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Usage of ERS SAR data over the Singhbhum Shear Zone, India for structural mapping and tectonic studies
S. K. Pal a; T. J. Majumdar b; A. K. Bhattacharya a a Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India b Earth Sciences and Hydrology Division, Marine and Earth Sciences Group, Remote Sensing Applications and Image Processing Area, Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad, India Online Publication Date: 01 January 2007 To cite this Article: Pal, S. K., Majumdar, T. J. and Bhattacharya, A. K. (2007) 'Usage of ERS SAR data over the Singhbhum Shear Zone, India for structural mapping and tectonic studies', Geocarto International, 1 - 11 To link to this article: DOI: 10.1080/10106040701337642 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10106040701337642

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Geocarto International 2007, 111, iFirst article

Usage of ERS SAR data over the Singhbhum Shear Zone, India for structural mapping and tectonic studies
S. K. PAL{, T. J. MAJUMDAR*{ and A. K. BHATTACHARYA{ {Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India {Earth Sciences and Hydrology Division, Marine and Earth Sciences Group, Remote Sensing Applications and Image Processing Area, Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad 380 015, India
(Received 19 May 2006; in nal form 14 March 2007) The extraction of lineaments and anomalous patterns in the Singhbhum Shear Zone, Jharkhand, India, has multifaceted applications for mineral exploration as well as for geological interpretation of neotectonic movements. ERS-1 SAR data are very useful for such applications because of their structural information content. A comparative study has been attempted with ERS, Landsat and IRS images for the interpretation of various geological structures over the Singhbhum Shear Zone. The Rose diagram generated from this study has shown major trends that matched well with the geological map of the area and the associated tectonic boundary as well as with the results obtained from ground based studies. Keywords: ERS SAR, IRS LISS II, Landsat, Singhbhum Shear Zone, Rose diagram, Lithological discrimination

1.

Introduction

The Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) is one of the geologically most complex and mineralogically rich belts of the Indian subcontinent. The area has been extensively surveyed using ground-based geological techniques (Dunn 1929, Sarkar 1963, Naha 1965, Sarkar and Saha 1977, Acharya 1984, Sarkar 1988, Saha 1994). It has a major tectonic element that separates the cratonic block (Singhbhum-Orissa Iron Ore craton) in the south from the Preterozoic mobile belt (Singhbhum Mobile Belt) in the north. It runs in a northwards direction, dipping along a northwardly convex arcuate belt for a length of more than 160 km from Baharagora in the east to Chakradharpur in the west. The shear zone trends NWSE in the eastern part with a width of 5 km, turning approximately EW and being wider in the western part. In the Singhbhum belt, mineralization occurs intermittently along a narrow belt in the Precambrian terrain of Singhbhum, currently in Jharkhand. Due to occurrences of a large number of copper and uranium deposits along this belt, it has also been described as the Cu-U belt. Signicantly this belt coincides with a zone of conspicuous tectonic disturbances and has been described by dierent authors as the

*Corresponding author. Email: tjmajumdar@sac.isro.gov.in


Geocarto International ISSN 1010-6049 print/ISSN 1752-0762 online 2007 Taylor & Francis http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals DOI: 10.1080/10106040701337642

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S. K. Pal et al.

