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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DIVISON OF THERMAL AND ENERGY CONVERSION

IC Engine Fundamentals
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Engine Systems

An engine must at least include the following systems to operate


Air supply and Exhaust system Fuel supply system Combustion system Ignition system (SI) Cooling system Lubricating system Starting system Electrical power supply (battery or generator)

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pressure = force area force = pressure x area

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pressure = force area force = pressure x area

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Ignition system

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Ignition system

Crank mechanism

Spark Ignnition System


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Distributer contains:
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A rotating cam driven by the engine drive A set of breaker points, A condensor(capacitor) A roter and distributer cap

The ignition coil consit of two transformer windings sharing a common megnetic core- the primary (200 to 300 turns) and secondary windings (21,000 turns). An alternating current in the PW induces magnetic field in the coils core so that it serves as a step up transformer.

Spark Ignnition System


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For an ignition coil, one end of windings of both the primary and secondary are connected together. This common point is connected to the battry ( ussually through the current limiting ballast rsistor) The other end of the primary is connected to the point in the distributer The other end of the SW is connected via the the distributer cap and rotor to the spark plugs

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Intake system

Ignition system

Crank mechanism

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Intake system

Exhaust system

Ignition system

Crank mechanism

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Intake system Cooling system Thermostat

Exhaust system

Ignition system

Crank mechanism

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Intake system Cooling system Thermostat

Exhaust system

Ignition system

Lubrication system Crankcase vent

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Otto cycles
Intake Compression, Combustion Power Exhaust

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fuel air air + fuel


pressure

1. INTAKE STROKE

volume TDC BDC

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Stoichiometric mixture

volume TDC

pressure

BDC

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pressure


volume TDC BDC

2. COMPRESSION STROKE

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pressure


volume TDC BDC

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3. Power stroke

pressure

volume

TDC

BDC

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pressure


volume

TDC

BDC

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pressure

4. Exaust stroke


TDC


volume BDC

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pressure


volume

TDC

BDC

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pressure

Exhaust gas residual volume TDC

BDC

Negative work

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IC Engine Fundamentals-Some Problems


28 Intake tuning Exhaust tuning Emissions

Mixture preparation

Combustion, auto ignition

1. Performance 2. Fuel economy 3. Emission

Wear

CxHx CO NOx

Inertia

lubrication

IC Engine Fundamentals-Diesel Engine


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The Diesel Engine

pressure

volume TDC BDC

Negligible negative work

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10000 - 20000 psi

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IC Engine fundamental-SI Engine


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Intake Stroke
The piston travels from TDC to BDC with the intake valve open and exhaust valve closed. Piston draws air and fuel mixture into cylinder

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Compression Stroke

When the piston reaches BDC, the intake valve closes and the piston travels back to TDC with all valves closed. Rising piston compresses mixture raising both the pressure and temperature in the cylinder. Near the end of the compression stroke, the spark plug is fired and combustion is initiated. (constant-volume combustion).

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Expansion Stroke
With all valves closed, the high pressure created by the combustion process pushes the piston away from TDC. As the piston travels from TDC to BDC, cylinder volume is increased, causing pressure and temperature to drop.

IC Engine fundamental-SI Engine


Exhaust Stroke
With the exhaust valve remaining open, the piston now travels from BDC to TDC in the exhaust stroke. This pushes most of the remaining exhaust gases out of the cylinder into the exhaust system

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Intake Stroke

Intake stroke in Diesel engine is the same as the intake stroke in an SI engine. The major difference being no fuel is added to the incoming air.

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Compression Stroke

The same as in SI engine except that only air is compressed and compression is to higher pressures and temperature. Late in the compression stroke fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber where it mixes with the very hot air. This causes the fuel to evaporate and self-ignite causing combustion to start. Combustion is fully developed by TDC and continues at about constant pressure until fuel injection is complete (i.e. after Cut - off) and the piston has started towards BDC.

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Power Stroke
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The power stroke continues as combustion ends and the piston travels towards BDC.

Exhaust Stroke
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The same as SI engine

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The two stroke engine employs the crankcase as well as the cylinder to achieve all the elements of the Otto cycle in only two strokes of the piston. One power stroke in one revolution of the crankshaft The main difference between two stroke and four-stroke engines is in the method of filling the fresh charge and removing the bunt gases from the cylinder.

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In a two-stroke engine, the filling process is accomplished by the charge compressed in crankcase or by a blower. The induction of the compressed charge moves out the product of combustion through exhaust ports. Therefore, no piston strokes are required for these two operations. Two strokes are sufficient to complete the cycle, one for compressing the fresh charge and the other for expansion or power stroke.

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A compression stroke (intake + compression) starts by closing the intake and exhaust ports, and then compresses the cylinder contents and draws fresh charge into the crankcase. The fuel/air mixture is drawn into the crankcase by the vacuum that is created during the upward stroke of the piston. As the piston approaches combustion is initiated. TDC,

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A power or expansion stroke (combustion + exhaust) At the end of compression stroke the spark plug ignites the fuel mixture. The burning fuel expands, driving the piston downward, to complete the cycle. At the same time, another crankcase compression stroke is happening beneath the piston.

