Joe Silmon and Stuart Hillmansen
Centre for Railway Research and Education, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B 15 2TT
1 Introduction
In July 2009, the UK goverment announced plans to elec­
trify the Great Western Main Line and the line between
Liverpool and Manchester [1]. It has been widely agued
that railway electrifcation is needed on more routes, but
it is more difcult to construct a fnancial case for doing
so. One such case is the heavily-used Trans-Pennine route
from Manchester to Leeds via Dewsbury and Hudders­
feld. The main operator on this route, First TransPennine
Express, is currently using high-powered diesel multiple
units in order to adhere to stringent performance criteria.
These trains are fequently overcrowded at peak times, be­
cause the route serves commuters who travel to Leeds,
York and Manchester fom throughout the North of Eng­
land, as well as longer-distance travellers [2].
Electrifing the Trans-Pennine route would not be an easy
task. There are many areas where the railway is built
in cuttings, tunnels, on the side of hills and round tight
curves. One way to deal with this problem would be to
electif the railway discontinuously, that is to only in­
stall catenary where it is cheap and easy to do so. Mod­
em energy storage techniques could then be used to en­
sure that trains always have an adequate supply of power.
This tradeof would reduce the overall cost of electrifca­
tion and therefore enable compelling business cases to be
established for more routes.
1.1 Investigation
A short investigation was carried out into the electifca­
tion of the Trans-Pennine route. The objective was to de­
termine if discontinous electrifcation was a feasible con-
cept, by simulating diesel and electric train performance
on a journey from Manchester to Leeds, and making elec­
trifcation available only in certain areas. The key perfor­
mance indicators are:
1. Whether or not the train is capable of completing its
2. Journey time
3. Energy consumption
1.2 Structure of the report
Section 2 describes the three traction systems used for this
investigation. The route and the variable stretches of elec­
trifcation are described in section 3. The results of the
simulation are presented in section 4, and fnally the con­
clusions are given in section 5.
2 Taction systems on the Tans-Pennine route
C|ass lo5
l II II j
• Powered ax|e
´´ •• ´´ •• •• ´´
´ Trai|ing ax|e
l II II II j
•• ff´´ ´´ ´´ LL •• ••
Figure 1: Train consists: classes 185 and 360
In this investigation, three separate traction systems, on
two different train types, have been considered. The fol­
lowing subsections contain details of each. Figure 1 shows
the wheel confguration for the two vehicle types.
2.1 Diesel inter-urban trains
The current choice of traction for the Trans-Pennine route
is the class 185 diesel multiple unit (DMU). This class of
vehicle was specifcally designed for this route, to a partic­
ularly demanding specifcation which required high power
capability in order for the train to keep to the timetable
whilst negotiating the many severe gradients on the route.
As a result, the vehicles were designed with the large Cum­
mins QSK-19 engine, developing up to 560 kW, although
the total power of the unit is quoted by Siemens as 1548
kW [3] for a three-car unit, suggesting the engines are not
used quite as far as their design power. Table 1 shows the
main statistics used for the simulation of these vehicles.
Each vehicle has a single engine and power is transmitted
to the wheels via a Voith three-speed hydraulic transmis­
sion. Cadan shafts then transfer power to fnal drive units
on both axles of one bogie of each vehicle, as shown in
fgure 2.
2.2 Conventonal electric
The class 360 EMU is in service with National Express
East Anglia and Heathrow Connect. The latter operator
has units of 4 cas each. These trains ae built on the
Siemens Desiro platform, meaning that their body shape
is very similar to that of the class 185.
The 360 has a modern electric traction package as shown
in fgure 3. The transformer and rectifer are mounted in a
trailer vehicle. They feed a DC link which runs the length
of the train. The driving vehicles, at the ends of the train,
are also the motor vehicles. Table 2 shows the relevant
technical specifcations of the class 360 four-car unit.
2.3 Electric multiple unit with energy storage
The "Hayabusa" project, which came to an end in 2008,
showed that energy storage technology is readily applica­
ble to railways and that it can effect substantial savings
in energy costs for railway traction systems. A class 43
(HST power car) was ftted with a battery pack capable
of storing 48 kWh of energy, captured from regenerative
braking. This battery pack had a mass of approximately
one tonne and had to be installed in the adjacent trailer
vehicle because of its size [4].
To model energy storage technology in this exercise, the
class 360 model has been slightly modifed by the addition
of two of these battery packs, at an additional mass of 2
tonnes. The power management sofware allows the train
to draw up to 30% of full power when running purely from
the batteries. This would provide 465 kW for around 12
Figure 4 illustrates the modifcation in the drive system of
the EMU.
