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Shopping centers have existed in some form for more than 1,000 years as ancient market squares, bazaars and seaport commercial districts. The modern shopping center, which includes everything from small suburban strip centers to the million-square-foot superregional malls, had its genesis in the 1920s. The concept of developing a shopping district away from a downtown is generally attributed to J.C. Nichols of Kansas City, Mo. His Country Club Plaza, which opened in 1922, was constructed as the business district for a large-scale residential development. It featured unified architecture, paved and lighted parking lots, and was managed and operated as a single unit. In the later half of the 1920s, as automobiles began to clog the central business districts of large cities, small strip centers were built on the outskirts. The centers were usually anchored by a supermarket and a drug store, supplemented by other convenience-type shops. The typical design was a straight line of stores with space for parking in front. Grandview Avenue Shopping Center in Columbus, Ohio, which opened in 1928, included 30 shops and parking for 400 cars. But many experts consider Highland Park Shopping Village in Dallas, Tex., developed by Hugh Prather in 1931, to be the first planned shopping center. Like Country Club Plaza, its stores were built with a unified image and managed under the control of a single owner, but Highland Park occupied a single site and was not bisected by public streets. And its storefronts faced inward, away from the streets, a revolutionary design. In the 1930s and 1940s, Sears Roebuck & Co. and Montgomery Ward set up large, freestanding stores with on-site parking, away from the centers of big cities. Nighttime shopping was inaugurated at Town & Country Shopping Center in Columbus, Ohio, when developer Don Casto hired Grandma Carver (a woman who dived from a 90-foot perch into a 4-foot pool of
flaming water), to perform her act in the lighted parking lot, bringing shopping center promotion to a new level. The early 1950s marked the opening of the first two shopping centers anchored by full-line branches of downtown department stores. Northgate in Seattle, Wash., (two strip centers face-toface with a pedestrian walkway in between) opened in 1950, and Shoppers World in Framingham, Mass. (the first two-level center), debuted the following year. The concept was improved upon in 1954 when Northland Center in Detroit, Mich., used a “cluster layout” with a single department store at the center and a ring of stores around it. The parking lot completely surrounded the center. Northland was also the first center to have central air-conditioning as well as heating. In 1956, Southdale Center in Edina, Minn., outside of Minneapolis, opened as the first fully enclosed mall with a two-level design. It had central air-conditioning and heating, a comfortable common area and, more importantly, it had two competitive department stores as anchors. Southdale is considered by most industry professionals to be the first modern regional mall. By 1964 there were 7,600 shopping centers in the United States. Suburban development and population growth after World War II created the need for more housing and more convenient retail shopping. Most of the centers built in the 1950s and 1960s were strip centers serving new housing developments. By 1972 the number of shopping centers had doubled to 13,174. Regional malls like Southdale and The Galleria in Houston, Tex., had become a fixture in many larger markets, and Americans began to enjoy the convenience and pleasure of mall shopping. During the 1970s, a number of new formats and shopping center types evolved. In 1976 The Rouse Co. developed Faneuil Hall Marketplace in Boston, Mass., which was the first of the “festival marketplaces” built in the United States. The project, which revived a troubled downtown market, was centered on food and retail specialty items. Similar projects were built in Baltimore, Md., New York, N.Y., and Miami, Fla., and have been emulated in a number of urban areas. The Bicentennial year also marked the debut of the country’s first urban vertical mall, Water Tower Place, which opened in Chicago, Ill., on Michigan Avenue. To many experts, Water Tower Place with its tony stores, hotel, offices, condominiums and parking garage, remains the preeminent mixed-use project in the United States. With the opening of Water Tower Place and Faneuil Hall, the shopping center industry had returned to its urban roots. The 1980s saw an unparalleled period of growth in the shopping center industry, with more than 16,000 centers built between 1980 and 1990. This was also the period when superregional centers (malls larger than 800,000 square feet) became increasingly popular with shoppers. In 1990, a Gallup poll found that people shopped most frequently at superregional malls and neighborhood centers. Americans average four trips to the mall per month.