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IC Engine Fundamentals-2 Stroke Engine

During downward movement of the piston first the exhaust ports and then the intake ports are uncovered. When the inlet ports are uncovered, the fresh charge which has been compressed in the crankcase flows into the cylinder. (Scavenging) The piston and the ports are generally shaped to deflect the incoming charge from flowing directly into the exhaust ports and to achieve effective scavenging of the residual gases

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Upward stroke of the piston

During the downward stroke

Intake Valve open

Crank Case compression

Transfer port Opening Scavenging

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Upward stroke of the piston

Down ward stroke of the piston

Cylinder compressionanother intake stroke is happening beneath the piston

Power StrokeCrankcase compression

Exhaust StrokeScavenging

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Comparison of SI & CI Engines


Description Basic Cycle SI Engine Otto Cycle Heat addition @ Constant volume Gasoline, Highly volatile fuel, self ignition temp is high Fuel-air mixture introduced during suction stroke (Carburetor is necessary) Throttle controls the quantity of mixture introduce Required an ignition system with spark plug CI Engine Diesel cycle, Heat addition @ constant pressure Diesel oil, non volatile fuel, selfignition temp is comparatively low Fuel directly injected to the combustion chamber at high pressure (fuel pump and injector is necessary) The quantity of fuel is regulated in the pump. Air quantity is not control Ignition system & sparkplug are not necessary

Fuel

Introduction of Fuel

Load control

Ignition

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Comparison of SI & CI Engines


Description Compression ratio Speed SI Engine 6-10, upper limit is fixed by anti knock quantity of fuel They are high speed engines (light weight & homogeneous combustion) Lower thermal Efficiency (lower compression ratio) Lighter due to lower peak pressure CI Engine 16-20 upper limit is limited by weight increase of the engine They are low speed engines ( heavy weight & heterogeneous combustion) Higher thermal efficiency (higher compression ratio) Heavier due to higher peak pressure

Thermal Efficiency

weight

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Comparison of 2-Stroke & 4-Stroke Engines


4-Stroke Engines The cycle completed in 4 strokes of piston or 2-revolution of crankshaft 2-Stroke Engine The cycle is completed in twoA strokes of the piston or one power strokes obtained in every revo. of crankshaft Turning moment is more uniform & hence a lighter flywheel can be used Power produced for the same size of engine is more (Theoretically twice, actually 1.3 times) due to 1 Power stroke in 1 revo. Of Cra Sh) Greater cooling & lubrication requirements Higher rate of wear & tear

Turning moment is not uniform & hence a heavier flywheel is needed

The power produced for the same size engine is less (2 revo gives 1 power)

Lesser cooling & lubrication requirement Lower rate of wear & tear

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4-S Engines Contains valve & Valve mechanisms to open & close valves The initial cost is very high (Coz of heavy wt. & complicated valve mechanism) Volumetric Efficiency is more (Coz of more time for induction) Thermal Efficiency is higher, part load efficiency is better Used where Efficiency is important ( in Cars, Buses, aero planes, etc

2-S Engine No valves but ports (some 2-s engines are fitted with exhaust valves or reed valve) Initial cost of the engine is less (Coz od light wt. & simplicity) Volumetric Efficiency is low (Coz of lesser time for induction) Thermal Efficiency is less, part load efficiency is poor compared 4-s engine Used where low cost, compactness & Light Wt. are important (in Scooters, Motorcycles

IC Engine Fundamentals-Wankel Engine


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Alternative to the reciprocating engine geometry The intake, compression, combustion and exhaust process happen in different cavities created between the rotor and the part of the housing. In Wankel engine there are two rotating parts: the triangular shaped rotor and the output shaft with its integral eccentric (lobe).

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The rotor revolves directly on the eccentric The rotor has an integral timing gear which meshes with the fixed timing gear on one side of the housing to maintain the correct pulse relationship between the rotor and the eccentric shaft rotations. As the rotor makes one complete rotation, during which the eccentric shaft rotates through three revolutions, each chamber produces one power stroke.

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A rotary engine has an ignition system and a fuel-delivery system that are similar to the ones on piston engines. The rotor has three convex faces, each of which acts like a piston. Each face of the rotor has a pocket in it, which increases the displacement of the engine, allowing more space for air/fuel mixture. At the apex of each face is a metal blade that forms a seal to the outside of the combustion chamber

The Rotor

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The rotor has a set of internal gear teeth cut into the center of one side. These teeth mate with a gear that is fixed to the housing. This gear mating determines the path and direction the rotor takes through the housing.

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The housing is roughly oval in shape. its shape is designed so that the three tips of the rotor will always stay in contact with the wall of the chamber, forming three sealed volumes of gas. Each part of the housing is dedicated to one part of the combustion process.

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The four sections are:


Intake Compression Combustion Exhaust

The intake and exhaust ports are located in the housing. There are no valves in these ports. The exhaust port connects directly to the exhaust, and the intake port connects directly to the throttle.

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Output Shaft

The output shaft has round lobes mounted eccentrically, meaning that they are offset from the centerline of the shaft. Each rotor fits over one of these lobes. The lobe acts sort of like the crankshaft in a piston engine. As the rotor follows its path around the housing, it pushes on the lobes. Since the lobes are mounted eccentric to the output shaft, the force that the rotor applies to the lobes creates torque in the shaft, causing it to spin.

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ADVANTAGES
higher output for similar displacement and physical size simple and contain far fewer moving parts the shape of the Wankel combustion chamber and the turbulence induced by the moving rotor prevent localized hot spots from forming

DISADVANTAGES
seals exposed to heating and cooling cycles in use, led to a very high incidence of loss of sealing incomplete combustion of the airfuel charge, with the remaining unburned hydrocarbons released into the exhaust. Is difficult to expand the engine to more than two rotors