced officer education
within the Military Division of the Missouri.'
For some time, Maj Gen John Pope, command-
ing the Department of Missouri, had urged the
consolidation of the numerous small outposts
in his area of responsibility by the establish-
The Military Division of the Missouri consisted of
the following Departments: Texas, Dakota, the Platte,
and the Missouri.
ment of a sizable garrison and military school
at Fort Leavenworth. General Pope's recom-
mendations were, to a large extent, responsible
for the issuance of General Orders Number 42
by Headquarters of the Army on 7 May 1881
which directed that a School of Application
for Infantry and Cavalry be organized at Fort
Col Elwell S. Otis was appointed comman-
dant of the school, an academic staff was as-
sembled, and a course of instruction prepared
for the first class of 42 student officers which
commenced in March 1882. The title of the
school was changed in 1886 to the United
States Infantry and Cavalry School and con-
tinuous improvements were made in the course
of instruction and the academic facilities. In
1898, the Spanish-American War, and the
Philippine Insurrection which followed, caused
a suspension of systematic Army education for
4 years.
Fort Leavenworth was designated a per-
manent post in 1902 and was garrisoned with a
regiment of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, an
artillery battery, an engineer battalion, a sig-
nal company, and medical detachments. These
troop units were placed in support of the school
which reopened in August of that year as the
General Service and Staff College. In this
same year, the remains of General Leaven-
worth, who had died of illness and injuries in
1834 while on campaign along the Santa Fe
Trail, were reinterred in the Fort Leavenworth
National Cemetery. The elaborate ceremonies,
which took place on Decoration Day, were at-
tended by thousands of people.
The school was again closed in 1916 for the
duration of World War I. Graduates served
with distinction during the war in key posi-
tions, some commanding divisions and brigades
while many others were assigned high level
staff duties. During these war years, Fort
Leavenworth became a training camp for in-
ductees, and the school facilities were used to
train officer candidates.
The school system was reinstated at the Post
in 1919 with the opening of the School of the
Line and the more advanced General Staff
School. In the years between World Wars I
and II, approximately 4,500 officers were grad-
uated from the academic institution at Fort
When the United States was drawn into
World War II, for the first time during a
national emergency the school continued op-
erations. An expansion of the educational pro-
gram and school facilities began on an un-
precedented scale. Instruction was intensified
as courses were shortened and the size of the
classes increased tremendously. From the 27
wartime classes which were conducted, approxi-
mately 19,000 graduates were provided the
Armed Forces. In addition to the school, the
garrison of Fort Leavenworth again supported
the needs of the emergency by processing hun-
dreds of thousands of personnel through induc-
tion, reception, and separation centers organ-
ized at the Post.
The school was given its present designation,
the Command and General Staff College, in
1946 in recognition of its status as a higher
institution for professional military education.
An Associate Course was added the following
year. This shorter course of instruction pro-
vided the means to train additional officers, in-
cluding those from the National Guard and
Reserve components. In 1950, Fort Leaven-
worth supported the Army War College which
was relocated at the Post to resume operations
that had been interrupted by the war. This col-
lege was moved to Carlisle Barracks, Pennsyl-
vania, after the graduation of the first class
in 1951.
The Korean War made increased demands
on Fort Leavenworth and the College for offi-
cers to fill command and staff positions of an
Army expanding through partial mobilization.
The cold war has emphasized further the re-
quirements for mature, skilled leadership in
the diversified Army of today. The chapters
that follow deal with the activities, accomplish-
ments, and missions fulfilled by Fort Leaven-
worth and the U. S. Army Command and Gen-
eral Staff College in keeping pace with these
US Army Photo
The Post in 1957 (view to the north)
The tempo of routine was quickened at Fort
Leavenworth in 1952 as the Post and the U. S.
Army Command and General Staff College met
the mobilization requirements of the Korean
War. Many more students were in residence at
the College than in previous years. The number
enrolled in the Regular Course rose to over 500,
and the Associate Courses, scheduled on a semi-
annual basis, provided an increased supply of
officers trained for command and staff duties.
Although it was termed a "conflict" and fought
in a far-away country, the war remained prom-
inent in the thoughts of most Army personnel
even as it began to fade from the headlines. The
fierce winter battles had been fought at Bloody
and Heartbreak Ridges, and the Korean front
was in a condition of uneasy stalemate as peace
talks were resumed at Panmunjom.
In 1952, a distinguished soldier, the honor
graduate of the class of 1926 at Fort Leaven-
worth, Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower, was elected
to the highest office of our Nation. The hopes
for an early end to the fighting in Korea were
aroused by General Eisenhower's pledge to
visit that wartorn country if elected and by the
United Nations truce talks. However, the bitter,
costly struggles for White Horse Mountain,
Old Baldy, and Pork Chop Hill were still to
During this same period, activity taking
place in Nevada was to require an entirely
new appraisal of the concepts for tactical war-
fare. This activity culminated the following
year in an intense bright flash and the rise
of an ominous, ugly, mushroom-like cloud over
Frenchman's Flat. With this successful detona-
tion of a surface-delivered, relatively small-
yield nuclear weapon, military texts and tac-
tical doctrine would never be the same.
Against this somber, potentially explosive
background, the events and activities at Fort
Leavenworth began in 1952, the year that
marked the 125th anniversary of service by the
Post to the Army and the United States.
THE YEARS 1952-55
Maj Gen Horace L. McBride, Commanding
General at Fort Leavenworth and Comman-
dant of the College, welcomed the 1952 General
Staff Course class shortly before his departure
from the Post to command the Army forces in
the Caribbean. His duties were assumed in
April by a recent veteran of the Korean War,
Maj Gen Henry I. Hodes, who had commanded
the 24th Infantry Division, served as Deputy
Commanding General of the Eighth Army, and
been a member of the United Nations truce
General Hodes "got his feet wet"-literally
-at Fort Leavenworth almost immediately as
the melting of unusually heavy snows swelled
the Missouri River to flood stage. Hand to hand
combat was waged against the surging, muddy
waters by an improvised task force of person-
nel calling themselves the "Fort Leavenworth
River Rats." Organized from the Post garrison,
including the Army Band, inmates of the Dis-
ciplinary Barracks, civilian employees, staff
and faculty members, and student officers, the
task force labored for a week reinforcing and
raising the dikes protecting Sherman Air Force
Base. The river waters eventually rose more
than ten feet above the runways of the airfield
located in the northeastern part of the mili-
tary reservation. Troop units from Fort Riley,
Kansas, and Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, ar-
rived to assist the personnel from the Post and
work continued until, just as the battle ap-
peared to have been won, a section of dike col-
lapsed and forced an evacuation of the area.
All of the flood-fighters were evacuated safely
under the personal direction of General Hodes,
including those stranded on the dikes who were
picked up by a hard-working engineer barge,
the "Chico." The river which quickly covered
the airfield, receded within a few weeks. The
Post resumed normal operations and prepara-
tion for a combined celebration of Armed
Forces Day and Fort Leavenworth's 125th
US Army Photo
Maj Gen Horace L. McBride Maj Gen Henry I. Hodes
US Army Photo
The two-day celebration opened with a Pio-
neer Parade through the city of Leavenworth
on 9 May 1952. Horse-drawn vehicles from the
Post Museum, with drivers and passengers at-
tired in frontier dress and authentic military
uniforms of the past, were a colorful sight to
the many spectators along the route of march.
An open house at Fort Leavenworth was
held following the parade with an impressive
array of weapons and equipment on display.
Troops of the 31st Infantry Division from
Camp Atterbury, Indiana, demonstrated the
firepower of a rifle company with a "mad
minute" of sustained fire from every available
weapon. Following a program by the Air Force
Drum and Bugle Corps and the Army Field
Band, the curtain was raised on an historical
pageant-Frontier Fort to Command College
-depicting the story of the Post from early
western exploration to the present time. Pre-
sented on two successive evenings in a natural
amphitheater south of Cody Road, the pro-
fessionally directed performance, climaxed by
a fireworks display, was the highlight of the
scheduled festivities. The program for the
second day included an Armed Forces Day
parade in Leavenworth, fly-overs by Air Force
and Navy aircraft, demonstrations of aerial
resupply and heavy equipment parachute drops,
a horse show, and the second presentation of
the pageant. The entire celebration, the largest
of its kind ever presented in the Fort Leaven-
worth area, commemorated this anniversary in
the growth and development of the Post in a
never-to-be-forgotten manner.
Graduation exercises for over 600 members
of the Regular Course were held the following
June, according to custom, on the tree-shaded
Main Parade-the site of the original Canton-
ment Leavenworth. Secretary of the Army
Frank Pace, Jr. delivered the graduation ad-
dress, and diplomas were presented by Col
Max S. Johnson, the Assistant Commandant.
This class, the largest thus far in the post-
World War II period, quickly dispersed to all
points of the compass, with many of its former
members in possession of orders for the Far
East Command (FECOM) and Eighth Army
units in Korea.
Projects for the improvement and expan-
sion of Post facilities to meet the needs of an
increasing student population continued. The
commissary was moved from an overcrowded
location in the Post Exchange building to its
present site along the southern part of Grant
Avenue in a former consolidated mess hall.
Ground was broken for 74 sets of new student
quarters in the area east of Pershing Park.
General Johnson, promoted to brigadier gen-
eral the preceding November, left the position
of Assistant Commandant in February 1953
for the Far East. His replacement, Col Charles
E. Beauchamp, who had commanded the 32d
Regiment in the early Korean fighting, arrived
from Washington, D. C., to assume the respon-
sibilities for the operations of the Command
and General Staff College. Within a few months
Col Thomas B. Hediken turned over his re-
sponsibilities as Chief of Staff at Fort Leaven-
worth, which involved the supervision of all
non-College elements at the Post, to Col Charles
G. Meehan.
The Fort Leavenworth Museum, possessing
one of the largest collections of old horse-drawn
wagons, carriages, and sleighs in existence, was
reopened on Armistice Day 1953. It had been
closed in 1950 pending approval by Department
of the Army for use of a building large enough
to house the entire collection. Through the ef-
forts of General Hodes, the museum was estab-
lished in the Bluntville area of the Post in a
former stable. Its valuable and interesting col-
lection of historically significant properties
again was placed on public display.
The Post Chapel at Fort Leavenworth, a
picturesque stone structure with an interior
lined with plaques perpetuating the memory of
deceased soldiers, held commemoration services
on 3 May 1953. Occasioned by the 75th anni-
versary of the laying of the cornerstone, the
services also dedicated a new electric organ in
memory of the officers and men of the 7th Cav-
alry Regiment who had given their lives in the
Korean War. Maj Melborne C. Chandler organ-
ized the fund that made the purchase of the
organ possible, and Miss Margaret C. Berry
was on hand, as she had been so often in the
past, to play the organ prelude for the service.
Saint Ignatius Chapel, a Gothic style struc-
ture located on the Post but the property of the
Kansas City Archdiocese, was in the process of
complete redecoration under the direction of
Chaplain (Maj) Joseph M. Mollner. The chapel,
already containing many historical testimonials
and memorials, was enhanced by bronze tablets
honoring the priests and military chaplains
who had served at the Post since 1869. New
statuary and murals were also added.
As the year 1954 opened, the Post was re-
visited by a former Assistant Commandant of
the Command and General Staff College who
had gone on to win fame and the Medal of
Honor in Korea. Maj Gen William F. Dean
spent several days at Fort Leavenworth en
route to his new assignment with Sixth Army.
The Korean truce had become effective the pre-
ceding July when a 12-minute ceremony ter-
minated more than 3 years of bitter fighting.
The early days of that war were vividly re-
called by General Dean in an address to the
students of the College as he described the cir-
cumstances leading up to his capture, and his
long months of confinement by the North Ko-
In March 1954, Maj Gen Garrison H. David-
son, a former assistant commander of General
Dean's 24th Infantry Division, was designated
to assume command of Fort Leavenworth upon
the departure of General Hodes for Europe.
Requirements of General Davidson's assign-
ment as senior Army member of the Weapons
System Evaluation Group in Washington de-
layed his arrival at the post until July, and
General Beauchamp, who had by then been
US Army Photo
Maj Gen Garrison H. Davidson
promoted to one-star rank, acted as command-
ing general and commandant during the in-
terim period.
The same summer the residents of the Post
and the city of Leavenworth were startled by
the arrival of a seemingly inexhaustible sup-
ply of aircraft to Sherman Army Airfield.'
Seventy-one liaison aircraft from Fort Sill,
Oklahoma, were flown to the airfield for recon-
naissance use by the students at the College.
This, the largest group of aircraft ever as-
sembled at the Post, conducted as many as 300
individual flights a day as students closely
scrutinized the terrain adjacent to the Mis-
souri River, the setting for a tactical problem
"Attack of a River Line."
June 1954 was an active month at Fort Leav-
enworth. Traditionally busy just prior to grad-
uation ceremonies, which were held for some
600 students that year, the Post prepared to
take part in the Centennial Celebration with
the city of Leavenworth. The week-long cele-
bration, marking the 100th anniversary of the
city's founding and the opening of the Kansas
Territory for settlement in 1854, included daily
parades, historical exhibits, athletic events, pic-
nics, horse shows, street dances, and numerous
other festive activities. A stage spectacle-
Jubilee-including 16 separate scenes portray-
ing the history of the area, was presented
nightly. Wednesday, 9 June, was proclaimed
"Military Day" and the Band and an Honor
Guard from Fort Leavenworth led troops from
Fort Riley, the Centennial Queen and her court,
high school bands, and other marching units
from various civic organizations in a massive
street parade.
Troops from Fort Riley participated two
weeks later in a regimental retreat parade to
honor the arrival of Secretary of the Army
Robert T. Stevens for a conference with his
civilian aides. Aides representing 37 states,
the District of Columbia, and the six continen-
tal armies were present for the conference-
the first of its kind ever held. General officers
present included the Chief of Staff of the Army
and principal Department of the Army staff
members, and the Commanding Generals of the
Army Field Forces, the six army areas, and the
Military District of Washington. For many of
1 Name changed from Sherman Air Force Base with
the transfer from Air Force to Army control in 1953.
the officers, among them Gen Matthew B.
Ridgway, Lt Gen Williston B. Palmer, and
Major Generals Arthur G. Trudeau, James M.
Gavin, Robert N. Young, and Gilman C. Mud-
gett, the conference was a homecoming to the
scene of their student days at the College.
A retirement ceremony was held in front of
Sherman Hall, the Post and College Headquar-
ters, on 31 July 1954 to honor Colonel Meehan
who was succeeded as Chief of Staff by Col
Chandler P. Robbins, Jr. General Davidson had
arrived to assume command at Fort Leaven-
worth and was present with other members
of the Post and the College staff and faculty
to bid Colonel Meehan farewell upon his com-
pletion of 30 years of Army service.
Otis Hall, originally constructed as quarters
for bachelor officers in 1902, was the site of an
interesting event in June 1955. A plaque was
dedicated by Maj John S. D. Eisenhower, im-
mediately after his graduation from the Col-
lege, to commemorate the residence in the build-
ing by President (then Major) and Mrs. Eisen-
hower in 1925-26. The president was then a
student in the Command and Staff School
where his son John claimed to remember his
father "sweating over his books in a study at
the top of the house."
The housing situation at Fort Leavenworth
was becoming increasingly critical as the size
of the College staff and faculty increased along
with the numbers of students at the Post. Over
100 student family housing units were recon-
structed from four-family quarters to their
original two-family design-a project which,
although necessary, further complicated the
problem. Appeals for rental housing were made
by the Post to all nearby communities from
Kansas City to Atchison, Kansas. Approval for
the construction of 50 Capehart duplex houses
was secured, and occupancy of the 237 sets of
"inadequate" quarters in the West Normandy
area was permitted on a voluntary basis. Con-
tinuing student occupancy of these converted
World War II barracks buildings has been per-
mitted up to the present time, although plans
call for them to be dismantled during 1964.
With the passing of these structures from the
Fort Leavenworth scene, a prime topic of con-
versation will have been eliminated among
Kenneth S. Davis, Soldier of Democracy, a Biog-
raphy of Dwight Eisenhower. New York, 1945.
those officers and wives claiming to have spent
most of the winter months adjusting thermo-
stats and window openings in the old buildings
that apparently remained frigid on the first
floor and stifling on the second, despite all at-
tempts to regulate the inside temperature.
The Fort Leavenworth Historical Committee
was organized by General Davidson to enhance
the prestige and history of the Post and the
Command and General Staff College. Originally
headed in 1955 by Col Louis Biittner, Director
of Administration at the Post, the committee
completed plans and initiated a program result-
ing in the identification and marking of historic
landmarks, places, and buildings at Fort Leav-
enworth as well as improvements and additions
to the Post Museum.
Brig Gen William F. Train had the stars
of that rank pinned on his shoulders by General
Davidson upon his arrival to assume the duties
of Assistant Commandant.
General and Mrs. Davidson contributed sig-
nificantly to the increase in Post population in
September 1955 when twin daughters, Bonny
Elaine and Gail Marie, were born to them at
the Post hospital.
The old brick YMCA building, erected in
1907 on the corner of Pope and McClellan
Avenues by Miss Helen Miller Gould in memory
of her financier father, Jay Gould, was pur-
chased by the Post. It was then completely ren-
ovated at a cost of over $100,000, most of the
money coming from nonappropriated special
services funds, as a facility for the use of all
Post personnel for reading, study, and recrea-
tion. Named the Patch Community Center after
the late Gen Alexander M. Patch, Jr., a gradu-
ate of the Command and General Staff School
who later commanded the Seventh Army during
the 1944 invasion of southern France, the build-
ing was officially reopened by General Davidson
in December.
THE YEARS 1956-59
General Davidson departed early in July 1956
for his new assignment at the United States
Military Academy. Fittingly, one of his last
official acts was to participate in a rededication
of the General Henry Leavenworth monument
in a ceremony held at the Fort Leavenworth
National Cemetery on the Fourth of July. The
incoming Commandant, Maj Gen Lionel C.
McGarr, and his family met officers and ladies
from the Post and members of the civilian
community at an official reception at the Of-
ficers' Club. This social event marked the begin-
ning of a 4-year tour for General McGarr
a tour that would result in numerous improve-
ments in the Post and major changes in the
US Army Photo
Maj Gen Lionel C. McGarr
On 6 November 1956, General McGarr turned
a shovelful of earth on Arsenal Hill which
symbolically started construction of a new aca-
demic building at the Post for the Command
and General Staff College. Long required and
continually recommended, this construction
project would create the splendid facilities of
J. Franklin Bell Hall and provide an environ-
mental setting in keeping with the importance
of the instructional mission of the College.
Ceremonies were held later that same month
in connection with academic facilities for chil-
dren of dependents. The Commandant delivered
the principal address at dedications for two ele-
mentary schools on the Post. The recently com-
pleted structure on Biddle Boulevard was
named "The General Douglas MacArthur
School," and the other school in the Pershing
8Maj Gen Stuart Heintzleman has been the only
previous commandant to serve a longer tour of duty
(July 1929-February 1935) in the twentieth century.
Park area, which had been in use since 1953,
was named "The General Dwight D. Eisen-
hower School." Messages of appreciation and
congratulations were received from both indi-
viduals for whom the schools were named.
Colonel Robbins, Deputy Post Commander,
left Fort Leavenworth in January 1957. Origi-
nally assigned as chief of staff, his position
title had been changed to deputy post com-
mander, although his responsibilities remained
unchanged. His successor, Col William W. Culp,
was no stranger to the Post, having just served
with the College for over 3 years on his fourth
tour of duty at Fort Leavenworth.
Another major change in personnel occurred
the following July. General Train, the As-
sistant Commandant, departed for the 8th In-
fantry Division in Germany. More than 400 of-
ficers and their ladies filled the main ballroom
of the Officers' Mess to wish the General and his
lady Godspeed. The gala evening featured a
skit concerning the general's early life and
Army career. A satire of the well-known tele-
vision program, "This Is Your Life," the skit
was based on documentation and pictorial mate-
rial provided by Mrs. Train. The office of the
Assistant Commandant was then occupied by
Brig Gen Frederick R. Zierath who had arrived
from an assignment with the 3d Infantry Divi-
sion at Fort Benning, Georgia. General and
Mrs. Zierath were introduced to the officers and
ladies of the Post, as well as many prominent
civic leaders from the local area, at the fare-
well reception for General Train.
As indicated earlier in this chapter, the Col-
lege was at this time to undergo a significant
reorganization and reorientation, as an entirely
new curriculum was planned and written for
the academic year 1957-58. "Keeping pace
with the future" became the watchword among
the hard-pressed members of the College staff
and faculty as this major undertaking was ac-
complished successfully.
Events were rapidly taking place in many
areas at Fort Leavenworth. A new five-digit
telephone dial system was installed, creating
only temporary confusion among the many sub-
scribers to the Post Telephone Exchange. An
attractive information booth was constructed
of stone on Grant Avenue just inside the main
entrance as a service to the many visitors to
Fort Leavenworth. Plans were announced for
the construction of an additional 200 sets of
Capehart family quarters to begin in November
1957, as the initial construction project to house
100 families neared completion. Fort Leaven-
worth received the National Safety Council's
"Award of Honor for Distinguished Service to
Safety" for superior achievements in accident
prevention for 1956. The award was presented
to General McGarr by the Commanding General
of the Fifth US Army, Lt Gen William H.
Arnold, who noted that the Post had received
similar recognition in a Department of the
Army award for the preceding year.
The Henry Leavenworth Chapter of the As-
sociation of the United States Army, which
had been founded in October 1956, as one of
the first local chapters of that organization, an-
nounced the results of its first election in April
1957. The chapter, which has since grown to
one of the largest in the country and won
numerous awards for its support of the US
Army and its national defense mission, in-
stalled Harold E. Purdy of Kansas City, Mis-
souri, as its first president, and a board of
governors composed of local civilian members
and officers of the Post. Mr. Charles S. Steven-
son, who had served as temporary chairman of
the chapter from its inception and had guided
the initial organization, presided over the meet-
ing and the installation of new officers. Sched-
uled in conjunction with a chapter meeting
in the Post Theater were displays and demon-
strations of the latest Army equipment, an
open-air lunch for the attending members, a
band concert, and tours of the Post. Gen Charles
L. Bolte, US Army, Ret., delivered the prin-
cipal speech of the day.
Pope Hall, which was built prior to the turn
of the century as a recreation and dance hall
for the Post garrison, was gutted by fire in
May 1957. The medieval-appearing structure,
with thick walls of locally quarried stone, was
used at the time to present instruction in the
tactical employment of nuclear weapons. The
fire was presumed to have been started by
faulty electrical wiring. Over $200,000 dam-
age was caused before the flames were brought
under control by Post and Leavenworth fire-
men, assisted by prisoners from the Disci-
plinary Barracks. The cost to repair the old,
familiar building was considered prohibitive,
and it was eventually torn down. Today, a metal
marker denotes the location of Pope Hall and
the former Kansas territorial capitol building
which earlier stood on the same site. The area
is now a parking lot.
Operation BLUBBER was brought to a
close in June as final results were announced by
Col Norman W. Anderson, the Post Surgeon.
The operation was an outcome of the Army-
wide emphasis on physical fitness, and was
designed to assist overweight personnel in
trimming down to a satisfactory level. Consist-
ing of diets, exercise, and periodic weighing
and measuring, the program was conducted
throughout the 1956-57 academic year. Re-
sults indicated that will power was probably
the most important requirement for success.
The Post took on a "new look" effective with
the changeover to winter uniforms in October
1957. "Pinks and greens" and olive drab-
shade 33, the long-familiar semidress and
duty attire for Army officers, were placed in
storage as the Army Green uniform was pre-
scribed for all Army personnel. Many of the
out-dated uniforms later were collected and
donated to Allied armies and ROTC organiza-
The Fort Leavenworth Dramatics Club
opened the Post theatrical season with a 3-day
run of a comedy, "The Tender Trap." Although
records indicate that dramatic productions
have been staged at Fort Leavenworth since
the days when General Custer is alleged to have
appeared before the footlights, it is doubtful
that any had been better received than this
overwhelming success. It was unanimously
agreed that everyone connected with the pro-
duction turned in an outstanding performance.
Lt Col Jean P. Meslet, the French Liaison Of-
ficer to the College, who was later to deservedly
gain a reputation as the "Chevalier of Fort
Leavenworth," starred in his first Dramatic
Club role.
Fort Leavenworth was mentioned with in-
creasing frequency-in the press media of the Na-
tion during the first half of 1958. The period
and the publicity will be remembered by many
because of the presence at the College of Lt Gen
Rafael L. Trujillo, Jr., son of the Dominican
Republic dictator. Because of his extracur-
ricular activities, the 28-year old general be-
came ineligible for the award of a graduation
In January 1958, a group of enthusiasts ob-
tained official permission to form an off-duty
flying club at the Post. The Fort Leavenworth
Flying Club was chartered for purposes of rec-
reation and to stimulate interest in aviation.
Its constitution and by-laws provided that it
would be self-supporting. The regulations of
the Civil Aeronautics Association still govern
the operations and maintenance of the aircraft
used by the club. Lt Col Frederick St. John,
Post Transportation Officer at the time, was
elected the first club president. Two light air-
craft, an L-17 and an L-21 which were surplus
to the needs of the Army, were loaned to the
club until the club treasury would permit their
purchase. The club has increased in popularity,
membership, and scope of activities to the
present time through its operations based at
Sherman Army Airfield.
The Post construction program was in evi-
US Army Photo
Oregon Village dependent housing area
dence in many parts of the military reserva-
tion, with most attention directed toward the
completion of Bell Hall. Work began in March
1958 on a permanent building to contain bach-
elor officers' quarters and a student field ration
mess. The building was designed to improve
living conditions for the many officers without
families at the Post. These consist of a bona-
fide bachelor variety as well as the geographi-
cal bachelors attending the shorter Associ-
ate Courses of the College for whom de-
pendent travel is not authorized. Additional
meal and snack service was provided in April
when a new cafeteria opened adjacent to the
Post Exchange. The first Capehart housing
project, located south of the National Cemetery
near the junction of Cody Road and Biddle
Boulevard, was opened at the first of the year.
The housing area occupies ground astride a
branch of the famed Oregon Trail and, upon
the recommendation of the Fort Leavenworth
Historical Society, it was duly named "The
Oregon Village."
Ceremonies to start the construction of a
Nike Hercules missile air defense system for
the greater Kansas City area were held in July
1958 at what is now the headquarters area for
Battery D, 5th Missile Battalion, 55th Artil-
Students of the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades
at Fort Leavenworth began classes in a newly
completed school building on the east side of
Grant Avenue near the main entrance to the
Post. The school was dedicated in December
1958 by General McGarr and named in honor
of Gen George S. Patton, Jr. General Patton's
son, a graduate of the Command and General
Staff College, expressed appreciation of the
dedication to his deceased father's memory in
a message read during the ceremony.
Numerous sporting events were held at the
Post in 1958. The Annual Spring Horse Show,
sponsored by the Fort Leavenworth Hunt, was
held under ideal conditions on a May weekend.
The traditionally colorful events included equi-
tation and jumping, hunter, and parade com-
petition which drew contestants and spectators
from miles around. Members of the Hunt re-
vived an old custom in September by staging
an organized hunt ride over the rolling ter-
rain of the Post. Old coaches, which had been
used to follow the hunt in earlier days, were
again made available for transportation by the
Post Museum. The Sunday morning ride ended
at the Hunt Lodge where a bountiful breakfast
was served to the riders and their guests.
The Fifth US Army Tennis Tournament was
held on the Post courts during the summer, and
was followed by the 1958 Inter-Service Golf
Tournament in August. The highlight of this
annual golf classic was the open division play
of 5-man teams from each of the services in
competition for the coveted James V. Forrestal
Trophy. Top honors in this event of 72-hole
medal play were carried off by the Army team
for the second straight year despite strong com-
Two other unrelated events-one historically
curious, the other historically nostalgic-took
place just prior to the coming of winter. Nearly
100 members of the Kansas City Horseless Car-
riage Club, determinedly driving 30 automobiles
of the period 1925 and earlier, made a stop-
over at the Post Museum during their annual
cross-country trip. The Fort Leavenworth Hunt
graciously offered equine assistance if required.
Fortunately for the pride of the intrepid motor-
ists, the offer proved unnecessary.
More than a dozen "stalwarts" of the 32d
US Volunteer Infantry Association paid a visit
to Fort Leavenworth during their 25th annual
reunion in late September. The association
was formed in 1934, with membership includ-
ing veterans of the 32d Volunteer Infantry
Regiment and widows of deceased veterans. The
regiment was mobilized and trained at Fort
Leavenworth in the summer of 1899, and de-
parted some 1,300 strong that fall for service
in the Philippines during the Spanish-American
War. The small group of members were wel-
comed to the Post by General Zierath and
visited the area south of Merritt Lake where
a stone marker and bronze tablet mark the loca-
tion of their old encampment. A brief memorial
service for the veterans who had died during
the year was held by Chaplain (Lt Col) Wil-
liam B. Sharp at the Post Chapel. A luncheon
in the Consolidated Troop Mess concluded the
visit, at which time C. H. Rhoades of Leaven-
worth, Kansas, was nominated president of
the association for the coming year.
One of the major events of the year-at least,
in the minds of the smaller members of the Post
community-is the annual Halloween program.
The arrangements for 1958 included a Saturday
morning parade for all the lively little spooks,
with marching music provided by the Army
Band and a detachment of ROTC cadets from
Leavenworth High School. The parade, as al-
ways, was a sight to behold. Members of the
Fort Leavenworth Hunt led their mounts over
the route while wagons from the Post Museum
collection bulged at the seams with costumed
children. That night a mammoth carnival was
staged at the Sherman Army Airfield hangars
with displays, games of skill and chance, and
refreshment stands attracting nearly every
child on the Post. Parents armed with
purchased scrip handled the financial arrange-
ments for a night of merriment. All the profits
were given to the Post Activities Fund.
Col Francis A. Liwski arrived on Post in
October to fill the position of Deputy Post
Commander which had been vacated by the
departure of Colonel Culp for the Army Com-
mand Management School the previous August.
Colonel Liwski occupied this position until his
retirement at the Post nearly 4 years later.
As the 1958 holiday season approached, Fort
Leavenworth took on a festive appearance. The
public was invited to tour the Post and observe
the striking results of this effort. Many out-
door trees were brilliantly lighted, as were
numerous buildings along the main thorough-
fares. A huge replica of Santa perched atop a
"moon rocket" was in place over the Army
Field Printing Plant to capture the spirit of
Christmas in a manner which also recognized
the interest of the time in our national space
program. The feature attraction was the ex-
terior of Bell Hall where the age-old "Merry
Christmas and Happy New Year" greeting was
spelled out in a blacklite display, and where
six beautifully decorated trees were illuminated
by changing lighting effects.
The new $5 million academic building of the
Command and General Staff College, considered
to be the most modern educational plant west of
the Mississippi River, was officially dedicated
as J. Franklin Bell Hall on 14 January 1959.
Approximately 1,400 guests assembled in the
building's main auditorium as the Honorable
Wilbur M. Brucker, Secretary of the Army,
delivered the principal address of the day fol-
lowing an introductory speech by General Mc-
Garr. Virtually all of the College facilities were
under one roof for the first time since 1881.
Students and instructors were moved into the
fully equipped classrooms from previous loca-
tions in Gruber, Muir, and Andrews Halls
which originally had been constructed as a
riding hall, stable, and gymnasium, respec-
The Post lost the services of a well-known
figure when Bob Baker retired in March 1959.
The 78-year old barber began the practice of his
profession at the forerunner of the Command
and General Staff College in 1910, and his shop
had long been a favorite gathering place for
faculty members and student officers. Many of
his patrons will recall Mr. Baker holding forth
in his Grant Hall establishment, with diplomas
on the wall attesting to his "graduation" from
various courses of the College, as he recounted
tales of his associations with famous Army
leaders in the past. He was an avid skeet
shooter and had donated the Bob Baker Trophy
to the Post Skeet Club in 1957. This trophy is
competed for annually, with the stipulation that
it will always remain at Fort Leavenworth.
The collection of the Fort Leavenworth
Museum was moved from a remote area of the
Post to its present location in Andrews Hall
shortly after that building was vacated by the
College. Under the able direction of Miss Mil-
dred Cox then, as now, the Museum Curator,
the relocation of this popular tourist attrac-
tion was quickly accomplished. The newly oc-
cupied building permitted the expansion of
historical exhibits planned by Miss Cox, the
Post Historical Committee, and the museum
Board of Counselors. The museum was formally
opened in May, and a tremendous increase in
"business" ensued as over 12,000 visitors
viewed the displays within the first 3 months.
Numerous visitors, three separate class
graduations in one day, Armed Forces and
Frontier Day celebrations, and a Combined
Arms and Services Conference resulted in a
very busy month for Fort Leavenworth in
May 1959. As on many similar occasions in
the past, the Post was equal to the task. The
Frontier Day celebration deserves further men-
tion since it was conducted simultaneously with
the yearly Armed Forces Day events and set a
precedent for the next several years. Plans for
this combined celebration on 16 May were a
joint City-Post venture. An open house was
held at the Post that Saturday morning which,
along with the many permanent items of his-
torical interest and the newly reopened Mu-
seum, permitted the general public to visit
Bell Hall and view the academic facilities of
the College for the first time. That evening
Frontier Day events were staged at Sherman
Army Airfield. The field and hangars were
decorated with relics of the past as thousands
of people, young and old, relived the early days
when the Post had been a staging area for the
long treks West over the Santa Fe and Oregon
Trails. A chuck-wagon dinner, a pioneer cos-
tume contest, games for the children, and an
old-time family-style dance climaxed the mem-
orable day.
The Post housing picture was considerably
brightened in the late summer of 1959 when
over 100 Regular Course student families were
able to occupy quarters in the second of the
Capehart construction projects. All the quar-
ters had not been completed when the class
reported to Fort Leavenworth, however, and
an emergency project labeled "Operation Wel-
come Hand" was initiated to ease the situa-
tion. A temporary housing office manned by
Post personnel at the Leavenworth Chamber
of Commerce received more than 40 offers
from Leavenworth families willing to share
their homes with an incoming Army family.
These initial difficulties were overcome with the
rapid completion of the remaining quarters in
the area named "Kansa Village" for an early
Indian tribe of the Missouri Territory. Trues-
dell Hall, with quarters for 90 bachelor of-
ficers and a modern 350-man student officers
field ration mess, also was completed in August.
Located at the intersection of Grant and Stim-
son Avenues, the building was named after
the late Maj Gen Karl Truesdell, Commandant
of the Command and General Staff School, dur-
ing World War II.
US Army Photo
Kansa Village dependent housing area
THE YEARS 1960-63
The International Group of the Fort Leav-
enworth Officers' Wives Club sponsored an
event in January 1960 that proved so success-
ful it became another Post tradition. The
event, an International Exposition, which de-
picted the cultures and customs of the 43 coun-
tries represented by. Allied student officers then
attending the Command and General Staff Col-
lege, was held for 2 days at the Officers' Open
Mess. The Allied students and their families
prepared national exhibits with materials from
their native lands. They were assisted by their
respective embassies in the United States.
The exhibits included products of culture, in-
dustry, and history arranged in an attractive
display for each country. Uniformed Allied of-
ficers and members of their families attired in
native dress presented a colorful sight as they
greeted the general public and explained the
various exhibits. Mrs. Leo J. Nawn supervised
the arrangements for the exposition which was
acclaimed as one of the most educationally en-
joyable activities ever conducted at Fort Leav-
General Zierath was honored at a farewell
reception upon his departure in January from
the position of Assistant Commandant for a
new assignment as Chief of Staff of the Alas-
kan Command. Not long after, invitations were
extended to the permanently assigned officers
of the Post and their wives for a reception
marking the arrival of the new Assistant Com-
mandant, Brig Gen William A. Cunningham,
III, and Mrs. Cunningham.