with approximately 75% to 90% of its space occupied by category killers or destination anchor stores.2 million square feet (with about half that total devoted to retailing). etc. Fla.000 and 600. and interactive demonstrations. a variety of food in either the food court or themed restaurants. is West Edmonton Mall in Alberta. The center has been heralded as a bellwether for its innovative mixture of entertainment and retailing. Under one roof or in an outdoor retail format. In 1990. which encompasses 5. One such project. and the largest mall in North America. new shopping center development dropped nearly 70%. libraries.) into publicly traded real estate investment trusts (REITs). consumers enjoy children’s playscapes. Among the many services found in today’s malls are churches. there were 183 outlet centers. The year 1993 was marked by the transition of several privately held. is more than 2 million square feet and features outlets. In 1993. Some large projects combine outlet stores with traditional off-price stores like Marshalls. Calif. schools.000 square feet. Outlet malls are tenanted by manufacturers selling their own goods at discounted prices. Power centers are often located near regional and superregional malls. The largest mall in the United States is currently Mall of America in Bloomington. Sawgrass Mills in Sunrise. municipal offices. Factory outlet centers were one of the fastest growing segments of the shopping center industry in the 1990s. Since the start of the entertainment wave. Today. family-run shopping center development companies (Simon. The access to Wall Street capital provided a financial jolt to an industry that still had not fully recovered from the credit crunch. nightclubs. Many shopping centers are also focused on added service-oriented tenants. postal branches. The forerunner to Mall of America. Minn. compared with only four superregional malls. which offer today’s busy consumer an opportunity to complete weekly errands or to engage in a variety of other activities.Between 1989 and 1993. and museums. Entertainment quickly became an industry buzzword in the early 1990s as technological advances allowed shopping center developments to foster the same magical experiences that were once only seen in national amusement parks such as Disney World. San Francisco-based Terranomics is credited with pioneering the concept at 280 Metro Center in Colma. from 1. discounters and retail clearance stores. virtual reality games.510 construction starts in 1989 to 451 starts in 1993. While overbuilding occurred among small centers in some regions of the United States. visually stunning merchandising techniques.. live shows. Taubman. One of the newer retail formats that has become increasingly popular in the United States is the power center.5 million square feet.. carousel rides. . there are over approximately 312 outlet centers in the United States. retailers have focused on keeping their presentations exciting and shopping center owners have striven to obtain tenant mixes that draw traffic from the widest audience possible. The sharp decline in new center starts was attributed to the Savings and Loan crisis. shopping centers remained the most attractive and best-performing real estate category for investors during this difficult period. which helped precipitate a severe credit crunch. which includes a seven-acre amusement park. 16 power centers opened in the United States. robotic animal displays. movies in multiplex cinemas. which loosely defined is a center between 250. restaurants and covers 4.
brick-and-mortar retailers at first were hesitant to sell directly to the public via the Internet. clixnmortar. the tone was clear.As the 1990s drew to a close. From the FastFrog kiosk. In both programs. In July of 1998. Mall employees pick-up scanned items at stores in the mall and customers have the option of picking-up the items at the mall or having them delivered.” Unlike home television shopping. web. Time’s cover advised its readers to. Also. In the euphoria it mattered little that many of these Internet companies had little or no retail experience. retailers at Simon malls can take part in two clixnmortar initiative: FastFrog. “Retailing Will Never Be the Same: The Home Shopping Revolution. However. Consumers were logging on to retailers’ websites to search for goods. Simon is installing broadband Internet connections inside its own malls and those of other developers. whether the consumer decides to shop at a shopping center. Several years earlier similar claims were made about the impact home television shopping would have on the industry. When shoppers are finished.com and TenantConnect. supplier relationships. the information is loaded into computer kiosks. The shopping center industry was under attack. In fact. users can type in their credit card number and check out immediately. . and scan items they are interested in buying. and services. “Kiss Your Mall Good-Bye: Online Shopping is Cheaper. In 1999. the media and Wall Street as companies rushed to develop websites that would sell directly to consumers. and catalog) working as one to help retailers maximize the value of their brands. Internet retailing quickly captured the attention of the public. These advantages quickly paid off for brick-andmortar retailers. brick-and-mortar retailers’ websites captured 60% of online sales. Time magazine predicted the demise of the shopping mall. Understanding that there is great synergy between the Internet and brick-and-mortar stores. the nation’s largest shopping center developer. from an alternative shopping format. so that stores can have high-speed access to the Internet. and armed with product information. the cover of BusinessWeek magazine in July of 1993 read. In bold type. created two separate business units. consumers carry handheld scanners through the mall. shoppers can have their list of items forward to friends or relatives. Fearing the cannibalization of store sales. in 1998.” While the cover was purely sensational. when it became apparent that they had some clear advantages over pure Internet retailers (brand name recognition. Internet retailing was heralded as the wave of the future and a threat to the stability of the shopping center industry. At the YourSherpa kiosk. In fact. In addition to buying online.Com and YourSherpa. shopping centers owners have created their own websites and are working with their retail tenants to create distribution channels to satisfy the consumer.) brick-andmortar retailers launched their own websites. ability to accept returns at stores. or delay the final purchase until they go home. Simon Property Group. on the Internet or both. brick-and-mortar retailers discovered that their consumers were using the web as a research vehicle. distribution facilities. Through TenantConnect. yet again. were making purchases at stores. Thus the Internet has transformed a large and growing number of retailers into “multi-channel” retailers with all sales channels (stores. Quicker and Better. etc.