3 The Tans-Pennine route
The northern Trans-Pennine route in its present form is
made up of sections of track built by several different com­
panies. It serves the former Victorian mill towns of Dews­
bury, Batley, Mirfeld and Huddersfeld, to name but a few.
The Pennines are a signifcant geographical obstacle and
because of the limited civil engineering available in the
nineteenth century, the railway was built with many harsh
gradients and sharp curves, resticting the maximum pos­
sible speed. This makes it an interesting route to study
for electrifcation. Figure 5 shows the gradient and speed
profles from Manchester Piccadilly to Leeds City.
Figure 6 highlights in green the route under consideration.
As a busy inter-city route, any other country in the world
would have electrifed this line many years ago. This,
of course, was not the case for the UK's "managed de­
cline" approach to railways, which was prevalent from the
1960s until privatisation. To justify electrifcation now on
grounds of fnancial beneft against cost, it is desirable to
minimise the cost and this is why discontinuous electrif­
cation could make a diference. There are several tunnels
and cuttings along the route, making electrifcation more
costly in these areas.
The objective of the investigation is to see whether trains
could still run reliably if the most troublesome sections of
track to electrify were left without power to keep the costs
Two variants of the route ae considered in the simulation:
one where the power source is continuously available (i.e.
diesel traction or continuous electrifcation) and the other
with electrifcation along all the route except in tunnels.
Table 3 shows the position of tunnels on the route relative
to Manchester Piccadilly (MCR) station.
4 Simulations and results
4.1 The single train simulator
The simulation platform was developed in previous re­
search into hybrid rail vehicles [5]. It uses numerical tech­
niques to compute the performance of railway vehicles in
the dimension along which the train travels. A number
of assumptions have been made in order to simplify the
Attribute Value
Power source Diesel oil
Power unit 3 × Cummins QSK-19 diesel engine
Total power developed 1548 kW
Total train mass 168 tonnes
Number of seats 169
Table 1: Table of attributes for the class 185 DMU
Attribute Value
Power source 25 kV AC overhead
Power unit 8 × Siemens 1 TB20 16-0GB02 3-phase induction machine
Total power developed 1550 kW
Total train mass 179 tonnes
Number of seats 280
Table 2: Table of attributes for the class 360 DMU
Stat (k)
End (k)
Table 3: Table of portal positions and lengths for tunnels on the route
• The track is assumed to be straight throughout 3. Class 360, no energy storage, discontinuous electri­
• The resistance to motion is assumed to be constant
• The Davis coeffcients for both trains have been as­
sumed to be identical (the train types have been cho­
sen for the similarities in vehicle shape)
• Driving style is approximated using a choice of "bang­
bang" control, closed-loop PI control with infnite
adjustability, and PI control with notched power and
braking settings; the "bang-bang" mode was chosen
for these experiments
4.2 Tests
The simulation was run with the following combinations
of parameters:
1. Class 185, (electrifcation irrelevant)
2. Class 360, no energy storage, electrifcation through­
4. Class 360, energy storage ftted, discontinuous elec­
Item 4 above required modifcations to the class 360's pa­
rameters. The mass of the train was increased by 2 tonnes.
The regeneration capability of the 360 was also modifed:
initially it was assumed it could regenerate up to 30% of
the traction energy. With the batteries included this was
increased to 45% (arbitrarily - the batteries will not al­
ways be available for regeneration as they will need to be
kept fully charged most of the time, ready for use when
the tain hits a dead section). It was further assumed that
there would be suffcient spare space on the underfames
of the vehicles to install the batteries there rather than
above solebar level, so no seats were removed.
Traction energy (kWh)
Braking energy (kWh)
Net energy per seat km (kWh/seatm)
Energy per passenger journey (kWh/seat)
Journey time (mm:ss)
360 full
360 disc.
360ES disc.
Table 4: Table of numeric results fom the simulation
4.3 Results
Figure 7 shows a plot of the speed performance of each
tain type. In each of the four cases, the train was able
to complete its journey. When electrifcation was made
discontinuous, there were noticeable changes in the speed
profle at the points where there was no electrifcation.
The EMU with no energy storage was unable to maintain
constant speed (as would be expected) and decelerated
signifcantly through the 5k Diggle tunnel (see fgure 8).
There are several changes of gradient and speed limit in
this area. Tracing the curves, it can be seen that the EMUs
running under discontinuous electrifcation were still re­
quired to brake for a lower speed limit whilst in the tun­
nel, and then had difculty getting back up to line speed
when the limit increased. Only when the end of the tunnel
is reached, after the speed limit rises to 60 mph, do they
start to accelerate with full power.