General McGarr's appointment calendar for
July 1960 was marked with the dates of many
farewell formations scheduled prior to his de-
parture after 4 years of what had been orig-
inally intended as a 2-year tour of duty. His
next assignment was Chief of the Military As-
sistance Advisory Group on the far side of the
world in a country with which many other
personnel of the US Army would soon be-
come intimately familiar-the Republic of
Vietnam. A reception honoring General and
Mrs. McGarr given by the Leavenworth Cham-
ber of Commerce was followed by another
at the Post. On July 29, General Mc-
Garr formally relinquished command at Fort
Leavenworth at retreat ceremonies in front of
Bell Hall. General and Mrs. McGarr departed
the Commandant's quarters at Number 1 Scott
Avenue on 4 August. The strains of "Auld Lang
Syne" were provided in the background by a
military band as the couple drove off through a
gathering of military personnel of the Post
and their dependents wishing them bon voyage.
General Cunningham served as Acting Com-
mandant until the arrival of Maj Gen Harold K.
Johnson in mid-August from Germany where
the general was Chief of Staff of the NATO
Central Army Group. General Johnson had
first been assigned to Fort Leavenworth after
his release as a war prisoner of the Japanese.
He graduated from the College in 1947 after
which he served as a faculty member for several
November 1960 will be remembered as the
month in which John F. Kennedy was elected
US Army Photo
Maj Gen Harold K. Johnson
the 35th President of the United States. The
exciting presidential campaign which featured
the televised Kennedy-Nixon debates was a
constant topic of discussion throughout the
Post as it absorbed the attention of the Nation.
Another topic of conversation at the time
among military personnel was the announced
curtailment of dependent travel to oversea
The first housing area specifically designated
for Post enlisted personnel since 1908 was
completed as 1960 drew to a close. This, the
third Post Capehart housing project, and the
last such project to be completed to date, con-
tains 100 duplex, two-story buildings in an
area to both sides of Biddle Boulevard near
the southern boundary of the military reserva-
tion. The first 20 families completed their move
into the project, named Santa Fe Village, in
time to greet the New Year in new quarters.
An early visitor to the Post in 1961 was
former President Harry S Truman who ad-
dressed the students and faculty of the Com-
mand and General Staff College in January. Mr.
Truman has since become a frequent speaker
at Fort Leavenworth, with his presentations
especially noted for candid, forthright, and
humorous responses to queries from the audi-
ence during the concluding question and answer
May is usually a busy month at the Post,
and May 1961 was no exception. Armed Forces
Week was celebrated by another Frontier Day
for which a replica of a pioneer fort, com-
plete with simulated log blockhouses and a
palisade, was constructed at Sherman Army
Airfield. Named "Old Fort Sunflower," it was
gaily decorated with blossoms of the Kansas
state flower to provide a setting for the day's
entertainment. The activities of the week,
which included the fifth annual spring meeting
of the Henry Leavenworth Chapter of the As-
sociation of the United States Army (AUSA),
featured sky-diving exhibitions by a team of
parachutists from the 7th Special Forces from
Fort Bragg, North Carolina. This crowd pleas-
ing program of "spot" jumping, mid-air baton
passing, and free-fall aerobatics was followed
by a tactical jump by two special forces de-
tachments from US Air Force C-123 aircraft.
An impressively large number of general of-
ficers converged on Fort Leavenworth on 23
May for a special 1-day conference devoted to
National Guard affairs. The 46 senior officers
attending this meeting, plus those enrolled in
various courses of the College, created a total
temporary population of 112 US Army gen-
erals-a formidable concentration of "stars"
by any standards.
The largest horse show in the history of the
Fort Leavenworth Hunt up to that time took
place 27-28 May 1961 with Lt Col Floyd W.
Townsley, President of the Hunt, carrying off
top honors in the final open jumping event.
General Johnson was on hand to present rib-
bons and trophies to the winners among the
468 entrants and 105 horses that were shown.
A different type of presentation was made by
General Johnson in July when he pinned the
second stars on the shoulders of the Assistant
Commandant, General Cunningham. The promo-
tion to major general resulted in a shortened
tour of duty at Fort Leavenworth, as General
Cunningham departed for a new assignment in
Moving on a permanent change of station
was merely routine for Brig Gen Harry J.
Lemley, the new Assistant Commandant, who
arrived with his wife, two daughters, and son
in August 1961. The Lemleys, who had moved
their household five times in connection with
their recently completed tour in Germany, were
to find an unaccustomed degree of stabilization
at Fort Leavenworth where General Lemley
is presently the Commanding General and
Commandant of the Command and General
Staff College.
The creeping spread of international com-
munism in 1961 prompted the Henry Leaven-
worth Chapter of the AUSA to conduct a
guest speaker program to further the security
of the Nation and to accent the vital role of the
US Army as an instrument of national secu-
rity. Because of this very effective program,
the chapter received the AUSA award for the
best single promotional project among the as-
sociation's chapters throughout the world. The
award-winning program employed seven au-
thoritative speakers, all members of the staff
and faculty or students of the College, to alert
citizens of northwestern Missouri, northeastern
Kansas, and the communities in the Kansas
City area to communism's methods and dan-
gers. Some 75 presentations were given to meet-
ings of adult civic, business, and professional
groups, with an estimated total attendance of
6,300 persons.
On 26 September 1961, Fort Leavenworth
received a certificate, signed by Secretary of
the Interior Stewart L. Udall, which officially
designated the Post a "Registered National
Landmark." The application for this designa-
tion was submitted by the Secretary of the
Army in recognition of the historical signifi-
cance attained by Fort Leavenworth since its
establishment. A bronze plaque commemorat-
ing this designation was prepared and dedi-
cated the following Armed Forces Day, when it
was emplaced in front of the Post Museum.
An eagerly awaited event, held every 2 years
at the Post, is the Mardi Gras Ball. The highly
popular event is sponsored by the Daughters
of the US Army for the benefit of the hospital
emergency fund. Proceeds from the March 1962
Mardi Gras also provided for a newly estab-
lished scholarship fund for high school seniors
at Fort Leavenworth. Co-chairmen for the cos-
tume ball were Mesdames Albert L. Kotzebue
and Dandridge F. Hering. The main ballroom
of the Officers' Open Mess was transformed into
a resemblance of the French Quarter in New
Orleans, with facsimiles of the French Market,
the Old Absinthe House, and the Gem Bar
realistically portrayed and stocked to satisfy
the inner needs of the more than 1,200 attend-
ing revelers. Mrs. Lewis A. Pick, wife of a
student at the College, reigned as Queen of the
Ball while the elected King, habitually selected
by the students from among the College instruc-
tors, was Lt Col Guy G. McConnell.
Currency was converted to party money for
wagering at the many games of chance that
were organized and supervised by Dr. Ivan J.
Birrer, the College Educational Advisor. Party
money was also exchanged at a brisk rate at
the numerous concessions doing a land-office
business in costumed dolls, candies, balloons,
flowers, and comical souvenir photos. Circulat-
ing shrimp and oyster bars, as well as attrac-
tive roving flower girls with large baskets of
pink and red carnation corsages, sped the
flow of dollars for the cause. Maj Albert L.
Kotzebue was master of ceremonies during
the Queen's coronation and the following pro-
gram of entertainment. First prize for the most
humorous costume was awarded to a student
portraying a doomsday prophet and carrying
a sign "Are you ready for the end?" making
unmistakable reference to the close of the Col-
lege course. Two can-can chorus lines headlined
the program. The first, composed of well-re-
hearsed ladies of the Post, performed in a
manner worthy of the Follies Bergere. The
other, made up of male members, ran through
a routine with a lesser degree of professional
competence but considerably more hilarity. The
fun-filled evening successfully provided a note-
worthy social event for the year and a source
of revenue for a deserving cause.
General Lemley, in the spring of 1962,
visited Vietnam to view at first hand the coun-
terinsurgency operations in that country by
the South Vietnamese forces and their Ameri-
can advisors. Shortly after his return, he pre-
sented a resume of his observations at the an-
nual meeting of the Henry Leavenworth Chap-
ter of the AUSA. In his closing remarks follow-
ing a concise description of the situation, Gen-
eral Lemley reiterated his belief that the strug-
gle in South Vietnam is waged against a strong
and determined enemy by capable and dedicated
people whose freedom must be preserved.
Two weeks of top-level discussions on ways
to improve the combat effectiveness of the US
Army took place at the Post in June 1962
under the sponsorship of the US Continental
Army Command. Over 75 general officers at-
tended this, the second, Worldwide Combat
Arms Conference, with Under Secretary of
the Army Stephen Ailes heading the list of ap-
proximately 300 distinguished visitors. General
Johnson served as overall coordinator for the
conferences which were conducted in Bell Hall.
On 1 July 1962 a new combat developments
agency came into being at Fort Leavenworth.
Designated the Combined Arms Group (CAG),
it is an integral part of the US Army Combat
Developments Command established in the
major reorganization of the Department of
the Army. General Johnson, in addition to his
duties as Commanding General of Fort Leav-
enworth, and Commandant of the Command
and General Staff College, assumed a third
position as Commanding General of CAG.
Along with combat developments elements lo-
cated with several of the Army service schools,
CAG directs the activities of a Combined Arms
Agency (CARMSA) formed at the same time
from the doctrinal elements of the College in-
structional departments. Col Robert C. Works
was named Deputy Commander of the Com-
bined Arms Group, and Col Robert H. Deason
was appointed Commanding Officer of the Com-
bined Arms Agency.
Each summer the Post has been a temporary
home for groups of high school ROTC students.
Two groups of 100 cadets each were trained
in a typical encampment in July 1962 in the
charge of the Kansas City ROTC detachment.
The boys, coming from Leavenworth, Kansas
City, Independence, and St. Joseph, follow a
strict training schedule beginning each morn-
ing with a reveille formation at 0500. Squad
tactics and similar field problems take up much
of the training week which is concluded after
the young prospective officers take to the rifle
range to fire the weapons they have carried in
drill during the past school year. By the time
the last camp formation is dismissed, the boys
have gained a new confidence in themselves,
have perhaps lost a few excess pounds and de-
veloped a few unfamiliar muscles, have gained
an appreciation of Army field duty, and have
a respect for Fort Leavenworth's mosquito,
chigger, and tick inhabitants as well.
Colonel Liwski closed a 30-year military
career and a 4-year tour of duty as Chief of
Staff at a retirement ceremony in Bell Hall at
the end of July 1962. He was succeeded by Col
Robert C. Erlenbusch who previously had been
the Post G4. Colonel Erlenbusch was still serv-
ing in this position at the end of 1963.
Several of the more adventurous military
personnel at the Post obtained official Army
sanction for a Fort Leavenworth Sport Para-
chute Club in October 1962. The 27 charter
members elected Col Joseph B. Seay, at that
time the Post G4, as the first club president.
Colonel Seay put his previous parachuting
experience, which began with a jump over
New Guinea in 1943, to good use in quickly
establishing the selection and training criteria
for the free-falling membership of the new club.
All joining members are required to complete
a stringent course of prejump training, make
five closely supervised static-line jumps, and at
least three more static-line jumps employing
the use of a dummy ripcord before they are
permitted to make their first actual free-fall
Several statistics compiled for the year 1962
serve to provide an insight into the size and
scope of the Post operation. Over 3,500 students
were graduated from courses of the Command
and General Staff College while some 26,000
officers were enrolled in nonresident extension
courses. The sum of $36 million was spent dur-
ing the year for salaries, supplies, and services.
The monetary value of the physical facilities
at Fort Leavenworth was appraised at $73 mil-
lion. The local AUSA chapter, selected that
year as the best overall chapter in the world,
announced a membership of 2,015. The Post
oversubscribed its established United Fund
drive goal by 133 percent when a total of over
$37,000 was pledged. Not least significant by
any means, 310 babies were born in 1962 at
the Munson Army Hospital.
New Year's Day, 1963, was the promotion
date for General Lemley to the two-star rank
of major general. The next month saw General
Johnson leaving the Post for duty in Office of
the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Opera-
tions. General Lemley became the second Com-
mandant in history to move up from the As-
sistant Commandant's position to the command
of Fort Leavenworth.
In assuming the threefold responsibilities of
his new position, General Lemley is in the
unique position of reporting to three superior
officers. They are the Commanding Generals of
the US Continental Army Command, the Fifth
US Army, and the US Army Combat Develop-
ments Command. As Post Commander, he
US Army Photo
Maj Gen Harry J. Lemley, Jr.
serves as chief administrator for a complex
multimillion dollar operation, and attends a
wide variety of boards and committees. As
the head of Fort Leavenworth's first family,
he and his wife are expected to attend countless
social functions in the furtherance of military
and civic relations. These functions are not
permitted to interfere with official duties, but
they demandingly restrict the time that the
general may devote to normal family life.
General Lemley travels extensively, for the
most part to supervise the activities of the Com-
bined Arms Group with its 10 subordinate
agencies spread from Virginia to Arizona. He
greets nearly every official visitor to the Post,
and hosts a great number of them in his
quarters at No. 1 Scott Avenue. In 1962, over
3,300 visitors were entertained in the Com-
mandant's home. During an average work
week in excess of 50 office hours, the general
reads and signs hundreds of papers requiring
his attention each day, and somehow finds time
to personally conduct a multitude of promotion
and awards ceremonies for the thousands of
personnel under his command.
An atmosphere of tense expectation built
up in the first weeks of March 1963 as the
day approached for the arrival of a team of
officers from the Pentagon. The team, from the
Officer Personnel Directorate, arrives at this
time each year to announce the future assign-
ments of the student officers attending the
US Army Photo
Commandant's quarters at No. 1 Scott Avenue
Command and General Staff Officer Course.
The Post was the scene of hectic activity im-
mediately after the announcements were made
as officers and their wives spread the news and
compared locations for their next duty stations.
The chief operator at the Post switchboard has
learned from long experience that extra help
is required that evening to handle the hundreds
of long-distance calls placed by the student
families to relatives and friends.
Many officers of the College staff and faculty
and the Post garrison, in addition to the stu-
dents, were making movement plans about this
same time. The average tour of duty for per-
manently assigned officers at Fort Leavenworth
is 3 years, with about one-third of them depart-
ing and arriving during the summer months.
The new Assistant Commandant, Col Elias C.
Townsend, arrived for duty in April from an
assignment as Assistant Chief of Staff, G3,
with the Second US Army. Colonel Townsend,
an instructor at the College in 1946-48, was
promoted to brigadier general in August.
Physical fitness was a current topic in the
spring of 1963 when the Army Physical Combat
Proficiency Test was scheduled for the first
time for all male soldiers under 40 years of
age. Those who wisely prepared for the test
by practice at the course set up in the Bluntville
Bowl area found significant differences between
the new requirements and the old Physical
Fitness Test. When the final results were posted
after more than 1,000 men had been tested,
top honors went to the assistant Protestant
chaplain of the Post, Chaplain (Capt) Wayne G.
Shelton. In an almost perfect performance in
the five-event test, the 34-year old chaplain
scored 498 out of a possible 500 points, leav-
ing a mark for combat arms officers to strive
for in the future.
The Post detachment of the Women's Army
Corps, commanded by Capt Margaret Clifford,
celebrated the 21st anniversary of their corps
in May 1963. Arrangements for their birthday
party were made by those detachment members
soon to be retired after 20 or more years of
service. One of the first WAC detachments to
be authorized; it arrived at Fort Leavenworth
in 1943 and was expanded to nearly 300 mem-
bers during World War II. There are presently
71 enlisted women and 6 WAC officers serving
at the Post in assignments to the Munson Army
Hospital, Midwest Relay Station, the dental
clinic, library, and other Post and College activi-
Another unit of the garrison deserving men-
tion is the 371st Army Band which has provided
a variety of music at the Post since 1947. The
band has averaged over 50 performances a
month, playing receptions, sports events, nu-
merous other military and religious activities,
in addition to filling a schedule of outdoor
morning concerts on summer weekends. The
Band has also performed in Leavenworth,
traveled to many surrounding communities to
play for civic functions, and provided stage
music for the Post Dramatics Club.
Work began in November 1963 for the re-
moval of a familiar Post landmark. The old
Fort bridge, which was constructed in 1872 and
subsequently carried the traffic of Highway 92
across the Missouri River, had been closed since
the Leavenworth Centennial Bridge was com-
pleted in 1955. Now considered a menace to
navigation on the river, it was scheduled for
demolition. During the process, the wooden
flooring of the bridge accidentally caught fire
in a rather spectacular fashion as flames en-
gulfed the complete length of the span. Fire-
men stood by in frustration without practical
means to extinguish the blaze until a barge
with fire-fighting equipment aboard was
brought upstream. After several days the last
embers ceased smoldering, the onlookers in
Bell Hall turned away from their windows and
redirected their attention to office chores, and
workmen again began to dismantle the metal
The awful news of the assassination of Presi-
dent John F. Kennedy on the 22d day of Novem-
ber was received with shocked incredulity at
Fort Leavenworth, as it was all over the world.
While confirmatory reports were announced,
and the aftermath of events was televised from
Dallas, realization of the actual loss suffered by
the Nation took effect. Instructions were issued,
as the Post flag was lowered to half-staff, for
all assigned officers to assemble in the audito-
rium of Bell Hall the following morning where
General Lemley performed the sad duty of
reading the official notification of the Presi-
dent's death from the Secretary of Defense.
The usually gay Post holiday season passed
against a subdued, somber background as
scheduled celebrations were cancelled, and a
sense of deep personal loss remained the pre-
dominant emotion in the hearts of all Ameri-
cans. The year 1963 came to an end not long
after the flag was once more flying at full-staff
to mark the end of the period of national
mourning. Personnel at the Post prepared to
enter the coming year experiencing, with their
fellow countrymen everywhere, a spirit of re-
dedication to the ideals so often clearly ex-
pressed by the late 35th President of the United
Post Headquarters, Fort Leavenworth
It is widely known that Fort Leavenworth
is the home of the U. S. Army Command and
General Staff College, and it is true that the
College is the major military activity located
at Fort Leavenworth. It is less generally known
that Fort Leavenworth is the home of several
other diversified operations of a unique and im-
portant nature. This chapter discusses the more
prominent of these operations.
The newest among the agencies at Fort Leav-
enworth came into existence as a result of a
study directed by the Honorable Robert S.
McNamara, Secretary of Defense, in February
1961. A study was made of the Department of
the Army functions, organizations, and pro-
cedures in the light of current and projected
trends, and resulted in the reorganization of
the Army in 1962. In January 1962, the Com-
mand and General Staff College began studies
to determine how this Army reorganization
would affect the College and the other service
schools of the combat arms. These studies con-
cluded that the Departments of Doctrine and
Combat Developments of the College should be
deactivated. Further, it was decided that the
US Army Photo
i I -r -c-b--l - - --- -- --- - I- - - - - -- - ' - ' -- -e -- I
personnel from these departments should form
the nucleus of two new organizations to be
located at the Post; the US Army Combined
Arms Group and the US Army Combined Arms
Combat Developments Agency. These study
conclusions were approved and implemented.
Orders from the US Army Combat Develop-
ments Command at Fort Belvoir, Virginia,
established the Combined Arms Group (CAG)
at Fort Leavenworth as a subordinate element
effective 1 July 1962.' Maj Gen Harold K.
Johnson assumed command on that date. Sub-
sequent orders organized and assigned the fol-
lowing combat developments agencies to the
CAG from existing activities at the military
installations indicated: Air Defense at Fort
Bliss, Texas; Armor at Fort Knox, Kentucky;
Artillery at Fort Sill, Oklahoma; Aviation at
Fort Rucker, Alabama; CBR at Fort McClellan,
Alabama; Engineer at Fort Belvoir; Infantry
at Fort Benning, Georgia; Intelligence at Fort
Holabird, Maryland; Communications-Elec-
tronics at Fort Huachuca, Arizona; and Com-
bined Arms located at Fort Leavenworth, Kan-
sas, with the headquarters element.
These far-
flung agencies, composed of nearly 1,100 per-
sonnel, immediately began operations under the
central direction of the CAG.
The mission of the CAG, as set forth in the
Activation Plan, is to formulate and document
current doctrine for the Army; to anticipate
the nature of land warfare in the future; to
determine the types of forces and material
needed in the future; and to determine how
these forces and material should be employed.
This formal mission statement was in agree-
ment with the thoughts of Lt Gen John F.
Daley, the first Commanding General of the
Combat Developments Command, who felt that
his command should supply answers to the
A formal ceremony was held on the con-
course in front of Grant Hall on 2 July 1962
to dedicate the two new organizations at the
General Orders No. 5, Headquarters, US Army
Combat Developments Command, Fort Belvoir, Vir-
ginia, 21 June 1962.
2General Orders No. 9, Headquarters, US Army
Combat Developments Command, Fort Belvoir, Vir-
ginia, 30 June 1962.
Post. The CAG occupied office and work space
in the Grant-Sherman Hall facilities. The Com-
bined Arms Agency (CARMSA) moved into
areas on the third floor of Bell Hall which af-
forded its members ready access to the refer-
ence material of the College Library.
The Headquarters of the CAG, in addition
to an administrative element, is organized in
three divisions. A Plans and Programs Division
monitors the 5-year programs for combat de-
velopment, and the worldwide programs of
troop testing new doctrine and organizations.
An Organization and Doctrine Division super-
vises the preparation of studies dealing with
operational and organizational concepts and
materiel objectives. This supervision includes
the preparation of doctrinal field manuals and
tables of organization and equipment. The
evaluation of materiel requirements for com-
bat and combat support elements, and the
monitoring of various materiel test and evalua-
tion programs are accomplished by the Materiel
Division. Accomplishments of the CAG in the
first year and a half of its existence have been
the monitoring and supervision of subordinate
agencies which resulted in the preparation of
over 160 doctrinal studies and publications,
some 40 tables of organization and equipment
and more than 150 materiel or development
requirements and objectives.
Col Wilson M. Hawkins assumed the posi-
tion of CAG Deputy Commander on 15 June
1963 from the first officer appointed to direct
the affairs of that organization within the
Commanding General's policy guidance, Col
Robert C. Works. The Combined Arms Group
and the Command and General Staff College
today enjoy a mutually beneficial relationship
enhanced by their physical proximity and their
operation under the command of a single in-
dividual, the Commanding General of Fort
Leavenworth. Close cooperation between the
two has increased the fund of tactical knowl-
edge available to the CAG for developing doc-
trine, and the ability of the College to assimilate
approved doctrine into its tactical teachings.
For nearly 90 years, the facilities of the US
Disciplinary Barracks have housed men who
have failed in some respect to adjust to society
or their military environment. The history of
the USDB goes back to 21 May 1874 when an
amendment to a previous act of Congress
changed the location of a military prison from
Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois, to Fort Leaven-
worth. From that time, the programs of the
USDB have evolved slowly in keeping with the
changes now apparent in modern penology.
New theories and practices have been tried
and tested; some discarded and others adopted.
Today the USDB, which serves both the Army
and the Air Force, is a community unique
within the larger community of Fort Leaven-
worth. Activities conducted at the USDB re-
flect the progressive approaca of both Services
toward the reeducation of the inmates. The
atmosphere is corrective rather than punitive.
Although their freedom is restricted, the pris-
oners carry on many of the activities of normal
From the day a prisoner arrives until the
day he leaves, he is involved in a program aimed
at determining the basic cause of punishable
behavior, and preparing him to assume a re-
sponsible role in society upon his release from
confinement. Should a prisoner need psychiatric
counseling, additional educational opportuni-
ties, vocational training, the experience of
supervised group living, recreational opportuni-
ties, or religious training, these requirements
can be met within the overall program. To ful-
fill these requirements, almost half of the as-
signed staff of the USDB consists of psychia-
trists, psychologists, social workers, teachers,
counselors, work supervisors, athletic super-
visors, library workers, classification experts,
and lawyers. Col Weldon W. Cox, Commandant
of the USDB from 1959-63, often remarked,
"What a prisoner accomplishes while inside the
walls is partly his responsibility-the institu-
tion helps him to help himself."
Motion pictures are shown on weekends and
holidays, and a hobby shop provides a means
for constructive relaxation. The USDB also has
a well-equipped gymnasium. During the sum-
mer, baseball and softball leagues are organ-
ized; while in the winter months, football and
basketball are the major atheltic events. Vol-
ley ball, wrestling, boxing, weight-lifting, and
trampoline exercises round out the extensive
sports program.
Since the first classes were begun in 1888,
education has been a main feature of the USDB
program. During the 1963 fiscal year, 256 pris-
oners successfully completed high school gen-
eral educational development tests, and 44 com-
pleted the same tests on a college level. In ad-
dition, 156 men completed formal classroom
study for high school, 48 completed group study
classes or correspondence courses at the high
school level, and 492 completed similar work
at the college level.
Since 1960, an Associate in Arts degree in
the junior college program has been avail-
US Army Photo
Entrance to the US Disciplinary Barracks
able through a joint effiort by the USDB and
the Junior College of Highland, Kansas.
Closely related to the educational program is
a vocational training program. A major im-
provement to this program has been the recent
completion, by prisoner labor, of a modern
vocational industries building within the walls
of the USDB Main Unit. The first major build-
ing project for the USDB since 1930, this struc-
ture provides training facilities for the devel-
opment of skills in tailoring, electrical work,
photography, sheet metal work, printing, and
upholstery. On-the-job training is offered in
such fields as dry cleaning, laundry operation,
plumbing, cooking, carpentry, barbering, and
automobile repair. Vocational skills acquired
by the prisoners in many of the fields are put
to use to reduce the operational costs of the
USDB, as well as to provide a source of prison
revenue by offering commercial-type services
to the personnel of Fort Leavenworth.
A major subsidiary of the USDB is the Farm
Colony and Greenhouse. Prisoners assigned to
agricultural work raise hogs, beef cattle, and
poultry and cultivate several hundred acres of
land with crops of corn, milo, alfalfa, and oats.
The Farm Colony consists of more than 600
acres in an area northwest of the prison's
Main Unit. Located between the Farm Colony
and the USDB is the prison greenhouse, re-
portedly the largest in the State of Kansas. The
sale of plants and flowers, as well as farm pro-
duce to residents of Fort Leavenworth and
other authorized personnel, also provides a con-
siderable amount of revenue to the USDB Vo-
cational Training Fund.
Minimum custody prisoners are quartered
at the Farm Colony and at the Local Parolee
Unit. These men move from their quarters to
their jobs without direct supervision, and many
of their duties are accomplished away from the
prison in various areas of the Post.
For those prisoners due to return to civilian
life, a prerelease counseling program provides
instruction concerning job applications, civilian
legal problems, parole supervision, travel pay,
family adjustment problems, and many other
related matters. Men selected to return to mili-
tary duty undergo an additional training pro-
gram. Those who return to the Army are re-
trained in basic soldiering duties by the Mili-
tary Training Branch of the First Guard Com-
pany, and Air Force personnel are sent to an
Air Force unit that has been organized for a
similar purpose.
Both Army and Air Force officers are as-
signed to the USDB. Their training and ex-
perience include special penological school-
ing at the baccalaureate, master, and doctorate
levels. More than 450 enlisted men perform
duties at the USDB. These assigned personnel,
with a representation of combat veterans as
well as college graduates and technicians and
a broad range of training and background, are
assigned to the First Guard Company cur-
rently commanded by Maj Lawrence E. Person.
They are trained cooks and guards, specialists
in psychological testing and social case work,
administrative specialists, and engineering
A third group of specialists are the civilians
employed at the USDB by the Department of
the Army. They include men and women with
special skills and training in correctional work.
Such trades as shoe repair, upholstering, and
barbering are taught to prisoners under the
direction of both civilian and military person-
Rehabilitating men who have failed in the
military service is a specialized mission and
far from an easy assignment. For the recently
assigned Commandant, Col E. L. Slobe, and his
staff, the search for better ways to help men
at the US Disciplinary Barracks will remain
their first objective.
A major step forward in the continuing pro-
gram of health and welfare at Fort Leaven-
worth was taken in April 1958 when ground
was broken for a new military hospital. Con-
struction of the $3 million building was based
upon plans made available by the US Air Force.
While this construction was taking place, medi-
cal service was provided from the building
complex on Thomas Avenue where it had been
located since 1902. Col Joseph T. Caples, Com-
mander of the Hospital and Post Surgeon, was
busy at the time as he directed the many rou-
tine hospital activities while taking an active
supervisory interest in the new building.
Colonel Caples was known as the unofficial
historian of Fort Leavenworth because of his
interest in the local area and his extraordinary
familiarity with Fort Leavenworth in the past.
The Colonel had lived at the Post four times
previous to his current assignment; first with
his father who was stationed here in 1909, a
second time while his father took part in the
Mexican Campaign in 1916-17, a third time
when his father was a student in the General
Staff School in 1921, and yet again when he
himself was a student in 1942. Colonel Caples'
family history in this location goes back much
farther than that, however. His great-great-
grandfather was the president of the associa-
tion that founded the City of Leavenworth in
With the completion of construction, the
movement of hospital equipment into the new
facility began in January 1961. One month
later, patients were moved from the old hospital
buildings, and the new health center was in
full operation in its new location by 27 Febru-
ary 1961. The buildings from which the hospital
was moved serve today to house the Dental
Clinic, offices of the American Red Cross, and
provide billet space for enlisted personnel.
Colonel Caples presided over a program of
formal dedication ceremonies on 29 March 1961
during which the hospital was named in honor
of Brig Gen Edward L. Munson, who had
served with distinction in the Army from 1893
to 1932. General Munson had been an instruc-
tor in the Army Service Schools, which later
developed into the United States Army Com-
mand and General Staff College, and founded
the Medical Field Services and Correspondence
School at Fort Leavenworth. The scheduled pro-
gram, to which the public was invited, included
a welcome by Maj Gen Harold K. Johnson,
Commanding General of the Post, a dedication
address by Maj Gen Thomas J. Hartford, the
Deputy Surgeon General of the Army, and a
tour through the facilities of the new hospital.
US Army Photo
Main entrance to Munson Army Hospital
The fully air-conditioned, three-story hospital
is equipped with the most modern medical
equipment. Presently providing beds for a
maximum of 90 patients, provisions were incor-
porated into the basic design for an expansion
to a 190-bed unit if required. Two floors
of the building contain rooms for pa-
tients. These rooms vary in size from
single-bed rooms to those with six beds.
There are three surgical operating rooms, two
delivery rooms, a pharmacy, modern kitchen
and dining areas, and two food service units
for wards.
Rooms for patients are colorfully decorated
and most have all the comforts of a home bed-
room. Each bed has a two-way communication
system to a nursing station, and a pillow
speaker for listening to radio or recorded pro-
grams. Remote controlled television sets are
mounted from the ceilings and connected to the
pillow speaker system. Telephone jacks in-
stalled in each room are provided for the pa-
tients' convenience. An interesting innovation
is a communications system whereby key hos-
pital personnel can be contacted without dis-
turbing the patients through the use of tran-
sistorized pocket receivers. A Special Services
library, a branch Post Exchange and snack
bar, and a barber shop are also available in
the hospital.
A health center of this type requires a siz-
able and diversified staff, including medical,
surgical, nursing, administrative, and coordi-
nating services. Over 200 personnel are assigned
under the command of Col John H. Taber, who
assumed the duties of Commanding Officer and
Post Surgeon from Colonel Caples in August
1963, to staff and operate the facilities of
Munson Army Hospital. Among these is Colonel
Oliver Buesing, Chief of Surgery, one of the
outstanding surgeon's in the Army. Many of the
services rendered by the hospital however,
especially in the area of dependent medical
care and preventive medicine, could not be pro-
vided without the wholehearted and enthu-
siastic support of the Red Cross Volunteer
Program by the distaff population of Fort
Leavenworth. These women, working as Gray
Ladies, Staff Aides, Nurses' Aides, and Regis-
tered Nurses, contribute thousands of hours of
volunteer service to the hospital each year.
Nearly 300 of these women participate an-
nually in the program during peak workload
On 12 December 1957, Headquarters, Fifth
US Army, published General Orders Number
145 establishing the US Army Midwest Relay
Center at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, effective
2 January 1958. Subsequent authority delegated
operational control and the responsibility for
the accomplishment of the Midwest Relay
Center mission to the Commanding General,
Fort Leavenworth.
The history of the Midwest Relay Station
began in December 1952 when a prototype tele-
typewriter system was placed into operation at
Chicago, Illinois. This system was manufac-
tured specifically to test the automatic concept
and to determine its possibilities for military
application. This early test conclusively dem-
onstrated that this equipment could provide a
much higher and more reliable grade of service
with a considerable saving to the Government
in the cost of personnel salaries alone. In very
basic terms, this system converts a message
prepared by the originator into a perforated
paper tape. The tape is then fed through
a transmitter that transforms the printed
words to electrical impulses traveling at the
speed of light to a destination where the im-
pulses are reconverted to a paper or, in some
instances, to a final copy of the message in page
form. The automatic switching components of
the system are set into operation upon receipt
of the electrical impulses from an incoming
teletypewriter line. From these impulses, the
destination and relative importance of the mes-
sage are determined, and the message is auto-
matically routed to the destination in accord-
ance with its importance without human as-
sistance or intervention. Messages addressed to
more than one agency or headquarters are re-
produced in the appropriate number of copies
by the equipment and automatically routed to
the proper addressees.
US Army Photo
Exterior of the Midwest Relay Station
With the proven feasibility of fully automatic
switching, the Chief Signal Officer of the Army
determined that it would be far more economi-
cal to operate a few large relay stations, each
serving large geographical areas, than many
smaller stations to serve specific commands.
This concept represented a major departure
from previous doctrine which normally placed
a commander's communication facilities di-
rectly under his control. Accordingly, plans
were made for a West Coast Relay Station at
Davis, California; an East Coast Relay Station
at Fort Detrick, Maryland; and a Midwest
Relay Station to be established in the Kansas
-Missouri area. Under this concept, the Mid-
west Relay Station currently is serving Govern-
ment and military activities located throughout
21 states and 4 army areas.
The Fort Leavenworth location was approved
by the Department of the Army and the exact
locations for the main station, receiver station,
and transmitter station were determined prior
to 1956 when the contract was signed for the
construction of the main station building on
Biddle Boulevard. The radio transmitter sta-
tion was located adjacent to Sherman Army
Airfield and its construction began in June
1958. Later that year, construction was begun
on the radio receiver station which was located
at the Sunflower Ordnance Works in Desoto,
Kansas. Additional construction and improve-
ment of the station's facilities have taken place.
Equipment began arriving from the manu-
facturers in September of 1958 and installa-
tion was completed by October of the following
year. The installation was accomplished by
teams from the Army Signal Engineering
Agency with assistance provided by the per-
sonnel assigned to the station under the com-
mand of Lt Col John A. Anderson. In this
manner, station personnel gained valuable ex-
perience in a phase of the overall training pro-
gram designed to familiarize them with the
equipment they would later operate and main-
It was realized from the beginning that the
training of personnel was the key to success-
ful operation of the Midwest Relay Station.
This initially presented a serious problem due
to the limited number of personnel having
previous experience with automatic switching
equipment. These personnel were to be found
primarily among those who had been associated
with the prototype test in Chicago, and those
at the relatively new West Coast Relay Sta-
tion. A limited number of the more experienced
individuals were recruited from these- installa-
tions. The required remainder, both military
and civilian, were selected on the basis of long
experience in the communications field and
familiarity with network operations as they
existed prior to the advent of automatic switch-
ing. This system of selection proved to be highly
successful and although many of the skilled
military personnel have been transferred from
the station, most of the key civilians originally
recruited are still present. Advantage was taken
of every available training resource. Classes
for switchmen were conducted by the Auto-
matic Electric Company at their Chicago fac-
tory. Representatives of the Kleinschmidt Cor-
poration assisted in the training of repairmen
at classes conducted by the Midwest Relay Sta-
tion. Personnel were sent both to Chicago and
the West Coast Relay Station to observe and
become familiar with the operations there. Be-
tween September 1959 and January 1960, 69
individuals were trained in automatic opera-
tions at classes conducted at Fort Leavenworth
in the building now occupied by the Army Na-
tional Bank. It is historically significant to note
that this building had first been used almost
eight decades earlier for the instruction of
student officers in the school that was to de-
velop into the U. S. Army Command and Gen-
eral Staff College.
The cut-over to live traffic began on 2 January
1960, the second anniversary of the organiza-
tion of the Midwest Relay Station. With the
cut-over, the station began its automatic switch-
ing service on an around the clock basis which
has continued without interruption until the
present. Credit must be given to the outstand-
ing performance and devotion to duty of the
personnel responsible for the initial organiza-
tion and training which resulted in what the
commander of the Army Communications
Agency described as the most successful cut-
over in network history.
