UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM

Workshop on Composite Sheet Forming
University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Sept 2001

Materials Characterisation for Composite Forming Dr Andrew Long
School of Mechanical, Materials, Manufacturing Engineering and Management University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

Contents
• Why test? • Deformation mechanisms • Data required for forming simulations • Available test methods • Focus on intra-ply shear testing

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM

Materials Characterisation for Composite Forming

Why test ?
• To determine “formability” of material • To assess effects of process variables on forming • To determine input data for simulations • To validate simulations

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Deformation mechanisms Textile composites (a) Intra-ply shear (b) Relative fibre slip (c) Inter-ply slip (d) Fibre buckling (e) Fibre extension .

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Simulation: Kinematic mapping Surface model & initial fibre paths Draped fibre pattern Input data required: • Start point & initial ply orientation • Locking angle .

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Simulation: Mechanical/FE approach Input data required: • Intra-ply shear modulus • Matrix model viscosity (vs temp. rate) • Ply/tool & ply/ply friction (vs temp. rate. pressure) • Fibre moduli & ply bending stiffness • Thermal properties PAM-FORM ESI Software .

What tests are available ? Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KES-F) KES-FB1: Tensile/shear Tensile energy for 500gf/cm load Shear stiffness for 5o shear UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM KES-FB2: Pure bending Bending rigidity for 150o circular arc KES-FB3: Compression Energy for compression to 50gf/cm2 KES-FB4: Friction/Roughness Coefficient of friction with steel wire Surface roughness (mean thickness variation) Textile Protection & Comfort Center North Carolina State University .

What tests are available ? Intra-ply shear Crosshead mounting Fe Fe UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Φ Clamping plate Le We We Le l Bearings Fe Fe Picture frame Bias extension .

What tests are available ? In-plane tensile (uniaxial & biaxial) UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM 4 00 3 50 3 00 T en sio n (N /fil) Tension (N/thread) M èche s eule 2 50 2 00 1 50 1 00 50 0 0 0 .Orleans 1 direction free ε weft K= ε warp Strain (%) 0 .2 5 k =2 Cas libre k =1 k =0.5 Dé form ation (% ) 0 .7 5 1 .5 Yarn LMSP – ESEM .

What tests are available ? Ply/tool and ply/ply friction Normal Load (0.0 .8mm/s 200C 1.5 1.5mm/s 180C 0.5 2.015 0.8mm/s 180C 0.0 1.5 3.020 0.010 0.030 0.040 Shear Stress (MPa) 0.2mm/s 220C 0.005 0.5mm/s 220C 0.0 0.8mm/s 220C 1.2mm/s 200C Twintex 2x2 twill weave 0.035 0.1-100kN) Composite Clamp Steel shim UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Heated Platen Rear clamp Pre-consolidated composite Thermoco uple Steel shim Test Rig at University of Limerick Heated Platen Side clamp 0.0 Normal Pressure (MPa) 2.5mm/s 200C 0.025 0.2mm/s 180C 1.

Bias extension Key points: • Aspect ratio (Length/Width) should be >=2 • Very good way to determine locking angle (central region stops shearing) • To find shear compliance. must video test & measure shear angle Shear Angle 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM PAM-FORM ESI Software .

R.Bias extension: data analysis 120 250 UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Force (N) 100 P800200 glass plain weave Specimen width 156mm (2:1 A.) 150 Rate = 100mm/min 100 Shear Force (N) 80 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 60 70 Displacement (mm) 40 Shear Angle (deg) 60 50 40 30 20 10 20 0 0 0 10 0 10 20 20 30 40 30 50 60 40 70 80 50 90 60 70 Shear Angle (deg) Displacement (mm) .

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Bias extension vs picture frame shear Surface Displacement Analysis (SDA) • Monitor ‘speckle pattern’ movement Differentiation of displacement vector gives strain Strains are resolved along fibre directions y 140mm • x • 145mm (a) Specimen (b) Shear angle plot (degrees) at an intermediate stage .

200 N Locking angle = 66o Shear Force (N) Shear Angle (Deg) P800 .800 N Dry fabrics: • No rate effects • In-plane tension affects compliance & locking 200 Locking angle = 60o 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Shear Angle (Deg) .400 N P800 .UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Picture frame shear: woven fabrics Plain. satin & twill weave glass 600 P800 500 S800-02 T800 Shear Force (N) 400 P800 Predicted S800-02 Predicted T800 Predicted 300 200 Effect of in-plane tension 500 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 400 80 300 P800 .

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Picture frame shear: non-crimp fabrics 600 Ebx936 Parallel 500 Ebx936 Perpendicular Shear Force (N) 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 200 80 +/-45o tricot 1&1 warp-knit (Ebx936) Shear Angle (Deg) Ebx318 Parallel 160 Ebx318 Perpendicular Shear Force (N) +/-45o pillar warpknit (Ebx318) 120 80 40 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Shear Angle (Deg) .

Picture frame shear: non-crimp fabrics 600 UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM P800 500 S800-02 T800 Shear Force (N) 400 P800 Predicted 300 S800-02 Predicted T800 Predicted 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Shear Angle (Deg) woven fabric 200 Ebx318 Parallel 160 Ebx318 Perpendicular Shear Force (N) 120 80 40 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Shear Angle (Deg) ±45o warp-knitted fabric (chain stitch) .

) ˜ 68o (-) 62o (1.68 0.6) 60o (1.76 0.62 0.Picture frame shear: fabric locking angles Ts/2 UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Tw/2 θs Fabric ID P150 T800 S800-02 P800 S800-01 Ebx318 Ebx936 Style Plain weave 2:2 Twill weave 4 Harness Satin Plain weave 4 harness Satin Pillar NCF Tricot 1&1 Ply Angles 0/90 0/90 0/90 0/90 0/90 +/-45 +/-45 Surface Density (g/m2) 147 790 788 800 800 318 936 Tow Pitch (mm) 2.77 0.d.70 Tow Width/ Pitch 0.40 2.4) 55o (1.77 0.04 6.7) 66o (-) 62o (-) Tests carried out at 100 mm/min 200N pre-tension applied .80 3.30 3.47 0.22 4.7) 61o (1.91 0.86 Locking Angle (s.01 0.70 4.82 cosθ li = Tw T Tow s Width (mm) 1.60 0.70 0.09 0.62 0.

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Picture frame shear: woven thermoplastic composite 25 50mm/min 300mm/min 20 500mm/min 1000mm/min 15 Shear Force (N) 10 5 Twintex 2x2 twill weave (190 oC) 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Shear Angle (o) 25 50mm/min 100mm/min 20 300mm/min 500mm/min 15 1000mm/min Shear Force (N) Specimen in environmental chamber Twintex 2x2 twill weave (220 oC) 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Shear Angle (o) .

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Picture frame shear: problems 6000 Compression Tension Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Shear Force/Unit Length (N/m) 5000 Tension 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Compression 60 70 80 Shear Angle (deg) 5 harness satin weave carbon/epoxy prepreg (4 repeats) Sample misalignment can lead to: • Tensile and/or compressive forces in tows • Premature buckling of the sample .

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Picture frame shear: woven prepreg .

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Picture frame shear: woven prepreg .

UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM Issues: • What materials properties are of interest? • What properties and tests are required: For formability assessment? For simulation? • What are effects of: Process variables (rate. temperature)? Fabric architecture? Matrix rheology? Specimen size? • How repeatable are test methods? • Can we propose a series of standard tests? .