Singhbhum Thrust Belt or as the Singhbhum Shear Zone. The important host rocks of mineralization in the eastern sector covering Mosabani and Rakha, and in the central sector covering Jadugoda, Bhatin and Narwa Pahar are biotite chlorite schist, quartz-schist, brecciated quartzite, and conglomerate schist, of which the rst two rocks are predominant. Linears are naturally/culturally occurring features observed in small-scale remote sensing imagery. They are seen in remotely sensed images as simple or composite linear features on the surface whose parts align in straight or slightly curving relationships and that dier distinctly from the patterns of adjacent features in various combinations of stream patterns, tonal changes or tonal vegetation and topographic alignments. In general, a lineament expresses a subsurface phenomenon (Sabins 1987). Further research work (Sarkar and Chakraborty 1982, Rakshit and Swaminathan 1985, Parsons and Yearley 1986, Javed et al. 1993, Majumdar 1995) had been carried out in and around the study area for mineral potential mapping, lithological and structural studies using remote sensing data. However, the belt forms one of the potentially challenging areas for assessing the ecacy of remotely sensed data for mapping of geological structural/lithological details. 2. Objectives . To carry out regional geological mapping of the area surrounding Singhbhum Shear Zone using ERS-1 SAR data and to compare with Landsat TM and IRS LISS II data. . To access the utilization of ERS-1 SAR data for structural mapping. 3. Data sources and area of study An ERS-2 SAR Path Radiance Image (PRI)/Precision Image (path: 0842, row: 0198) of 30 September 2002 taken over the Singhbhum Shear Zone and surrounding areas of Jharkhand, India has been used in this study as a higher spatial resolution data source (C band, VV polarization). The Precision Image is a path oriented and system corrected product, being the basic product used for a variety of remote sensing applications. The Precision Image product has fewer speckles, as it has been generated from the resultant images of three single-look complex (SLC) data. The scene size was 100 km in range direction and at least 102.5 km in azimuth direction. The spatial resolution was 25 m in range direction and 15 m in azimuth direction. ENVI Software was used for preprocessing the ERS-1 SAR data (Research Systems Inc. 2001). The study area is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent between approximately 228 000 to 228 450 N latitudes and 868 000 to 868 450 E longitudes. It covers the forest areas of the East and West Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand, and that of the Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and Bonai districts of Orissa (gure 1). However a major part of the SSZ lies in Jharkhand. The region under consideration covers a Precambrian terrain of about 6400 km2. The data used in the present study are as follows: . . . . Survey of India Toposheet (73 J) of the study area in 1: 250 000 scale. Published geological maps of the area in 1:50 000 scale. Published tectonic map of the study area in 1:50 000 scale. ERS-1 SAR digital data, path P 0842/row S 0198, 30 September 2002.

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Structural mapping and tectonic studies

Figure 1.

Location map of the study area.

4.

Geology of the Singhbhum Shear Zone

The Singhbhum Shear Zone occurs as a curvilinear belt with an EW trend. Singhbhum rocks, like those of other Precambrian terrains, have undergone many phases of deformation and metamorphism. Rocks to the south of the Singhbhum Shear Zone are relatively less metamorphosed compared to those to the north. Rocks of Older Metamorphic Group form the basement rocks. They are exposed in the central part of the basin. Older Metamorphic Group mainly consists of schist. The Iron Ore Group rocks overlie the basement rocks and are exposed over

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S. K. Pal et al.

vast areas in the western part and over some areas in the east. The Iron Ore Group succession had formed a broad NNE plunging synclinorium with an overturned western limb. The succession has a symmetric lithology with the Banded Iron Formation (BIF) lying in the middle of the succession bounded on the upper and lower sides by phyllite and basaltic lava. Massive batholiths of granite to granodiorite composition are occupying vast areas in the central part to the south of SSZ. This granitic mass was emplaced after the deformation of the Iron Ore group. Rocks of the Dhanjori Group are exposed in the eastern part of the Singhbhum region. This Group consists of conglomerate, arkose, quartzite and lava ows. The bottom part of this succession is identied as the Singhbhum Group to the north of the Singhbhum Shear Zone. Similarly the lava ows in the north are called Dalma Lava. Dolerite dikes have intruded in the Singhbhum Granite and occur mostly in the southern part of the Singhbhum district and Keonjhar. The Kolhan Group occurs to the SSW of SSZ. It consists of gently dipping purple sandstones, conglomerates, limestones and slates of Proterozoic age. Figure 2 shows the geological map of the study area. Sarkar (1982) proposed a model of converging microplates in an attempt to interpret the Precambrian tectonic evolution of the Singhbhum and Chotanagpur regions. In this model, the Chotanagpur block represents an overriding plate being underthrust by the Singhbhum microplate, the collision of the two continental microplates taking place approximately 1600 Ma ago. The tectonic evolution of this region is considered as a consequence of long term geodynamic and geochemical processes (41 Ga), which the subducted oceanic lithosphere of the Singhbhum microplate has experienced. The conceptual model is reconstructed in the light of theoretical studies on the mantle and crustal processes above the subduction zones (Morgan 1972, Sarkar 1988). 5. Methodology In the present study remotely sensed satellite (IRS-1A, Landsat TM, and ERS-1 SAR) data have been used for the extraction of structural features. ERS-1 SAR (C-band) imagery has been interpreted and a structural map of Singhbhum and surrounding areas has been generated. Finally the structural map obtained from the ERS SAR image has been compared with similar maps obtained from IRS-1A (LISS II, channels 2, 3 and 4 i.e. visible and infrared) and Landsat TM (channels 2, 3 and 4, i.e. visible and infrared) data (Javed et al. 1993). Structural information, as obtained from ERS SAR data, may be more useful due to the response of backscattering with respect to soil moisture in comparison with IRS and Landsat TM (visible and infrared) data, which are otherwise rich in spectral and spatial resolutions. Selective ground truth has been carried out over the study area to validate the ndings. Rose diagrams have also been generated over the study area based on the interpretation using ERS-1 SAR, Landsat TM, IRS-1 A LISS II data. 6. Results and discussion Digital processing of satellite data using various image processing techniques may help in the extraction of regional lineaments and anomalous patterns in two ways. First, it automates the whole procedure of interpretation, which is otherwise highly