The formal dedication of the Midwest Relay
Station, then commanded by Lt Col Hanford T.
Colwell, took place on 18 February 1960 with
ceremonies held at the Fort Leavenworth Of-
ficers' Open Mess and at the main station. Dedi-
cation ribbons at the entrance to the station
were cut by Maj Gen Ralph T. Nelson, Chief
Signal Officer of the Army, and Maj Gen Lionel
C. McGarr, Commanding General of Fort Leav-
enworth. Guests and visitors present, more than
a hundred in number, included State and local
government officials from the surrounding area,
Post staff personnel, representatives of the com-
panies that had manufactured equipment for
the station, and prominent Signal Corps repre-
sentatives from Fifth US Army and the
Washington, D. C. area. The ceremonies were
recorded on film by photographers from the
Army Pictorial Center, and later edited into a
newsreel type pictorial report which is still
available through the Army film library sys-
The Midwest Relay Station, currently com-
manded by Lt Col Gerald C. Von Bargen, has
been designated a class II activity of the Army
Strategic Communications Command. Its mis-
sion is to relay electrical communications and
data for government installation in the central
portion of the United States. As a part of the
World Wide Strategic Army Communications
Network, the station is capable of relaying
messages to and from any installation in any
part of the world in which United States or
Allied forces may be located. It also functions
as an important element of the Defense Com-
munications System and serves as a transfer
point for Army and Air Force traffic. In re-
turn for the administrative support it is pro-
vided by Fort Leavenworth, the Midwest Relay
Station also operates and maintains the Post
Communications Center. The station has proc-
essed approximately 27 million messages in its
first 4 years of operation, with over 600,000
messages handled in one month during 1963.
It is anticipated that the station will become
a part of the Global Satellite Communications
System and will continue to expand its services
within its area of operations. In the event of
emergency, the Midwest Relay Station will pro-
vide the Nation with the most modern and ef-
ficient communications service available in the
The construction of a Nike Hercules de-
fense for the Kansas City area was approved by
the Department of the Army in late 1957. With
Senate approval in May 1958, negotiations
began for the purchase of land and the award
of contracts for the design and construction of
the defense project. The contract for construc-
tion was awarded in June 1958 and the notifica-
tion to proceed was issued the following month.
Ground-breaking ceremonies were conducted
at Fort Leavenworth on the future site of the
Delta Battery Headquarters at Pope Avenue
and Biddle Boulevard on 23 July 1958.
Battery D, or Delta Battery, is one of the
four firing units of the 5th Missile Battalion
(Nike Hercules), 55th Artillery. The bat-
talion headquarters is located at the Naval Air
Station, Olathe, Kansas.
The ceremonies were sponsored by the Henry
Leavenworth Chapter of the Association of the
United States Army. A powerful Hercules
missile formed a backdrop for the speakers
platform, and the sounds of heavy earthmoving
machinery could be heard as the chaplain of-
fered a prayer for peace. Civilian dignitaries
present for the occasion were headed by Kansas
Governor George Docking. Brig Gen Frederick
Zierath, the Assistant Commandant of the Com-
mand and General Staff College, represented
Fort Leavenworth and delivered the official
welcome to the numerous participants and
US Army Photo
Headquarters of the Air Defense Battery
In August 1959, filler personnel began report-
ing to Fort Leavenworth for assignment to
Delta Battery. At the same time, the officers,
key noncommissioned officers, and specialists
of the battery, then commanded by Capt Guy
J. Marzari, reported for "package" training
at the Army Air Defense Center, Fort Bliss,
Texas. This training, which developed indi-
vidual and unit proficiency so necessary for the
successful operation and maintenance of the
Hercules system, was completed in October
and the trained personnel departed for Fort
Leavenworth to join the remainder of Delta
By November 1959 sufficient personnel and
equipment had arrived at the battery site to
permit the emplacement of the equipment and
the start of an intensive unit training program.
The battery was declared operational in April
1960. It is interesting to note that the battery
launching area, from which Hercules mis-
siles would be launched, is located on the same
hill where the earthworks of Fort Sully were
constructed during the Civil War for a similar
mission, but against an entirely different type
of threat.
Delta Battery draws on Fort Leavenworth
for logistical support. Battery officers and many
of the enlisted personnel reside on the Post and
participate actively in Post functions. Con-
ducted tours through the battery facilities in
cooperation with Post activities, and demon-
strations with the sentry dogs that guard the
perimeters of sensitive battery installations
have been a source of interest to many Post
visitors. The battery sponsors annual Christ-
mas and Easter parties for the children of Saint
John's Orphanage, Kansas City. In addition
to donations from battery personnel toward the
purchase of clothing for the orphans, the days
preceding Christmas each year find the men of
Delta Battery busily engaged during their off-
duty time collecting and repairing toys to be
distributed as gifts to these children. Through
organized efforts such as these, and the promo-
tion of good will by its individual members,
Delta Battery has greatly assisted Fort Leav-
enworth in maintaining a record of outstand-
ing civic relations.
The battery is tested on the effectiveness of
its training programs by an annual service
practice conducted at the McGregor Firing
Range in New Mexico. This service practice
consists of the actual firing of Nike Her-
cules missiles at simulated hostile targets
and provides the basis for a thorough evalua-
tion of the battery's firing operations. The bat-
tery has fired 17 missiles under these condi-
tions thus far with a perfect score of seventeen
target "kills." The battery has consistently
been rated "Superior" on its annual general
inspection. It has never failed successfully to
demonstrate its ability to store, handle, and
prepare for firing the powerful nuclear war-
heads with which its missiles can be armed.
Because of these and other similar achieve-
ments, this unit has been designated the "Out-
standing Battery of the Year" by the 4th
Region, Army Air Defense Command, to which
it is assigned for the 2 years this award has
been in existence.
The history of Delta Battery, although rela-
tively brief, is a source of pride to the present
battery commander, Capt Milton Welsh, and
the members of his unit. Delta Battery remains
in constant readiness to fulfill its assigned mis-
sion to actively defend the Kansas City area
against aerial attack should the national policy
of deterrence fail.
The center of air activity for Fort Leaven-
worth and the Command and General Staff
College is Sherman Army Airfield located east
of the US Disciplinary Barracks on the Mis-
souri River flats. The field was established
under the jurisdiction of the Disciplinary Bar-
racks in 1923 by the Army Air Corps. At this
time it was merely a strip 1,800 feet long in a field
of alfalfa and was intended only for emergency
landings. Named in 1936 for Maj William
Sherman, US Air Corps, who had supervised
major improvements of the field, it was then
under the control of the Army Air Corps,
later the US Air Force. The expanding role of
Army aviation resulted in the transfer of the
field to the Army and Fort Leavenworth in
An important and busy activity was incor-
porated with the operation of the field in 1954
when a Transportation Corps aircraft main-
tenance and supply detachment was moved
from Fort Riley, Kansas, to Fort Leavenworth.
This relatively small detachment, presently
commanded by Maj Edward F. O'Donnell, sup-
ports Army aircraft, including those of the
Army Reserve and National Guard throughout
11 states in the Fifth US Army area. The de-
tachment operates a U-1A utility aircraft to
fly maintenance personnel and supply parts
wherever needed to accomplish its mission.
Effective 1 January 1959, a 5-year lease was
granted to the City of Leavenworth permitting
use of the field by privately owned aircraft
listed with the Civil Aeronautics Agency and
equipped with two-way radios. The Post Avia-
tion Officer has since been responsible for the
flight pattern and safety of all aircraft within
the control zone of the field.
In 1960, the field was designated a class
A airport-one which averages more than
100 take-offs and landings a day-and began
operations on a 24-hour basis. That same year
a significant improvement of landing surfaces
was completed. The main runway was topped
with asphalt in a strip 5,900 feet long and 100
feet wide. The field drainage system was im-
proved as well as the secondary 5,400 foot
cinder runway.
The Post Army Aviation Detachment, cur-
rently commanded by Maj John P. Westphal,
is now assigned 17 fixed-wing aircraft and 3
light helicopters. The operations at Sherman
Army Airfield, in addition to providing avia-
tion support to the Post and College, provide
facilities for the maintenance of flying pro-
ficiency by permanently assigned and student
officers. The number of aviators assigned as
students at the College has increased yearly.
Not only are aircraft made available to these
pilots, but their flight records are maintained
by personnel at the field. The Aviation Division
also operates a Link trainer which simulates
instrument flight for aviators sharpening their
blind flying skills.
There are indications that an attempt was
made as early as 1924 to establish a museum at
Fort Leavenworth to preserve the many his-
torical military relics which were located
throughout the Post. A formal request from
Fort Leavenworth to establish a museum was
approved by the War Department in 1938 and
the Post Museum was established that year.
Originally, the museum was situated in Build-
ing No. 74 which now houses the Army Educa-
tion Center. From the very start, the museum
has maintained a collection of period animal-
drawn vehicles that is probably unsurpassed
anywhere in the country. Among these authen-
tic means of transportation of the early West
are stagecoaches, prairie schooners, numerous
horse-drawn buggies and sleighs, and old
Army vehicles of all descriptions. For years
these vehicles were rented for a small fee, and
provided to military and civilian organizations
engaged in activities with an historical theme.
The holdings of the museum were placed in
storage in the fall of 1950 when the museum
was placed in a standby condition.
Shortly before his departure in 1952, Gen-
eral McBride directed that plans be made to
reactivate the Post Museum. It was reestab-
lished in Building No. 391 and opened with ap-
propriate ceremonies in 1953. The collection
of a small local quartermaster museum was
consolidated with the existing holdings, and
the museum activity was placed under the of-
fice of the Headquarters Commandant for ad-
ministrative purposes.
In 1955, General Davidson formed an his-
torical committee to study and report upon a
program at the Post which would encourage
public and private support of the museum, and
thus encourage increased understanding and
support of the US Army. The committee recom-
mended the organization of a Post historical
society and a permanent historical committee;
the initiation of plans to restore and preserve
the numerous available historical sites and
objects; the acquisition of a civilian museum
curator; and the appointment of a Post his-
torian. The committee's recommendations were
approved and implemented. A very active his-
torical program was conducted with local and
state historical societies which served to fur-
ther civic relations.
The Post Museum
US Army Photo
A civilian curator for the museum was ap-
proved during the tenure of General McGarr as
Commandant, and Miss Mildred C. Cox was
employed in September 1958. The following
year the museum was relocated in Andrews
Hall with the primary considerations being a
more advantageous site and an increased build-
ing capacity. Well over half of the available
floor space is now taken up by exhibits and
displays, with the remainder used for an audi-
torium, administrative and shop areas, and
The mission of the museum was established
in 1960:
The mission of the Fort Leavenworth Mu-
seum is to collect, preserve, and present a
fully adequate graphic artifactual display of
the history of Fort Leavenworth and all mil-
itary facilities located at Fort Leavenworth
(including the United States Army Com-
mand and General Staff College, the United
States Army Hospital, the United States
Army Midwest Relay Station, and the United
States Army Disciplinary Barracks) and to
develop and preserve historical sites and
monuments throughout the military reserva-
tion. The Museum serves as a medium for
fostering knowledge and understanding of
the history, traditions and development of
Fort Leavenworth and its related facilities,
stimulating esprit de corps and improving
public relations.
A Board of Governors was established for
the museum in 1960 to guide and support the
museum program. The board also administers
a non-government fund created by donations
from Post activities and organizations, and
those received from the general public. Relics
and other historical objects are purchased from
this fund. An unofficial group of counselors was
also formed in 1960 to provide liaison with
regional museum activity and gain support for
the Fort Leavenworth Museum. In addition, the
counselors furnish professional advice and as-
sistance to the museum Curator and Board of
Governors. The counselors represent the De-
partment of the Interior, the Kansas State His-
torical Society, the Harry S Truman Library,
and the museum in St. Joseph, Missouri.
Since the relocation of the museum in An-
drews Hall, an active plan for expansion of
the collections and exhibits has been in effect.
Until sufficient properties are acquired to meet
the requirements of this long-range plan, de-
picting the entire span of history for the Fort
Leavenworth area, relics added to the collec-
tion are cased in exhibits of isolated but related
themes. A wide variety of attractive and his-
torically interesting exhibits are displayed for
the many visitors to the museum. Although the
major collection grouping consists of the old
vehicles, the museum's holdings include artil-
lery pieces, uniforms and related military
equipment, Indian artifacts and western pio-
neer relics, and objects from foreign lands
donated by Allied officers. A section of Andrews
General Order No. 130, Headquarters, Fort Leaven-
worth, Kansas, 11 July 1960.
Hall is set aside for a display of period rooms
such as could be found in the homes of the early
settlers of the Kansas Territory. The recon-
struction, furnishing, and maintenance of these
rooms has been accomplished by the Leaven-
worth County Historical Society. An appealing
exhibit, and a source of envy for the younger
male visitor, is a collection of miniature soldiers
that has been loaned to the museum by Lt Col
S. von Schriltz. These thousands of miniatures,
authentically uniformed and equipped in the
most minute details, are arranged in forma.
tions depicting military regiments of the world.
Stimulated by a progressive museum pro-
gram, visits to the museum have increased from
about 500 persons each month in 1958 to a
total of over 54,000 persons in 1963. Miss Cox
and her museum staff conduct group tours for
Post personnel, visiting dignitaries, and groups
from schools and civic and professional organi-
zations. The museum personnel participate in
numerous local, state, and regional historical
affairs. The Fort Leavenworth Museum, by re-
flecting what the community is and what it once
was, creates a consciousness of the heritage and
affairs of the Post unattainable by any other
US Army Photo
J. Franklin Bell Hall (front view)
THE COLLEGE, 1952-63
In the years following World War II, the
mission and operational procedures of the U. S.
Army Command and General Staff College be-
came more firmly established than in any
previous period in the history of the academic
institution at Fort Leavenworth. The primary
course of instruction, the 10-month Regular
Course, was conducted once each year from
September until June. A shorter, 13-week As-
sociate Course was also scheduled each year
as a means for increasing the professional
ability of the officer corps within all three com-
ponents of the Army: the Regular Army, the
National Guard, and the Army Reserve. The
stated purpose of the two courses was identical:
"To prepare officers for duty as commanders
and staff officers at the division and higher
Circular No. 202, War Department, 9 July 1946.
The College staff and faculty maintained of-
fices and supporting facilities in the Grant-
Sherman-Sheridan Hall complex under the
clock tower which had become a symbol of
recognition for officers of many nationalities
throughout the world. Student classroom activi-
ties were concentrated, for the most part, in
Gruber and Andrews Halls. Gruber Hall, origi-
nally a massive brick riding hall, housed the
classes of the Regular Course students. The
smaller classes for the Associate Course were
conducted in the wood-constructed Andrews
The academic pace and pressure which had
long been associated with student life at the
Army's senior school of tactical knowledge were
not diminished after completion of the accel-
erated wartime program. Selection for attend-
- - - - -
ance at the College continued to be made on a
highly competitive basis. Competition during
the demanding courses of instruction is a very
tangible aspect of a student's assignment as
class members vied for positions at the top of
the final academic standings. Graduation from
the Command and General Staff College is a
signal achievement in an officer's career, an
achievement to which a great deal of impor-
tance is attached in determining his future as-
signment to positions of increasing respon-
The initiation of the "police action" follow-
ing the Communist invasion of South Korea
had less immediate impact upon the planned
and programed activities of the Command
and General Staff College than any previous
conflict involving US Army forces. To some
degree, this may be explained by the fact that
the extent of military effort that was eventually
required for enforcement of the United Na-
tions' principles in that country was not ini-
tially indicated. Then, too, the curriculum of
the College, which had been expanded to include
the many diverse military aspects of World
War II, required little actual modification to
incorporate lessons learned from the combat
operations in Korea. While the Korean War
necessitated no major changes in College or-
ganization or instruction, the Chinese Com-
munist intervention and the resulting mobiliza-
tion of US Army components created a greater
demand for trained officers. Fort Leavenworth
and the Command and General Staff College
were called upon to satisfy this demand.
The size of the Regular Classes was increased,
beginning with the course starting in 1951
which contained approximately 550 members.
Starting in 1952, and continuing until the pres-
ent time, the Associate Course was scheduled
twice a year from January until May and from
August to December. Initially, about 280 stu-
dents were enrolled in each class. The Associate
Course was lengthened from 13 to 16 weeks in
1953 and, beginning that year, the class was
divided into two groups for the final month of
the course. One group of student officers re-
ceived specialized instruction in the combat
arms during that period, and the other group
devoted their time to the study of the logistical
The College organization in 1952, as it had
evolved at the direction of Commandants Maj
Gen Horace L. McBride and his successor, Maj
Gen Henry I. Hodes, included five instructional
departments. Supervised by an Executive for
Instruction, Col James W. Coutts, these de-
partments presented all of the classes to the
resident courses. Department I, headed by Col
Frederick H. Loomis, presented instruction re-
lating to intelligence matters. Col Marshall W.
Frame was in charge of Department II which
was concerned with armored operations and
logistics. Department III, supervised by Col
Keith H. Ewbank, taught ground operations
and air support, while Col Charles R. Murray
and Department IV were charged with air-
borne and amphibious operations. Department
V dealt with personnel matters and was under
the direction of Col William S. Bodner. Non-
resident instruction by extension course for
student officers was administered by Depart-
ment VI under Col James B. Evans. Another
instructional group, Department VII, was es-
tablished that year to prepare and present in-
struction in the tactical employment of nuclear
weapons. These instructors, under Col Karl
F. Eklund, occupied Pope Hall where they pre-
sented their first course of instruction in the
fall of 1952.
The curriculum of the College was planned
and administered as directed by the Assistant
Commandant. Emphasis was placed on com-
mand responsibilities, the functions of the gen-
eral staff as it contributes to command, and the
coordination of the general staff operating as
a team.
Instruction was, as it is now, based
upon a process of learning by application. The
student became familiar with the subject mat-
ter by individual reading and study outside
scheduled class hours. The subject matter was
then clarified by classroom application through
the use of practical exercises, map exercises,
and conferences. Most of the instruction was
presented to groups of from 50 to 80 students
The Program of Instruction for the Regular
course totaled 1,253 hours of classroom work
and related activities. Students began their
studies with a thorough grounding in the prin-
ciples of war and fundamentals of combat, and
2 Instructional Circular No. 1, Command and General
Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1 September
continued through field army operations. An
exercise designed around a joint Army, Navy,
and Air Force operation, including an amphibi-
ous landing and an airborne assault, put the
students through their paces in a realistic man-
ner. Fifteen examinations took up 58 hours
of the course as a means for student evalua-
An object of continuous study within the
area of operations of the Command and General
Staff College had been the relationship of the
staff and faculty to the formulation of tactical
doctrine' for the Army. When Maj Gen Gar-
rison H. Davidson arrived at the College as
Commandant in July 1964, he reviewed the
doctrinal mission as stated in SR 350-5-5: "to
initiate action as necessary to formulate or
revise (tactical and logistical) doctrine (of the
combined arms and services)." This mission
was especially significant at the time because
of the tactical adaptations for the conduct of
land warfare resulting from the existence of
nuclear weapons. At that time a relatively
small section of 12 officers was charged with
the development of future doctrine, while the
responsibility for current doctrine was split
between the Executive for Instruction and the
Executive for Research and Evaluation. Realiz-
ing that current doctrine was the basis for the
curriculum at the College, the Commandant as-
signed this area of responsibility to the Execu-
tive for Instruction, Col John A. Gavin. For
the development of future doctrine, an organi-
zation based on a weapon system approach
was established. This new organization was
placed under the direct supervision of Col Seth
L. Weld, Jr., the Executive for Research and
Analysis. It was composed of three agencies:
Current Analysis Section (CAS), Combat De-
velopments Department (CDD), and Advanced
Operations Research Department (AORD).
AORD was concerned with developing doctrine
within a long-range time frame of 10 or more
years in the future. CDD was assigned a similar
function, but limited to a midrange time frame
of 5 years. The CAS function was to handle
3"Principles, policies, and concepts, applicable to a
subject, which are derived from experience or theory,
compiled and taught for guidance. It represents the
best available thought that can be defended by reason."
-Dictionary of US Army Terms, Department of the
Army, January 1961.
doctrinal studies and other similar projects
assigned to the College by outside agencies,
thus freeing AORD and CDD from the inter-
ruptions of planned operations that these ac-
tivities had caused in the past.
A total of 42 officer positions were included
in the faculty organization for doctrinal mat-
ters and, eventually, 35 of these spaces were
filled. To insure that the best qualified officers
were made available to fill the authorized
spaces, General Davidson wrote and talked with
the chief of each technical service, and per-
sonally visited in Washington, D.C., with a
representative of each arm and service. All
were keenly interested and enthusiastic in
their support of the College effort in this field.
Another major action undertaken by General
Davidson in 1954 was the reorganization of the
College staff along directorate rather than
executive lines. A feature of the existing or-
ganization that appeared to warrant correction
was the span of control that was required by
the Assistant Commandant, who had 21 officers
reporting to him directly. The Commandant
directed an ad hoc committee to take the
matter under study, and the committee's recom-
mendations were placed in effect about 1 year
A significant aspect of the resulting reorgani-
zation was the assignment of all instructional
responsibilities to a Director of Instruction.
Col William W. Culp, the first officer to occupy
this position, was placed in charge of the resi-
dent and nonresident instruction departments-
seven in number. An academic staff, the special
representatives of the technical and adminis-
trative services, and sections representing the
other US Armed Forces, as well as liaison of-
ficers from Great Britain and France, were
under his supervision. In short order, the Di-
rector of Instruction became the focal point
around which the execution of the College in-
structional mission revolved. The two other
directorate agencies constituting the new or-
ganization were the Director of Research and
Analysis, previously mentioned, and the of-
fice of College Secretary, then directed by Col
John F. Franklin, Jr., which carried out the
administrative and supply functions for the
College, supervised the Printing Plant, the
Bookstore, the Library, and many other activi-
Simultaneously with this reorganization, a
curriculum plan was devised to start with the
1956-57 Regular Course, which featured four
phases of instruction. Phase I familiarized the
student with certain basic principles and tech-
niques, phase II was devoted to the application
of these principles and techniques to the solu-
tion of relatively simple military problems,
while phase III was concerned with increas-
ingly broader and more complex problems and
situations. Phase IV consisted of subject mat-
ter which would provide the student a general
understanding of military affairs to widen his
knowledge and background. The first three of
these phases were presented in numerical se-
quence, with a certain desirable degree of over-
lap. The phase IV subjects were interspersed
throughout the entire course.
The Regular Class of 1954-55 engaged in a
publishing venture that produced a class year-
book to preserve the memory of their tour at
Fort Leavenworth. This was the first project
of this type to be accomplished by student of-
ficers as far as can be determined. The result-
ing volume, titled The Bell, established a
precedent that has been followed by the publica-
tion of a similar yearbook by each succeeding
Regular Class. Lt Col Jack N. Hemingway
served as Editor-in-Chief for the first year-
book staff of 52 officers and 6 wives. The book,
which was prepared for the presses in an
amazingly short period of time, presented an
attractively balanced reflection of the serious
and humorous side of student life, and also
included separate group photographs of each
student officer and his family. Cartoon work by
student artists gave recognition to a common
academic affliction known as the "green sheet
shakes." This phrase described a state of trepi-
dation experienced prior to committing one's
memory and knowledge to written solutions on
the familiar green-colored examination answer
The class will be sure to remember the hours
spent on staff studies examining the practicality
of combining the G2 and G3 operations; the
times when the 201st Armored Cavalry was
called upon to save the day in a theoretical
problem situation; and the classroom time ex-
pended in fruitless efforts to enable the 20th
Division to capture the French town of Lam-
baille. Recollections of the days spent in Gruber
Hall include the evasive action required to elude
the persistent wasps attending classes with the
students, and the flexibility of classroom ar-
rangements made possible by a rather com-
plicated system of movable walls. These adapta-
ble partitions had already been "immortalized"
by a student's poem that concluded:
... and when I make my last long hike,
If the heavenly host are workmanlike,
Those Pearly Gates will open like-
The folding walls of Gruber.'
In 1955, General Davidson, as Commandant
of the College, requested an objective evaluation
of the academic operation at Fort Leavenworth
from an "outsider's" point of view. The last
such appraisal, made in 1946 by a group of
prominent civilian educators, resulted in the
adoption of numerous changes and modifica-
tions in the College curriculum and instruc-
tional methods. Because of the many develop-
ments in the College that had occurred since
1946, the Commandant decided that it was time
for another survey. Whereas the original sur-
vey group had been composed entirely of civil-
ian members, General Davidson felt that it was
desirable to have the survey performed by a
combination of military personnel and civilians.
The Educational Survey Commission was
made up of three corps commanders of World
War II; retired Lieutenant Generals Troy H.
Middleton, Geoffrey Keyes, and Manton S.
Eddy. The remainder of the commission con-
sisted of three civilian educators, with equally
distinguished backgrounds in their fields;
Doctors Harl Douglass, H. F. Harding, and
Jacob S. Orleans.' The commission was in ses-
sion at the Post in January and March of 1956,
and submitted a final report that June.
In general terms, the Survey Commission in-
dorsed the operations of the College and ap-
proved recent efforts by the staff and faculty
to increase the educational stature of the insti-
' Lt Col R. M. Walker-Class of 1952.
Dr. Douglass at the time was Director, College of
Education, University of Colorado; Dr. Harding was
Professor of Speech, Ohio State University; and Dr.
Orleans was Director of Research and Education, City
College of New York.
tution. The final report included numerous
specific recommendations for possible improve-
ment and areas that appeared to warrant
study. The commission's report was com-
pleted within weeks of General Davidson's de-
parture and the incoming Commandant, Gen-
eral McGarr, understandably deferred action on
the recommendations until he could complete
a personal and directed study of the academic
situation of the time. It should be noted that
General McGarr did concur later in over two-
thirds of the commission's recommendations
and incorporated them in the next major re-
visions within the College.
The 7th of May 1956 marked the 75th an-
niversary of the founding of the military school
system at Fort Leavenworth which had devel-
oped into the Command and General Staff Col-
lege, and a Diamond Jubilee Program was
held at the Post to commemorate the occasion.
The scheduled ceremonies included an address
by the Secretary of the Army, Wilbur M.
Brucker, a reception and luncheon for some
500 invited military and civilian guests, and a
parade by the 16th Infantry Regiment of the
1st Infantry Division from Fort Riley, Kansas.
This parade also marked the first time that a
unit of the 16th Infantry had set foot on the
Fort Leavenworth Reservation since 1899 when
elements of the regiment had departed the
Post for service in the Spanish-American War.
Another feature of the program was the presen-
tation to the College of the original "Leaven-
worth Lamp" by the Kansas City Chapter,
Military Order of the World Wars. This lamp
was the outcome of a desire of the Commandant
in 1955 for a traditional symbol of learning
suitable for an award to indicate past mem-
bership on the College staff and faculty. The
following description of the lamp is based on
the design finally approved as a composite of
ideas submitted in a Post-wide suggestion con-
test held in October 1955:
The base is the traditional lamp of learn-
ing symbolizing the knowledge acquired at
the College-from which is emerging a
mailed fist symbolizing the military nature
of the knowledge taught at the College.
Clenched in the fist are a rifle and sword
connoting the origin of the College in 1881
as the School for Application of Infantry and
Cavalry in the past with a guided missile
symbolizing the future.
The entire symbol thus represents the
idea that from the College emerge the leaders,
who with their knowledge and control of
the past, present, and future weapons of
war protect our liberty.'
US Army Photo
The Leavenworth Lamp
The lamp was unveiled before Secretary
Brucker and the large audience which had
gathered in Andrews Hall to hear the Honor-
able Mr. Brucker's address. The first of many
miniature replicas of the original Leavenworth
Lamp was presented to General Davidson in
July of 1956 immediately prior to his departure
from the Post.
Other visible evidence of General Davidson's
tour as Commanding General of Fort Leaven-
worth is the distinctive shoulder patch now
worn by all military personnel assigned to the
College and the Post garrison. The request for
such a patch was submitted in 1954 and was
approved and authorized for wear in June
1956. The official description of this now-fa-
miliar patch reads:
On a white shield 21/2 inches in width and
21/2 inches in height overall, with a 1/8 inch
red border, a blue chevron between three
blue lamps, two at the top above the chevron
and one below.
The design is based on the shield of the
device approved for the school.
"Afteraction Report 3 July 1954 to 9 July 1956,
Commandant, The Command and General Staff College,
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
7 Ibid.
In July of 1956 a new Commandant, Maj Gen
Lionel C. McGarr arrived at the Command and
General Staff College. Several factors indicated
to General McGarr the necessity for further
revisions of the College organization and cur-
riculum. Most apparent among these factors
were the report of the Educational Survey Com-
mission, a USCONARC requirement directing
increased emphasis on nuclear weapons in-
struction and nuclear warfare, and the pending
conversion of the Army's divisions to the pen-
tomic battle group structure.
Because of the magnitude of the changes en-
visioned by the Commandant, and the necessity
for maintaining continuity of student instruc-
tion and College operation, a transitional or-
ganization of instructional committees was
planned and established to commence academic
preparations for the Regular Course of 1957-
58. The personnel required to staff these com-
mittees were drawn from the officers assigned
to the existing instructional departments. The
departments continued with the instruction of
the classes in residence, but gradually trans-
ferred increasing numbers of personnel to the
instructional planning committees as they were
made available by the completion of courses.
The result was an orderly transfer of all neces-
sary personnel to the new committees which
was completed during the academic break be-
tween Regular Courses in the summer of 1957.
The planning committees then became the in-
structional departments for the next scheduled
courses. A large share of the credit for this re-
organization and complete revision of the Col-
lege curriculum is due to Col Ward S. Ryan,
who was appointed as the coordinator for the
entire project.
The revised organization was a departure
from the centrally controlled director staff
concept in that the principal College staff was
now composed of assistants to the assistant
commandant (a title later changed to chief).
These positions initially included an As-
sistant for Resident Instruction, first filled
by Col Harold C. Davall; an Assistant for Non-
resident Instruction, to which Col Edward C.
Dunn was appointed; and an Assistant for Re-
search and Analysis with Col William M. Con-
nor first assuming those duties. Later in the
same year, the office of the Assistant for Re-
search and Analysis was eliminated and the
missions it had served were expanded and as-
signed to the newly created positions of the As-
sistant for Doctrine and the Assistant for Com-
bat Developments. Colonels Dunn and Victor
W. Hobson, respectively, were the initial heads
of these activities.
The instructional departments that grew out
of the planning committee system were estab-
lished along more functional, self-contained
lines. The Departments of Nonresident Instruc-
tion and Special Weapons, which had previ-
ously been functionally organized departments,
were retained intact within the new structure
of the College staff and faculty. The remaining
instructional responsibilities were assumed by
the Departments of the Armored Division, the
Infantry Division, Airborne Operations and
Army Aviation (later this department was
also to include Unconventional Warfare), Staff
and Education, Larger Units and Administra-
tive Support, and Combat Developments. Sepa-
rate doctrinal elements, consisting of a nucleus
of officers assigned this function on a full-time
basis, were formed within each of the depart-
ments. These elements assisted the College in
keeping abreast of the expanding doctrinal
mission by conducting the actual review, revi-
sion, and development of doctrine. Depart-
mental coordination in doctrinal matters was
accomplished by the Assistant for Doctrine.
Another feature of this reorganization was
the elimination of the academic staff. Under
the new concept of decentralization, which had
been recommended by the Educational Survey
Commission, the instructional departments
were granted increased authority for the devel-
opment of curriculum content which had for-
merly been controlled by the academic staff.
A decentralization of subject matter review was
effected, with this responsibility delegated to
the departments, as opposed to the previous
control of these matters by a College review
The curriculum for the 1957-58 academic
year was completely rewritten. When placed
into effect, the Regular Course program devoted
approximately 67 percent of the instruction
to intelligence and operations subjects, with the
remainder taken up by logistics, personnel,
and civil affairs subjects. With the outbreak of
small-scale aggression in several areas through-
out the world, recognition was given to the
necessity for increased emphasis on limited
war. Applicatory instruction with geographical
problem settings was almost equally divided
between general war and limited war situa-
tions, with about 7 percent of the instruction
oriented on conditions short of actual war. In
the past, nearly 90 percent of the locales for
this applicatory instruction had been in west-
ern Europe. The new program of instruc-
tion placed over 30 percent of these problem
settings in eastern Europe (to include the
USSR), and another 40 percent in the Middle
East, Africa, and Asia.
A standard 6-hour academic day was estab-
lished with instruction equally divided between
the morning and afternoon periods. This
method of operation lent itself to the develop-
ment of classroom instruction around 3-hour
instructional blocks, and greatly facilitated
scheduling of the program.
Of tremendous importance to the growth and
development of the Command and General Staff
College was the completion of this new aca-
demic building. General Davidson had traveled
to Washington, D. C., in mid-1955 to appear be-
fore the Senate Appropriations Committee
and was successful in obtaining the reinstate-
ment of the project in the Military Construc-
tion Program. The House Military Affairs Com-
mittee had previously approved the expenditure
of funds for such a project, but the bill was
eliminated by the House of Representatives.
Plans for the building were developed and ap-
proved, Congressional approval was granted in
the summer of 1956, and construction began
the following November.
This $5 million structure was dedicated
on 14 January 1959 to the memory of Maj Gen
James Franklin Bell, a holder of the Medal of
Honor. General Bell had been instrumental in
assisting the Secretary of War in the develop-
ment of an overall plan for the Army educa-
tional system following the conclusion of the
Spanish-American War. In recognition of the
ability he had displayed in this connection, Gen-
eral Bell was designated Commandant of the
Schools and Staff College at Fort Leavenworth
during the years 1903-06. While in that capacity
he established a reputation as the founder of
modern methods of instruction in the Army.
Secretary of the Army Wilbur M. Brucker,
on his second trip to the Post within a year,
delivered the dedication address at ceremonies
held in the spacious auditorium of Bell Hall.
The ceremonies included a symbolic completion
of the laying of the cornerstone, and the un-
covering of a memorial plaque in General Bell's
honor. The activities of this day culminated
the efforts of past commandants and faculty
members, originating as early as 1935, to ob-
tain an academic facility which would support
adequately the contributions by the College to
the Army and the Nation.
US Army Photo
Unveiling of the memorial plaque in honor of General
Bell by Secretary of the Army Brucker and General
J. Franklin Bell Hall is a figure 4 shaped
building situated on Arsenal Hill overlooking
the Missouri River. It contains over 300,000
square feet of floor space. Its unique design
provides a two-story classroom and auditorium
unit, a basement unit, and a three-story office
unit containing a faculty briefing room, library,
and offices. The classroom wing contains 24
large, fully equipped classrooms which will each
accommodate 55 students with ease. The main
auditorium has a capacity of 1,425 persons
and the faculty briefing room has over 300
seats. Bell Hall's completion made possible the
consolidation of academic facilities which had
been housed either in antiquated buildings or
converted structures dispersed over a consider-
able area of the Post. Two individuals most in-
timately concerned with the interior arrange-
ments and appointments of the ultramodern
building were Dr. Ivan J. Birrer, the College
Educational Advisor, and Maj Wilfred C.
Washcoe, the head of the College Editing and
Publishing Unit. With the increase in class-
room space and other facilities provided by
Bell Hall, an increased student enrollment was
authorized by the Department of the Army
commencing with the 1959-60 academic year.
The Regular Course was planned for a student
body of 750 officers, and 400 officers were to
attend the Associate Courses.
The College in 1959 prepared to sponsor a
course to be conducted under the auspices of
the Chief of Information. First known as the
Special Information Course for Reserve Com-
ponents Officers, it was designed to provide
personnel in the civilian community from the
fields of information, education, public rela-
tions, and politics with an understanding of
Army requirements, developments, missions,
and goals. The first class was held for 2 weeks
in August of the same year for 50 selected of-
ficers. Guest speakers and instructors from
various Department of the Army agencies were
provided to augment the instruction prepared
and presented by the College staff and faculty.