The center can e-mail the customer information on sales and special events that are taking place at the center. and services. With the combination of fashion. allowing consumers to buy online directly from those retailers and have their purchases delivered to them. During the late 60's and 70's the design of shopping centres resulted in some very basic. General Growth’s Mallibu. shopping centers have greatly expanded their role in the communities they serve. This centre followed the open air approach and looked to establish a fabric of streets. The large box design was modulated by laminating other smaller active buildings onto the edge of these boxes. Shopping centres of the type described began being established in Australia in the late 1950's.General Growth Properties. A lot of this change was caused by the fact that most of the catch up to demand had been fulfilled in the 60's and early 70's and hence to achieve a successful shopping centre one had to compete with various other retail opportunities. Features of these centres included: ◗ Large carparks ◗ No links to the local community ◗ Large box shapes ◗ Often poor regard for the surrounding environment ◗ The capture and contain mentality. Recreation time had been . Many shopping centers have their own websites and have added their web address to their advertising and promotional vehicles. As we enter the 21st century. these shopping centres were a tool to fill the gap created by a need for the convenient and efficient distribution of goods to a fast growing population. However one could see that the customer was beginning to demand better designed environments to shop in and of course recreate in. food. Most shopping center websites have maps and directions to the center. As the 70's progressed we find a few centres starting to question the design and layout that had become regarded as typical. entertainment. places and parks. a list of tenants and a calendar of events. the nation’s second-largest mall developer is also incorporating the Internet into their malls. shopping centers continue to evolve and serve communities’ social and economic needs. After this we find the approach to shopping centre design changed rapidly with greater amounts of style being created. pragmatic layouts and often unimaginative exterior presentation. Other shopping center developers are also working with their retailers to incorporate the Internet into their businesses model.com website links retailers in each of the company’s malls. Some shopping centers are even providing free Internet access for their customers. In the beginning. The first centre to do this was Pacific Fair on the Gold Coast in Queensland.
◗ the impact of the increasing popularity of electronic services such as internet shopping and phone banking. ◗ creating environments that respond to changing demographics including more singles and childless couples and increasing average age. What does the future hold? The following list highlights some recent trends: ◗ increasing spending on food and merchandise. ◗ creating environments where people feel comfortable including the identification of the 'third place' . rest and play have become the focus of both new areas and urban renewal projects. The shopping centre plays an integral part in this process and in some cases provides the basis for the creation of new and revitalised town centres. better integration into surrounding context and permeability. a search for authenticity. The establishment of mixed use areas where people can work.a place away from home and work where people want to spend their time. and an even greater focus on entertainment and eating. particularly the provision of entertainment/lifestyle attractions such as cinemas. ◗ greater diversity of uses in shopping centres. Planning authorities have encouraged the establishment and revitalisation of town centres. Then the 90's came along with the growing world movement of new urbanism and smart growth. The market is now also demanding an environment where the basic aspects of daily life can be accommodated in a way that is convenient and enjoyable. . ◗ recreating the 'high street' or 'old town centre' shopping experience including externalisation of spaces.recognised as a commodity and hence the retail sector started to provide recreational opportunities such as: ◗ Cinemas ◗ Cafes ◗ Lifestyle retail ◗ Entertainment in various forms. ◗ creation of precincts targeted towards certain parts of the market.