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Structural mapping and tectonic studies

Figure 2. Geological map of the study area (after Saha 1994). 1Older Metamorphic Group; 2Older Metamorphic Tonalite-gneiss; 3Pala Lahara Gneiss; 4Singhbhum Granite-Phase-I; 5Singhbhum Granite-Phase-II and xenolith-dominated areas of Bonai Granite; 6Nilgiri Granite; 7IronOre Group lavas, ultramacs; 8Iron Ore Group shales, tus, phyllites; 9BHJ, BHQ and sandstone-conglomerate of Iron Ore Group; 10 Singhbhum Granite-Phase-III, Bonai Granite, Chakradharpur Granite; 11Singhbhum Group pelites, 11(a)mac bodis 11(b)carbon phyllite; 12Singhbhum Group quartzites; 13Dhanjori Group; 14Quartzite-conglomerate-pelite of Dhanjori Group; 15DhanjariSimlipal-Jagannathpur-Malangtoli lavas; 16Dalma Lavas; 17Proterozoic Gabbroanorthosite-ultramacs; 18Kolhan Group and equivalents; 19Mayurbanj Granite; 20Soda granite, Arkasani Granite, Kuilapal Granite, alkaline granite; 21Charnockite; 22Khondalite; 23Amphibolite enclaves (within CGG) 24pelitic enclaves within CGG; 25Chhotanagpur granite-gneiss (CGG); 26Porphyritic member of CGG; 27Gondwana sediments; 28Alluvium, Tertiaries.

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time-consuming and second, it removes the human bias/error from the nal interpretation. Figure 3(a) shows the interpreted structural map over the Singhbhum Shear Zone as obtained from the ERS SAR image. A careful comparison of this map with the interpretation maps (gure 3(b) and (c)) obtained earlier using IRS-1A and Landsat TM imageries respectively show that ERS-1 SAR and IRS-IA images are more helpful than the Landsat TM image for delineation of major linear or

Figure 3. (a) Visual interpretation map of digitally processed ERS-1 SAR data over the Singhbhum Shear Zone, (b) Visual interpretation map of digitally processed IRS-1A LISS II data over the Singhbhum Shear Zone (after Javed et al. 1993), (c) Visual interpretation map of digitally processed Landsat TM data over the Singhbhum Shear Zone (after Javed et al. 1993).

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Structural mapping and tectonic studies

Figure 3.

(Continued).

curvilinear features e.g. lineaments, folds and faults (Javed et al. 1993, Majumdar 1995). ERS SAR imagery has also been found to be much more suitable for delineating macro- as well as micro-structural features in the study area. It is also clear that major lineaments occurring in this area are along EW and NWSE directions, while numerous minor lineaments having NS trend occur in the north-eastern

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S. K. Pal et al.

Figure 3.