Slide rules, P(f) nomographs, scaling laws,
and nuclear damage templates became tools of
the military trade as instruction to provide the
requisite knowledge for the tactical employ-
ment of nuclear weapons was added to the Col-
lege curriculum. First presented by the College
in a 6-week course in the fall of 1952, nuclear
weapons instruction had developed into two
courses by 1956. A 5-week course was presented
to students selected Army-wide, and a 31/2-
week course was presented to selected gradu-
ates of the Regular and Associate Courses to
train specialists in this field. These Nuclear
Weapons Employment Courses (NWEC) con-
tinued in this manner until the shorter course
was determinated at the direction of USCON-
ARC in 1958. Responsibility for the 5-week
course was transferred to the Artillery and
Missile School in July 1962 when the training
requirement had diminished because of the in-
corporation of this instruction in the pro-
grams of the branch service schools. A 1-week
refresher course for officers previously awarded
the MOS prefix of a nuclear weapons employ-
ment officer is conducted at the College on a
recurring basis.
8 The last course of this type was conducted in June
1963. No further such courses are scheduled.
A 2-week Senior Officer Nuclear Weapons
Employment Course (SONWEC) was initiated
in March of 1957 with the purpose to train
major unit commanders and their senior staff
officers in the tactical, logistical, and adminis-
trative doctrine, techniques, and procedures ap-
plicable in employing nuclear weapons to sup-
port Army operations, including training in the
technical considerations and operations in-
volved. In 1961, the course title was changed
to the Senior Officers Advanced Operations
Course, a title deemed better suited to indicate
that the course was no longer solely restricted
to nuclear weapons employment, but now pro-
vided a working knowledge of considerations
applicable to current and future warfare. Six
courses of 1 week's duration were conducted
during fiscal year 1962. The course was dis-
continued in May 1962 because of its close
similarity to a course then commencing at the
Air Defense School.
A unique position at the College is that of
the civilian Educational Advisor. His duties
involve advising and providing consultation to
the staff and faculty on matters of educational
policy, methods, and procedures. Dr. Ivan J.
Birrer has ably filled this position since 1948,
and has become a familiar personality to
thousands of officers serving tours of duty at
the Post. He has provided invaluable continuity
in College operations and developments over
the years, as the military membership of the
College has changed time and again, and its
educational philosophy has been progressively
developed. In recognition of Dr. Birrer's out-
standing contribution to the College, he re-
ceived the Meritorious Civilian Service Award
in July 1960. General McGarr, in making the
presentation, paid tribute to the ability, loyalty,
and sincerity Dr. Birrer has devoted to the Col-
lege and the many community activities in
which he is engaged. In a turnabout presenta-
tion, the Educational Advisor then presented
the Commandant a token from the staff and
faculty-a miniature Leavenworth Lamp-
commemorating the close of General McGarr's
eventful tour at the Post.
Two awards for student academic achieve-
ment have been instituted at the College in re-
cent years. The General George C. Marshall
award to the top student of a graduating class
was presented by Gen George H. Decker, the
Army Chief of Staff, during graduation cere-
monies of the Associate Course on 16 December
1960. This distinction for scholastic accom-
plishment was accorded for the first time to Lt
Col John A. Ely. The initial presentation of the
Gen John J. Pershing award was made to Lt
Col Asa Barnard in June 1962. This engraved
medallion recognizes the first-ranking student
in the 5-year USAR school program of exten-
sion and resident instruction. Appropriately,
the award was established 40 years from the
time that General Pershing, then War Depart-
ment Chief of Staff, had ordered the initiation
of an Army extension course program.
The organization and routine of the College
had remained relatively stable since 1957 until
a change was required by the major reorganiza-
tion of the Department of the Army in mid-
1962. A part of this reorganization provided
for the forming of the Army Combat Develop-
ments Command which would consolidate under
one agency the combat developments missions
then assigned to USCONARC, the technical and
administrative services, and other agencies.
The mission of this command included the de-
velopment of "doctrine and the preparation of
tables of organization and equipment and field
manuals to disseminate new or revised doctrinal
concepts."' This mission assignment reduced
the doctrinal and combat developments func-
tions previously performed by the College. The
Chief of Resident Instruction, Col Jasper J.
Wilson, was then given the responsibility for
insuring that the instruction presented at the
College conformed with current doctrine and
Army policy.
Concurrently with the relief from the doc-
trinal mission, the teaching departments under-
went a reorganization which provided for an
even more functional assignment of respon-
sibility. Five departments were established, in-
cluding the Department of Nonresident Instruc-
tion which remained essentially the same as
before. The new faculty structure consisted of
the following departments and assigned objec-
tives. The Department of Command, headed by
Col Wilson M. Hawkins, was to give resident
Report on the Reorganization of the Army, Depart-
ment of the Army, December 1961.
instruction in the art of command; the func-
tions, techniques, procedures, and relationships
of the staff; the command, staff, and technical
aspects of the employment of special weapons;
political-military theory; and the basis of na-
tional strategic planning. The Department of
Division Operations formed under Col Law-
rence M. Wilson was to give resident instruc-
tion in division operations, less joint and com-
bined aspects. Col William H. Blakefield, as-
signed as the Secretary of the College in 1963,
was placed in charge of the Department of
Joint, Combined, and Special Operations which
was to present instruction in joint and com-
bined operations; joint operations to include
airborne, amphibious, air-ground, and air de-
fense operations; counterinsurgency and un-
conventional warfare; psychological warfare;
electronic warfare; and war gaming. Col
Augustus T. Terry, Jr., was placed in charge
of the Department of Larger Unit Operations
which dealt with resident instruction in corps
(less the airborne corps) and field army opera-
tions; and combat service support of larger
units (above division level) including the em-
ployment of logistical commands.
Another change placed in effect at the same
time was the elimination of the final specialized
phases of instruction in either the combat or
logistical fields for the students of the Associate
Courses. The course duration was increased to
18 weeks and one common program of instruc-
tion became effective for all Associate class
The years in the history of the U. S. Army
Command and General Staff College treated in
this chapter have brought about the growth
and development of the College to an undis-
puted position as the senior Army school of
tactical knowledge-a status that has been
justly accorded worldwide recognition. The
College programs have matured and crystal-
lized to the extent that major changes appear
neither justified nor required in the foreseeable
future. This has been made possible only by the
evolution of an academic institution with suf-
ficient inherent flexibility in operation and
philosophy to maintain its leading position in
the Army's role of national defense.
10 Organization and Functions Manual, Headquarters,
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, December 1962.
- 43-
Student officers receiving instruction
The year 1963 passed without interruption
or disturbance of planned operations as the
academic mission of the U. S. Army Command
and General Staff College was accomplished.
Students arriving for the first course of the
calendar year-the spring Associate Course-
reported to Bell Hall for registration and
processing and were greeted with the efficiency
which has become an accustomed feature of the
Post and College functioning. Procedures for
this purpose have been effectively established
to take care of the multitude of details that
an officer must attend to upon arrival at a new
post. For this one centralized operation, the
processing line includes representation from
all Post activities, official and extracurricular.
Students are able to accomplish every require-
ment from the completion of travel vouchers
to registering their automobiles. The same
friendly assistance was experienced in the
late summer by the more than 700 members of
the 1963-64 Regular Class when they found
that quarters had been assigned and house-
hold goods moved in; or cots, bedding, and
other furnishings set up until their personal
effects would arrive. With the Regular Class in
residence, and either the spring or fall As-
sociate Courses underway, the student popula-
tion at Fort Leavenworth approaches 1,200
US Army fhoto
-- -- i - --I s-- I --I - ------ r -- - -------- - -------- ----- --- --- ---- e --- ---- L11
A perpetual student problem arises in the
search for automobile parking spaces in the
vicinity of Bell Hall. Some students effectively
solve this problem with bicycle transportation,
while many others walk to and from classes
and thereby obtain the benefits of exercise to
compensate for an otherwise fairly sedentary
academic day. Student athletic programs are
organized for each class to furnish physical
exertion to alleviate the mental exertion that
occurs during the schoolday. Students work off
excess energy, maintain physical fitness, and oc-
casionally break bones in intramural volley-
ball, bowling, basketball, softball, and tennis
tournaments as well as in many other Post
sports facilities.
Friday evening is generally a period of re-
laxation for the students after the conclusion
of the week's classes. Much of informal en-
tertaining takes place in student family quar-
ters, and the activity in the large student apart-
ment building known as the Beehive leaves
no doubt concerning the reason for its name.
Many student officers gather at the Officers'
Club during "happy hour" for animated discus-
sions during which the classroom battles are
refought and the college solution is a much
discussed topic. The average student, however,
spends much of his weekend time studying
in preparation for the coming week. The Col-
lege sets a traditionally demanding pace for
its students, emphasizing military education
rather than training.
The College at present is organized to oper-
ate within the guidelines and general policies
prescribed by the Commandant, Maj Gen Harry
J. Lemley, Jr., and under the supervision of the
Assistant Commandant, Brig Gen Elias C.
Townsend. The College Secretary, Col William
H. Blakefield, is the principal subordinate to the
Assistant Commandant in the planning, prepa-
ration, and conduct of College affairs. The bulk
of College staff functions are delegated to three
coordinating agencies: the offices of the Chief
of Resident Instruction, the Chief of Non-
resident Instruction, and the Secretariat.
Col Francis W. O'Brien, as Chief of Resident
Instruction, is responsible for the staff super-
vision of the instruction presented to students
at the College and for the recommendation of
policy concerning the curriculum. The Chief
of Nonresident Instruction, Col Richard M.
Leonard, exercises similar authority over the
College programs of nonresident instruction.
On two occasions in 1963, the College struc-
ture underwent revision. With the first re-
vision, the Office of the Secretary assumed
several responsibilities which had been dele-
gated previously to the Chiefs of Resident and
Nonresident Instruction and the Class Super-
visor. These included the classroom support for
the resident courses, the assembly and distribu-
tion of resident and nonresident instructional
materials, and the administration, direction,
and supervision of the resident US students.
Also assigned to this office was the supervisory
responsibility for the Army Field Printing and
Instructional Aids Plant and the College Book
Store. These functions were placed under
the staff supervision of Col I. L. Luthi with
the title of Deputy Secretary/Class Director,
and the entire agency was titled the College
The second revision resulted in the discon-
tinuance of the Department of Nonresident
Instruction. Responsibility for the preparation
of nonresident courses and instructional ma-
terial was given to the appropriate resident
departments, thus consolidating all instruc-
tional activities.
Organization of the instructional depart-
ments and the responsibilities discharged by
each remain as discussed in the preceding
chapter. The services of a variety of other
special staff sections and agencies also con-
tribute to the depth of experience within the
broad scope of the College staff and faculty ac-
tivities. Liaison officers from the British,
French, and Canadian Armies present resident
instruction and advise on matters concern-
ing their respective armed forces. In May
1963 arrangements were completed for a
liaison officer from the Federal Republic of
Germany to be assigned to the College, the of-
ficer to be named at a later date. Representa-
tives of the US Navy, Marine Corps, and
Air Force accomplish identical duties for
their Services. A group of US Army special
representatives from the technical and adminis-
trative services are assigned within the in-
structional departments to furnish advice and
assistance in areas related to their branches
and agencies.
The Regular Course program for the 1963-
64 academic year was designed:
To provide officers with a working knowl-
edge for wartime and peacetime duty, to
include the joint aspects thereof, as com-
manders and general staff officers at division,
corps, field army, and army group (opera-
tions only) to include their combat support
systems. To provide a basis for satisfac-
tory performance in a wide variety of com-
mand and staff positions at nontactical head-
quarters. To provide the basis for future
development for progression to higher com-
mand and staff responsibilities.'
Over 1,150 hours of academic instruction
were included in the Regular Course, of which
over 40 percent were scheduled for practical
work and about 30 percent for conferences.
The course included 670 US officers who
average 35 years of age and 12 years of com-
missioned service. Over 80 percent of the stu-
dents were in the grade of major. Prerequisites
for attendance included a maximum age of 40
years, a minimum of 8 but not more than 15
years of promotion list service for Regular
Army officers, a minimum of 8 but not more
than 15 years commissioned service for Reserve
officers on extended active duty, and a minimum
of 8 years commissioned service for Reserve
Component officers in an active status but not
on active duty.
In addition to the US members,
the class included 75 Allied officers in the grades
of captain through brigadier general repre-
senting the armed forces of 46 foreign coun-
Two Associate Courses were scheduled for
the 1963-64 academic year. Each of these 18-
week courses was programed for 448 students
of the Regular Army, Reserve Components on
active duty or active duty for training only,
and our Allied armed forces. Nearly 45 per-
cent of the first class was made up of Regular
Army officers. The stated purpose of this course
To provide officers with a working knowl-
edge for wartime and peacetime duty as com-
1 Program of Instruction for Command and General
Staff Officer Course, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, April
2 Ibid.
manders and general staff officers of divisions
and logistical commands and a general knowl-
edge of the duties of commander and gen-
eral staff officers at corps and field army to
include their combat support systems. To
provide the basis for future development for
progression to higher command and staff
Qualifications for attendance at the Associate
Course are the same as those established for
the Regular Course except that a student may
be 44 years of age, Regular Army officers must
have between 15 and 19 years of promotion list
US Army Photo
J. Franklin Bell Hall
service, and Reserve Component officers on
active duty must not have over 19 years of
commissioned service.'
A preparatory course is conducted prior to
the beginning of each Regular Course at the
College. This course is provided for the Allied
students, US officers of the Navy, Marine Corps,
and Air Force, and selected US Army officers.
It is a resident course of 8 weeks to pre-
pare students for the Regular Course and to
orient the Allied officers on the customs and
traditions of the United States. The course is
presented in two phases, with the US officers
joining the Allied students for phase II, the
final 3 weeks of the instruction.
Allied officers scheduled for an Associate
Course attend a similar precourse orientation
for 1 week. Future plans provide that all Allied
students who attend the Associate Course will
go to the first (or fall) course of each aca-
demic year. Under this plan, these Allied stu-
Program of Instruction for Associate Command and
General Staff Officer Course, Fort Leavenworth,
Kansas, April 1963.
dents will also attend the 8-week preparatory
course along with the Regular Course Allied
officers, and the 1-week orientation program
will be discontinued.
In both the Regular and Associate Courses,
Allied students receive an 18-hour instructor
orientation program to prepare them for in-
structor duties if they are so assigned upon
return to their countries. This program is
scheduled during the time the US students of
the class are receiving classified instruction.
Two types of Command and General Staff
Officer Refresher Courses are also conducted
at the College. Of these, a 1-week combat divi-
sion course is presented to two classes, each of
approximately 230 students, during the early
summer months. One class is composed of
National Guard division commanders, general
staff officers, and their principal assistants. The
other class consists of officers assigned to
similar positions in Army Reserve divisions and
maneuver area commands. The purpose of
both courses is identical-"to provide refresher
training as a unit to commanders and staffs of
National Guard and Army Reserve, armored,
mechanized, infantry, and training divisions,
and maneuver area commands; to develop staff
teamwork; and to instruct in the application of
current doctrine."'
The second type of refresher course, also 1
week long, is scheduled once a year for about
60 officers assigned as commanders, operational
staff section directors, and their principal as-
sistants of Army Reserve logistical commands.
This course provides "military training and
education as a unit to commanders and staffs
of Army Reserve logistical commands, includ-
ing the principles and techniques of combat
service support provided by a communications
zone for one or more field armies."'
The College prepares newly assigned mem-
bers of the staff and faculty for instructor
duties by an Instructor Training Course which
is scheduled prior to the start of each academic
year and at other times as required. These
courses, a little over 1 week in duration, orient
the prospective instructors on the College or-
5 Program of Instruction for Command and General
Staff Officer Refresher-Combat Division, Fort Leav-
enworth, Kansas, December 1963.
' Program of Instruction for Command and General
Staff Officer Refresher-Logistical Command, Fort
Leavenworth, November 1962.
ganization and operation, instructional philos-
ophy, and methodology, and provide them with
practical work in the preparation and presenta-
tion of instruction. Additional training for
author/instructors is provided by an annual
Instructor Workshop. The lecture and con-
ference periods of this course afford a staff and
faculty understanding of the College guidance
and curriculum changes directed for the coming
academic year, and include discussions of prob-
lems and various means to overcome them.
US Army Photo
Typical classroom arrangement in Bell Hall
Nonresident programs of instruction have
been.developed concurrently with the resident
programs of the College to provide professional
military education for present and potential
commanders and general staff officers of all
three Army components. The courses presented
are in two categories-career courses and
special courses. Career courses are the USAR
School Associate Command and General Staff
Course and the USACGSC Extension Course.
The special courses are the Special Extension
Course-Preparatory and the Special Exten-
sion Course-Graduate Refresher.
The USAR School Associate Command and
General Staff Course is a 5-year program of
classroom instruction for Reserve Component
officers conducted for approximately 120
hours a year. The instruction each year is
divided into two periods. The reserve duty
training period consists of 24 classroom as-
semblies, each lasting 2 hours, conducted from
September through May at a USAR school in
the student's community. The second period
is a 2-week active duty encampment during
June, July, or August at an Active Army site
in the student's army area. The active duty
training period in the fifth and final year is
conducted at Fort Leavenworth for all students.
The entire program of instruction closely paral-
lels the resident Associate Course, and students
who successfully complete the course are
awarded a diploma from the College. The USAR
schools are staffed by Reserve officers not on
active duty, and are supervised by the appro-
priate corps commanders and school comman-
The USACGSC Extension Course also paral-
lels the resident Associate Course and is pre-
sented by correspondence to members of all
Army components. It consists of 28 subcourses,
each of which contains from three to nine les-
sons. Students who satisfactorily complete all
subcourses are awarded a certificate of com-
pletion by the College. They may obtain a di-
ploma by attending the 2-week fifth year active
duty training period of resident instruction at
Fort Leavenworth. The programs of this
course and the USAR schools course have been
designed to permit students to transfer from
one to the other to alleviate conflicts with
their civilian occupations and duties with their
reserve units.
The Special Extension Course-Preparatory
was initiated in 1958 and is now sent to all
officers selected to attend the Regular and As-
sociate Courses. It is a course of self-instruc-
tion containing material designed to introduce
the selected officers to the basic terms, pro-
cedures, concepts, and organizations used in
resident instruction at the College.
A Graduate Refresher Extension Course is
available to graduates of either resident or
nonresident courses of the College as a means
of keeping up with the latest College instruc-
tion on Army doctrine, organization, techniques,
and procedures. The course was first offered in
1960 and consists of eight lessons in two parts
to permit incorporation of the latest informa-
tion. The first part is issued in January and
the second part in June.
Additionally, the office of the Chief of Non-
resident Instruction distributes staff training
material to Reserve Component units which
supplements the instruction presented in the
resident refresher courses. All available mate-
rial is listed in a catalog published annually,
and provides up to 120 hours of instructional
subjects applicable to the various Reserve Com-
ponent units.
In May 1961 a 1-week instructor training
conference was instituted for the officers who
instruct in the USAR School Associate Com-
mand and General Staff Courses. The primary
purpose of this conference is to familiarize
these selected instructors with the educational
philosophy and policies of the College, and thus
promote high standards of instruction in the
USAR schools. The principal objective of this
training is to provide at least one instructor
graduate for each USAR school. As of May
1963, 207 instructors from 97 schools had at-
tended this conference.
Each year, officers from Allied nations all
over the world converge on Fort Leavenworth
to attend the Regular and Associate Courses
of the College. This interesting aspect of the
College operation is one of the most unique, and
most potentially rewarding, of the activities
at the Post.
The program for the officers of countries
allied with the United States had its modest
beginning in 1894 with the enrollment of a
lieutenant of the Swiss army for 6 months of
instruction. In 1908, two officers from the Mexi-
can Army attended the Staff College course, and
the pattern was established for the continuing
inclusion of Allied officers in the resident
courses of instruction. By the end of the 1963-
64 academic year approximately 2,600 Allied
officers will have been graduated from the Col-
lege. This program is a vitally important fea-
ture of our Nation's efforts to strengthen the
alliances with free nations of the world by in-
creasing the professional competence of their
military leaders.
Allied student officers are administered by
the Office of the Director Allied Personnel. This
office, presently in the charge of Col David M.
Ramsey, Jr., is responsible for all matters con-
cerning the Allies except the instruction pre-
sented in the courses. The organization con-
sists of an Instructional Section and an Ad-
ministrative and Personnel Affairs Section. The
functions of the latter section are for the most
part explained by its title, and include the
resolution of all the problems incidental to the
stay of a visitor in a foreign land. The Instruc-
tional Section plans and conducts preparatory
courses for the Allies and monitors their aca-
demic progress, paying particular attention to
any language difficulties they may encounter.
In addition, the section arranges an orienta-
tion program to acquaint these students with
the American way of life. The official phases
of this program include a wide variety of edu-
cational films and visits to points of interest
in the Middle West. A major feature of the
program are trips to industrial centers and the
Washington, D. C. area.
US Army Photo
Allied wives at a tea sponsored by the International
Group of the Fort Leavenworth Officers Wives Club
The Allied officers' lives at Fort Leavenworth
are not devoted entirely to an official or academic
existence. It is essential that they feel at home,
and this is capably handled by US officers and
their families as well as families and civic
groups in the surrounding civilian community.
Unofficially, the Allied officers and their fam-
ilies are given an insight into American social
customs and activities both on and off the Post.
An officer of the Fort Leavenworth garrison is
assigned to each Allied officer on a voluntary
basis to sponsor his stay at the Post-a pro-
gram which results in many mutually enjoyable
and rewarding friendships. The International
Group of the Fort Leavenworth Women's Club
plays a major role in making the Allied officers
and their families welcome by providing as-
sistance and social activities. Under the aus-
pices of the local chapter of the Junior Chamber
of Commerce, US families in Leavenworth are
assigned, again on a voluntary basis, as civilian
sponsors for each Allied family. The Rotary
Clubs of Leavenworth and Kansas City, the
Kansas City chapters of the American Red
Cross and Military Order of World Wars, and
other civilian groups host a variety of social
functions for the Allied students each year.
In return for information acquired about
the United States, the Allied officers take advan-
tage of an opportunity to increase the general
knowledge and appreciation of their countries
among the US personnel at Fort Leavenworth
by participating in the College "Know Your
World" program. This program is a series of
travelogs presented by the Allied officers after
normal class hours. The periods are well at-
tended and of great interest to military and
civilian personnel.
Through this program of academic and social
activities, the Allied students take back to their
countries a well-grounded understanding of
who we are, how we live, and what makes up
our basic philosophies. They also become ac-
quainted with other Allied students and, by
their classroom and off-duty associations, fur-
ther their understanding of the people and
customs of many different nations.
The Military Review is an official Army pub-
lication, published by specific authorization of
the Department of the Army. Publication is
financed with appropriated funds and the
magazine is subject to Government printing
regulations. The mission of the Military Review
is to provide a forum for the expression of
military thought, with emphasis on the doctrine
pertaining to division and higher levels of com-
mand. The views expressed in the magazine
are those of the authors and are not necessarily
those of the Army or the Command and General
Staff College.
The Military Review accomplishes its mis-
sion through the publication of original articles
of current interest by authoritative US and
foreign authors, digests of selected articles
from foreign and domestic sources, reviews of
books on professional military subjects, and a
military notes section of short, illustrated
feature items. Printed monthly and distributed
to approximately 21,000 readers, the magazine's
influence extends over a wide area. It is a
valuable source of material for the Command
and General Staff College, the Army War Col-
lege, Army Reserve schools, and other Army
educational and training facilities. It is also
stocked in the libraries of numerous civilian
universities, and principal US and foreign mili-
tary installations.
In the furtherance of inter-American mili-
tary knowledge and cooperation, the magazine
is also published in Spanish for Latin and South
American countries, and in Portuguese for
distribution in Brazil. Publication of the
Spanish-American edition is supervised by US
Army officers; the Brazilian edition, because
of the extensive use of the publication by the
military forces of that country, is edited by an
officer assigned by the Brazilian Ministry of
Defense. Recently, at the recommendation of
the current Brazilian Editor, Lt Col Joao A.
Faco, the Chief of the Brazilian Military Com-
mission in Washington, D. C., assumed a degree
of responsibility for the Brazilian edition.
Significant changes in concept and format
of the Military Review have been implemented
since 1960 by the Editor in Chief, Col Kenneth
E. Lay. Emphasis on purely doctrinal matters
has been deemphasized under the premise that
official field manuals are the appropriate pub-
lications for the dissemination of doctrine. In
1961 it was decided that each issue would pre-
sent a balanced coverage of various subject
areas, rather than the special issue practice
of the past. Currently, for example, an issue
may contain a historical article, one on counter-
insurgency, perhaps one on world strategy,
another on division organization, and others.
A beneficial liaison relationship was estab-
lished in 1961 when Lt Col Daniel E. Halpin,
a member of the Army War College Faculty,
was announced as an Associate Editor of the
Military Review. In a mutual agreement be-
tween the Commandants of the two colleges,
this Associate Editor reviews possible source
material at the War College for Military Re-
view articles, and makes recommendations con-
cerning publication to the editor in chief. He
also furnishes advice and assistance concerning
source material under consideration by the Mil-
itary Review about which the War College may
have particular knowledge.
Prior to 1961, editions of the Military Re-
view reflected an austerity policy. Major con-
sideration was given to economy of space, and
white unprinted areas were regarded as
wasteful. Understandably, this policy did not
lend itself to the production of an attractive
magazine. The January 1961 edition of the
Military Review introduced the new look
which was based, in part, upon a survey of
the magazine's readers. Page size was increased
as was the type face. A simple, attractive cover
design was incorporated and more liberal and
judicious use of illustrations and artwork was
employed. The guideline was that each article
would be treated as a separate case, illustrated
and laid out in a manner best suited to make it
attractive and readable. A military digests sec-
tion of condensed reprints of previously pub-
lished material was discontinued, with these
digests treated similarly to original articles and
interspersed throughout the magazine.
The 40th year of publication was celebrated
by the staff of the Military Review in February
1962. An open house, held in the editorial of-
fices, and an official reception were attended by
members of the College staff and faculty, and
civilian guests prominent in the fields of edu-
cational and commercial journalism. Gen
Barksdale Hamlett, the Army Deputy Chief
of Staff for Military Operations, was the guest
of honor and speaker at the reception held at
the Officers' Open Mess. A program for con-
tinued improvement in the publication of the
Military Review was announced by the Com-
mandant, General Johnson, and published in
a special 40th Anniversary supplement to the
Effective with the November 1963 issue, an
awards program to recognize outstanding au-
thorship was established that differed from
previous programs of this nature. As announced
by the Commandant, General Lemley, the pro-
gram provides that authors of award articles
will receive a $25 bonus and an engraved cer-
tificate in addition to a standard honorarium.
Award articles will be selected, without regard
to number, and announced in subsequent issues
of the Military Review. In a revised selection
process, each of the College departments and
staff agencies submits monthly nominations for
evaluation by the Military Review staff which
will, in turn, submit recommendations to the
Commandant for final approval.
Other recent innovations designed to increase
the popularity and circulation, while improving
the content of the magazine, include the distri-
bution of informative news letters, a facts and
features handout for general use, a trial
subscription plan at reduced rates for gradu-
ates of the College, and an effort to sell the
the Military Review in service school book
The above measures, and numerous others,
have been taken at the offices of the Military
Review by a staff determined that the publica-
tion will continue to warrant the tribute paid in
1962 on the occasion of its 40th year of ex-
Throughout this age of remarkable devel-
opment, the Military Review has kept pace
with the needs of the Army it serves.
Through its close association with the Com-
mand and General Staff College, it has pro-
vided an important medium for the presenta-
tion and dissemination of Army doctrine. As
a forum for the expression of informed opin-
ions and advanced thinking, the Military
Review has afforded our military leaders that
opportunity for critical analysis and frank
evaluation which is so essential to progress.
After many years of operation with sections
physically separated in several locations, the
Army Field Printing and Instructional Aids
Plant moved into its present location on Grant
Avenue in 1950. The primary mission of the
Plant is to provide printing and training aids
to support resident and nonresident instruction
at the College. Within the capabilities of the
Plant, support is also rendered to Post activi-
ties and other authorized agencies. In addition,
the Plant prints the Military Review and oper-
ates an Audio-Visual Communications Center
(formerly known as a Film and Equipment Ex-
change) and a Photographic Laboratory.
As one of the more modern facilities of its
type in the Army, the Plant has undergone
numerous changes in recent years to effect
greater economy and more efficient use of man-
power and material. These changes have in-
cluded a phasing out of letterpress equipment,
which has been replaced by cold-type composi-
tion and an augmented lithographic capability.
Modernized processes and the mechanization
of hand operations have been incorporated as
new equipment has become available to satisfy
requirements of the Plant. The College makes
Message from the Secretary of the Army, Washing-
ton, D. C., January 1962.
extensive use of overhead transparencies as in-
structional aids because of the ease with which
information can be imparted by this technique.
The capability for production of these instruc-
tional aids was significantly increased in 1952
when a complete silk screen processing facility
was added to the Plant, and again in 1956 when
color film processing equipment was installed
in the Photographic Laboratory.
Today the Army Field Printing and Instruc-
tional Aids Plant is equipped and staffed to
provide limited letterpress printing; complete
lithographic printing of multi-colored maps,
map overprints, and overlays; instructional
texts and administrative publications; a wide
variety of instructional aids; and photographic
development and printing facilities in support
of the College and the Post.
An important facility of the College today
is its Library Division under the supervision
of Mr. Anthony F. McGraw. The Library Divi-
sion is administered by the College Secretariat
to provide materials and assistance to the stu-
dents, the staff and faculty, and the military
personnel and their dependents at Fort Leaven-
worth. The Library has been a recognized ne-
cessity for academic operations from the found-
ing of the first school at the Post. From a rather
inauspicious start in those early years, almost
entirely caused by a lack of funds, the Library
has grown to present holdings of over 85,000
volumes and periodicals, more than a score of
newspaper subscriptions, and a impressive
number of pamphlets, documents, and tape
A College Archives was first established in
1943 as a repository for numerous classified
documents received during World War II. In
1963, the holdings of this document library
number over 230,000 items, including extensive
files of microfilm, and provide an invaluable
source of military reference and background
material in nearly every imaginable field. The
Library, which was located in Wagner Hall
until 1959, now occupies most of the second
and third floors in the center wing of Bell Hall.
In 1963, the Archives was consolidated with
the Library and is now operated as an integral
part of the Library Division. The Library is
used extensively at the present time in connec-
tion with administrative, educational, and re-
search activities at the College.
The Guest Speaker Program of the College
has proved a most effective means to provide a
general knowledge in support of the curriculum
through the services of a vast array of authori-
tative lecturers, both military and civilian. As
an indication of the importance currently at-
tached to this facet of the College operation,
about 40 eminently qualified speakers present
provocative and vital topics to each Regular
Course. More than 100 hours are allotted for
this purpose.
Topics cover a broad spectrum ranging from
the goals of US diplomacy and military strat-
egy, current developments in critical geograph-
ical areas of the world, communistic policies
and long-range plans, to the military possibili-
ties enabled by technological advances in space.
The last 30 to 40 minutes of a guest speaker
presentation are usually devoted to a question
and answer period. Often, following the
formal presentation, seminars are scheduled,
with the speaker and selected students examin-
ing aspects of the subject matter in more detail.
The Chief of Resident Instruction is respon-
sible for the implementation of the Guest
Speaker Program, which is developed by his
office and the instructional departments. The
program consists of two parts: College speak-
ers and departmental speakers. The College
speakers present subject matter on broad topics
with general application to the curriculum as a
whole, while the departmental speakers dis-
cuss topics in support of a specific department.
During the 1958-59 academic year, the first
British lecturer to the United States under the
exchange program sponsored by the Kermit
Roosevelt Foundation spoke at the College. This
lecture series has continued since that time.
The Guest Speaker Program is recognized as
an important supplement to classroom instruc-
tion at the College. During recent years, the
College has been most successful in obtaining
as guest speakers high level military officers
and civilians well qualified in their fields.
Members of the 1963-64 class of the Com-
mand and General Staff Officer Course were
the first student officers to be offered an op-
portunity to participate in a voluntary program
officially known as the Honors Program. On
21 March 1963, this program was accredited
by the North Central Association of Colleges
and Secondary Schools for the award of the
degree Master of Military Art and Science.
Actual award of this degree cannot be ac-
complished until approval is granted by the
Congress of the United States. The Honors Pro-
gram, which was designed to complement the
Regular Course, consists of the course itself, a
thesis describing a research experience on a
significant problem within the scope of the Col-
lege curriculum, and comprehensive written
and oral examinations.
Lt Col Bruce C. Koch was appointed the
special assistant to the College Secretary to
plan and organize the program, and he worked
closely with Dr. Birrer in its development.
Students electing to take advantage of the pro-
gram are assigned faculty advisors to provide
assistance in their research efforts.
Although the first Honors Program is sched-
uled for completion subsequent to the time of
this writing, this challenging addition to the
curriculum gives every indication of providing
qualified students an opportunity to demon-
strate their capacities for advanced scholar-
ship. As such, it marks yet another milestone
in the progress of the College.
This chapter has covered briefly the present
organization, operation, and activities of the U.
S. Army Command and General Staff College.
Despite the certainty of predictable and un-
foreseen future developments, the College can
be expected to insure, as it has so capably in
the past, that continuing service to the Army
and the Nation is rendered by an academic in-
stitution "Prepared in Peace for War."
The greater portion of the Fort Leavenworth
community is made up of student officers and
their families. This population, although pre-
dictably transitory, is accorded treatment at
the Post in keeping with
the justifiable im-
portance attached to the end product of the
U. S. Army Command and General Staff College
US Army Photo
The Post Chapel
-the officer graduate. Many of the organiza-
tions and activities of the Post have been ori-
ented on a mission to simplify, while at the
same time enrich, the life of the students and
their dependents in a manner unique within
the Army establishment. Exclusive absorption
in an academic routine can be detrimental to
any well-adjusted person. This fact has long
been recognized at Fort Leavenworth which
probably offers more spiritual, professional,
social and recreational opportunities than any
other military installation or civilian com-
munity of comparable size.
Religious services and activities, a com-
munity focal point at every Army post, are
available to all at 'Fort Leavenworth. Three
Army chaplains plan and present spiritual pro-
grams centered around chapel exercises and
religious education. The present Post Chaplain,
Chaplain (Lt Col) Henry L. Durand, also
guides the Catholic religious activities. Chap-
lains (Lt Col) Theodore V. Koepke and (Capt)
Wayne G. Shelton serve the Protestant mem-
bers of the military community.
Protestant religious programs provide gen-
eral Sunday services at the Post Chapel and
the Normandy Chapel as well as services for
the Episcopal, Lutheran, and Latter Day Saints
denominations. The choirs at both chapels are
notably outstanding. Several Protestant groups
complement the services of worship. Col James
E. Simmons heads the Protestant Men of the
Chapel which assists by providing ushers, set-
ting up Christmas, Easter, and outdoor services,
and supporting chapel organizations. The Prot-
estant Women of the Chapel are directed by
Mrs. James N. Love and attend to many chapel
activities. In addition to an Altar Guild, this
women's group holds sessions of religious
study, repairs and maintains choir and acolyte
vestments, and promotes charitable functions.
The Protestant Youth of the Chapel are or-
ganized in a senior group by Lt Col and Mrs.
St. Ignatius Chapel
US Army Photo
DaRlaBIIPaalsrlIllrl ___
Charles B. Ablett and Chaplain (Maj) and Mrs.
Thomas J. McMinn, and a junior group by Col
and Mrs. Albert D. Shutz. The groups meet
at the Post Chapel Center on alternate Sundays.
Protestant acolytes serve at both chapels and
meet at the call of the Acolyte Fathers for prac-
tice and refreshments.
The Sunday School enrollment averages 1,400
children in classes scheduled at the Post Chapel
Center and Annex as well as the Normandy
Chapel Annex. The current Board of Super-
intendents is composed of Lt Cols Wayne F.
Pickell, John D. Ford, Raleigh O. Taylor, and
Harvey D. Piper. Classes are conducted for
children from 2 years of age through senior
high school age.
An adult Bible study group meets regularly
at the Post Chapel Center Annex and additional
Bible studies are scheduled for a women's class,
an enlisted class, and Sunday School classes.
Opportunities are provided during the year for
all Protestants desiring membership with a
specific denomination to attend preliminary
instruction and become members of their se-
lected church.
The Catholic religious program at the Post
provides Catholic families with a schedule of
services to meet their religious needs. A total
of seven Sunday Masses are held at the St.