The right design'. to know that developers now take the issue of design very seriously. shopping centre designers know that their proposals will be subject to intensive scrutiny by a vast range of professionals. State planning For many years. there has been a significant shift in the retail sector and customers are far more discerning of the environment in which they shop. In keeping with changing expectations. drinking and moviegoing. However. This policy continues in the latest metropolitan strategy "Shaping Our Cities". As noted above. as can be seen throughout this report. ◗ the importance of design aesthetics including the use of high profile architects/interior designers. This range of influences highlights that urban design is but one of many factors that need to be considered. discretionary shopping and leisure activities such as eating. There are no State government planning policies which specifically relate to the development of shopping centres. the expectations of the relevant planning authorities have also increased.Planning policy'. part of the Planning Policy Package of which draft SEPP 66 is a part includes the following relevant documents: 'The Right Place for Business and Services . there have been a considerable number of significant retail outlets approved in 'out-of centre' locations. One only has to look at the current standard of design. there are centres which many would say are unattractive. Conversely.Integrating Land Use and Transport has been exhibited and has aims which include discouraging the establishment of significant employment or people generating activities in out-ofcentre locations. The draft SEPP also contains provisions that relate specifically to shopping centre design. The following issues are discussed: ◗ design pointers for centres. The market itself is generating a demand for more integrated. A balanced approach will consider all of the above matters in order to achieve a positive outcome for all. It is not only customers that are driving the need for better design.◗ the breaking down of visits into categories including chore shopping. planning authorities have been taking greater interest in shopping centres and urban design generally. In this regard. draft State Environmental Planning Policy No 66 . yet they are very successful. A well designed shopping centre does not necessarily result in a successful shopping centre. The explanatory notes of this policy include 'Part D. The following discussion provides details of the current planning framework within which shopping centres (in Sydney) are assessed. multi-use and well designed centres. . politicians and the public. This includes shopping centres. These days. Without any adequate statutory planning instruments in place. strategy plans for the Sydney metropolitan region have sought to encourage the concentration of employment and commerce in major urban centres.
◗ the highest densities of housing and employment appropriate to an area. or horizontally on adjacent sites. and large driveways and entrances to car parks are avoided. ◗ functional requirements. ◗ expanses of ground level blank walls along street frontages. odours and identity in the layout and design of horizontally and vertically mixed uses. childcare centres. ◗ plans and codes encourage home businesses and home workplaces. Principle 2 relates to 'Mixed Uses in Centres'. . are considered. cinemas. ◗ safety and security. ◗ uses are mixed either vertically within the same building. bus/rail interchange).Guidelines for planning and development'. The following design related matters are noted as being 'best practice': ◗ key land uses are located within walking distance of each other (e. ◗ public realm. are located within walking distance of public transport nodes. signage. such as cafes and front verandahs. parking is placed at the rear of buildings or internal to the block. shops.◗ design guidelines. being oriented to the street. Part 1 contains the 'Accessible Development Principles'. Principle 6 relates to improving pedestrian access and contains the following relevant points: ◗ every development has convenient and prominent pedestrian entrances. lighting and gradient. such as servicing. library. 'Improving Transport Choice . ◗ pedestrian and bicycle access is safe.g. Principle 8 relates to managing parking supply and contains the following relevant points: ◗ in activity centres. and ◗ transport choice and integration. in terms of design. Principle 7 relates to improving cycle access and contains the following relevant point: ◗ bicycle storage is conveniently located close to building entries and at ground level. ◗ a feeling of security is assisted by buildings and active uses. and impacts such as sound. direct and comfortable between uses.