The EMU with energy storage performed better, manag­
ing a slow rate of acceleration through parts of Diggle tun­
nel on its battery power. Morley tunnel showed similar ef­
fects, and these are shown for comparison in fgure 9. The
numerical results produced by the simulation are listed in
table 4.
The energy consumed per seat by the electric trains is con­
siderably smaller than that used by the diesel train, even
without energy storage, because the EMU has many extra
seats for a similar rating of power. With energy storage,
this improves further.
Net energy per seat k was calculated by subtracting a
percentage of the braking energy fom te traction energy,
and dividing by the number of seats and the distance trav­
elled. This takes account of any regeneration capability
the train has.
5 Conclusions
5.1 Experimental results
The results show that for a relatively small reduction in
performance (less than 30 seconds exta jourey time), an
EMU operating under discontinuous electrifcation, with
a modest amount of energy storage, could perform ade­
quately on this route, under ideal conditions. Of course,
many factors have been either approximated or ignored
here, and more study would be needed before it would be
possible to say with certainty that this is a viable solution.
However, it is promising to notice that with a few small
modifcations, electrifcation could be brought to the Trans­
Pennine corridor at greatly lower cost than current schemes.
Avoiding electifcation of tunnels would allow the projects
to complete more quickly as well.
The results are also a timely reminder of the more general
benefts of electric traction. The diesel train uses roughly
twice as much energy per seat km than the most power­
hungry electric train considered in this study. It supports
the government's current stance that electrifcation should
be examined as a serious option for many routes around
the UK.
5.2 Further work
A more detailed investigation is now under way into the
efects of discontinuous electrifcation on the performance
of new inter-city trains which will replace diesel High
Speed Trains in the coming years. The Single Train Sim­
ulator will be refned to take more variables into account,
and produce more results, for example separating the en­
ergy use between fuel types in the case of bi-mode trains.
This will assist in the calculation of carbon footprints.
Additionally, the driving style has been identifed as an
area for further improvement; energy monitoring work
currently under way will yield some statistics which can
be used for a control system identifcation project to sim­
ulate the driver's performance in the STS.
6 References
[1] HM Department for Transport. Rail Electrication.
Df Publications, 2009.
[2] HM Department for Transport. Delivering a Sustain­
able Railway. Df Publications, 2007.
[3] Siemens Transportation Systems. Technical Infora­
tion: Desir UK DMU Class 185. Siemens AG, 2004.
[4] Grantham, A. "Hybrid technology enters the real
world." Railway Gazette International website, 2007.
[5] Hillmansen, S. and Roberts, C. "Energy storage de­
vices in hybrid railway vehicles: a kinematic analy­
sis." Prceedings of the IMechE Part Í. Joural of
Rail and Rapid Trnsit, 221, 135-143,2007.
Figure 2: Drive train of the class 185 DMU
o o
Figure 3: Section of the class 360 traction system
o o
Figure 4: EMU drive system with energy storage



0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Speed lnllprOf||e
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
D|sIanOe ¦km)
Figure 5: Gradient and speed profles for the route from Manchester to Leeds via Huddersfeld
Suntor Bamelby _zº

Figure 6: Map of First TransPennine routes with Manchester-Leeds highlighted in green (map lifed fom First TPE
website; no copyright stated on original)
Speed limits and actual speed
-Class 185
-Speed limit
-Class 360 (full electrification)
-Class 360 (discontinuous electrification)
-Class 360ES (discontinuous electrification)
O �--�---�---�---�---�---�--��---
o 10
20 30 40
Distance (km)
Figure 7: Speed profles for all tests
Speed limits and actual speed - Diggle tunnel
60 70 80
5 65 F===
� 60
-Class 185
-Speed limit
-Class 360 (full electrification)
-Class 360 (discontinuous electrification)
-Class 360ES (discontinuous electrifcation)
40 �_� __ � __ � ___ � __ � __ - __ � ___ L__ � __
22 23 24 25 26
Distance (km)
27 28 29 30
Figure 8: Closeup showing speed profle variations at Diggle tunnel
60 61
Speed limits and actual speed - Morley tunnel
-Class 360 (full electrifcation)
-Class 360 (discontinuous electrification)
-Class 360ES (discontinuous electrification)
62 63 64 65 66
Distance (km)
Figure 9: Closeup showing speed profle vaiations at Morley tunnel

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