Ignatius and Normandy Chapels besides week-
day morning and afternoon Masses. An adult
choir and two youth choirs enhance liturgical
life and observances of the parish. All members
of parish families are invited to join the several
active parish societies.
The Holy Name Society, with Col Richard
M. Leonard as president, is the organization
for all Catholic men of the Post. Corporate
reception of Holy Communion by the society is
a monthly affair. The society, among its other
activities, assists in supervising the St. Ignatius
parochial school system. The Altar Rosary
Society conducts monthly meetings at which
Mrs. Melvin E. Hoekstra presides. A principal
project of these Catholic women is the adorn-
ment of the chapel altar and sanctuary. All
Catholic high school students, in the grades 9
through 12, are eligible for membership in the
Catholic Youth Organization Teen-age Club of
St. Ignatius Parish. The club's objective is to
provide an opportunity for discussion of the
religious and moral issues facing our youth. Lt
Col Theodore W. Peterson is the supervisor of
this group which also conducts a variety of
social events at its weekly meetings. An Altar
Boys Guild is directed by Maj Eugene J. Ringel
to encourage young boys to assist at the altar
during Mass and devotions.
Scouting is a major character building ac-
tivity for the younger members of the Fort
Leavenworth community. Four troops of Girl
Scouts represent the Brownie, Junior, Cadette,
and Senior levels of scouting. A program for
the older boys is provided by five Boy Scout
Troops and an Explorer Scout Post. The Post's
Cub Scouts lay claim to belonging to the largest
Cub pack in the world.
The Girl Scout program in 1963 was opened
to girls from 7 to 17 years of age, regardless of
previous scouting experience. The current
neighborhood chairman is Mrs. Dayton F.
Caple. Spring campouts and day camps are
planned for all age groups, and the girls' camp-
ing area on the Post, Camp Conestoga, is the
scene for campfires and songfests in the fall.
The theme for 1963's Boy Scout activities was
"Scouting and Advancement" as every Scout
was encouraged to progress in rank and merit
badge achievement along with the healthy fun
and companionship that Scouting has always
provided. A traditional fall kick-off dinner
launches each year's schedule of events which
include frequent camping and hiking trips in
areas around the Post. A permanent campsite,
Camp Miles, was completed during the summer
of 1963 in the northwestern part of the military
reservation through a mutual effort by Scouts
and parents. Monthly Courts of Honor are ar-
ranged by the chairman of the Troop Com-
mittee-now Col John O. Austin-to present a
Scout of the Month Award, ranks of advance-
ment, and merit badges.
Cubmaster for the "largest pack in the
world" is Maj Gerd S. Grombacher. The pack
has an annual membership of more than 300
boys which, because of its size, is divided into
four pack groups. In February the pack or-
ganizes its annual Blue and Gold banquet for
the young Scouts and their parents, and in
May they gather for a Cub Scout picnic.
The teen-age population at Fort Leavenworth
is one of the largest at any Army post in the
country. Fulfilling the needs of this group for
wholesome recreation and entertainment is the
Army Brats Club. The club provides music,
dancing facilities, ping-pong and billiard tables.
Other assets include an outdoor patio, a snack
bar, and modern clubroom furniture. Super-
vision is provided by a full-time manager and
an advisory council, but the most important
feature of the club is that the sole responsi-
bility for its planning and maintenance is in
the hands of the teen-agers themselves.
A Youth Activities Association (formerly
known as the Dad's Club) coordinates all Post
youth activities, making certain they operate
smoothly. The association's general member-
ship, with Col Abb Chrietzberg as president,
includes the fathers of all children at the Post.
It handles the organizational affairs and budg-
ets of the Scout groups, the youth baseball
leagues, a junior golf program, and the Army
Brats Club. In addition, the association al-
locates funds to the Special Services youth
projects for playgrounds, basketball leagues,
bowling, swimming, sports instruction, and
the Patch Community Center. Money to support
all these popular facilities and organizations,
so important to the younger set, comes from
a number of sources, but primarily from the
Leavenworth United Fund and proceeds from
the Post Thrift Shop.
The Post Rod and Gun Club is open to all
military personnel and dependents interested
in outdoor life-whether it be hunting, fishing,
training field dogs, or fish and game conserva-
tion. A clubroom located in McNair Hall is used
for biweekly meetings, which usually include
a speaker and films on some aspect of hunting
and fishing, and the several parties sponsored
by the club during the year. The club holds a
fishing derby each year for young anglers, with
prizes for the boy or girl catching the biggest,
smallest, and most fish. A spring fishing trip to
the Lake of the Ozarks is also arranged for
club members. Cabins, boats, and motors are
reserved in advance of the motor caravan de-
parting the Post for a weekend of sport. One
of the chief aims of the club, however, is to
promote fish and game conservation. In a recent
operation supervised by club president, Col
Frank H. Barnhart, Jr., Merritt Lake was
cleaned and restocked with fish, and the club
plans to repeat the project in adjoining Smith
Lake. Game bird cover and food crops have been
distributed over the reservation game area, and
the local supply of quail has been increased by
stocking and controlled hunting to complement
the doves, pheasants, rabbits, and squirrels
found in the Post's hunting areas. A yearly
drawing for prizes of outdoor equipment is
arranged to provide funds for these conserva-
tion projects.
An extremely spirited and colorful organiza-
tion at Fort Leavenworth is the hunt. First
organized in 1926, the hunt was officially recog-
nized as a member of the National Steeple
Chase and Hunt Association in 1931, and sub-
sequently became one of the most famous or-
ganizations of its type in the country. At the
outset of World War II, the hunt was dis-
banded and its colors retired. In 1951, a group
of military personnel obtained the use of two
stables on the Post and organized a self-sup-
porting, private riding club which, for the sake
of tradition, assumed the name "The Fort Leav-
enworth Hunt."
During the 12-year period of this history, the
hunt operated facilities for the stabling of
private mounts, and conducted a variety of
informal riding activities-schooling, trail rid-
ing, field days or gymkhanas-as well as social
events. Major annual activities were the spring
and fall horse shows featuring equitation,
hunter, jumper, and novelty classes. The excit-
ingly interesting shows have attracted large
numbers of entries by horsemen from neigh-
boring areas of Kansas, Missouri, and Ne-
braska. A formal Hunt Ball has usually been
conducted at the time of the spring show.
Photo by Lt Col Richard W. Swenson
A group of members of the Fort Leavenworth Hunt
assembled at the Hunt Lodge.
Until recently, the management of the hunt
has been handled by an elected board of gov-
ernors, and the regular membership varied
from 35 to 50 officers and enlisted personnel.
The number of mounts stabled by the hunt has
been between 35 and 65 creating an average an-
nual requirement for some 10,000 bales of hay
and straw, and about 5,000 bushels of oats.
Three employees were maintained by the hunt
membership, with the members themselves
pitching in for special projects. In recent years,
the nature of the hunt membership has some-
what shifted. With a diminishing number of
"old cavalrymen" on the active roles of the
Army, adult membership has decreased, with a
compensating increase in active junior riders.
A Junior Hunt Council has been organized as
part of the regular riding association.
Also, in recent years, two events have been
established as traditional hunt activities. Each
year, on an evening just before Christmas,
mounted hunt members turn out in force, ac-
companied by other members riding in the old
hunt bandwagon and hay cart, for "carolling
on horseback." The other popular event is a
semiannual "Day at the Races" held at the Of-
ficers' Mess for all mess members. The Mess
building is decorated in a racetrack motif, and
the feature attraction of the evening is a race
of wooden horses "ridden" by ladies of the Post
over a backgammon-like track according to the
fall of dice.
In April 1962 the hunt broadened its ac-
tivities by contracting for stable management
and the operation of a rental riding and in-
struction program. This service has been en-
thusiastically received and has resulted in an
increase of several hundred associate members.
The profits from this operation are devoted to
needed improvements to hunt property and
The official name of the riding association
was changed to "The Hunt, Fort Leavenworth"
on April 7, 1963. In July of that year, under
the supervision of The Hunt President, Col
Edward R. Lewitz, The Hunt began truly living
up to its name by reviving fox hunting as one
of its activities. Kennels were built for a pack
of 14 foxhounds, and live and drag hunts have
been scheduled during the season under the
capable control of Masters of Foxhounds Maj
H. A. Kellner (US Army-retired) and Lt Col
Charles C. Ross.
An outstanding service to the community is
contributed by the Red Cross Volunteers who
donated well over 30,000 hours of their time to
the Munson Army Hospital during 1962-63.
These dedicated women are a familiar and
welcome sight to the patients and hospital staff
as they perform duties as gray ladies, nurses
aides, staff aides and in other capacities in
the less glamorous side of hospital routine.
Mrs. Robert H. Deason is chairman of these
volunteer services that assist the hospital med-
ical staff in the clinics and wards, the library,
and during annual physical examinations and
special inoculations for Post personnel.
The military education system at Fort Leav-
enworth discussed in the two preceding chap-
ters is supplemented by an adult civilian educa-
tion system for assisting active duty military
personnel in raising their levels of formal
schooling. The Post Education Center arranges
for educational programs such as correspond-
ence courses, preparatory group study classes,
proficiency testing, and instruction from ac-
credited colleges and universities. In one recent
year, 169 enlisted men completed high school
through the center, and over 60 gained the
equivalent of a year of college study. Increas-
ing numbers of officers, both permanent party
and students, attain the academic requirements
for the Army's degree completion program
while at Fort Leavenworth. Evening courses
from the University of Kansas and nearby
Park and St. Mary's Colleges are offered by
the center for this purpose. Many of these
Army "bootstrappers" go on to earn bac-
calaureate degrees.
The Post community engages in so many
varied activities that a comprehensive descrip-
tion of them all would be most difficult. It is
even more difficult to determine an interest
outside normal family life and military duties
that cannot be pursued through member-
ship in one of Fort Leavenworth's com-
munity organizations. For the more active
sportsmen, flying, parachuting, skeet, judo, and
even cricket clubs are available. The one rec-
reational activity attracting the greatest par-
ticipation continues to be the game of golf, as
devotees flock to the Post's fine 27-hole course
on days of fair weather (and other days not so
fair) throughout the entire year.
An extensive, long-range program for im-
provement and maintenance of the golf course
was initiated in June 1963 under the guidance
of the Assistant Commandant, General Town-
send. The golf director at the time was Col
James B. Kemp who got the program underway.
On Colonel Kemp's retirement in August, he
was succeeded by Col Robert W. McCartney.
The greenskeeper serving under both directors
was Mr. Cecil Miller. A tremendous improve-
ment in the playability and appearance of the
course has been brought about through the
preparation of a detailed, written plan for the
course, improved management techniques, and
a more effective use of materials for mainte-
nance. Installation of a permanent sprinkling
system on the greens was begun, holes were
renumbered to facilitate better control of play
from the first and tenth tees, numerous trees
were planted along the fairways, and the "back
9" was beautified by the draining and dredging
of Merritt Lake. These and other measures, in-
cluding the employment of a consultant on golf
courses from Kansas State, have resulted in
returning this course to its former position
as one of the finest in this area.
The traditional hub of Post social activity,
the Fort Leavenworth Officers' Open Mess, is
scheduled for a major renovation. A general
repair and refurbishing of the swimming pool
were completed in July 1963 and a bath house
and poolside snack bar will be ready for the
1964 season. The complete renovation, planned
under the supervision of Col William H. Blake-
field, President of the Board of Governors, in-
cludes remodeling and construction modifica-
tions to practically every interior facility of
the Mess building. The present dining room
will include an informal dining area and bev-
erage lounge to be known as the Sutler's Room.
In addition to all new furnishings, the formal
dining area will contain a charcoal broiler
where diners can see their steaks and lobster
prepared. A new private dining room, complete
with bar and pantry service, will be installed in
the space now occupied by the business offices.
A considerable amount of new equipment will
be added to the kitchen which will then be re-
arranged to provide more efficient food service.
The main ballroom will be remodeled to pro-
vide for division into four smaller areas by
means of portable wall sections. The entire
ballroom will then be redecorated and an en-
closed service bar constructed in one corner.
These, the first modifications other than minor
structural improvements to be made to the
Mess building which was originally designed
as a dairy barn, are scheduled for completion
in late 1964. At that time, the membership of
the Mess will be afforded facilities unprec-
edented in the long history of the Post, and a
caliber of service in keeping with the long-
established Fort Leavenworth community tradi-
The cordial relationship enjoyed by the Post
with the city of Leavenworth has continued
over these years. The degree of cooperation
between military and civilian officials is evi-
denced by numerous joint projects.
The city of Leavenworth, in May 1957, re-
ceived a Certificate of Achievement from the
Secretary of the Army as official recognition
of the exceptional contributions made by the
city in the interests of the Post. The award was
presented by General McGarr at the annual
dinner of the Leavenworth Chamber of Com-
merce in the Cody Hotel. The citation noted
the outstanding patriotic service performed by
the city since 1952, and the city's continuing
demonstration of its devoted interest in prob-
lems of immediate concern to Fort Leaven-
worth. In 1959, Leavenworth adopted the
slogan: "The Best Army Town in the USA."
Thousands of military personnel and their de-
pendents who have been treated with warmth
and hospitality by the citizens of Leavenworth
wholeheartedly agree to the validity of that
In 1958, the Post established "A Day at Fort
Leavenworth"-a visit to the military establish-
ment by select groups from the surrounding
communities. This recurring event brings to-
gether business, professional, and civic leaders
for an orientation on the College, the Post and
its activities, and the modern Army. It is in-
tended to promote understanding and stimulate
interest in military affairs, and has been most
successful in attaining these objectives. Special
invitations are also extended from time to time
to groups of industrialists to view College oper-
ations. This project provides a means of ac-
quainting these business executives with the
aims and results of the College programs. It
also encourages them to permit those among
their employees who are members of the Army
National Guard and Reserve to attend resident
courses of the College for which they may
In cooperation with the Mayor of Leaven-
worth, a Civilian-Military Council of 10 mem-
bers was formed in 1959. Five prominent civic
figures were appointed to council membership
by the mayor as counterparts to five officers
from Fort Leavenworth. The council meets
periodically to discuss and resolve any area of
friction which would tend to disturb harmoni-
ous relations between the City and the Post.
An opportunity to further the Army's in-
formation goals is provided through the partici-
pation of members of the College staff and
faculty, students at the College, and person-
nel assigned to the Post in a program of public
speaking. The program is coordinated by a
Speakers Bureau, supervised by the Post In-
formation Office, which fulfills requests from
civic, fraternal, industrial, veterans, and Re-
serve organizations for guest speakers. Allied
officers also take part in the program which
has arranged speaking engagements in the
four-state area of Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska,
and Iowa. The Information Office itself, man-
aged by Lt Col John J. Killian and his principal
assistant Mrs. Henrietta Elving, plays a key
role in keeping the civilian community abreast
of developments at the Post and within the
Army by a continuous flow of information
releases to local news media.
Other cooperative efforts effectively strength-
ening civic relations are the enthusiastic sup-
port of the Henry Leavenworth Chapter of the
Association of the United States Army, an-
nual United Fund drives, and joint sponsor-
ship of many commemorative and festive ac-
tivities. Typical of the cooperation in the last
category was the staging of the Leavenworth
County Fair in August 1963, where Fort Leav-
enworth went all out to provide unusual
sports demonstrations, musical and vocal talent,
and administrative and publicity support to
insure the success of the 4-day event.
The Post agency responsible for maintaining
morale and welfare through planned recrea-
tional activities is the Special Services Office
headed by Lt Col Robert A. Domos. With of-
fices located in the Patch Community Center,
Special Services is concerned with six recrea-
tional areas: sports, handicrafts, youth activi-
ties, the Post Library, a Service Club for en-
listed personnel, and musical and theatrical
Outdoor sports facilities managed by Special
Services provide opportunities for participa-
tion in a diversity of athletics. Two swimming
pools, 10 tennis courts, lighted softball dia-
monds and a football field, and two ice skating
rinks are scenes of healthy, enjoyable recrea-
tion in the appropriate season. A 14-lane bowl-
ing alley, two gymnasiums, squash and hand-
ball courts, and a swimming pool are provided
for indoor athletics. Softball and basketball
draw large crowds to the scheduled contests
of the Post teams-the Leavenworth Knights-
with teams from the surrounding area. Nearly
all these facilities are made available to the
Post children through year-round scheduling
of junior leagues and tournaments. Children
can spend many active hours in playground
areas, some 27 in all, conveniently located
throughout the Post.
A well-stocked Post Library is operated by
Special Services in the Patch Community Cen-
ter, and branch libraries are maintained at the
US Disciplinary Barracks and its local parolee
unit, as well as at Munson Army Hospital. The
Post Service Club is a favorite gathering place
for enlisted personnel, and offers television,
games, and reading material in addition to
evening programs of bingo, music, and dancing.
The Post Theater provides showings of current
motion pictures during the evening for adult
and family entertainment, and Saturday mati-
nees which attract, as intended, a vociferous
small-fry audience. The Special Services enter-
tainment section also sponsors soldiers shows,
maintains a library of music and recordings,
and furnishes advice and assistance to the Fort
Leavenworth Dramatics Club.
Hobbyists and "do-it-yourselfers" are well
provided for at the Special Services Craft Shop.
Tools and materials for jewelry making, enam-
elling, ceramics, leathercraft, woodworking,
photography, and oil painting may be obtained
for use on a self-directed basis. Classes in
ceramics and painting are scheduled, and in-
struction can be provided on request in other
handicrafts. An automotive craftshop, complete
with servicing and shop facilities, was recently
opened as a most welcome convenience for the
increasing number of amateur mechanics.
Special Services makes provisions for the
children at Fort Leavenworth in fields other
than sports. Classes in puppetry, acrobatics,
drama, and dancing are all held at the Patch
Community Center. Special children's parties
at Christmas, Easter, and Halloween have be-
come traditional; and now puppet plays, dra-
matic presentations, and dance recitals have
become special events for the youngsters de-
monstrating newly acquired talents before ad-
miring parents.
One of the most popular attractions, based
on attendance, in which Special Services has a
hand, is the Independence Day fireworks dis-
play. This evening display is co-sponsored by
Fort Leavenworth and the Leavenworth Cham-
ber of Commerce, and has drawn thousands of
persons in each of the 16 years it has been
staged. The spectators gather on the north
shore of Merritt Lake for this spectacular pro-
gram of pyrotechnics and military band music.
Cultural entertainment for the general public,
such as performances by the Kansas City
Philharmonic, the University of Missouri
String Orchestra, and other local band concerts
are arranged by Special Services.
Periodically a consolidated Post activities
registration period is conducted by the Special
Services to acquaint newcomers and students
arriving at Fort Leavenworth with all the
many recreational opportunities available to
the Post community. The Special Services office
fulfills an important responsibility by contribut-
ing to the atmosphere of pleasantly rewarding
activity on the Post.
The most widespread social organization at
the Post, the Fort Leavenworth Officers Wives
Club, began its 1963-64 season with a welcom-
ing tea in September at the Officers' Open Mess.
All student, staff and faculty, and garrison
wives were invited to this annual gathering of
old and new members which featured a talk by
Maj Gen Harry J. Lemley, Jr., the Command-
ing General.
Monthly luncheons are held for the club's
membership, and each of these affairs is fol-
lowed by a special program of entertainment
or an educational subject. While these get-to-
gethers enable the members to make new ac-
quaintances and strengthen old friendships,
it is the unusual variety of special interest
groups, coordinated by Mrs. Anthony B. Cristo,
the Club President, and a capable staff of assist-
ants, that makes the club such an interesting
and unique organization.
An Art Group offers lessons in oil painting
by an instructor from the Kansas City Art
Institute and arranges a spring exhibit of the
members' work. Members of the Great Books
Group select and review a number of literary
classics each season. Other clubwomen meet
frequently to develop and maintain fluency in
French and German through conversation in
those languages.
A Sewing and Tailoring Group meets each
week at the McClellan Officers' Club Annex for
instruction in beginner, intermediate, and
experienced seamstress classes. Felt, pat-
terned, and cocktail hats are the fall projects
for the ladies of the Millinery Group. Other
domestic skills are developed by a House and
Gardens Group which plans a series of pro-
grams dealing with homemaking.
The International Group always comprises a
large membership as it continues its service to
the community by providing American-style
hospitality to the families of the Allied student
officers. The friendships established, the back-
ground knowledge gained, and the awareness
of actual contribution by the ladies active in
this group have long proved to be more than
adequate compensation for their time and
The game of bridge, consistently a popular
pastime among the women, is prominent on the
club's calendar of events. Duplicate sessions
are scheduled two evenings a week, and one
weekday afternoon is set aside for social bridge.
More active recreation is the objective of golf
and tennis groups, and women's bowling leagues
are quickly established each year.
A Senior Set arranges social gatherings for
dependent and visiting mothers, aunts, and
grandmothers. Just to make sure that no
field of endeavor is overlooked, the club recently
added programs devoted to interior decorating
and public speaking.
The Daughters of the US Army is an organi-
zation accepting as members the daughters of
officers of the Armed Forces. The daughters of
Allied student officers are also cordially invited
to join the Fort Leavenworth chapter which
was reactivated on the Post following World
War II.
The Daughters were originally formed 36
years ago at Fort Benning, Georgia, to provide
its members a means to keep in touch with one
another as military assignments moved them
to stations all over the world. The chapters at
many Army installations, however, work not
only to maintain contact among the member-
ship but also to support charitable and social ac-
tivities. The Fort Leavenworth chapter spon-
sors a hospital emergency fund, providing nurs-
ing care for women and children. With its
funds it purchases various items for the com-
fort of the patients in Munson Army Hospital.
Scholarships for deserving high school students
and donations to the Post museum fund are
among the worthy projects of the organization.
Funds for these projects Lre derived in part
from sales of a Post activities calendar pre-
pared each year by the members. The princi-
pal source of money, however, is the proceeds
from the gala Mardi Gras celebration staged
by the Daughters every 2 years at the Post.
Mrs. Albert D. Shutz served as chapter presi-
dent to supervise the planning of these charita-
ble projects, as well as evening social affairs,
at business meetings following each monthly
The. Boughton Memorial, completed in 1922
on Kearney Avenue south of Sumner Place,
serves two distinct purposes. Constructed as a
meeting place for Hancock Lodge, No. 311, A.
F. & A. M. of the Masonic Order, provisions
were made in the building appropriation bill
for a portion of the first floor to be set aside
for the Fort Leavenworth Post Office. Han-
cock Lodge, which was instituted in 1889, is
one of the most well known among military per-
sonnel. It was named after Gen Winfield S.
Hancock, a former commander of the Depart-
ment of Missouri and a Democratic presidential
candidate in the elections of 1880. The build-
ing was dedicated to the memory of Col Daniel
H. Boughton, who served as Assistant Com-
mandant of the schools at Fort Leavenworth
and as Master of Hancock Lodge. This old and
honored lodge organizes a full schedule of
activities for Masons and their associated or-
ganizations with regularly stated communica-
tion for degree work.
The Association of the US Army (AUSA)
is an organization with headquarters in the
Nation's capital and chapters throughout the
United States and overseas. As the one organi-
zation representing the entire Army, it is de-
voted to the premise that a strong, modern,
mobile Army is vital to our national security.
General membership in the AUSA is open to
any individual subscribing to the association's
aims and objectives.
The Henry Leavenworth Chapter of the
AUSA, organized in 1956, has expanded to
approximately 2,000 members. The geograph-
ical area of the chapter includes eastern Kan-
sas and western Missouri. Chapter activities
within this area are administered from the of-
fice of the chapter secretary at Fort Leaven-
worth. The chapter was cited by the AUSA in
1959, 1960, and 1961 for outstanding service
to its community and the Army. In 1962 it
was declared the best chapter, overall, in the
AUSA and became the only chapter to receive
the annual award for the second time for best
telling the Army's story. The chapter, in 1963,
again earned this national award.
The objectives of the Henry Leavenworth
Chapter for 1963-64 are (1) to support the
cause of national defense and to improve this
support by wider member participation, im-
proved public relations, and liaison activities;
(2) to strengthen the ties with leaders of in-
dustry, commerce, and the professions by an ag-
gressive campaign to enroll these leaders in
chapter membership, and by providing speaker
programs to service and civic groups; and (3)
to insure more effective chapter cooperation
and liaison with educational institutions and to
encourage the prestige and student participa-
tion in the ROTC program.
To achieve these objectives, the chapter has
established community liaison chairmen in the
more populous urban centers within its area.
It has sponsored several of the "Days at Fort
Leavenworth" for industrial, civic, and profes-
sional groups which included orientations on
the Command and General Staff College, the
AUSA, and recent Army developments and
functions. The chapter's theme for 1962-63 in
telling the Army's story was "the Army's role
in today's world." Col J. W. Morgan arranged
the speaker program around this theme with
presentations covering a wide range of in-
formative topics. During the year, 41 speakers,
consisting of students and faculty of the Com-
mand and General Staff College, appeared be-
fore nearly 100 civic, service, church, school,
and college groups. Chapter awards during the
same year were made to 125 outstanding ROTC
cadets, students, educators, and others for ex-
cellence and service in a variety of fields.
The chapter traditionally has an annual din-
ner dance at the Fort Leavenworth Officers'
Mess in June each year. Approximately 200
members, including Maj Gen Harry J. Lemley,
attended the 1963 meeting. Figuring promi-
nently in the affairs of the chapter, in addition
to the president Col Ted C. Bland, are Mr. Vic
Shalkoski-vice president, Mr. Wendell Lehman
-treasurer, and Lt Col Wayne F. Pickell-
secretary. By past performance, and present
efforts, the Henry Leavenworth Chapter of the
AUSA insures future support of its parent as-
sociation in accomplishing the AUSA's stated
purpose of "fostering, supporting, and advocat-
ing the legitimate and proper role of the Army
of the United States."
Community life at Fort Leavenworth is as
diversified and rewarding as the backgrounds,
experiences, and interests of the inhabitants
of the Post. The innumerable facets of this
complex society both supplement and comple-
ment the vital military missions accomplished
by the military members of the community. The
compatible, beneficial synthesis of the official
and unofficial aspects of Army life has given
rise to the exceptional reputation enjoyed and
maintained by Fort Leavenworth as an out-
standing asset among the Nation's military re-
1952-Associate Command and General Staff Officer Course scheduled on a semiannual basis.
-Maj Gen H. L. McBride departed command in March.
-Maj Gen H. I. Hodes assumed command in April.
-125th Anniversary Celebration of the founding of Fort Leavenworth, 9-10 May.
1953-Associate Command and General Staff Officer Course increased from 13 to 16 weeks.
1954-Maj Gen G. H. Davidson assumes command in March.
-City of Leavenworth Centennial, 6-12 June.
1956-Diamond Jubilee celebration of the 75th anniversary of the U. S. Army Command and
General Staff College, 7 May.
-Maj Gen L. C. McGarr assumed command in July.
-General Henry Leavenworth Monument rededicated, 4 July.
-Henry Leavenworth Chapter of the Association of the US Army organized in December.
1957-Major changes in the College curriculum and organization.
1958-Inter-Service Golf Tournament held on Post, 19-22 August.
1959-Dedication of Bell Hall, 19 January.
-Armed Forces and Frontier Day celebration, 16 May.
-Combined Arms and Services Conference, 18-22 May.
-Increase in student input to both the Regular and Associate Command and General Staff
Officer Courses.
1960-Dedication of the Midwest Relay Station, 18 February.
-The Air Defense Battery became operational in April.
-Maj Gen H. K. Johnson assumed command in August.
1962-The Military Review celebrated its 40th anniversary, 13 February.
-Fort Leavenworth designated a National Historic Landmark, 12 May.
-Combat Arms Conference II, 19-29 June.
-Activation of the Combined Arms Group, 1 July.
1963-Maj Gen H. J. Lemley, Jr. assumed command in January.
-Initiation of the student Honors Program.
-Post observed period of mourning for the death of President John F. Kennedy, 22 November.
I :
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McBride, Horace L., Maj Gen
Hodes, Henry I., Maj Gen
Beauchamp, Charles E., Brig Gen
Davidson, Garrison H., Maj Gen
McGarr, Lionel C., Maj Gen
Johnson, Harold K., Maj Gen
Lemley, Harry J., Maj Gen
October 1950
March 1952
March 1954
July 1954
July 1956
August 1960
February 1963
-March 1952
- March 1954
- July 1954
- July 1956
- August 1960
- February 1963
Johnson, Max S., Brig Gen
Beauchamp, Charles E., Col
Train, William F., Brig Gen
Zierath, Frederick R., Brig Gen
Cunningham, William A., Brig Gen
Lemley, Harry J., Jr., Brig Gen
Townsend, Elias C., Brig Gen
April 1951
February 1953
April 1955
July 1957
January 1960
August 1961
April 1963
- February 1953
- April 1955
- July 1957
- January 1960
- July 1961
- January 1963
Hedekin, Thomas B., Col
Meehan, Charles G., Col
Robbins, Chandler P., Col
Culp, William W., Col
Courser, Malcolm W., Col
Liwski, Francis W., Col
Erlenbusch, Robert C., Col
July 1950
June 1953
August 1954
January 1957
August 1958
October 1958
July 1962
-June 1953
- July 1954
- January 1957
- August 1958
-October 1958
- July 1962
Lamont, James M., Col
Franklin, John F., Jr., Col
Buynoski, Adam S., Col
McKee, Edgar S., Col
Broberg, Richard A., Col
Edwards, Edward G., Col
Blakefield, William H., Col
August 1957
August 1959
June 1960
July 1962
July 1963
- August 1957
- July 1959
-June 1960
- July 1962
- July 1963
Works, Robert C., Col July 1962
Hawkins, Wilson M., Col June 1963
Alexander, Frank 0., Col July 1951
Anderson, Norman W., Col May 1953
Russell, Joseph P., Col July 1957
Caples, Joseph T., Col June 1959
Taber, John H., Col August 1963
Davis, James W., Col
Cox, Weldon C., Col
Slobe, Elmer L., Col
June 1952
September 1959
November 1963
- June 1963
- May 1953
- July 1957
- June 1959
- July 1963
- September 1959
- November 1963
Hancock, Hampton S., Capt January 1958
Cunningham, Thomas P., Maj March 1958
Anderson, John A., Lt Col April 1958
Colwell, Hanford T., Lt Col September 1959
Collins, John M., Maj May 1961
Von Bargen, Gerald C., Lt Col July 1961
Marzari, Guy J., Capt August 1959
Main, Robert G., Capt April 1961
Gibson, Leland D., Jr., 1st Lt November 1962
Sanderson, John 0., 1st Lt January 1963
Welsh, Milton, Capt March 1963
- March 1958
- April 1958
- September 1959
- May 1961
- July 1961
- April 1961
- November 1962
- January 1963
- March 1963
From June 1950 through 1956, military
construction at Fort Leavenworth was limited
to minor construction projects and mainte-
nance. However, non-Government owned build-
ing construction at the Post was expanded
during that period, beginning with the leasing
of a tract of Fort Leavenworth land, approxi-
mately 0.5 acre located at the southwest inter-
section of Biddle Boulevard and Kearney Ave-
nue, to the Army Cooperative Fire Association
for construction of a two-story office building,
No. 325, which that association completed in
1953. Later, in 1959, a second structure, Utility
Building No. 322, was constructed on this same
acreage by this firm.
In August 1952, a portion of the reservation,
18.36 acres, was leased to the Fort Leavenworth
School District for a school site and, by 1955,
the Eisenhower (Elementary) School, Build-
ing No. 327, located on the east side of the
Pershing Park housing area was completed. It
was in July 1955 that 15.02 acres of Post land
were leased to the Fort Leavenworth School
District for construction of another elementary
school-the MacArthur School, Building No.
326, located on the west side of Biddle Boule-
vard in the Oregon Village housing area. With
the leasing of a third tract, 13.03 acres, in
November 1957, the Fort Leavenworth School
District constructed the General George S.
Patton, Jr., Junior High School, Building No.
392, located on the east side of Grant Avenue,
just to the south of the Pershing Park housing
area. A combination Maintenance Shop-Storage
Building No. 351 was completed by the school
district in 1963. This structure was located just
north of the school.
Major military construction resumed at Fort
Leavenworth in 1957 when the US Army
Signal Midwest Relay Station Mission was as-
signed this command. The Midwest Relay Sta-
tion Communications Building, No. 136, located
on the west side of Biddle Boulevard south of
Kearney Avenue, was completed that year. The
original one-story main building was of con-
crete foundation, concrete floors, concrete block
and brick walls, with tar and gravel roof. In
1959, an addition to this main building was nec-
essary to house equipment for an expanded op-
eration; and, finally in 1961, the unfinished
basement for this addition was completed. Dur-
ing 1963, construction of a second addition,
with basement, was added to the main build-
ing. The Midwest Relay Station Transmitter
Building, No. 138, and antenna area, located
in a restricted area beyond the northeast dike
area of Sherman Army Airfield, were com-
pleted in 1961; and in the same year, two emer-
gency generator buildings were constructed-
Building No. 139, located in the above restricted
area; and Building No. 121, located near the
Communications Building, No. 136. In March
1960, a tract of 13.47 acres of US Depart-
ment of Justice land, located within the south-
west boundaries of the US Federal Peniten-
tiary lands, was purchased; and the Midwest
Relay Station's Micro Wave Repeater Building,
No. 2002, with supporting facilities, was com-
pleted in 1961. In 1960, two buildings with sup-
porting facilities for housing Midwest Relay
Station's Radio Receiver Station equipment
(Building No. 2000) and a Standby Generator
Building (Building No. 2001) were constructed
on land of the Sunflower Ordnance Works near
Lawrence, Kansas.
In 1957, three identical concrete block am-
munition storehouses, Buildings No. 112, 113,
and 179, were completed. These storehouses are
located in the magazine area-extending north-
ward from McPherson Avenue and east of
Sheridan Drive.
Located just inside the Grant Avenue en-
trance to Fort Leavenworth, on the east side
of the avenue, is the Post Entrance Building,
No. 51 (Information Office). This unique stone
structure was completed in April 1958. Con-
struction was performed by USDB prisoners,
using native stone that, until the year 1957, in-
closed a portion of the east wall of the Fort
Leavenworth National Cemetery. This native
stone was quarried during the latter part of
the nineteenth century from one of the several
quarries located on the reservation at that time.
Construction on the new academic build-
ing housing the United States Army Com-
mand and General Staff College-James Frank-
lin Bell Hall, Building No. 111, began after a
ground-breaking ceremony on 5 November 1956
and was completed 24 November 1958. This
building is located on historic Arsenal Hill over-
looking the Missouri River. Its design is the
shape of the figure four and contains three
floors with basement. It is constructed on drilled
piers to rock footing with concrete foundation
walls, concrete floors, steel frame window wall
with insulated porcelain panels-brick faced
masonry exterior walls, and concrete with 5-
ply built-up roofing. This building contains the
following facilities:
Twenty-four 50 student capacity class-
Auditorium with balcony and stage-
1,425 seats
Briefing Room with stage-323 seats
Library and office space
Cafeteria with 316 serving capacity
Barber Shop
Storage areas
Boiler Room located in sublevel basement.
Prior to construction of Bell Hall Academic
Building, No. 111, the Command and General
Staff College occupied space in 15 buildings on
the Post. With completion of this new struc-
ture, numerous changes resulted throughout
the Post by the relocation of activities in those
buildings previously occupied by the College.
During 1960, extensive modification and altera-
tion to the west half of Gruber Hall, Building
No. 302, was made to accommodate a 14-lane
bowling center for Special Services. In 1959,
the Post Museum moved to Andrews Hall,
Building No. S-801, a former College classroom
During 1951, 1952, and 1953, 227 sets of
student officer family quarters were constructed
under the Wherry Family Housing Act. This
housing was located on the former site of
World War I barracks and is presently known
as Pershing Park. Ownership and title for
these quarters were transferred to Fort Leav-
enworth by the US District Engineer through
condemnation action in 1958, at which time the
Post Engineer accepted real property accounta-
bility, to include maintenance and repair re-
sponsibility, for these buildings. These one-
family quarters were constructed on a three-
bedroom plan, prefabricated wood frame, with-
out basement; however, since 1958, many dwell-
ings have been modified to include a fourth bed-
room with half-bath and a clothes closet.