cycling and public transport and provide access for people with disabilities. retail complexes should be joined more directly with street frontages and bus stops. adequate lighting. ◗ building setbacks are minimised to provide natural surveillance of footpaths. cycleways and taxi ranks are well-lit and located where there is natural surveillance from adjacent uses. and timetable information. . Principle 10 relates to implementing good urban design. Bus stops and taxi ranks on the far side of large car parks should be avoided. ◗ Public transport and taxis should have direct access to retail areas. ◗ Clear signage should direct patrons to public transport stops. seats. ranging from display cases to visual displays with touch/voice access. ◗ Access by all transport modes should be encouraged. bus stops and taxi ranks. they provide access for people with disabilities. buses and taxis should be easily and directly rerouted through the facility with a sheltered stop at their front entrance.it must be enforced. entertainment complexes and personal services offices should be designed to allow direct and convenient access by walking. coordinated street furniture. ◗ bus stops are located and designed to provide shelter. cyclist and driver comfort. ◗ attractive streetscapes reinforce the functions of the street and enhance the amenity of adjacent development. The following matters are noted as being 'best practice': ◗ buildings and their pedestrian entrances are oriented to the street.◗ parking for people with disabilities is provided adjacent to key facilities . ◗ pedestrian amenity is enhanced by attractive. visibility and accessibility. while still allowing sunlight access and minimising wind tunnel effects. such as transport noise and vibration. and are overlooked from nearby buildings. especially involving railway stations. Shopping centres and malls. addresses issues of potential conflicts. ◗ footpaths. The configuration of shops and other services must seek a balance between pedestrian. Public transport operators should provide timetable information. lighting and signage. ◗ As redevelopment occurs over time. ◗ the design of development in accessible centres. taxi ranks and pedestrian links to adjacent uses. When retail or entertainment facilities are set back from the street.
In most cases there are statutory controls relating to floor space ratio (FSR). In the majority of circumstances the land on which the shopping centre is. In the present environment. in the current environment. Should draft SEPP 66 be gazetted. The first is that shopping centre owners/developers are. The need for extensive same-level parking areas for loading bulky goods is often exaggerated and little different from other retail outlets. it is considered appropriate to emphasise two financial aspects of shopping centre design that sets it apart from other forms of development. Large format retailing . not only dealing with locational and transport matters but also urban design issues. Unlike some other forms of development. However. Local planning There are few local planning documents that relate specifically to shopping centres. changes to the retail hierarchy bought about by poor planning decisions is a risk that cannot be predicted. would have a business zoning. The permissibility of uses within these zones and the development controls that relate to such development varies greatly from Council to Council.◗ To encourage access by public transport. Given the significant amounts of capital required to develop and redevelop shopping centre. height of buildings. in the vast majority of circumstances committed to a financial return over a long period. The Design Process Before discussing the design process. Given this long term commitment there is greater interest in ensuring profitability on an ongoing basis. the shopping centre developers' involvement does not end upon the completion and sale of the building. This section includes graphics which demonstrate how a traditional layout can be transformed over time (see Figure 7. there is a certain level of comfort. retail and other commercial and community facilities located in centres with high frequency rail services should be developed with reduced or shared parking. However. The spectre of such threats mean a reduced likelihood of older centres being rejuvenated and less chance of high quality urban design outcomes being achieved. it will provide a comprehensive control document for shopping centres. below). the failure of local and State government to protect established shopping centres in existing commercial area from out-of-centre retailers is a great cause for concern. encourages high quality design. or is to be located. the developer needs to be confident that there is no unforeseen threat to achieving an appropriate return on their investment. or both. ◗ These location and design guidelines can be equally applied to bulky goods outlets. Competition is an integral part of the retail environment and the risk from competition is acknowledged in feasibility analysis. The other financial factor is financial viability. This interest. Shopping centres are affected by changes in the market including competition.
