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# Assignment-1 1. Derive an expression for 3-D Fourier conduction equation for spherical coordinate system. 2.

Determine the heat transfer by convection over a surface of 0.5 m2 area if the surface is at 160C and fluid is at 40C. The value of convective heat transfer coefficient is 25 W/m2K. Also estimate the temperature gradient at the surface given k = 1 W/m K. 3. A steam pipe 170/160 mm in diameter is covered with two layers of insulation. The thickness of the first layer t1 is 30mm and for second layer t2 is 50mm.Thermal conductivities of pipe and insulation are 50, 0.15, and 0.08 respectively. The temperature of the steam pipe is 300 degree and that of the outer surface of insulating layer is 50degree.Determine the quantity of heat loss per meter length of steam pipe and inters face temperatures. 4. A copper pipe carries process steam at 100degree and is 25mm OD and 22mm ID through a room which is at 30 degrees .The cost of heating the steam is Rs100/kJ. Standard 85% Magnesia insulation is available having ID of 25mm and OD of 40mm and cost per meter length of pipe. How long must the pipe be in operation to save the insulation cost .The resistance of the fluid film is roughly constant and equals 0.05, k for is 330 and k for magnesia is 0.06. 5. Heat is conducted through a material with a temperature gradient of 9000 C/m. The conductivity of the material is 25W/m K. If this heat is convected to surroundings at 30C with a convection coefficient of 345W/m2K, determine the surface temperature. If the heat is radiated to the surroundings at 30C determine the surface temperature. 6. A pipe carrying steam at 230C has an internal diameter of 12 cm and the pipe thickness is 7.5 mm. The conductivity of the pipe material is 49 W/m K the convective heat transfer coefficient on the inside is 85 W/m2K. The pipe is insulated by two layers of insulation one of 5 cm thickness of conductivity 0.15 W/m K and over it another 5 cm thickness of conductivity 0.48 W/m K. The outside is exposed to air at 35C with a convection coefficient of 18 W/m2K. Determine the heat loss for 5 m length. Also determine the interface temperatures and the overall heat transfer coefficient based on inside and outside areas. 7. A spherical vessel of ID 0.3 m and thickness of 20 mm is made of steel with conductivity of 40 W/m K. The vessel is insulated with two layers of 60 mm thickness of conductivity 0.05 and 0.15 W/m K. The inside surface is at 196C. The outside is exposed to air at 30C with convection coefficient of 35 W/m2K. There is a contact resistance of 1 103 m2C/W between the two insulations. Determine the heat gain and also the surface temperatures and the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside surface area of the metallic vessel. 8. It is desired to increase the heat dissipated over the surface of an electronic device of spherical shape of 5 mm radius exposed to convection with h = 10 W/m2K by encasing it in a transparent spherical sheath of conductivity 0.04

W/m K. Determine the diameter of the sheath for maximum heat flow. For a temperature drop of 120C from device surface determine the heat flow for bare and sheathed device. 9. A composite wall is made up of 3 layers of thicknesses 25 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm with thermal conductivities of 1.7, kB and 9.5 W/m K. The outside surface is exposed to air at 20C with convection coefficient of 15 W/m2K and the inside is exposed to gases at 1200C with a convection coefficient of 28 W/m2 K and the inside surface is at 1080C. Determine the unknown thermal conductivity, all surface temperatures, resistances of each layer and the over all heat transfer coefficient. Compare the temperature gradients in the three layers. 10.In a slab of material 0.25 m thick and having a thermal conductivity of 45 W/m K, the temperature C at x under steady state is given by T = 100 + 200x 400x2 when x is measured from one face in m. Determine the heat flow at x = 0, x = 0.125 and x = 0.25 m and also the temperatures and temperature gradients at these planes. If the difference in heat flow at these sections is due to the heat generation, determine the heat generation rate per unit volume. 11.A thermocouple is formed by soldering end-to-end wires of 0.5 mm dia. The thermal diffusivity of the material is 5.3 106 m2/s. The conductivity of the material is 19.1W/m K. The probe initially at 30C is placed in a fluid at 600C to measure the temperature of the fluid. If the convective heat transfer coefficient between the wire and the fluid is 85 W/m2K, determine the time constant for the probe and also the time taken for it to read 598C. 12.A slab of thickness 15 cm initially at 30C is exposed on one side to gases at 600C with a convective heat transfer coefficient of 65W/m2K. The other side is insulated. Using the following property values determine the temperatures at both surfaces and the centre plane after 20 minutes, density: 3550 kg/m3, sp. heat = 586 J/kg K, conductivity = 19.5 W/m K. Also calculate the heat flow upto the time into the solid. 13.A long cylinder of radius 15 cm initially at 30C is exposed over the surface to gases at 600C with a convective heat transfer coefficient of 65 W/m2K. Using the following property values determine the temperatures at the centre, mid radius and outside surface after 20 minutes. Density = 3550 kg/m3, sp. heat = 586J/kg K, conductivity = 19.5 W/m K. Also calculate the heat flow.