In 1957, just south of the Fort Leavenworth
National Cemetery and Post Trailer Park, con-
struction of 50 two-officer-family dwellings,
under the provisions of the Capehart Housing
Act, was completed. These one-story duplexes,
some with basements and others without base-
ment, were of reinforced concrete foundation,
oak and vinyl asphalt tile floors, with hardboard
siding and brick veneer trim walls. This area,
originally known as Capehart I, is now known
as Oregon Village.
In 1959, just south and west of Oregon Vil-
lage, 40 four- and six-officer-family dwellings
(20 each four-plex and 20 each six-plex-200
sets of quarters), constructed under the Cape-
hart Housing Act, were completed. These two
story, four- and six-plex dwellings with base-
ment were of reinforced concrete founda-
tion, oak and vinyl asphalt tile floors, with con-
crete block and brick walls. This Capehart II
area is now known as Kansa Village.
During 1960, 100 each two-noncommissioned-
officer family dwellings (100 duplexes-200 sets
of quarters), constructed under the Capehart
Housing Act, were completed. This housing was
constructed just south and west of Kansa Vil-
lage. These two-story, with basement, duplexes
were of reinforced concrete foundation, oak and
vinyl tile floors, and hardboard siding walls.
This Capehart III area is presently known as
Santa Fe Village.
With completion of the foregoing new hous-
ing areas, 28 buildings comprising the Blunt-
ville (USDB noncommissioned officer) hous-
ing, which had been constructed in the late
1870's were demolished. Five other noncom-
missioned quarters located on west Kearney
Avenue, which were built in 1884, were de-
molished, as were many of the semipermanent
barrack-type structures of World War II vint-
age, which had been converted to family quar-
ters, located in the West Normandy area.
Construction of a new bachelor officers'
quarters with mess (Building No. 225-
Truesdell Hall), located northeast of the inter-
section of Grant and Stimson Avenues overlook-
ing Smith and Fuller Lakes, was completed in
1959. This 90-bedroom bachelor officers' quar-
ters, with mess serving capacity for 340 per-
sons, is a two-story structure (irregular de-
sign) of reinforced concrete foundation, con-
crete slab and asphalt tile floor, and concrete
and brick walls. This building contains an in-
dividual heating plant boiler room, kitchen, an
entrance lobby, and a lounge.
Upon completion of Truesdell Hall in 1959,
the Enlisted Men's Consolidated Troop Mess,
which had been located in Building No. 48, was
moved to Building No. 244, the former Con-
solidated Officers' Mess-just north of the old
Station Hospital Building, No. 198.
Since its designation as a class A airfield,
improvements at Sherman Army Airfield to
provide increased capabilities of operation
began in 1958 with construction of the control
tower atop Hangar Building No. 132 and the
installation of a radio room, during 1960, at
the base of the control tower. Also, during
1960, the north/south runway was completely
resurfaced and reduced in width to 100 feet,
using a bituminous surface over a rock base,
with rock surface and base stabilized shoulders
(50 feet wide) on both the east and west sides
of this runway. At the same time, the north,
south, and northeast taxiways were increased
in surfaced areas.
In 1959, Fort Leavenworth, through lease ac-
tion, granted exclusive use of 7.79 acres of
Sherman Army Airfield land to the city of
Leavenworth (Kansas) for use as the city's
municipal airport. This area is located due
south of the Guided Missile Field Maintenance
Shop, Building No. 75, and is to be used for
hangar and maintenance building space as well
as taxiway to the runways. Included in this
lease was the concurrent use, with the US
Army, of an additional tract of 233.50 acres of
Sherman Army Airfield which comprises the
runways and taxiways of the main field.
During 1960, construction was completed on
the four widely dispersed United States Army
Air Defense Command (USARDCOM) Nike-
Hercules Missile Bases (two sites in Missouri
and two sites in Kansas) and the Missile Bat-
talion Headquarters site established for the air
defense of the Metropolitan Kansas City area.
One of these bases, Nike Site KC-80, was
located at Fort Leavenworth. Twenty-seven
buildings and structures, with supporting facili-
ties, dispersed in three distinct and separate
areas make up the Fort Leavenworth site.
These areas are as follows: Nike Battery
Headquarters area-located north of the Na-
tional Cemetery; Nike Control (restricted),
Nike Launch (restricted) areas-located along
the western boundary of the Fort Leavenworth
The logistical support mission for all four
bases, battalion headquarters, and the ARAD-
COM troop units operating them in this air
defense was assigned Fort Leavenworth. To
provide the necessary guided missile field main-
tenance support for these units, a new Guided
Missile Field Maintenance Shop, Building No.
75, was constructed in 1961. This building is
located at Sherman Army Airfield-just south
of Hangar Building No. 132.
In 1961, construction was completed on the
Munson Army Hospital, Building No. 343. This
three-story, with basement and penthouse, 90/
190-bed hospital structure has a reinforced
concrete foundation, concrete slab and asphalt
tile floors, concrete block and brick walls,
and a built-up tar and gravel roof. The Munson
Army Hospital Powerplant, Building No. 344,
was completed that same year and has a rein-
forced concrete foundation, concrete floors,
concrete block and brick walls, and built-up tar
and gravel roof. This powerplant contains
three boilers fired by fuel oil fed from two
10,000-gallon capacity tanks. The Munson Army
Hospital area is located northeast of the inter-
section of Pope Avenue and Biddle Boulevard.
As of December 1963, the old Station Hos-
pital Building, No. 198, located on Thomas
Avenue, still contained the Dental Clinic on
the first floor of the north wing; however,
since 1962, the remainder of the building has
been the home of Headquarters Company and
Headquarters Detachment troops.
During February 1963, construction was
completed on two-story with basement Army
Nurses and WAC Officers' quarters. These two
structures, Building No. 338 and Building No.
339, located on the west side of Kearney Ave-
nue just east of Dodge Hall (Building No. 268),
are identical in exterior design with concrete
foundations, concrete floors, brick masonry
walls, and asphalt shingle roofs. Although
identical in exterior design, because of con-
struction differences within the interiors,
Building No. 338 has a designed capacity for
16 persons, whereas Building No. 339 has a
designed capacity for 19 persons. At an ap-
propriate dedication ceremony, this building
area was officially dedicated as Blochberger
In February 1954, a license dated 27 October
1905, which granted the Young Men's Christian
Association, Inc., the right to construct and
maintain a building (YMCA) on the Fort Leav-
enworth Military Reservation, Kansas, was
terminated and a contract consummated the
purchase of the YMCA Building by the United
States Army. This building, No. 345, located
at the northeast intersection of Pope and Mc-
Clellan Avenues, was dedicated and designated
as Patch Community Center to be used by
Special Services for community activities.
The second disposal action by sale of Fort
Leavenworth Military Reservation land since
the Reservation was established in 1827 oc-
curred during 1958 when 9.44 acres of land
was quit-claim deeded to Leavenworth for the
city's Municipal Waterworks Treatment Plant.
This acreage is located in the extreme south-
east corner of the Reservation and had been
leased to Leavenworth for the plant during
the time that the city supplied water for Fort
During the period 1952 through 1963, there
was no new construction for religious educa-
tion facilities. The requirements for space were
met by using existing structures vacated by
previous activities. Upon completion of the
new schools, Building No. 53 and Building No.
333 located on Scott Avenue north of the Post
Chapel, which formerly housed the Post
schools, were (in 1956) diverted to use as Sun-
day Schools. In the West Normandy area,
Building No. S-682 and Building No. S-683,
which formerly had been used for Post schools
(in 1959), were converted for religious educa-
tional functions.
The support of Fort Leavenworth in its pro-
gressive construction program over the past 12
years has required an orderly and timely in-
crease in utilities, roads, sidewalks, and park-
ing areas. Some statistics that indicate the mag-
nitude of maintenance required of the Post
Engineer as of December 1963 are as follows:
Electrical distribution lines, approxi-
mately 115 miles
Gas pipeline, 138,376 lineal feet
Steam distribution lines, 27,286 lineal feet
Sanitary sewer, 211,542 lineal feet
Ground drainage, storm sewers, etc., 190,-
219 lineal feet
Water pipelines, 292,321 lineal feet
Roads, approximately 60 miles
Sidewalks, 119,903 square yards
Vehicle parking areas, 206,022 square
Swift Hall-in April 1952 for Brig Gen Eben Swift, Commandant of the US Army Service Schools
at Fort Leavenworth in 1916.
Townsend Hall-in April 1952 for Col E. F. Townsend, Commandant of the US Army Infantry
and Cavalry School at Fort Leavenworth from 1890 to 1894.
Dodge Hall-in February 1953 for Col Henry Dodge, Commanding Officer of Fort Leavenworth
from 1834 to 1836.
Ruger Hall-in February 1953 for Maj Gen Thomas H. Ruger, Commandant of the US Army
Infantry and Cavalry School at Fort Leavenworth from 1885 to 1886.
Drum Hall-in February 1953 for Lt Gen Hugh A. Drum, Commandant of the US Army General
Service Schools at Fort Leavenworth from 1920 to 1921.
Patch. Community Center-in December 1955 for Gen Alexander M. Patch, Jr., Commanding
General of Seventh Army during the 1944 invasion of southern France.
Oregon Village-in June 1958 for the close proximity of the housing area to the head of the
Oregon Trail.
J. Franklin Bell Hall-in January 1959 for Maj Gen J. Franklin Bell, Commandant of the US
Army General Service and Staff College from 1903 to 1906.
.Kansa Village-in July 1959 for the Kansa Indian tribe believed to have had a village at this location.
Truesdell Hall-in August 1959 for Maj Gen Karl Truesdell, Commandant of the U. S. Army
Command and General Staff School from 1942 to 1945.
Santa Fe Village-in December 1960 for the close proximity of the housing area to a branch of
the Santa Fe Trail.
Munson Army Hospital-in May 1960 for Brig Gen Edward L. Munson, founder of the Medical
Field Services School at Fort Leavenworth in 1910.
Camp Miles Boy Scout Camp-in June 1963 for Maj Gen Nelson A. Miles, Commanding Officer of
Fort Leavenworth from 1871 to 1876.
0 0
CO Col W. A. Hayes. DC 5227
Asst Dent Surg Col S. D. Linn, DC 5102
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Cir Col W. M. Connor. Arty 218 21221
Asst Col R. C. Cassibry, Arty 217 222 79
Chief Col M. A. Tinchur Armor 135 4231
Asst LI Col J. E. Harding. TC 131 252 77
T. A. C. Col C. E. Grant. Cm1C. Chmn 131 25277
Dir Col H. E. Marr. Jr.. Arty 132A 25140
Asst LI Col R. Van Fleet, QMC 137 24173
Sp Rep 132 23290
Dir Col R. D. King. CE Wag 7160
Asst Lt Col C. A. Newlhn, SigC Wag 21291
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Phone Deputy Post Cmdr Col C. P. Robbins, Armor 7121 '''"i"
IG ____ Col C. F. Russe, IG __ 8241
P---------------- M^____ a) H. Robertus, Jr.. ln( 6201
__ I __
HQ Cmdt LI Col A. Friedenwald, Inf 6I30
Exec Capt F. L. Malinski, Int 6130
Admin Asst CWOV. F Higham. USA 7189
Chief Miss J. Thompson 22293
OIC 1st Lt D. F. Leffel, Inf 22161
Mess Supv 21287
CO Capt C. H. Skeahan, Jr, IVPC 7247
CO 1st Lt M. L. Murphree, WAC 4298
CO Capt F. A. Rush, MPC 22102
CO CWO J. A. Hooks, USA 23149
__ I __
Dir Col W. G. Neely. GS 4242
Asst Dir (P&A) Lt Col D. I. Medley, GS 6231
Manpower Con 0 Mai D. C. Asbell. GS 2215
Asst Dir ([&S) Lt Col J. A. Elsweiler. GS 814
AG Lt Col C. E. Blount, AGC 617
Asst AG Maj J. H. Stubbs, AGC 2310
Civ Pers 0 Mr. L. M. Meyer 415
PM Lt Col E. L. Slobe. MPC 5201
Conf 0 2d Lt J. J. VanEimeren, MPC 21261
Sat Engr Mr. J. S. McGlinn 23168
Chaplain (C) Lt Col W. F. Nern. ChC 4148
Chaplain (P) Lt Col W. B. Sharp. ChC 8217
SSO Lt Co] R. J. Lyon, AGC 5208
Rec 0 Mai H. L. Hartle, Armor 5208
CO Col N. W. Anderson. MC 5120
E, 0 Lt Cot F. C Nelson. MSC 21241
Adj Capt W. B Kreizenbeck. MSC 25193
Emergency Medical Treatment 6289.25280
Chief Capt J. H. Grundmann. MSC 25136
Chief Mai J. Weber. MSC 22193
Chief Mai H A. Dan~els. MSC 6168
Chief Capt B. P. Chellman. AMSC 4201
Chief Capt 1 C Bondurant. MC 4270
Chief Lt Col E N Deitz. MC 21218
Chief Capt S. B. Slolp. MC 21218
Chief Lt Col H. M Henderson, Jr., MC 8211
Chief Mai R. M. Stoltz. ANC 7145
Chief Capt J. W. Nelson. MC 6281
Chief Lt Col C. H. Ransom, MC 22201
Dir Mal A. J. Ca,
Asst CWO C. I. B:
Sgt Ma| MiSgt G. Bi
Mil Per 0 CWO H W. B
Adm Asst SFC D P. BL
Chief Mr N B Ha
Acctg 0 2d LI K. M !
Mgt 0 Capt D E H
CClk MSgt M. E. I
Dir Lt Col 0 J Abel. Inf 4I98
Class 0 Mai H. V. Dittoe. USAF 4198
Parole 0 Capt L B. Adams. Jr.. MPC 4198
Chief Li Col R P Hargreaves. MC 4122
Admin 0 CWO R. L. Haman. USA 4122
Psy Mai K H. Peterson, MC 4122
Psy Capt J. J. Bateman. MC 4122
Soc Wkr Mai C. A. Freiband, MSC 4122
Soc Wkr 1sl Li G. W. Laschinski, MSC 4122
Psych Capt R. E. Mason, MSC 4122
Psych 1st Lt S. R Hyman, MSC 4122
1ey MPC 24201
iadger. USA 25271
1ngen 25271
;ryan, USA 5283
lums' 5283
lamson 25184
Short, FC 21242
Hall. MPC 5283
merrat 52783
__ I _
Secy Col J F. Franklin. Jr., Armor 241 8110
Asst It Cot E. P Lasche, Inf 206 5242
CWO R G., USA 243 8110
Chief Lt Co] C. Drye, Inf 233 8101
Mal W. R. eWeese, QMC 233 8101
Chief Mai R C. Dwyer, AGC 243 8110
CWO L J. Darche. USA 245 24187
Chief Bsmt 8201
2d LtH. AGordon. QMC Bsmt 8201
Chief Mrs. E. H Herzog 242 5281
Chief Mai L. Bonucci, CIVC McNr 5142
Chief Capt C R. Fuller, AGC Lib 8244
Chief Lt Col W. D. McDowell. Inf Funs 22253
Chief Lt Col H S Long. Jr.. Armor 203 21128
Chief Lt Col L. C. Brown, Inf 203 24214
Capt J. J. Martin, ln( Grub 8235
CWO H. J.Stackhouse, USA Muir 21283
Chief Mai W. C. Washcoe. SigC 201 8106
Chief Mai J A. Trent. Jr.. Inf AFPP 4208
Dir Col W. W.Culp. Armor '228 24?11
Asst Col R. H. Schulz. Inf 231 21220
Chief Col KF Da-all. Arty 230 25191
GI 235B22275
Sp Rep Col BE Babcock. AGC 237 6150
G2 Col G.AMoon. Il. Arty 239C21222
G3 Col C. GFredericks. Inf 235A8169
Sp Rep Lt Col D. ARaymond. CE 234 5195
G4 Col DDDixon. Inl 239A22270
Sp Rep Col HS Parker. MC 238 22269
Sp Rep Col RBGraeves. OrdC239A22270
Sp Rep Lt Col RCBiggs. TC
Sp Rep Li Col S M. Castle. QMC
Chief Col A.S.Buynosk,. Arty 219 8118
Chief Mai F.Hacker. Arly 239A4268
"Chief Col RRWalker. USAF 205 22244
'Chief Col HD.Adams. USMC11624112
*Chief Capt W.P.Woods. LISN113 6210
*Chief Col J CWinchester. GBrit 11722267
Visitors' Bureau 21139
Andrews Hall 25284
Gruber Hall Office 8235
Gruber Hall, East,
Classrooms 1-6 6240
Gruber Hall, West
Classrooms 7.12 25283
Muir Hall 23211
Prepared by /1 *^ '"'',
Lt C~ol GS Comptroller
Appyo,,ed by
Mai Gen US Army Commanding
Date 15 July 1956
t-2 1-
Dir Lt Col R. M. Leonard, GS 7139
A~sst Dir %OT) LI Col J. L. Packman. GS 7155
Asst Dir (S&S) Lt Co] H. H. Phelps. GS 6288
Asst Dir (SC&P) Mr D. J. Delaney 6271
Food Adv CWO G. C. Dunlap. USA 8285
Sig 0 Mai A. W. Greene, SigC 6273
Trans 0 Lt Col J P Henry, TC 5121
Air Br Mai T. P. Foster, TC 23110
Ayn 0 Maj W. T. Schmidt. Arty 7202
Om Col C. W. Peters. QMC 4251
Commn0 Lt Co[ W. G. Williamson, QMC 25121
Engr * Col R. S. Crandall, CE 23151
TI&E0 Capt-M. M. Tharp, WAC 21277
Ord 0, CmI 0 2d Lt C. W .13coby. CmIC 23201
Con 0 Mr. T. K. Eismann 6132
Surg Col N. W. Anderson. MC 5120
Vet 0 Lt Col E. T. Marsh, VC 6159
Dent Surg Col W. A. Hayes, DC ____ 5227
PhLDBCO Legal 0| o Cat W. C. Vinct, Jr., JAGC'8?I 8
Cmdt Col J. W. Davis, MPC 22?S --- Legal Asst 0 1st LI J. S. Seeber, JAGC 8188
I ---------- . ---------- I | ~~~~~~~~(ALLDB-CH)
Chaplain (P) Maj M E. Berg. ChC 24184
Chaplain (C) Mai A. D. Dudek, ChC 24184
R... Ph.,.. (ALLAC)
Dr. 1. J. Birrer 224 7101 R... Phmi;
'------------------------' ~~~~~~~~Brig Gen W. F. Train, USA 226 8130
(ALLCS) R.C Ph__________
Col CE Kennedy, Armor 207 7108
Col J E. Mra:;..- Inf S-1 252M
Lt Col H. I Beaty, CE S-3W25286
Dir Lt Col W. R. Raven, MPC 221I0I
Asst Dir Lt Col R. H. Hurst. MPC 25297
Act Supv Capt W. W. Brock. USAF 24183
Admin 0 Mai J. E. Thorstad, MPC 24183
Wik Proi 0 Maj C. A. Nance, USAF 4293
Pris Mess 0 Mai A. M. Fishback, MPC 24183
Empl 0 Capt R. F. Turnbull, MPG 24183
Pris Sup 0 Capt M. D. Martin. Arty 24183
Sp Ser 0 Capt J. H. Flannery. MPC 24183
Opns 0 Capt W. W. Brock, USAF 24183
Corr 0 Capt E. S. Schourup. USAF 24183
Corr 0 Capt H. A. Gagnon. MPC 22189
Corr 0 Capt L. L. Balent, MPC 24183
Corr 0 Capt W. F. Beardsley, MPC 24183
Corr 0 Capt J. F. Pierce. MPC 24183
Corr 0 1st Lt W. N. Dupuis, MPC 24183
Corr 0 1st Lt C. R. Stroble. Inf 23283
Supv Capt L. P. Vincent, MPC 25297
Voc 0 Capt B. E. Bailey, MPC 2529 7
Chief Mr. H. E. Aleck
Supv Mai R. R. Craddock, MPC 21251
Sup 0 CWO L. Valek, USA 4280
I "'p, , '. ""!Y. "'g, ""' I
i II II.- -.. ". i II -1i LI I m I LI
I -~~-I-I -1 I I- I_
(AL o) .. Ph-n (ALIS) R.. Ph-n |LIT Room Ph...RoomU Ph..n. Tr Cmdr Mai J Weber. MSC 22193 Ph.,,
Dir Col L. Wallace. Inf 331 5145 Dir Co[ K. G. Clow. Armor 32 8159 | Dir Col H. C. Davall. Armor 110 25221 Dir Col J. F. Rhoades. Armor 309 6147 1st Sgt SFC R. 0. Lint 5140 CO Mai H. R. Chezem. MPC 7201
Exec L Col C. E.Lamont, Inf 329 51 45 E|e ^LtE D.laeInf 32 8159

0 2522
ec L
t o
t Sea
Gd ___________0 s 'Lt D. L. Gonenboom M 70
|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~MISCELLANEOUS _____________
Irci^ s 18 Guest House, 220 Pope 2113 Photo Lab 2418 Service Club 7293
) (
LI) (
) Army Nat onal Bank 4142 Guest House Anne.. 612 Grant 5282 Post Nursery 25217 Service Station 7178
Dir Col W. S.Ryan. Inf 31 82 Dir Col E. C. Dunn. Armor S27 417 Dir Col WERoberts. Inf Pop 8269^ So,,n Ale 528Lbrr Cllege) ~ l24228 POCaeei 67 enis. Squash &Handball Courts 22192
Exec Col B.HSh~pe. TC 318 8125 Exec Col P. L. Urban. Arty S.27 4175 Adm~n 0 Ma, W. McCormack, Inf Pope 21281 CffeSho 248Lbray Post) 2J3139 PXOfficer 713 Thrift;Shop 4173
Sp Rep Lt Col H. G Stover. MPC 303 23284 Commissary 25121 McClellan Guest Rooms 8207 Off Open Mess 22236 USDB Display Room 24101
Sp Rep Lt Col J. Clapper, Jr.,S~gC316 4294 Crafts Center 8293 Museum 21191 Red Cross 8143 USDB Greenhouse 7236
________________ _ _______ _______________________ _______________________Film Library 7234 FNmCLObrary OpenNCOMOpen2Mes 22238 SAAF 232323231 USsPstOOffcce7716
Golf Club _____ 6131 _________ _________ _________
'Serviceand liaison representatives
Compt Maj L P. MacQueen, GS 3-7100
-T -- Fin & Acctg O MajH. M. Jennings, FC 3-9121
Dep F&A O Capt W. R. Sterling, FC 3-8293
Ch, Fin Mgt Div Mr. L M. Detherage 4-2296
ChMgt&AnalDiv Mr. J. A. Marcum 3-9152
IG Wo C. F. Russe, IG 3-5241I
------- - - --- -_____
- -~~~~~~~
* ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~Nm
m I m5 m
(ALUA) Phone
Phone _ CG & Comdt Maj Gen L. C. McGarr, USA 3.8131
SJA Col H. D. Shrader, JAGC 3-2230 _ Aide Capt R. R. Peabody, Inf 3-4258 _
Asst SJA Maj D. L. Shaneyfelt, JAGC34194 Aide Ist Lt W. C. Cousland, Armor 3-4258
Claims 0 Mr. L. R. Sissel 3-8251
.__________________________ I ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~(ALLOP
10 1 O
|_ Deputy Post Comdr Col W. W. Culp, Armor 3-4121
InfoO ______ MaiC. W. Burtyk, Jr., Inf 3-320U ARMY GARR ISON
MUtual 2-7000
BUtterfield 8-5800
Hq Comdt Lt Col J. A. Elsweiler, Arty 3-3130
Exec Capt F. L. Malinski, Inf 3-3130
Chief Miss J. Thompson 3-7293
OIC Capt B. E. Galvin, Inf 3-9151
Mess Supv 2d Lt J. D. Schizas, MPC 3-0166
CO Capt A. J. Yerks, Jr, Inf 3-4247
CO Capt M. L Murphree, WAC3-1298
CO Capt A. J. Baysek, MPC 3-7102
CO WOJG W. F. Ramsey, USA 3-8149
--- CO~l) Col S. D. DC e(ALLOS)
CO (1) Col S. D. Linn, DC 3-2227
Dir Col S. Warren, Jr., GS 4-1201
Asst Dir (O&T) Capt J. L. Osteen, GS 4-1222
Asst Dir (S&S) Lt Col H. H. Phelps, GS 3-3288
Asst Dir (SC&P) Mr. D. J. Delaney 4-1124
AvnO Maj W. T. Schmidt, Arty 3-4202
Engr Col W. A. Faiks, CE 3-4221
Ord 0, Cml 0 Capt C. W. Moore, TC 3-8201
Contr 0 Mr. T. K. Eismann 3-3132
QM Col M. W. Courser, QMC 3-6211
Comm 0 Capt R. D. Thompson, QMC 3-0121
Fd Adv 3-5285
SigO Maj G. W. Sly, SigC 4-1109
Trans O Lt Col F. E. St John, TC 3-2121
Ch, Air Br MajT. P. Foster, TC 3-8110
Chief Mr. W. B. Bailie 3-3228
(See Footnotes (1) (2) and (3))
____________________ ~ ~~~~~~(ALLAC) ___
Asst Comdt Brig Gen F. R. Zierath, USA3-5130
^^ ~~~~~~~(ALLEA)
_ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~Phone
Educ Adv Dr. 1. J. Birrer 3-4101
Supv Col J. E. Mrazek, Inf 3-0253
Col L T. Bondshu, QMC 3-0253
_ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Phone
Chief Col R. R. Walker, USAF 3-0204
- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Phone
Chief Col H. D. Adams, USMC 3-7119
A/AC Col J. F. Franklin, Jr., Armor 3-8268
Lt Col T. M. Ariail, Inf 3-1281 _
Lt Col J. B. Goodwin, Arty 4-1198
Chief Capt G. M. Bush, CE 4-1184
CWO M. F. Ciston, USA 4-1297
A/AC Col E. C. Dunn, Armor .3-1108
A/AC Col V. W. Hobson, Inf 4-2132 _
Lt Col D. D. Hogoboom, Jr., Inf 4-2132 _
Chief Lt Col W. N. Hohm Inf 3-2195
CO() Col J. P. Russell, MC 3-2120
Exec Lt Col F. C. Nelson, MSC 3-6241
Adj Capt W. B. Kreizenbeck, MSC3-0165
VetP) Lt Col E. T. Marsh, VC 3-3159
Emergency Medical Treatment 3-0280-3-1101
Chief Lt Col C. H. Ransom, MC 3-7201
Chief Maj, R. A. O'Connell, MC 3-6218
Chief MajM. A. Kinter, ANC 4-1211
Chief MajR. A. O'Connell, MC 3-1290
Chief MajR. A. O'Connell, MC 3-1290
Chief Lt Col H. J. Krawczyk, MC 3-0210
Chief Lt Col H. M. Henderson, Jr, MC3-5211
Chief Capt V. H. Woodside, AMSC4-1181
Chief Capt J. H. Grundmann, MSC3-0136
Chief Capt A. E. Fick, MSC 4-1134
Tr Comdr Capt J. H. Grundmann, MSC3-0156
Phone ---
Staff Secy Lt Col C. V. McLaughlin, Int 3-9113
Class Supv Col J. M. Sage, Inf 3-4108
______ ~~~~~~~~~3-4130
Secy Col A. S. Buynoski, Arty 3-5110
Asst Col E. S. McKee, Inf 3-6220
CWO R. G. Musick, USA 3-5110
Chief Lt Col C. W. Drye, Inf 3-5101
Lt Col C. E. Lippincott, Armor 3-5101
Chief Maj R. C. Dwyer, AGC 4-1187
Chief CWO L. J. Darche, USA 3-9187
Chief Capt C. R. Fuller, AGC 4-2158
Chief Mrs. E. H. Herzog 3-2281
Chief Lt Col P. J. Gumaskas, QMC 3-5201
Chief Maj C. G. Collins, TC 3-9266
Editor in Chief Lt Col R. R. Bankson, Inf 3-7253
Chief Capt 0. Ortiz-Moreno, Inf 3-2142
Chief Lt Col H. S. Long, Jr., Armor 3-6128
Chief Lt Col L. C. Brown, Inf 3-9214
Capt J. J. Martin, Inf 3-5235
2d Lt J. D. Brobst, SigC 3-4181
Chief Maj W. C. Washcoe, SigC 3,5106
Chief Maj J. A. Trent, Jr., Inf 3-1208
Chief Capt R. F. Tacey, SigC 3-9231
Dir Col R. E.McMahon, Inf 3-6130
Exec Col A. L.Mueller, Inf 3-6130
_M Pbons
Dir Col 0. G.Kinney, Inf 3-0140
Exec Col S. T.Martin, CE 3-8290
Prepared by 4 <C ^(_, *l
Major, GS, Comptroller
Approved bye=
Maj Gen, US Army, Commanding
Date 5 Aug 1957
Dir MajA. C. Stockdale, USAF 8-1425
Class 0 Mr. 0. D. Schmidt 8-1423
Parole 0 Capt L B. Adams, Jr., MPC8-1425
Chief Lt Col W. J. Tiffany, Jr., MC 8-1427
Admin Asst CWO R. L. Haman, USA 8-1426
Psy Capt R. B. Callahan, MC 8-1427
Psych Capt R. A. Cook, MSC 8-1426
Soc Wkr Capt W. Mack, MSC 8-1426
Dir Maj T. K. King, USAF 3-9201
Asst 1st Lt D. L. Groenenboom, MPC3-0231
Sgt Maj MSgt G. Bingen 3-0231
Acctg O 1st Lt K. M. Short, FC 8-1439
Chief Capt D. E. Hall, MPC 8-1422
Ch Clk MSgt M. EMerritt 8-1422
Mil Pers 0 Capt D. E. Hall, MPC 8-1421
Admin Asst SFCC. Q. Frisinger 8-1421
Chief Mr. N. B. Harrison 8-1420
.Meslet, France 3-7204
Phone -
Chief Capt E. M. Stever, USN 3-8159
Cdr C. E. Olson, USN 3-8282
Chief Col J. C. Winchester, G Brit 3-6208
Chief Lt Col J. P.
______ ~~~~~~~~~~~I
A/AC ColO. G. Kinney, Inf 3 0140
_ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Phone
Dir Col M. A. Tincher, Armor 4-2121
Exec Col F. M. Muller, Armor 4-2121
_ Dir Col W. E. Roberts, Inf 4-2211
Exec Col R. D. Wolfe, CE 4-2211
Phone _
Dir Col W. M. Vann, Arty 3-2145
Exec ColR. J. Osborne, AGC 4-2197
Phone _
Dir Col H. E. Marr, Jr., Arty 3-2198
Exec Col T. R. Palmerlee, TC 3-0259
Dir Col W. G. Neely, GS 3-1242
Asst Dir (Mgt) Lt Col D. 1. Medley, GS 3-3231
Asst Dir (I&S) Capt 1. H. Correll, GS 4-1265
Asst Dir (Pers Svc) Maj R. L. Kittinger, GS 3-7152
Manpower Control Mr. F. W. Hartig 3-3231
Exch 0 Maj H. C. Payne, QMC 3-4131
Secy, Off Open Mess Capt H. L. Brooks, QMC 3-7236
Ch, Army Educ Ctr Mr. J. S. Milligan 3-2296
AG Lt Col D. Martin, AGC 4-1137
Act Asst AG Maj B. T. McCormack, WAG3,8101
Ch, Adm SvcBr Mr. H. D. Edwards 3-3251
Chap(C) Lt Col W. F. Nern, ChC 3-1148
Chap (P) Lt Col W. B. Sharp, ChC 3-5217
Chap (P) Capt W. E. Brown, ChC 3-5217
Civ Pers0 Mr. L. M. Meyer 3-1151
Ch, EmpUtil Br Mr. E. M. Gordon 4-1113
Secy, Incentive
Awards Mr. H. D. Harmon 3-9281
PM Lt Col E. L Slobe, MPC 3-2201
ConfO .Capt F. A. Rush, MPC 4-2241
Safety Engr Mr. J. S. McGlinn 3-8168
Sp Svc0 Lt Col R. J. Lyon, AGC 3-2208
Rec0 Lt Col A. Friedenwald, Inf 3-2208
Comdt Col J. W. Davis, MPC 3-7101
I ------- ------- I
- I-
Legal 0 Maj W. L. Taylor, JAGC 81424
Legal Asst 0 Ist Lt R. W. Fitch, QMC 8-1424
Chap P) Mai W. R. Tuttle ChC 8-1434
Chap (C) __ MaiA. D. Dudek, ChC 8- 1435
Dir Lt Col R. E. Jessen, MPC 3-7101I
Act Supv Maj C. D. Olesen, USAF 8-1429
Admin O Capt L. L. Balent, MPC 8-1429
PrisMessO Capt J. F. Pierce, MPC 8-1438
Empl 0 Capt L. L Balent, MPC 8-1431
Sp Svc0 Ist Lt R. A. Baker, USAF 8-1430
CorrO Capt K. R. Baumwell, USAF 8-1430
Corr O Capt J. L. Tiffany, MPC 8-1430
Corr 0 Capt W. F. Beardsley, MPC 3-8283
Supv Lt Col R. H. Hurst, MPC 3-3160
Voc 0 Capt B. EBailey, MPC 3-3160
VocO 1st Lt W. N. Dupuis, MPC 3-3160
Ch, Educ Mr. H. E. Aleck 8-1433
Supv Maj R. R. Craddock, MPC 3-6251
Sup 0 CWO L Valek, USA 3-1280
--I..I --- -.- ... I
I.... nRc I
Phone Tr Comdr Capt J. H. Grundmann, MSC3-0156
CO MajH. R. Chezem, MPC 3-4201 IstSgt SFC R. O. Lint 3-2140
Ist Sgt MSgt C. E. Campbell 3-4201 (ULLD)
Dir ColL. Wallace, Inf 3.7267
Deputy Dir Col G. T. Colvin, Inf 3-7267
Phone Phone Phone Phoni Red Cross 3-5143 Dir Col E. C. Dunn, Armor 3-1108
Bowling Alley 3-5184 Andrews Hall 3-2185 Guest House, 220 Pope 3-6137 Car Wash 3^8140 SAAF Opns 3-4202 Deputy Dir Col P. L. Urban, Arty 3-1108
Crafts Center 3-5182 Gruber Hall Office 3-6183 Guest House, Annex, 612 Grant 3-0125 Coffee Shop 3-9248 Service Station (PX) 4-1221
Golf Club 3-3131 Gruber Hall, East 4-1191 McClellan Guest Rooms 3-2123 Dental Clinic 3-2102 Staff Duty Officer 3-4121
Gymnasium, Flint Hall 3-8188 Classrooms 1-6 MISCELLANEOUS Library (College) 3-6298 Thrift Shop 4-1102
NCO Open Mess 3-7238 Gruber Hall, West 3-0283 Archives 3-6282 Library (Post) 3-8139 USDB Greenhouse 3-4236
Post Theater 4-1130 Classrooms 7-12 Army National Bank 3-4142 Museum 3-6191 US Post Office 3-4186
Service Club 3-4293 MuirHall 4-1296 Barber Shop (College) 3-6285 Out Patient Clinic 3-1290 Vocational Display Room 3-9101
Tennis, Squash & Handball Courts 3-7192 Barber Shop (PX) 3-2245 Photo Lab 3-9180 Visitors' Bureau 3-6139
FOOTNOTE: (1) CO, Dental Detachment, also serves as Dental Surgeon under the
supervision of the Director of Operations, (USArmy Garrison).
(2) CO, USArmy Hospital, also serves asSurgeon under the supervision
of the Director of Operations (USArmy Garrison).
(3) The Veterinarian'is under the supervision of the Surgeon.