Major tenants typically have very rigid requirements in terms of the space they require. Department stores such as David Jones or Grace Bros can require up to 9000sqm of floor area per level over a number of levels. less. for centres of the size discussed in this report. this is not generally considered to be an adequate outcome in today's environment. This is because duplication of the same or similar configuration over many stores creates efficiencies that are of great value to the retailers. ◗ Cinema boxes are the highest of the large format users requiring between 9m to 12m. Due to the functional nature of car parking. far greater attention has been given to ensuring that the visual impact of large parking structures is reduced. simple concrete structures would meet the functional needs with little attention given to the external appearance. In the majority of cases. In many cases the only amelioration was to provide thick screen planting. It is also not practical in most cases as customers demand parking with easy access to the shops and as such parking levels match retail levels. large. including: ◗ enclosing the car park with walls and providing appropriate measures to reduce building bulk such as different materials. A variety of measures are now employed in order to address this issue. ◗ Height internally usually requires an external height of approximately 6.The need for shopping centres to provide large. The constraints of these large formats include: ◗ Plan dimensions are usually rectangular or square. a shopping centre will require more parking than the standard. recent developments are reducing the impacts of the buildings required to accommodate large format tenants through innovative and good design as can be seen in many of the graphics in this report. ◗ They have a requirements for strong visual identification usually with signage and sometimes with external colour. Whilst in some cases. The circumstances vary greatly. In some cases. a significant number of car spaces are required to ensure the viability of the centre. In the past. . In more recent times. Notwithstanding the above. Discount department stores require around 6. in other cases.000-7000sqm of floor area and supermarkets between 2000 and 5000/sqm. building articulation and architectural features (see Figures 15 and 16). ◗ the use of appropriately designed screens (see Figures 15 and 16). creates a design issue. colours and textures. this solution provides a reasonable outcome. the provision of large car parking structures above ground.0m. however. unrestricted spaces for major tenants is a significant element in the design of a centre. Parking Parking is typically provided in accordance with the requirements of the local Council or the NSW Roads and Traffic Authority. it is simply not viable to provide car parking underground.
Passive solar design and the provision of cross ventilation are provided where appropriate however.◗ the use of signage which screens the car park and activates the façade. ◗ photo-cell control for external lighting. ◗ automatic on/off when the ambient illuminating level is required. Sustainability The issue of sustainability has great relevance to retail environments. visual appearance. Construction. ◗ power factor correction system. . ◗ circuit management of the lighting zones. Many centres are designed to collect good natural light within the internal space to create a feeling of outdoor environment. Such measures include: ◗ high shading coefficient and high thermal resistance glazing material is used to minimise heat transmission. such measures are often difficult to incorporate into design. Loading Docks can be designed in such a way as to be screened from external view lines and often have a service yard enclosure which helps to disguise them. As with parking. light spill and hours of use. odour. The recurrent costs of a retail centre can be greatly reduced by energy efficient design and management practices. Loading docks Loading docks are an integral feature of shopping centres that create specific issues such as noise. due to the size and functional requirement of shopping centres and the need to provide a climactically stable environment for customers. ◗ of course. landscaping remains an important factor in addressing the issue of visual bulk. regulatory authorities often require a particular ratio of loading docks in relation to the size of centres. ◗ metal halide lamps to replace tungsten halogen. However these requirements are often increased to accommodate retailer's specific needs and the desire to recycle garbage and packaging. operational and management measures which are energy efficient are playing a much greater role in conserving resources. ◗ triphosphor lamps are used instead of the conventional fluorescent tubes.
allows these goods to be sold at lower prices. As noted previously. By providing for a wide range of needs locally. ie outdoor. the chief measures used are surveillance and security personnel. thereby reducing the length and number of vehicle trips. in recent times the shopping centre industry has sought to enhance the role of the shopping centre in the community. Public / Private space The issue of the blurring of the public and private domain is growing in importance as a result of societal changes and the shopping centre designers' response to these changes. They also accommodate specialty shops which respond to the demands of the local community and are often owned by local people.◗ building services (including air conditioning) which are fully programmable and can be updated to suit any changes to the building and maintain high energy efficiency. Shopping centres provide safe. shopping centres assist in creating sustainable neighbourhoods. in some cases. ◗ greater integration with surrounding public domain. Community Enhancement Shopping centres have many strong community benefits. There is also widespread commitment to recycling and reuse of materials. removing spaces that can be used for hiding and shortening 'dead' spaces such as walkways to toilets. pleasant meeting places for the community often providing a focus for social activities. there is less need for residents to travel greater distances. Most large shopping centres have always provided semi-public space to allow for the circulation of customers. Others are going a step further. Many shopping centres now include entertainment and leisure facilities. Key aspects of this 'blurring' include: ◗ the use of the public domain for commercial uses such as outdoor dining and market retailing ◗ the greater permeability being provided by shopping centres and required by authorities. unencumbered recreation spaces. but usually only during operating hours. aiming to be the focus for the business centre in which they are located by creating 'town square' or 'high street' environments. In addition to the issue of energy efficiency. Due to the nature of these spaces. These spaces are generally required to be publicly accessible. As there is limited scope in building design to address security issues. They accommodate retail 'chain' stores which provide an efficient method of distributing goods. Security Security is a significant issue for both shopping centre owners and customers. . expanding the range of uses provided. and ◗ the provision of true 'open space' within shopping centres. Buildings are designed to minimise the potential for criminal activity with measures such as providing good sight lines.