(Continued).

and southern part of the study area (gure 3). In addition, a large number of local and regional folds, having closures towards the east, with axial plane traces running EW, and also some folds having closures towards the south with axial plane traces trending NS, are prominently observed in the SAR interpreted imagery. Further, small tributaries/streams have also been distinctly identied on the SAR imagery, which are not very clear either in the IRS-1A or the Landsat TM images (gure 3). Also, a study has been carried out to explore the relationship of these stream paths with the zonal lineament pattern of geological importance. The major river in the study area, the Subarnarekha, is near parallel to the SSZ, running along the north of SSZ, and following intermittently in between the SSZ and Dalma volcanic as interpreted from SAR imagery. Therefore, it is clear that the Subarnarekha and its tributaries are structurally controlled. In addition, some short length seasonal

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Structural mapping and tectonic studies

streams are also structurally controlled in the south-west part as observed from SAR imagery. A number of faults in the NS direction have also been mapped near the central part of the Dhanjori volcanic, as observed from SAR imagery. The role of the structures includes the focusing of magmatic and/or surfacederived uid, the localizing of plutonic emplacement, and creation of a local fault, fracture and lineament networks to host mineralization. Economically, the structures have a great signicance due to the probability of accumulation of the mineralized ores in and along the weak zone of lineaments, faults, and surrounding the axial plane of the fold. These geological structures help to locate the occurrence of the hidden ore/mineral. The dierent mines such as Baharagora, Mosaboni, Jadugoda, Rakha, and Tatanagar are along the shear zone, which correlate very well with the anticipated results. Rose diagrams, generated over the study area from ERS-1 SAR, Landsat TM and IRS-1A LISS II data are shown in gure 4(a), (b) and (c), respectively.

Figure 4. The Rose diagrams generated over the study area based on the interpretation using (a) ERS-SAR (b) Landsat TM and (c) IRS-1A LISS II data.

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The Rose diagrams represent a better perspective view and trends of the structural features. The maximum lineaments occurring in the north of SSZ are NNE, NNW and NW trending, while maximum lineaments occurring in the south of SSZ are NE, ENE, WNW, and NW trending as observed by Pal et al. (2006). The major river in the study area, Subarnarekha, as delineated from the ltered SAR imagery, is observed to be running almost parallel along the northern boundary of SSZ for some distance, and then following intermittently in between the SSZ and Dalma volcanic (gure 3(a)). High contrast and darker tones emphasize the main drainage pattern of the study area. Those trends matched well with the geological map of the area showing trends associated with the tectonic boundary and fractures in the Chotanagpur region as obtained by eld studies and visual interpretation of Landsat imageries with major trends in ENE and SE directions (Sarkar 1988, Javed et al. 1993, Saha 1994) (gures 2 and 3(a), (b) and (c)). The comparison shows good matching for generalized lineaments along EW, NESW and NWSE directions though the intensity of occurrences varies. 7. Conclusions Remote sensing is a very cost-eective tool for delineating dierent structural features, drainage patterns etc. A number of new structural features have been delineated on an ERS-1 SAR image, which could not be detected earlier from other satellite imagery (gure 3(a)(c)). Water bodies and tributaries/streams are easily detectable from ERS-1 SAR image and the main river Subarnarekha, and few of its tributaries have been found to be structurally controlled. The generated Rose diagram has been found helpful for the delineation of major lineament trends and structural and tectonic patterns. The present study also reveals that maximum lineaments occurring in the SSZ are in EW, NESW and NWSE directions (gure 4). Also, numerous linear features, faults/fractures and folds could be identied and demarcated using this technique on SAR imagery, which may have a great signicance for locating hidden ore/mineral occurrences. It is found to be more suitable and eective for delineating lineaments, as well as drainage patterns, in the study area using ERS SAR data.

Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the anonymous referees for their critical comments/ suggestions for the improvement of the manuscript. They are also thankful to Dr R. R. Navalgund, Director, Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad, India, Dr K. L. Majumder, Ex-Deputy. Director, Remote Sensing Applications and Image Processing Area (RESIPA)/SAC, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad, India and Dr Ajai, Group Director, Marine and Earth Sciences Group (MESG)/RESIPA/SAC, Ahmedabad, India for their keen interest in this study. They are also thankful to Shri R. Bhattacharyya, Senior Research Fellow, Earth Sciences and Hydrology Division (ESHD)/MESG/RESIPA/SAC, Ahmedabad, India.

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