Dir Col W. G, Neely. GS 3-1242
Asst Dir (Mgt) 3-3231
Asst Dir (Pers Svc) Mai R. L Kittinjer, GS 3-7152
Asst Dir (I&1S) Capt I. H. Correll. GS 4-1265
Manpower Control Mr. F. W. Hartig 3-3231
Ch. Amny Educ Ctr Mr. J. S. Milligan 3-2296
llSafety Engr Mr. J. S. McGlirm __ 3-8168
.AG. LCl D. MarinAGC 4-13 Exc "
MaiKC. Paynee. QMC 3413
Ch. AinSvc Br Mr. HD. Edwards 3.3251 ____________
Chap (C) LI Col W. F Nern, ChC 3-1148 -- Pb-r>miR^inr ^
Chiap P) Lt Col W. 8. Sharp. ChC 3-5217
Capt H. L Brooks, QMC 3-7236
D"p(P) ____ Capt W. E. Brm.T ChC 3-5217 _ _^ ^_- -_ __ _
|----------------------------I - ~~ ~ ~~PM LI Col A. L. Olier. MPC3.2201
CIVIIAN HKMNaL DmIVIIO W=l ConIO 1st LI E. A. Ginda, MPC 4-2241
Pb-M AdmiinAsst Mr. C. J. McGinn 3-4195
Ci PersO r. LM. Meyer 3-1151 - -- ~ ~~~ -*"- --
Ch EnpUhl Br Mr. E. M. Gordon 4.1113
cetweAdsBr SP*
~ ^ SVC0 MaiH.L Hartle An 320
Corre Col J. W.I
Dir Mai T. K. King, USAF 39201 Dir Lt Co[R.I
Adj 1a st LI D. L. Groenenboom, MPC3-9201 P h _
SgMa MSgtG. Bingen 3-M1 SL MaR. S R. Crdok C 365
UCCOUNTniK DffSHM win*C) -
Acctg 0 2d LItCE. Richardson. FC 8&1439
Mil Pefs C-pt D. L Hall. MPC 811421
AdmiinO 0 " D Cat L
AdmnrnAst SFC C. Q Frisnjer 8&1421 Pris MessO ?0WOK S.
~----------------------*-' ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~Emp] 0 Capt L.IL
--------------- - ---- - ---- . ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~Sp S~cO Ist L RA
Chief Mr. N. B.Harrison 8_1420 I
rr Capt J. L.
rr 0
Chief Capt BEHall. MPC & 122 *
ChClk MSrt M I.EMerrit 81422
Chap(C) Mai A. D. Dudek, ChC 81435 Co Mai NR. C~
____ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~Ist Sgt MSgt C. E.
-- - - - - - -~~Piopram Supervision eiercised by Director of Administration.
------ - ------- -~Program Supervision exercised by Director of Operations.
I m m m -- mi
PH- F%- Pt- " Red Cross 3-5143
Bowling Alley 3-4155 Andrem Hall 3.2185 Guest House. 220 Pope 3-6137
3-81 SAAF Opns 3-4202
Crafts Center 4-1235 Gruber Hall Office 3-6183 Guest House, Anne.. 612 Grant 3.01 25 Coffe Shop 3-924 Service Station (PX) 4-122 1
Golf Club 313131 Gruber Hall, East 4-1191 McClellan Guest Rooms 3-2123 Denta Cr'^im 3-10 Staff Duty Officer 3-4121
Gymnasium. Flint Hall 3.8188 Classrooms 1<6 MISCELLANEOUS Liba
ge) 3-629 Thrift Shop 4-1102
NCO Open Mess 3-7238 Gruber Hall, West 30D283 Lrcbrary 3Post) 3-8139 USD8 Greenhouse 3-4236
Service Club 3-4293 Classrooms 7.12 Army National Bank 3.4142 Out paten Cini 312901 VS oatioa Dispae Ro 3-9101
Tennis. Squash i Handball Courts 3-7192 Muir Hall 4.2186 Barber Shop (College) 3.6285 Ph~oto Lab 3-9180inl ipayRo 390
Theater 4-1130 Barber Shop (PX) 3-2245 Pht ~ .10Visitors' Bwea. 3-6139
Major. GS. Complioller
Approvtd by ^ i - s"^ -
Mai Gen. US Army. Comimardrin
Date: 3 Jamnar 1958
co Acc.DMaiL .Mac^ ee GS il 3 | COMMANDANT USAC6SC Act IG MaR.LKtigr S 375
ChFin MgtDri Mr. L M. Dettierage 4-2296 | HIM| I ---- '^ * ----
Ch. Mgt EngpDiv Mr. J. A. Marcum 3-9152 |CG &Coirdt Maj Gen L. C. McGarr. USA3-8131 |_____________
Act Ck R&ADiv Mr. J. H. F. Nuhn __ 3-9152 |Aide Copt R. R. Peabody. Inf 3-4258 |OFFICE OF THE STAFF JUDGE ADVOCATE
-------------------------- ' j ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~Aide Ist LtW. C.Cousland, nmot 3-4258 ^ (AWJA)
rr, r c T-<- ITXMII
iAGC 3
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~SI Cl H0 Sradr AGC 3-23
Into 0 Mai C. W. Burtyk, Jr., Inf 3-301| __
Deputy Post Comdr Col W. W. Culp, Armor 3.4121 Asst - ii^ - i ^-k -- ^ - ^ - ^ -- Canjdt
Staff Secy
| U. S. Anay C~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~U.S ryC
Cif Cal G. P. H. Boycott., 321 3-6208 Chief Lt Col J. P. Meslet (France) 324 3-7204
WIALF) ^ I Pb-MM R- Pb
Chief Co[ R. R. Walker, USAF 311A30204 Chief col H. D. Adams, USMC *307A 3711
iArty 241 3-5110 A/AC Col J. L irik. Jr.. Arty 235B3.868
Inf 231 3-6220 Lt Cal T. M Auiail, Inf 239D3-1281
.USA 243 3-5110 LI Col)J. B. Good.,,. Arty 235 3.6280.
Chief Mai G M. Bush. CE 239 4-1184
A/AC Col 0. G. Komny, If 132 3-014 |
-j- - - - 1 - - --
my IN
E. k!
Act Dir Lt( Co] D. |. Medley. GS 4-1201
Asst Dir (Sup Mgt) Mr. D. J. Delaney 4-1 124
Asst Dir (Log Svcs & Fid Maint)
I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Capt L. S. Stickney. GS 3-3288
| ~~~~~~~~~~~~Asst Di, (nrng Maj J.H.Carpenter, Inf 4-1222
Ahm 0 Ma, WI Schidt Arty 342' - - , 0 Capt .D.Thopson loCt12
Fdt Adw CWO R. A. Lurvey, USA 3-5285
pm L
t u B
f..! I t DIVISION (ALMU-SGA iilg(sc) ~
Chief Mr. W. B. Bailie 3-3228^ Pbnu r i<;f
Mr. SSSC Mr. J. D. Sullivan __ 3-4191 Si | Ma "i G.
igC __
Erjr __ Col W. A. FaiKs CE __ 3-422*1 | Trans 0 Lt Col F. E. St. John, TC 3-2121
w a w IA S
Ord 0. Cm. 0 Cap. C. W. Moore, TC 3821 Vt Cal P. R.Catr V: 33159
i Contr 0 Mr. T. K. Eismaftn 3-3132 Dental Surg Col S. D. Linn. DC 3-2227
l Chief Capt D. W. Leedham, TC 3.8110 1 ^ " Chief M/$gt F. 0. Perry 3-5181
Co Col S. D. Linn, DC 3-227
Co Col J.P. Russell. MC 3-2120
Ex C Lt Cal F. C. Nelson. MSC 3-6241
Adej Capt JW. Kreizenbeck. MSC3.0165
Emneriency Medical Treatment 3-0280--3-1 101
Chief Capt V. H.Woodside, AMSC4 1181 Chief Mai F. 0. Joerns. MC 3-6218
Chief Capt WJ.Dolbee, MSC 3,0136 Chief Mai R. A. O'Connell, MC 3-1290
Chief Capt A, E. Fick, MSC 4-1134 Chief Mai R. A. O'Connell, MC 3-1290
Trp Comdr CO, Capt M. F. DeLand. MSC3,0156 ^ RDOO~AEVC
Hst^ sp Det O.i, 240 * Chief Lt Co] . H .Kraczyk, MC 3-0210
Che MaM. K Ki tr, AC 4.121 Chief Co[ G,F. Peer, MC 3-5211 |
^ ______ Ha| M. A. Kinter. AHC 4-1211 ~~~Ch, EENT Sec Lt Col C~H. Ransom, MC 3-720 1
Secy Col A. S. Buynoski,
Asst Col E. S. McKee, 1r
CWO R. G. Musick,
Chief Mai C. G. Collins, TC 229 3-9266 Chief Maj GA. arrowQMC Bsmt 3-5201
Ed in Chief Lt Col R. R Bankson, Inf Funs 3
Chief Capt 0. 0rliz Mortno. Inf McNr 3
Ed~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I i o .M anAt 3A3K
32142 | Exec Col R. i. Osborne, Armor 337~~~~~ 42 197|
Mutual 2-7000
I*, P*
&dWkld &5800
A Brig Gen F. R. Lerath, USA226 3-5130
Col J.F. Franklin, Jr. Armor 221 3-1210
f Lt Col C. V. Mc~aughlin, Inf 219 3-9113
C....nd and IGeneral Staff Collop
Educ dv Dr. 1. J.Birrer 244 3-4101 Class Supw Col J.M. Sage, Inf 207 3-4108
Supv Col J. E. Mazek. Inf S-I 3V253 Chief Capt E. M. Stever. USN 308 3-8159
Col L T. Bondshu. QMC S-3W3-0253 __ Cdr C. E. Olson. USN 308 3M28
A/AC Col E. C. Dunn. Armor S-27 3-1108
Dir Col E. C. Dunn. Armor S-27 3-1108
Dep Dir Col P. L. Urban. Arty S-27 3-1108
Dir Co[ W.E. Roberts. Inf Muir 412211
Dxec __ Col R. D. Wolfe. CE HMur 4-2211
Dir Col H. E.Mair.Jr. Arty 312 12198
Exec __ Col T. R. Palmerlet, TC 312 3.0259
Dir Cal R. E. McMahon. Int 209 3-6130
Exec Co] AL. Mueller, Inf 209 3-6130
A/AC Col V. W. Hobson. Inf 238 4-2132
Chief Col W. N. Holm. Inf 234 3-2195
IChief LiCol D. D.Hogoboom.,Jr, lnf 236 3-5230
I 1. - --l I
Dir Col 0. G. Kinney. Inf 132A10140
Exec Col S. T. Martin, CE __ 132 3-8290
Dir Col L. Wallace. Inf 118 3-7267
Dep Dir Col GT. Cohnn. Inf 115 3.7267
Exec Lt Col C. E. Lamont, Inf 113 33210
Dir Col M. A. Tincher, Armor 32 4-2121
Exee Col F.M. Muller, Armor 32 4.2121
Chief Lt Col C. W. Drye7 Inf 233 3-5101
Lt Col C. E. Lippincott, Armor 233 3.5101
Chief Maj R. C. Dwyer, AGC 243 4-1187
Chief CWO L J. Darche. USA 245 3-9187
Chief Maj C. R. Fuller. AGC lib 4-2158
Chief Mrs. E. H.Kent 242 3-2281
Chief Lt Col H. S. Long. Jr., kmow203 3-6128
Exec Lt Col L. C. Brown, Inf 203 3-9214
Chief Mai W. C. Washcoe, SiKC 201 3-5106
Chief Lt Col L Ruiz, UnIC AFPP3-1208
Chief Capt R. F. Tacey. SigC AFPP 3-9231
Chief Grub 3-5235
.Chief Capt L A. Dayton, AGC Muir 3-4181.
,-------------------------, B ~~~OFFICE OF THE COMMANDING GENERAL *-------------
F-- - -- -- --- ---
F-T . --- A
m I I 0 m
D., UC GL No ton I,. GS 3 1242
AWi Dir (PMitS c ll L.] KMIso GS 37152
MnP-' Contro Mr 1 Har't( 3 3231
Ch. Ar,,Euc Ctr Mr. MIfa 3 1 2296
AG LI Col DMaro, AGC I.1137l
All AG CWpC RM..ulto.AGC 30151 \^
IAct`AisAG C,,ptR F, %ylor. WAC 3 8101
ICh. Ad. Svc 8 Mr H. DEdwd, 3 3251
A.lC, (Sup M"tI Mr.D I clany <24
A,,[ Dr lo SSLI IDI Mtdiy. GS 3 3288
AsilDrlT'7qg Mi] ERRtltr. GS 4.1222
Eqr C., INA, Niki.C( 3.4221
Ci MsVRThrok-oto 3 3193
Chiet Ma]M. H. Gft~ll.lnf Grub 3.5235
Chief Ma|RJI McBroO. aMCBst 3.5201,
iDGnimc sicTiox win)
u knnAtY 28 3-9266
Ord 0 Maj T. COliver. IC 38201
Chiuf Wr.W B8di, 33
Om Col M W. Co-rsUK QM 3 6"1I
C.. 0 Cant RDThom., OMC 3-0121
Chi. Ai, WMan B, Capt M. G Cor,,6l. TC 3.6188
Chitf Capl DW. Ltedh,.. TC 381
CO Col S.D0. Linn DC 3.2227
Cc~dl CUl W.Da'ii. MPC 3.7101
E- ^ ^ ^ ' LtC|RE - P -~
_D___ Mi, T. k.K~n. USAJF ___ 3 9201 D, ___ LI Col W.H Barter. MPC 8 1452 D"r Lt Co1 Wfllam Adams. MPC 8 1451
Chid Mr. N. BHan- & 1420 * Clas. 0 OCpt KR. B-u.mel. USAF & 14'23
S-p Mi,) I I Uty. M.PC 3 6251
Od Cpt DL.Gron-ntb-om MPC3.023I *-1 -- 0"I" Ma ACStockdal,. USAF 8?'' Suo, Lt Co us.MC 33160
Slit , M SUCin * 3-0231_______________ C'h duc M', HEAl. '
k D.133
Ch,' ptD MI EH1.P -1422 "
chi tf
Lt C.] k I Titfa,,y J,. MC & 14'2 Act S.D, Ma,i C0 01,- USAF 814'29
___________________________ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Ad. At CWO R. L.Ham-nUSA& 1427 Adm,,n Oapt L L Bltn. MPC 81429
litLiR.A &ake. USAF 8 1448
Chtl Cpt I L fiffy, MPC 8 1439 *s u^Cpt WMa1,,-d. MC 82142 P,,sM-ssO CWO KSCorty. USA 8 143B
_________________________ ^^^ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~PsYcli Capt RACook. MSC 8&1426 CcorrO Mai CCCl,,k. MPC a81431
. __________________________, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~PSYCHIATRIC TREATMENT BRANCH
Capt BElstcrday. Jr. MPC3 8283
N. HS' Rnst 1t LIF G LBlm cARC 8 1454
-kinm M Sit M. E. Mhii,,tt __ 8.142I Soc Wr Capt W. Maick. MSC &1426
CW C MajI EXFm. ChC &1435 co Ma,,H.R Ch~t MPC 3-4
20I Lg^10 L, C., SHI.,t,,dme JAGC8 142
Chap(P) Oapt TEC,,tr. ChC 8.1434 I, c apt M 0 Hosk.ns )r. MPC3-4201 L((al AW10 Ms LiG L. Mants. JAGC 8.1424
Ist Sst M SCC. E. Clapblll 3-4201
T-iO 0 Cat L.E. Peso.ln( gW45
L~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A.,t Tqj 0 IsLtO L G.W,11l1 In 8144500
___________________________Aop~ OnSi't MS,,. ND,e * ,1450 ______________
" M'ai NJDVaS MC 5211
Chi,,f __ Capt P.O Smts- ad.MC 3 f90 | Cnit __ Cpt F. P. T,,y].r. AMSC 4.1181 |
Chielf __ CiptP 0Sirnt-, .MC 3 I29 u^ht ___ CptWJ IoobCmsc 3.0136 |
'C".> Ltd C nHJ ,4,y.M -0 Nf W. ik
-79-,,Itld S-SU MWWIa 2.7000
|*k "p|
DtCofSUl1L " fR A
y' .' 3 ?21
Staff Stcy LI Col J. H. Snort. Id __ 219 3-9113 S
DPC U, F. A. Lmski.A MY 3-4121
Ed.,Ad, D, .l..Birc 2 4 10" C'\ CasSp oJ. M. Sap. Wn 20'7 341'08
"L "BWh M *" 305 C"hi. UIM.
h.S 307 r71
Exc Lt Co1M L. H,-itt.A,-, SW3.0253______ _ _____
Di' CUl E. C. Dm A-or S27 3.1108
Ec S-27 3.1108
Dirc C.1 Ro W.1f,. CE Mu.: 41221"I
Eie C.1 RC~ljalsty Mu r 42211
oDil Co1IR HSchtllman.lnl 312 3-2198
C'RI Col H.L. Ah, Inf 235B -28 SC o ASB
ahiif Maj G. M BuO, CE 239 4-1184 CWOR. G.
Ched MajR. C. O."r. AGC 243 4-1141
Chitf CWO D. Bilyeu.USA245 3.9187
Chief ClplLE.A. DlywonAGC Lib 4.2158
Chief Mrs.C L N-wb 242 3.2281
EIM .nCif . . nmM -75
Chief Mj F.M. Sto.tll.AGC McN, 3.2142
I Di LI RE. MCMao. n~. Id 29 3 \13 | chi Lt C.1 J. L..
xe-, C. RW. G,,,tt. In -209 3-6130 | ______ _
UUIFR)* ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(ALLBR)
Chief Col H. Bo-nt. F-an 324 3-7204 -1 C We ClG p. H. Boycott. G, BrIt 327 16208
Ch-e C.l R. R.Walkd. USAF 311A 30204 Cmf Cot I W. M.M-ns. USN308 318159
Cd, CEOl-A. SN 308 3.8282
oski.Akty 241 1511 C'Doc C.1 VWHooonln 238 4.2132
_______ Chief _________ 239B4.1198
E-t' LiC.1 M HG,,,!. kty 203 3-9214
Ch:ef MaHC~ Wnhc. S~gC201 3.5106
Chief Lt CflL. u,. mC AWP 3.1208
Chif Capt Af Lehan. S.(C ArPP 319231
C'CO -lOG. Kin-y.Inf 132A314
Dir Col G Kinny.lnl 132A 30140
Ch.aip Lico~W BSh~p.CnC3 5217
Cr PersO MrLM Mey, 3 11'5
Ch. E.DUt, Br Mr. EM Cordon 4.1113
Ch. Salay i Wage Mr. AA,111- 4.1180
Ch. Adli, Br Mr T Sc- 4182
AI .sl "c CW0 M L. 13o-.'US 3 5215.
| , Ce Mg, __ MlI BL.ndber; ____A_ 37236|
lM L'iCOA] L Ot.,,,.'MPC322olI
Adm-nAWs M" EIW) McCn _ 3 4195
SI S""',G .f AC 320
I A~~ards~~r ____________________ | AsslSSO Ma, ~~~~E BWlo.AC 32208
______________________________ 1~~~~~~~~~ALHC)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Ho~~~~~~~~omdl ~ LtC.IJ AEls.eiler.Arty 3 3130
E-~,c CaIplFL alnk lf 3 3130
Ci M,ssJnTIps- 3"^ 4^___ Cp ee.Il 32'4"
U^___ Cpt BEGa~t LIf K.15 | C ___ Islm Pl-ail.A 29
Me' O ____ Ma WF Wofitt. Q MC II1.6 \ C ___ CalIKGretMPC3 7'102|
I... '.1
Di, C.1 MAT.,cl,,. k.., .. ... 21
E"c C.1 0 W. ScWt,. A,,,w 32 4.2.2.
,. , ...
Su CH& ,IP R.ssel. MC 322
I I "I " " "I 'l"' ," *" - et o P. .R. Care .VC 33159 i
Dir cl W M V-n. ty 337A 3' 2145
CO Cd ). P. R-sstl. MC 3-2120 1j
Eic II Col FCWelmn Msc 36241^
E-9-jeny Medical TW-tme ""
3 0280-3-11u t
____ * ___
Eic W'I T PCnin'm.StC 3 1626
ChpiS~f CWOWL M .i, USA 312
----- P,.j-aDrctr Dr of Admiistration
2500 kmyWid, AclWivie
9020 Local W("arel S-c
P'l" a Maio Actm~tit!
2100 Tr0 ;At le
2200 Ctnr- l Supply Actvities
2400 Me.dical Actbie
2600 Amy Resrv an ROTC
270X Jo-n P, oicts
9030 Loca. Ma'n it Mgt of F"c
9040 F~ied "'intenanc
9050 Loca Lo(gsti S.,s
NOTE Fi.ur i parethes- in blocksidcae Dtc lIeg of Annua OpWrain
acmties uch .Restrve Op,,. h -il f.Ied Tra, in(. Satelte,, etc.
Btberld OSW
' " -
IO "S5'
M. ST2Q0XI) Elt ls
_ _ 3,1 11
0 1
II 0
OIC 2dlt A.MSan m FCCP 3Mr.4 3 M 1151'S Enir Co C. T. Rick~tt. C[ 3.42521 NCO/ICMSgi SHCan- 3.7238
Ad. A MStt J) J HinkK ' 32142Ch Emp S~c Mr 'E. M G.idtn '11.13 EEC 0 3 | M-,tAcl M., AG. WIt 3 9168
Boo~kktep,, M, .R. hqt~ 3-2257 Ch Adr- Mr. C, T, St,,rd .1182 Ad. AWs M, F B. M,-ms. )I 4.1280
A~~~rS. ^^.AiM
S% ^?^0 ^ K
Ml.?^S~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~r, 3! ^ K'CC. SW MV.k
4 18
En~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~l~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ T ?ap
R^ T
3* 9281*^
Pers~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~c S-d M,A. St ... 3tan 9281021
EYE EAR. NOSE. THROAT SECTION CO. MWRS M,,j G CV.n 8ar9en. S,(C 3 9150
Chidf Capt WE. RiiS. MC 4.5241 Adm 0 2d LiB. R. SChal,. S,9C 3 6262
MEDICAL SERVICECh. Plan Di, Capl HBPal er SigC 30114
C-h I, IdnH ~ nc M <18l' Di, Mcj W. 1 Sed ShZ 3220
NURSING SERVICCh, S,,p B.. Maj K~ .lSt.ynotf. S,9C 449
Chmef LtCol O
BE. H-t.. C 435211
'* IACPrlmn ___ 421
Ph-ief ~ tF.1 tl. M^ ^ MSC 3 a3 FO8Rih GT WORT AIRCRForeBae MAITNAC S154400
Chied Capt R. B.-Lan .MC 305210D 0CMmAdr lt, 21
L,,b~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~O Btr Cot 5l Bi Bn.Mh FSC Jv 1103 R.AO AM&LG SUPPORT 11
Chief Ma .j F. BoHish. AMSC 3-11812-Co.- -- 4th - R- ^ --
__ Chief Capt Cl .AWskod .M SC 3 0213S0 DCd, FF STERoh, R Dt 7003
chi tt
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~O BtyP'~OMMN D.5t V,
[ ~ptRGM 4[S^
" J1.
_________________________|_~~~~~~~~FR J cLEAVEWORT SUELEMENT.5^ _
Adm S S D B. Sor--~e 8.1439 P
Ai C,,t . .htS wS M 3 0231 PAOL DIVIS ON
SM'a SM'a' C. E. Cam'pbSe 3 0231 (''ALLDa?)'
MANAGE MENT AN DBUDGET Parol 0 1h] ACSIockd,,I,. USAF 8.1425
DIVISION (ALLDB MB) --------------
MBO Caj DI G oe-nt-o. MPC8 1421
MPO Cam DI Giocebc. MC 81421
Chap(C) Maij JE. XFr~.ChC 8.1435
ChnapP) Capt T. E. Carltr, CC 81434
opns 0 Mi EM. Harris MPC 8.14'29 psych 1st LI M. L. H,,t MSC 8&1427 __________________----------
Chid M,,j G D. Allen )r, USAF 8-1429 S,,, Wk, Capl H. F. Daly. J,.. MSC 8-1454 (ALLAO) Di, C. A. M. St k 10 P
-------------------- "^ ---- Sup* Col L HBipley Arty 41292Dep Dir Col B. V.CM BollomylyAtyD Di, M R. )rB.1-1y. I . 361360
E"eC M,,iG J: G-1.Arm- 3-0253 ChClk MSgt J. CWebb 3 2197
ChClk M SRI I DGoood- ___ 3 7131________
_____ ~~~~~~~~~~~EOUCATIONAL ADVISOR
ALL"' i
* ----------------------- -- ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~(ALLEA) Di, Col E. G Ed-ard. A,.., 3.3172
EducAd Dr. 1. 1. Burcr 3^0? hClk" MS
Ciamp~'bll tll
T p,,,ALLPP) Di' Col T. R. 8ru-, IIt. Aty 30 O40
JUDGE ADVOCATE OFFICE I -------- -- , ---- _______-------, ----------- - i____ ___________
1A Capt WG Rob,'ls. JAGC 844
(U ) M
( 1L
~ . ' ' n .______________"LW
LW, ssl A,, 0 r
an o
Cpt R. 1. Qfflney. MPC 3.251 P6,c Mr. H. E. Ale~ck 8 1433- Cd Capt L E. Peso Wf 324 [MILITARY REVIEW B,r Col H. W. McCl,,lla,, Al..,r 4-2211
1 Dir Col WM Hawkm Armo 32145 1 Chie~f Col CE. Sui~an USAF 3-020S4 CO Capt F. 0. Ball.In 3.42'4"7
Dep Di, C'ol A.K. ftr d ^
' 4.2197 ChClk MSgt H. M. Keo ^-281 1s't Sjl 1s1 Sg, F. AWhol, 3.8189
ChClk .MSgt I. E. Gmttshal, 4-2197 *-20t ---------------
) 70 1
---------------------------- | [ -------- MARIN~~~~~E CORPS SECTIONS ------- ARMY BAND (T/ &E UNIT)
--- DPRMENT OF LARCER UNITS AND--- chief Col 1 E. Oechlr )r. USMC3
711;9 1 Sgt MSgI EN. St-n 3-4298
1 ir Uo AT~ Tery. Jr.. WrY 3.2198 1st Sgt MSel VL. B8own 3 5213
Dep Dir C.l R. P. McO4ail Wn 3'0259 _____ _ _______ -,SHERMAN ARMY AIRFIELD (SAAF)
Ch~k MSgt CE. Hunt 3 3147 NAVY SECTION CO M,,] R. D. N,.by, Arty 34202
" Chief Caol JRThoso.-USN3 15
ChClfkYN1 R. G. All-so. USN_ 3-8282
Di,' 0 U
, 3-7267 -- A
L f
ChClk MSjt J. H. Owean, 3.7194 Chief CUl J. C. Woollen. G, Br 3620>8
"tCA P..
INSTBUCTION (ALLN1) Chi UU D. H.y Rocheste. Canda 4.3154
Di, Col R. P." " Ha "'t 3n 31108 _________ . ___
E-e Co BK. Anderso Inf 4.3284 ~ ------------
Ch. Ebt Sec Col E. R. Wyl,,s. A,,mor 3 8227 ______________
^PI&op Col G ABonn. MSC 3.5142 " SlR"
- LI 1, 1- .11 SUPPLY DIVISION VOCATIO AL DIVISION (ALLMR) ftk, GE 'Z'111 [- I Ch. Ad' hLlpl (ALLDB SP) Cot DJALLDB VT) mml i','t'st lm,i t W- ... ;&, iiiFl ... ChClk MSgt KW. R0,M 3.7297 S,, Mi M VS.M. WAC
Clk SFC1HM,ti, 8 14 Sp 0 CWO HBAt.,Il 3-2253 *c0 GWm MPC .33160 MILITAY ' Aill Ed m C,f C.1 KE. Ln. IM ChClk SFC RCD-
S.p S.p, W. J. E. Fidly 3.2253 1 Tq 0 2d LI 1, ETRGlliftl.!,GIBfRANCH &1450 Ad.O j L DLqhl,. A,.., 3-6192 I
I I I 1 53 C', " W
AWS/ A MaI RL 11We. InfC A<1 n SCl~,tIR Ly W 4ak 41616
Cn0lk SCt WBak 3M16 TL .g Bald}
I CIel r I V. Admo 4'
Mutual 2-7000
4*.S 4.
Butterfieldl 8.5BOO
AWS G WG.E. omR.GS 3-142
P-r LtCol R. WBlqn'h'a'. GS 3-5101
P... S~c M'a' A. C. Ww, WA 3-7152
A,.m Ed'uc Wi. R.' M0.a""
' 3-2296
Safety Dr Mr. J. S. McGInn 3.8168
Compt Lt Col R. L D. Doly. GS 7?S5
DC.ompt Mai I D. Smih. )r .GS 129
Da JaProc WIj C0. ford. )R.. S,&C 32
Met &c, M, G. F. FSch.,
3 9 152 S
We. AColS.
Lot S-c 41 124
Suply "I i WL Hal. Wn 3288
.g 2d LIPGUo.QM ___ 31
AWoS. G2/G3 Col J. E. Mkls. III, GS 3-322'3
G2/G3 Lt Col D. P. Bfius. GS 4.1222
G2 Capt EW. Kupc. MPC 4.1265
A, Ty An Maj R. D. N,.by, Arty 3.4202
ChClk MSg1 E. K. ]kelaro 4-2248
OFFICERS'OE MESS PROVOST ARSHAL SINA SUREO MaWF~.,,,da.ln 3^ 726M Lt 1W. hk. MPC ?21 g0 Cap, DR~B.OBshy. SigC 44109 ^ T C.Pl" MC
tot~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ecy ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ h I WO 3.5238 1~2 OHn~ CWO 1^ J n 3^ - .L. jhhlton .USA 310 USAmy MA
ft A
1 1 .^ FS PM H IEth ^
ft ~ ~ ~ Pop0 a C. 3 2208er Lrt QM 328dm l Mr . L. Wi kllams TC I I3212
I----"-----4 ^
Tm ps
CO SpT & Pof S ' ClJ. T Caples MC 3-2120 USDB Cl~ nic~p R. M Ledier 8 1<36
Hq C.odt Lt Col R. C. Hulcms-. j>.. I f 3318320 e 0 Lt Co.]T SC.oleman MSC 36241 NCO/ICMSgt 0 PChamber 3 2227
I Aft-AW-- SFC T E. hk 44182 1 L
I - -- 1. -i
--I I I 0
C..dt Col W. W. Co MPc 3.7 1'I
D Comdt Lt Col E.'W. Vail MPC 3.9201
Co' OFFICE Of THE 11 I'M, "IM,"
I~ AIC BRi C' H I. 12rley )r S 3i'
E-0 'W M S.,tl I j
I MI t Lt i E 'Nool
Oty 3-3225
.W 3 61 61 1
I I __
Chief Col RC. otks. In 4-21 32' **'" P Chief Miss J.Thmsn 13
Exe Col EHMarks' In 315230 Chied C R. P. Hagen In 1108 CONSOLIDATED TROOP MESS
ChClk SFC D~ F. Kmlouqh 3-2195 ' QC Capt F. 0. Barllct. In 3-6190
Chiet Capt C. R. Strobl,, In 3.9151
I - - -I1I
(A' e 1 .- (ALBMH ^.. Sc Col.:RA robe,0 gA,.y 3 51 Cmie. C. J. iw h W ..o 3~o 826
DDi, C., M Ia &142 i
i, LI Ctil C. SFmnch, J,.MC 8-1426 E- Co ftP, , Ply' 3 023 AwC C ,, RB% 1 il. '~ aAl,t 3"528
Dir Mai 1. u. Hams. WfL _____ '"'*
i u
________________________Stalf Mse~~~~~h Capl S ERMdC enl .,dd 4217 WAC 3 42 Ch Col L.ol L R CC. 3.3228
||%?"" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Ms CL N.-cob 3.2281
Ms" F EBll 3-18
||~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~Lrn M:,,, RPhllPs * 4.2284 Ch. Stg Fac WI, J HGamb'fl. Slnt 351235
**~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~A"'hw Mis AHadley 3 3144 ChClk MSgItJ. C. Cee 4.3164
||~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Su., S,,S~ Chief M,,, B. Mr~om.. OMC 4.5261
.____________ * ____________ . | ------------ * ------------ i S~~~~~~~~~~~~~a) S~~ai 1. 0 HoiMmJea 3 62202
COUNSELOR DIVISION |PSYCHIATR 11DVISIONI---------------I----------------
.Dir MaWD.My,,% USAF 8.14-5' g'p i ^^ X ^,i"m C 442
Authntication Z7 y O / /
P, pa,,d b - -^ ^
Lt Wo. GS. C..ptlrolle
App,-d by
hMaj Cen. US Army' ComoadMg
Dale 15 Aug 61
I m
41- 4
I. ohm,, PC 8-12 Dir Lt Col C. S. Finch, Jr, MC &142
MONS DIYVIS1011 Psy Capt A. J. Courts, MC 8&1426
Karhi, USAF 8&1430 (ALDVQfC
SERVlCES DrY1SION Psych C~pt B. LMomye, MSC 8-1427
Groeneaboorni MKC 81443 (AUDB-SW)
Soc Wkr Mai S. A. Comb,. MSC 8&1454
)A Ma| W. G. Roberts. JAGC 4-329
0 Capt WH. Carinichael, JAGC4-3295
Ch Legal
Clk SFC O H.- Marti,, 4-3295
Lt Col A. W. Dahlten. MPC 3-3160
Capt D~ L. Schlotlerback, USAF 3-3160
;0O SFC M DF.1k,,tad 3.3160
Mf. H E. Aleck 8 14'33
Capt D. L. Schlotteoback. USAF 3 3160
Pea^^edy by
0F. ler7.1 ^
Chief Lt Col J. W. MacNauihton, Canada 4-31'54
Chief Lt Co! M. E. Gemet, 3 7204
Lt Co B. Pujo 3. 7204
Chief Col R. L Clutterbuck, G, B, 3-6208
Chief 3.026
Dir Col J. B. Seay. Wn 3214"5
Dep Di, Col W. A. Dean. Inf 4-2197
Ad-in Spvr MSgt W. J. Miller 4-2197
Dir Col 1. W. Callaway, Inf 3-9112
Dep Di, Col J. W. Love Arty 3-7267
AdmmrSpvr MSgt 1 H. Dean. Jr. 3.7184
Di, Col D. M. Rarnsy, Jr. Arty 4-129
Dep Dir Lt Col J. T. Monagian. Inf 3-0253
Admin Spvr MSgt T. D. Goodson 4-4180
ma Chief Cap ' W.' R. Sisley. USN 3-815
Dir Col F. HLinn-ll. Inf 3-6130 AdminSpvr YNC M. F. Hartfield, DSN 3.8282
Dep Dir Col J. WMorgan. Arty 3. 6275
Admin Spvr MSgl R. ED-nn 3.21J97
Chief Col J.E. Deche,, Jr.. USMC 3.7119
------------------------- ~~~~~~~~Admin Spn YNC M. F. Hartfied. USN 3-8282
Dir Col J.E. Simmons. Irf 3-2198
Dep Dir Co]lT G. Hanna. Arty 3-0259
Admin Spvr MSgt C. E. Hunt 3.3147
Chief C.[ D. F. Ria. USAF 3-02'04
Admin Spvr MSgt P, D. krello. USAF 3-4281
Dep Dir Lt Col R. W. McCatrtey. Arty 3-025? ------------
A/Dep Di, Lt Col T. R. Boman, Arty 3-1152
AdmirSpy Pfc S. B. Morgan 3-1152 |-------------
^ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Ed in-Chief Co[ K. E. Lay. Inf 3-7253
'_ L1
CO SpTt &"
Ho Comdt MW) C. L. Brindel, Inf 3.3130
Ad. Asst MSgtT. E. B,,ke 4-4182
OIC. Capt M. J. Wunne Xr, WrY 3!61'90
Curator Miss H. C. Co 3-8153
OIC CWO M. E. Phillips, USA 3-0166
Ole Capt C. R. Stroble, Inf 3.9151
Asgt 1 Proc Miss N. Tarr 3-3229
CD Capt M. .Kamn. Jr. Arty 3-4247
Eiec 1st Lt M. J. Ro~ck, AWy 3-8189
1st Sgt Ist Sgt J.D Gentry 3.8189
CO CWp W. T. Barrent MPC 3-7102 ^
1st Sgt 1st Sgt L. Ak Virgili 4.2183
CO 3-4298
1st Sgt MSgt E. N Stein 3-8149
CO Capt M. F. Clifford. WAC 3-1298
1st Sgt MSgt V. L Brown 315213
CO AChief,
Prof Sy Col J. H. Taoer. MC 3-2120
Exec 0 & Lt Col T. S. Coleman, MSC 3.6241
Chief Mai W. Gorby. MC 3-5S1
Chief Col 0. R. Buesing. MC 3-5211
Chief Mai W. Gorby. MC 3.5118
Clinic Nurse Mai E. E. Becke, AWC 4-5241
Chief Lt Col B. M. C01lm, ANC 4-1211
Chief Mai F. T. Waid, AMSC 4-21"56
Chief Capt D. E. T.l1y. MSC 340136
Chief Lt Col G. F. Weighton. MSC 4.1134
Tvp Cmd, Maj R. F. Kerr. MSC 340156
CO. H.Wf Mai R. F Kerr. MSC 340156
MIO Mr. J. P. Kirkpathck 4.2138
USACGSC--PL5-0075--175-4 Dee 64 -85-
S)A Col S. H. Wrightwo. JAGC 3M20 ___ COMMANDANT, USACGSC * ph'un m t ^
SJA (lFeb 64) Col J. F.Grogan. JAGC 3.2230 -- ^(ALLCG) ^* 0 Lt C.]lJ. J. Killhar, Arty __ 4.5251
MilAfarCa'pt T .Gram. JAGC 3-8251 CG & Comdt Mai Gen H. J. Lemley, Jr, USA 3.8
LegalAsst Capt P. D. Hart. JAGC 4-1230 *
ide Mai R. K. Fint. Inf 3-4258 | ----------- --
Claims Mr. B. F. Adams 3,851 9_____ * |INSPECTOR GENERAL
Ch Clk SFC H. G. Fisher 4-2287 ^ ph'ni
I ------------------- - ------ I | ^ I~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~G Lt Col G. W. Allisor% IG 34255
I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Asst IG Mrs. W. Hemvl 4.5225
I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ChClk SFC J. D. Litreal 4.3285
m (E
[Educ Adw Dr.E. 1. J.Birrer ____ 34 1 A/CB Brig Gen E~ C. Townsend. USA 35l'3"0 ^^ ^ Chairman Brig Gen E. C. Townsend. USA 35'1'3'0
ScCoW.H81akefield. Inf 3 121?0
Sess toB CKoch,.CE 4-21 54
I , -7 .-,-- I I
SGS Lt Co] F. C. Goeth. GS 3-9113 ^ 1
.iEr'ibus""k GS 312
A/SGS Lt Co S.P. Rogers. Armor 3-132 Shti SMaj M. E. Hoekbtra 438
kiAiG apt, D. Bi. Han M y At' 3i 11 * ------
IChClk S/Sgt R. J. Evans 3-1165
IChief Mrs. M. V. Adamson 45^
| Dep Cdr Co] W. M. lia.kns. Armor 4-13 Frnc Lt CoM. E. ere 3.7204
cosC| R Conrr G~S' 3-65
| Canaa Lt Col J. W.MacNaughtonJr. 4-3154
ACo1S GI Col J. B. Goodwi,,l GS 3-1242 ACofS G2/ Col N. H. Barnhart, GS 3-3223
D.C.Le, C 4l14 AsstACofS Mai W.A. Patic,GS 41
Mat b r F .Hri K S 3-3231 AssACoS Mr.E. C. Cookr. 416
Army EducMr. L L Hughes 3-2296 62
Safety Dir Mr. J. S.McGlinn 3.8168 Army AmnMai J. P. Westphal, Inf 3-4202
Cust, CP 1st Lt R.C. Howes. QMC 34158 AF Weather Lt Col F. W. Bennett, USAF 3-6206
G3 Op S~t MSgt W. N. Vander Beek 4-2248
G3 Plans Mr. A. R. Johnson, Jr 4-1222
AG Lt Col J. W. Baxley, AGC 4-11?37 Post Chap Lt 61l H. L Murad, ChC 3-1148
Dxec 0 Maj D. E. McKee, AGC 3-8157 Dep Post Ch Lt Col T. V. Koepke, ChC 3.5217
Ch Clk MSgt K. Haig 3-3251 Asst Post Ch Capt W. G. Shellor. ChC 3.9232
Ad.Svc$ Mr. H. Edwards 3.8158 Adm Ast Mrs. M. Daigrea.. 3-1148
Off Pers Capt N. K. Stalbaum, AGC 3M 101
Lt N.K. Myers, AGC 3-7251
Ent Pers CWO j.P. Henderson, USA 34151
MSgt D. P.Burs 340151
Mil Pay CWO V. F. Higham. USA 3-9236
Tr1'Pt SP5 J. T. Prickett 3-5241
ACofS. G4 Col R. L Nispel, GS 4-120 , Compt Maj H. D. Piper, FC 3-7100. Chief Lt Col W. W. Cozad, GS 3-715 Chief Col J. D. Austin, GS 3-
Dep ACofS. Lt Col W. L Hall, GS 4-1124 Data Proc: Capt W. S. Po-ell. SigC 4-3124 Ch. Pers & Bud 4-2149 Plans Dff Lt Col H. G. Gordon, GS 3-9228
G4 Fin &Acct Capt D. S. Seitz, FC 3.9 121 pers Miss E. Hofstra 4-2171 Plans Off Lt Col R. A. Atkins, GS 3-9228
Sp&Min t a ..Weao.Io -29 i Mgt Mr.L M. ethrag 422
Bud et M "
.M Hakin 30
c t
Lt C
Plns& ro Mr.J .Cssel -26
& A
Br MjiM. F ". Aln S 3-729
Chief Lt Cal W. F. Jordan. Inf 44134 Dental Surg Col G. H. Parrot, Jr. DC 3-2227 -------- ----------------
Asst Chf Miss J. E. Thompson 4-1208 Ch Dent Sp MSgt 0. C,,llop, Jr. 3-2227
Housing0Dv Mrs. H. Blanche 3-7293|
Plans & Prog Mrs. M. Gerhards 3-5220___ | ___ _______
Ph... (ALLRI)
Dep Secy/ Col L. L. Liihi, QMC 3.5110 Ph..