Often what is being provided is high quality public domain which comes at no cost to the public.consent authorities have excluded such areas from floor space calculations. and the supermarket is either the largest traffic generator of the shopping center. . and the types of shopping needs fulfilled. These spaces are becoming more public in terms of level of accessibility provided and the actual nature of the space. to serve the shopping needs of new suburban and fringe growth. and those that are dominated by a department store. or another department store. to further encourage the creation of such areas. often as a requirement of the consent authority. and whose secondary store is a supermarket. Site Design. the number and types of stores. Parking and Zoning for Shopping Centers A shopping center is a group of retail stores planned and designed for the site on which they are built. The two types of shopping centers will differ considerably in their area requirements. located away from the central business district. This would also create some equality in the present public/private domain situation where public spaces are leased to private users for substantial fees. and whose secondary store is a drug store or variety store. Finally the report describes some of the zoning provisions already enacted for shopping centers and comments on some of the problems for city planners raised by shopping centers. parking and site design requirements of a shopping center. Every shopping center that we know of has a supermarket (a large retail grocery) in it. They differ also in the trade area served. and the annual gross business. Shopping centers may be distinguished between those that are dominated by a supermarket or retail grocery. Whilst there is some benefit in providing such environments for shopping centre owners. or is secondary only to a department store in the center. PLANNING ADVISORY SERVICE Information Reports Nos. The present report shows how the analysis previously described relates to the gross acreage. 44 and 47 have covered market area analysis for shopping centers and criteria and standards for shopping center stores. the consideration of some credit to the owner would be beneficial.
the planner becomes vitally concerned. In fact.the point at which he leaves this road and enters the center.A Shopper's View of the Shopping Center The planner is concerned primarily with the shopper and his (her) trip to the shopping center only after the shopper is driving on the road and up to the time that he enters one of the stores in the center. we leave him to the world of stretchable hose and non-stretchable budgets. and the time of day at which peak loads will occur may be determined (see below: Stage Two). the site selected for a new shopping center should be adequately serviced by existing public roads. as shown in the earlier reports. the total number of cars passing a . but the density. may be estimated. As traffic surveys have often shown. parking area. in and out. Stage One: The Trip to the Shopping Center Thirty minutes driving time is currently the accepted limit of the market area of a major regional shopping center. the search for an unoccupied parking space. and the totals must be compared with the capacity of the roads. and the types of stores that should be located in a particular shopping center. new road construction should be in the offing. to cover the stages of the shopper's progress that concern the planner and indicate the difficulties encountered along the way. showing the size and layout of the stores. Once the gross annual volume of business of the center has been estimated. not so much as an indication of the business potentiality. Stage Two: Off the Road and Into the Center Crowded highway intersections have long been considered good commercial locations. Five miles of expressway may be traversed more quickly than five blocks of crowded business section. and the walk to the stores. such as the trade potential of the area surrounding the shopping center.000 people. The key to the access problem is not the volume of traffic passing the center. Shopping center developers recommend traffic counts of the major streets serving the center. As a matter of self-preservation. This report tries. the average number of cars using the center daily may be estimated. therefore. To the normal present and future traffic loads of the roads serving the center must be added the traffic generated by the center. but as a check on the congestion already existing and an aid in predicting the traffic situation after the center is opened. If possible. so that other effects on business and traffic may be determined. developers and architects recommend further studies. The planner is most concerned with four stages of the shopper's trip — the road he travels to get to the center. Also the peak traffic. or the center should be located elsewhere. If the roads do not have the extra capacity to handle the future traffic loads. including the future road-construction programs in the area. but the problem of access to the shopping development is receiving much fuller consideration in modern shopping center planning. The area enclosed within the thirtyminute driving time has to be calculated according to the condition and congestion of the streets and is not always in direct ratio to linear distance. and service areas. After that. which might serve up to 500. Shopping center developers. and future housing developments and population movements in the area. must consider many facts which are not strictly within city planning jurisdiction. As final plans for the shopping center begin to emerge. we believe there is enough information available on the principles and practices of shopping center development for the planner to be concerned about possible zone locations for shopping centers even before a shopping center is proposed for his area.