C[ Di, Ch ief Col F. W. O'Bnien, Inf 3.8268
Asst Secy Lt Co W. F. Pickell, Inf 340237 D/Chief Col A. Chhetzber, Anty 3-6280
(Secretariat Affairs) Ch. A&EDi, Col R. C. Moran, Aror 318253
Asst Secy Lt Wo W. Bell, Il. Arty 3.4108 Ch. Plans Di, Col E. R. Lewitz, MPC 3-8294
(Student Affairs) Ch. Sched Di, Mr 1 B. Lewis 4-5236
Ch Adm Div Maj J. E. Lambert, Armor 3.2157 Admin Spvr MSgt W. Boyd, Jr. 4-3164
Ch Lib Di, Mr. A- F. McGra. 4.2158
Ch Opn Di, Mai R. L. Thms Inf 3-3154
Ch Sply & Mj] R. M. Oise,,, QMC 4-5261
Ch AFPP.INA Mai N. W. Muway. AGC 3-1208
OIC. Bk Store 2d Lt M. C. Alldredge, QMC 3-2142
SMai SMaj J. C. Bailey 3-6220
, _ I _ , , _ I _ ,
Chief 'Col A. D. Schutt GS 4-22"35 Chief Col S. J. McKean. GS 4-4146
Ch. ng Lt Co J. 0. Shoemaker. GS 34262 Proj Off Lt Col W. C. Henderson. GS 3 5253
LitBr Proj On LI Col R. P. Ziegler, GS 3-7222
Pub Ed Mr. J. W. Baftscle 34262 Proj Off Lt Col T. 0. Morro. GS 340105
Ch, OrK LI Col K. M. Bass, Jr. GS 4-3274 Proi Off Mai F. M. B.l1iner. GS 346144
Equip Br 'Prof Oil Mai C. R. Covell, GS 340105
Me Eq Mr. H. V. Dais 4.3242 Mat Req AnW Mr. A. W. Bane 340239
Ch.,Stud Br Lt Co[ W. C. Lo.Ty, Jr.. GS 3-4151
Proj Off Mai J. E. Muckerman. GS 4-3120
Proj DfI Mai E. J. Ringel, GS 3.9209
Proj Off Lt Col J. P.LaCroix Jr., GS 3-4151
ProfjOff Mai G. A. Logan, GS 3-4151
Ch.,Elct 8r 3-32(03
Dig topt M,. J.J. Heger 3.32(13
, _ I _ ,
Chie Col R. M. Leonard, Inf 3-1108
Deputy Lt Col D. B. Adams, Inf 343227
Ch. Plans Lt Col D. B. Adams, Inf 3M827
& Opns
Opns O Lt Col J. E. Williams. ln( 3.5142
OpnsO Mai R. W. Nelson, Inf 3-1110
OpnsO0 Maj A. Grlls. Armor 3-8285
Sch 0 Capt J.C.Munn. WAC 4-1298
Ch. Acad Rcds Mai A. W. Leete, WAC 4-2201
Acad RcdsMiss R. A. Hunt 3-1287
bjt Crse Mrs. D. M. Williams 3-2288
Grad Br Mrs. N. Lyons 34295
USAR Sch B, Mr. C. E. Thomas 3.2294
Admin SpvrMSgt W. J. Shab 4-2217
Cmd( 0 Col R. H. Dea.n. Arty 3.3140
Dep CO Col C. Bogme, Arty 3-4161
Adm NCO MSgt M. D. McDowe11 3-2192
CPO Mr. L M. M,
PM A&st, Mr. E. Foulk
Empl &Svc Mr. LM. G.
Admin, Mr. C. T. Sc
Incen A.&Mr. A.W. St
Pos & Pay
Tng & evel Mr. H. D. H,
Secy SFCE. J. Be
Acct Mr. G. A. Wit
4eye, 3-1151 Exch 0 Maj D~ E. Shrb QMC 3-4131
lk. Mr. E. Jackman 4.1114 Murch Mg Mr. L W. Taylor 319226
".don 4-1113 Main ExMg, Mrs. J. White 3.1206
;ard 4-1182
larmon 3-9281
eck 3-7238 Secy Capt R. J. Simoni, QMC 37'2
att 3-9168 Steaird MSgt R. C. Eubank 3-5216
Sprinkle. MWC 3.220 I SSO Lt Col R. A. Domos, AGC 3122'08
3-2201 Asst SSO 2/Lt B. L. Higgins, WAC 348194
oiney. USA 3-229
orergan 4-2241
'nandez 3-324 1
Post Engr Cot E. W. Chapman. CE 3-42 Chief Co] F. C. Prebil, QMC 3.621? Cowlt Cot W. W. ox PC 3-710
Asst PE Mai F. Sabo[, CE 34151 Adm Asst Mr. J. D. Sullivn 3-1251 Co[E.L SlbeMPC 3-7101
Adm Asst Mr. F. B. Minms, ft. 348151 ContsolMai W. M. Loy. QMC 3-3228 DCorndt Col N. J. Kinley. MPIC 3-9201
Comm S" 0 Maj W. R. Shalongo. Jr. SigC 4.1109
tansy 0 Capt L W. Grant. QMC 340121 _________________
| ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~Dir Mai J. W. Spotiswod, MPC 8&14'51 Dir Lt Col M. M. Wheatley, MPC 4-4123 Dir Mai V. D.
MAINTE-- ANCE SURGEON- -------------- DDir Mr. ILB. Harrison 4-4123 DDir Mai Paul
Chief Mai N. R. Kemp. Armor 3-5105 Surf Col J. H. Tabe-r. MC 3-"l2120.,, .,,.. BIBRDDMnmni---- MN
Dep Chief Mai L. E. Miles, Ord 3-5105 Prev Med Mai EW. Gorby. MC 3.5118 FU"NDS DIVSIO PRSNR
a w
Prod Cant Mr. F. Gib 3M110 Health Mai E. E. Becker, ANC 346131 (ALLD13CF V (ALBDPG) ^
Mrs.t M.E" Lynch 3-1r Nurse Pf" MrFrh
2/Lt P. C. Eberhardt, FC 8&1439 Pris Prof 0 Mai G. D. Allen. Jr., USAF 8-1423 OPERA1
Act Mn MO LSai lU E: J.
ODn,1TC 414 PotVt MiGF.Fshr .35 Ad
Sp 8
NikieGM nQ 2/At G. Radek. 3A723 WUkLLDB.AG) Chief M,. N. B. Harrison 8-1420 PRISONER
Misc~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~nt'K ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~b,^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Sa S3a C.___________ E. Cambel 3-23 (AU-P Chief Mai D.LI
-------------------------- ' *--------------------------' MANAGEMENT ANDBUDGET DIVISEMENT ADBUD ONTPDVISION0Parle LtID. M.D. M. Karnfn 8 1142
Tranls 0 Lt Co] M. L Baker. TC 3-21'21 CO Col G. H. Parrot. Jr., DC 3-222'7
Asst TO Mai H. D. Horeck. TC 319149 I1st Sgt MSgI 0. Cullup. J,. 3,2102 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
Motor Pool Dispatcher 3-3101|
Adrn Asst Mrs. V. Williams 3-2121 | ------------ |i ------ * ------
Chap(C) Lt Col J. E. X. Fram, ChC 8&1434 t
Chapff) MaR. N. MoffionChC 8-1434 Comidr Capt W. B. Adcock, MPC 3-4201
_________________________ _________________________ "' ' * [,ec 2/Lt W. G. Tapo~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Eec /LtW. .. Taogr.8MC 14545
l ll
DB {^ M)
CmdgO Lt Col G. C. Von Barge,,, SitC 3.9150 Dir Capt G. S. Miich, USAF 362*5? Di,
Exe0 Ma 1. sJ L. Mc__arthy,_ SiC 3622Dir 3.'25 0 Di
RadioD 0 ^ Is DLtSE JDCEH T. T----ylor-------- Si 111
Traffic 0 Capt W. V. Harris. Jr.. SigC 3-2202 Commanding General 3`.310_______________ _
Plant 0 Capt W. E. Nathan. SigC 3-1132 IChief 04Staff 3-7190
---- UNiTEN. DIVISION- I ---
Crypto 0 CWO L LLeffingwell. Jr, SigC3,9254 |ACotS GI 346109 | (
Supply 0 Capt G. A. Coburn. SigC 3.11223 |AWoS G2 3-7239 M-.B.E
?31 pr
Richards-Geba., Air Force Base, Mo. Di 54400 CO5h Bn. 55th Arty Olathe. U CWO H.
B. '
tell U
A -3 o
CO, 4th Reg Lt Col F. S. Osiecki (K.C. Mol) ST 240530. Ex378 Sp
2253 o 0
Bfig Gen J. R. Wmn. USA Ext 555 ICO Spcial Troops 3-5265|
L f l 32 5
Co] H. B. Lane. Arty Ext 565 * - -- - - - - - - ---------------
Co, Sib Msl Bn, 55th Arty. Olathe, Ks ST 240530
Lt Col F. S. Osiecki. Arty Ext 376
CO, Btry D, Sth Msl B,, Ft L,,mnworth
Capt M. Welch, Arty ___ 413110
PM Lt Col H. R.
Asst PM
Opns Off
Adm Asst Mr. M. R. L.,
Veh Reg SSgt H. Fe~n
Brucker, Wilbur M. "The U. S. Army Command and
General Staff College Dedicates Bell Hall," Military
Review, Vol XXXVIII (March 1959), p. 3.
Cantrell, James L. "On the Life of Riley," Military
Review, Vol XXXVI (May 1956), p. 35.
Command and General Staff College, The Story of Fort
Leavenworth and the Command and General Staff
College. Pamphlets (1955 and 1959). The Leaven-
worth Lamp. Pamphlet (1956). Formal Dedication
Ceremony-Bell Hall. Pamphlet (1959).
Culp, W. W. "Resident Courses of Instruction," Mili-
tary Review, Vol XXXVI (May 1956), p. 15.
Davidson, Garrison H. After Action Report. Ft Leav-
enworth, Kansas, 1956.
Davis, Kenneth S. Soldier of Democracy. New York,
Dugas, Meade J. "The Allied Officer at the College,"
Military Review, Vol XXXVI (May 1956), p. 42.
Fort Leavenworth. From Frontier Post to Home of the
United States Army Command and General Staff
College. Pamphlet (1959).
General Orders Files, 1952-63. Office of the Assistant
Chief of Staff, G1, Ft Leavenworth, Kansas.
Hunt, Elvid, and Walter E. Lorence. History of Fort
Leavenworth 1827-1937. Rev. ed. Ft Leavenworth
Kansas, 1937.
Leavenworth Chamber of Commerce. Centennial His-
torical Program. Leavenworth, Kansas. Pamphlet
Leavenworth Times. Special August Issues, 1955-63.
Leavenworth, Kansas.
Management Guide, Ft Leavenworth, Kansas, 1956.
McDonald, Marie, and Dorothy Hyle. The Illustrated
Guide to Fort Leavenworth, Leavenworth and Vicin-
ity. Ft Leavenworth, Kansas, 1955.
McGarr, Lionel C. "USA Command and General Staff
College Keeps Pace With the Future," Military Re-
view, Vol XXXVII (April 1957), p. 3. Special Re-
port of the Commandant. Ft Leavenworth, Kansas,
1959. End of Tour Report. Ft Leavenworth, Kansas,
McGregor, Edward W. "The Leavenworth Story," Mili-
tary Review, Vol XXXVI (May 1956), p. 62.
News Release Files, 1952-63. Information Office. Ft
Leavenworth, Kansas.
Nonresident Instruction Programs. Command and Gen-
eral Staff College, Ft Leavenworth, Kansas. Pam-
phlet (1963).
Organizational and Functional Manual, Ft Leaven-
worth, Kansas, 1954.
Organization and Functions Manual, Ft Leavenworth,
Kansas, 1962.
Programs of Instruction-Resident Courses, Command
and General Staff College 1952-63. College Library
Tyler, Orville Z., Jr. The History of Fort Leavenworth
1937-1951. Ft Leavenworth, Kansas, 1951.
Ablett, Lt Col Charles B. ------ 54
Ailes, Under Secretary of Army Stephen _----------20
Air Defense Battery ---- ------------__-30-32
Allied Officers --- -------------- 17, 18, 48-49
Anderson, Lt Col John A. ------------------ _29
Anderson, Col Norman W. -------------------- 14
Andrews Hall -------- 1------ 6, 17, 33, 35, 39
Archives -_.------------------- _ ____ _---_ 51
Armed Forces Day _-----------------------9-10
Army Air Corps ------- ---------------------32
Army Brats _--------------- -- ______ 54-55
Army Strategic Communications Command ------- 30
Arnold, Lt Gen William H. ------ -------- _14
Arsenal Hill ___-------------------------13, 41, 69
Associate Course ------------------- 1, 8, 15, 33, 46
Association of the
United States Army _------14, 19, 20, 21, 31, 60
Audio-Visual Communications Center ------------ 51
Austin, Col John O. _ ----------------- 54
Automatic Electric Company -------- ---------30
Baker, Bob ---------- --------- -------- _ 16
Band, 371st Army ---- ------------------ 9, 22
Barnard, Lt Col Asa __------------------__ 43
Barnhart, Col Frank H., Jr. -_------------------55
Beauchamp, Col Charles E. ----- ---------- _ 10
Beauchamp, Gen Charles E. -------------------- 11
Beehive 45 Beehive __------------------- -------------- 45
Bell, Maj Gen James Franklin __--------------- 41
Bell Hall ----- 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 23, 25, 41-42, 51, 68-69
Bell Yearbook --------------- _-- - 38
Berry, Margaret C. ------------------ _10
Birrer, Dr. Ivan J. ____- --------- 20, 41, 42, 52
Blakefield, Col William H. -_________-43, 45, 57
Bland, Col Ted C -. ----------------- __61
Bodner, Col William S. ------------------------ __36
Bolte, Gen Charles L. _-_-------------- --- 14
Boughton, Col Daniel H. ------ ---------- 60
Boughton Memorial ----------------- ----- 60
Boy Scouts of America _-- --------- ------- 54
Brucker, Secretary of the Army Wilbur M. __16, 39, 41
Buesing, Col Oliver ------- ------ _---_ -_-- 28
Buildings --------------- ------- ____72
Biittner, Col Louis .--------------------- ---- __ _12
Camp Lincoln -. 6--6
Camp Miles --- ------------ ------ _______ 54
Caple, Mrs. Dayton F. ---------------__ 54
Caples, Col Joseph T. .- _---------------------___ 27
Career courses -------------------- ------ 47
Catholic Youth Organization ---------------- 54
Centennial, Leavenworth ------------------------ 11
Chandler, Maj Milborne C. ---------------- 10
Normandy ------------------- __--- 53, 54
Post _-------- ------------- 10, 53, 54
St. Ignatius ------ ---------__------10, 54
Civilian-Military Council --------------------- __58
Clifford, Capt Margaret ------- -------- __--22
Army War __ 7
Army War -------------------- --- 7
Command and General Staff -_7, 8, 13, 16, 17, 19, 21,
22, 24, 30, 32, 35-52, 53, 68-69
General Service and Staff --------------------- _6
Highland Junior ------------------------- _____ 26
Colwell, Lt Col Hanford T. ___----- ------- 30
Combat Developments Command _-------------25, 43
Combined Arms Agency ---------------------- 20, 25
Combined Arms Group ----------- 20, 21, 24-25
Connor, Col William M. -____ ------------------ - 40
Construction ------ -------- ___-----------68
Coutts, Col James W. ------------------- 36
Cox, Mildred _-----------------1__ 7, 33, 34
Cox, Col Weldon W. ----------------------- _____26
Crafts _ ____58
Crafts -----------------------
Crietzberg, Col Abb -------- ------- ___ _ 55
Cristo, Mrs. Anthony B. __------------ ------ 59
Culp, Col William W. ---- ---------- _13, 16, 37
Cunningham, Brig Gen William A. ------------ 18, 19
Daley, L. Gen John F. ------------------- 25
Daughters of the US Army -.----------------- 59
Davall, Col Harold C. -------------------- 40
Davidson, Bonny Elaine ---------------------- ___ 12
Davidson, Gail Marie --------------------------- 12
Davidson, Maj Gen Garrison H. ____----11, 12, 33, 37,
38, 39, 41
Dean, Maj Gen William F. ------------------- 11
Deason, Col Robert H. - ------------------- 20
Deason, Mrs. Robert H. _-------------------------56
Decker, Gen George H. ------------------------- 43
Delta Battery ------------------- --- 31-32
Department of Command ---------------------- __ 43
Department of Division Operations --------------- 43
Department of Joint, Combined, and
Special Operations _--------------------___ 43
Department of Larger Unit Operations -- _--__ 43
Department of Nonresident Instruction ---------- 43
Diamond Jubilee ---------------------- _------39
Docking, Governor George -------------------- 31
Domos, Lt Col Robert A. _-------------------- 58
Douglass, Dr. Harl _------ ------------ 38
Dunn, Col Edward C. _..--- - ---------------- ___ 40
Durand, Chaplain (Lt Col) Henry L. ____--- - 53
Eddy, Lt Gen Manton S. ------------------- 38
Education Center --------- ------- ----- __ 56
Educational Advisor _-____------- 20, 41, 42, 52
Educational Survey Commission __------------38, 40
Eisenhower, Gen Dwight D. ------------------- 8, 12
Eisenhower, Maj John S. --------------------__ 12
Eklund, Col Karl F. _ -------------- _ 36
Elving, Mrs. Henrietta ------- ------------ 58
Ely, Lt Col John A. ---------------- _43
Erlenbusch, Col Robert C. ----- ----------- _21
Evans, Col James B. __--------------------------36
Ewbank, Col Keith H. --------------_ 36
Fac6, Lt Col Joao H. ----------- -_-------__50
Farm Colony --------------.. ____---------.. 26, 27
Flying Club, Fort Leavenworth ------------ _----15
Ford, Lt Col John D. -------------------- _-____54
Fort bridge --------------------------------- __22
Belvoir -------- __ -------- ______________ .__25
Benning ---------------- _____________________-13
Bliss ----. _--._--.--__-___-______-_________.25
Bragg _.._-------..---..____________________19
Detrick ---------------- ___ __________________-29
Holabird --------. __ -----.-- _____-____________25
Huachuca ---------------. ___ _______________25
Knox ------------- _--.-----__ _______________25
Leonard Wood --- _.-.------_ __ ____9 ---------- 9
McClellan -.---___._-----------_______________25
Riley _-__----_______ ______9, 11, 32, 39
Rucker ____-____------- __ ______ 25
Sill --..----...-.- _.._.._._ .. __-___.__25
Frame, Col Marshall W. -___-----.. ___-----_____36
Franklin, Col John F., Jr. -- ___.___. -- _ ____-__-37
Frontier Day ----- ____------________________17, 19
Gavin, Maj Gen James M. _------__-___--______12
Gavin, Col John A. -------------______- _-_____ __37
Girl Scouts of America ------------ ____ --- ___-___54
Global Satellite Communications System _--------30
Gould, Helen Miller ------------- ___ -________12
Gould, Jay ------------- __ ____-_________________12
Grant, President Ulysses S. -_6 _-----------_______
Grant Hall ---------____________________16, 25, 35
Greenhouse ------ _______ __._________________26, 27
Grombacher, Maj Gerd S. _------------_________54
Gruber Hall --------- __ _________________16, 35, 38
Guest Speakers ------------------- __-- ________52
Halpin, Lt Col Daniel E. __------__ ---- _-___-___ 50
Hamlett, Gen Barksdale ------------ ___ --- __-_50
Hancock, Gen Winfield S. __-----------__-___---.60
Harding, H. F. _________------ --- __-._ __________38
Hartford, Maj Gen Thomas J. _----------_________28
Hawkins, Col Wilson M. _-----___-________25, 43
Hediken, Col Thomas B. _-------------___________10
Heintzleman, Maj Gen Stuart --- _--___----_____ 13
Hemingway, Lt Col Jack N. _---------___ ______38
Hercules missile ------------- ___ _ _______________31
Hering, Mrs. Dandridge F. --------.._-.___-- ____19
Historical Committee, Fort Leavenworth ____12, 17, 33
Hobson, Col Victor W. __ -------- _________--__40
Hodes, Maj Gen Henry I. ______________9, 10, 11, 35
Hoekstra, Mrs. Melvin E. _-----___-_________ 54
Honors Program --------- __--_-___--___________52
Horseless Carriage Club ----- _--_---___ _-_ _____.16
Hunt, Fort Leavenworth -------- __ ____15, 19, 55-60
Instructional Aids Plant ---- _----------___ -____-51
International Group _--------------_____17, 49, 59
Johnson, Maj Gen Harold K. ---- 18, 19, 20, 21, 28, 50
Johnson, Col Max S. --------------------------- 10
Kansa Village -----. ___----------------- 17
Kellner, Maj H. A. __-- -_--------------_ 56
Kemp, Col James B. - _ ____--------------_ 57
Kennedy, President John F. ------------------ 18, 23
Keyes, Lt Gen Geoffrey ------ __ _------------38
Killian, Lt Col John J. __-___------------- 58
Kleinschmidt Corporation ---- ____-------__30
Know Your World ---------- __--------- _ 49
Koch, Lt Col Bruce C. -_------_-----------__ 52
Koepke, Chaplain (Lt Col) Theodore V. _---___53
Kotzebue, Maj Albert L. -____------------__ 20
Kotzebue, Mrs. Albert L. __-__------------_19
Lay, Col Kenneth E. _ -------------------- 50
Leavenworth, Col Henry _--5____----------5
Leavenworth, Gen Henry ----------- __6, 12
Leavenworth, Cantonment -------------------- 5, 10
Leavenworth Centennial Bridge ----------------- 22
Leavenworth, City ___6, 10, 11, 17, 27, 32, 49, 57, 70, 71
Leavenworth Lamp ----- -_---------___39, 42
Lehman, Wendell ------ - ___-------------61
Lemley, Brig Gen Harry J. __19, 20, 21, 23, 45, 50, 59, 61
Leonard, Col Richard M. _-_-----------__45, 54
Lewitz, Col Edward R. -------------------- _56
Liaison officers ----------.-------------- _ 45
Library, Command and General Staff College -__25, 51
Library, Post __.----___--------------__58
Liwski, Col Francis A. ----------------------- 16, 21
Loomis, Col Frederick H. _____------------_36
Love, Mrs. James N. ___-__---------------53
Luthi, Col I. L. -. ___-----------------___45
McBride, Gen Horace L. _-----------_ 9, 32, 35
McCartney, Col Robert W. _---------------57
McConnell, Lt Col Guy G. _------------- 20
McGarr, Maj Gen Lionel C. --- __.12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18,
30, 33, 39, 40, 41, 42, 57
McGraw, Anthony F. --------------------------- 51
McGregor Firing Range _------------------------31
McMinn, Chaplain (Maj) Thomas J. __----------54
McNair Hall _-_---------_----------55
Marshall, Gen George C. -------------------- __42
Marzari, Capt Guy J. --------------------------- 31
Masonic Order .------------------- _------------60
Master of Military Arts and Science ------------- 52
Medal of Honor ---------------------- 11
Meehan, Col Charles G. _---- ______-------10, 12
Merritt Lake __--_______------ 16, 55, 57, 59
Meslet, Lt Col Jean P. ___-___----------_14
Middleton, Lt Gen Troy H. _-----------------38
Midwest Relay Station ---- _________ __--- 28-30
Military Division of the Missouri __-6___----- -6
Military Order of World Wars -- ___--------39, 49
Military Review ----------------------------- 49-51
Miller, Cecil --------- __ ________ ______--57
Missouri River ----------- __ __ _ --- _9, 11, 41
Mollner, Chaplain (Maj) Joseph M. -------------- 10
Morgan, Col J.W. W- ______-------------60
Mudgett, Maj Gen Gilman C. ------___-- _----12
Muir Hall ------- -_---------------__16
Munson, Brig Gen Edward L. _- _ _----------_ 27
Munson Army Hospital ------ ___21, 27-28, 56, 70
Murray, Col Charles R. -----------------
__ 36
Museum, Fort Leavenworth -------- 10, 12, 15, 16, 17,
19, 32-34
Names, buildings and places .------------------- 72
National Cemetery, Fort Leavenworth, __--5, 6, 12, 68
National Guard ------------------- _-----_ _ 19
Naval Air Station, Olathe ------
Nawn, Mrs. Leo J. -__------------
Nelson, Maj Gen Ralph T. ------------------
Nike Hercules -------- ------- -- 15, 30-32
Nonresident instruction -------------------
Nuclear weapons employment ______________-__--42
O'Brien, Col Francis W. -.------------
O'Donnell, Maj Edward F. ----------------------
Officers' Open Mess ------------------------
_____ 57
Officers' Wives Club -------
Oregon Trail -------------------
----- _______ 15, 17
Oregon Village -____
----------------- 15
Orleans, Jacob S. -
_--------------- -- 38
Otis, Col Elwell S. ----
Otis Hall ..........12 Otis Hall --------------------------------
Pace, Secretary of the Army Frank, Jr. ___----____ 10
Palmer, Lt Gen Williston B. - -- - -- 12
Patch, Gen Alexander M., Jr. --------------
Patch Community Center ---------------- 12, 55
Pershing, Gen John J. --- ------- -- 43
Person, Maj Lawrence E. ---- ------ ------ 27
Peterson, Lt Col Theodore W. -------------
Pick, Mrs. Lewis A. -------
--------- 20
Pickell, Lt Col Wayne F. ------------------- 54, 61
Piper, Lt Col Harvey D. --- -- -- 54
Places ----------------------------------
7 2
Places --..............
_-_. 72
Pope, Maj Gen John --------------------------
Pope, Maj Gen John -.
Pope Hall ----------------
-_____14, 36
Printing Plant, Army Field ------- __-----------51
Protestant Men of the Chapel _-- -------------- 53
Protestant Women of the Chapel ----------------- 53
Protestant Youth of the Chapel _____------------_53
Purdy, Harold E. __--- --------- -_ _____14
Ramsey, Col David M. --- -- ------ 48
Red Cross volunteers ---- ---- - 56
Refresher courses --- --- --------- 47
Registered National Landmark _____--____________19
Regular Course -------- 8------ , 10, 17, 35, 46
Religious services -------------------------- _ 53-54
Resident courses -------- ------- -___46-47, 52
Rhoades, C. H ---. ___-_- 16
Ridgway, Gen Matthew B. _-- ------- 12
River Rats, Fort Leavenworth ------------------
Robbins, Col Chandler P., Jr. __________-12, 13
Rock Island Arsenal -------------------------
Rod and Gun Club ------- ---- - ___----- 55
Ross, Lt Col Charles C. ----------------
__- 56
Ryan, Col Ward S. -------------- --- ___ 40
St. John, Lt Col Frederick ------
St. John's Orphanage ------ - .----------- 31
Santa Fe Trail, _ ---------------- _5, 6, 17
Santa Fe Village --------
Schools (civilian)-
Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower -__--- ---------- 13
Gen Douglas MacArthur -------- --------- 13
Gen George S. Patton --------- ------- 15
Schools (military)-
Application for Infantry and Cavalry -- ______ -6
General Staff -------------- --- - 6
Line -------- --------- ------------ 6
US Infantry and Cavalry _ ---- 6
Schriltz, Lt Col S. von ------------ _34
Seay, Col Joseph B. ----- 21
-_ _45
Secretariat ------ ------------------------
Shalkoski, Vic
Shalkoski, Vi -----------------------------
Sharp, Chaplain (Lt Col) William B. _----- 16
Shelton, Chaplain (Capt) Wayne G. - -________22, 53
Sheridan, Gen Philip H. -------------- 6
Sheridan Hall ---------------
Sherman, Maj William ------- --------- ___ 32
Sherman Air Force Base _---- ------------ 9, 11
Sherman Army Airfield ---- __ 11, 15, 16, 17, 19, 29, 32
Sherman Hall_ _------------__- ___ 12, 35
Shoulder patch __----------39
Shutz, Col Albert D. ----------- 54
Shutz, Mrs. Albert D. ---------- 60
Simmons, Col James E. ___- - --------------- 53
Slobe, Col E. L. ----------- 27
Smith Lake ---------- ------- --- 55
Special courses
_-____. . 4 7
Special courses -------------------- ----- 47
Special Information Course --------------------- 42
Special Services _--------------------_ - 58-59
Sport Parachute Club ---------------------------
Stevens, Secretary of the Army Robert T. --------- 11
Stevenson, Charles S. --------------------
Sunflower Ordnance Works _---------------------29
Taber, Col John H. -------- 28
Taylor, Lt Col Raleigh O. - ------------ 54
Terry, Col Augustus T., Jr. ------------------
Thrift Shop -----------------
Tour of duty --------------------
-- -- 22
Tour of duty _- . ............ ___- .22
Townsend, Brig Gen Elias C. __------ 22, 45, 56
Townsend, Col Elias C. ___------22
Townsley, Lt Col Floyd W. ----------------- 19
Train, Brig Gen William F. ___-_____---- 12, 13
Trudeau, Maj Gen Arthur G. --------------- 12
Truesdell, Maj Gen Karl ---------- _17
Truesdell Hall ------ ------- _ 17, 69
Trujillo, Lt Gen Rafael L., Jr. ------------- 14
Truman, President Harry S -------------------__18
Udall, Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. --- ____19
US Disciplinary Barracks ------- ----------- 25-27
US Volunteer Infantry Association __-_______-_ 16
Von Bargen, Lt Col Gerald C. ---- ---------- 30
Wagner Hall -------------------------
_ 51
Walker, Lt Col R. M. ----------------------
Washcoe, Maj Wilfred C. -------------------
Weld, Col Seth L., Jr. _ --------------
-- 36
Welsh, Capt Milton ---------- ---- _______ 32
West Coast Relay Station ---------- ------ __-30
Westphal, Maj John P. -------------------- _ ____32
Wilson, Col Jasper J. ------------------- ___ 43
Wilson, Col Lawrence M. ---------------- __ 43
Women's Army Corps --------------------------
Works, Col Robert C.
_----- --------_ 20, 25
Worldwide Combat Arms Conference ------------- 20
Young, Maj Gen Robert N. --------------------- 12
Young Men's Christian Association _------- __12, 71
Youth Activities Association --- _ -------------- _55
Zierath, Brig Gen Frederick R. -- _______13, 16, 18, 31
USACGSC-PL5-0075-175-4 Dec 64