and the exits into the center must be designed with safety features that take the higher speeds into account.000 vehicles. In such a case. 2. The fault is sometimes with the developers who have underestimated the need for parking space or found the land too valuable to be devoted to parking. Shopping centers being constructed in developing areas will be served by an existing road network which may not be adequate to handle the traffic that will arise when the shopping center is completed and the area is built-up. to estimate the number of cars that will enter and leave the center during the busiest hours of that day. it will be difficult for drivers to maneuver into position to turn off. ample warning must be given the driver that he is approaching an exit. Sometimes there are too few parking spaces simply because there are too many people with cars looking for them. Victor Gruen. to determine the largest single-day gross business. with a minimum of difficulty in moving around the parking area. including finding his car which occasionally seems more difficult than it was to find the space originally.given point on a road (the volume) eventually drops as the density gets close to the saturation point. The peak load of a shopping center can be estimated on the basis of the annual gross income of the center. The shopper wants a space he can find easily. The closer the cars are packed together. Leaving the center. The problem is three-fold: first. Few shopping centers will be served by high-speed. fairly slow-moving road. (on the basis of the average purchase per car) to determine how many cars will be in and out of the center on that day. In such dense traffic. Both the high-density and high-volume roads offer problems of access to the shopping center. tie-ups and delays are also more frequent. the shopper may not always find the parking space he wants. 3. The points of access from the roads to the shopping center should be adequate to accommodate traffic at the busiest hours of the center. and one that is located near the store or store group in which he is going to shop. In spite of the repetitive statement of this fact. getting the car into the space. the slower they must go. as might be said to characterize the rush hour traffic of some Los Angeles freeways or the Chicago Outer Drive. architect and designer of shopping centers (in "Traffic Impact of the Regional Shopping Center. he must go through approximately the same steps in reverse. . maneuvering the car around the lot until he finds a space. The reason for this relationship is simple.000 cars per hour. Stage Three: Parking the Car Parking is the prime convenience advantage of the shopping center over the central business district. The roads having highest volumes are those on which the cars are spaced further apart and travel at higher speeds with relative safety. and third. On high speed roads. limited-access roads. it would seem that four exits are needed to discharge the 3." see biblio) estimates that an exit or entrance with continuous flow can handle up to 750 cars per hour. On the high-density. walking from the space to the stores. second. Gruen estimates that a large regional shopping center may expect a peak volume at the rate of 3. and more costly in terms of highway efficiency. Parking in the shopping center is seen by the shopper as a series of steps: 1.
Getting the car into the space: Basically. Whether the customer finds a space at all depends on the amount of parking space originally provided. and the drug store(s). for two way aisles. the spaces and the aisles may be laid out this way: Figure 1 . width should be at least 10 feet. Otherwise. A survey made by the Eno Foundation (Parking Lot Operation). the department store(s).5 to 21 feet. 2. If the customers park their own cars.7 feet. and ranged from 7. the supermarket(s). Finding the space. For one way aisles. about 20 feet. showed that the aisle widths of eight parking lots with one-way aisles averaged 14 feet. For instance. How wide the aisles should be depends mostly on whether they will be one-way or two-way. the width in about twenty parking lots averaged 23. the key factors in moving cars around the parkinglot are the lay-out and width of the aisles between the rows of parked cars. as happens at nearly all shopping centers. especially near the most attractive stores. then the aisles should not be so narrow as to make the task difficult. 10 inches wide. and ranged from 16 feet to 37 feet.5 is amazing when you consider that the largest 1947 car was over 6 feet.1. The low figure of 7. nor so narrow that one car being parked will temporarily tie up traffic in the aisle. The quantity of space is discussed below. we are assuming that most parking lots are laid out pretty much in the same way. For two-way aisles.
The narrower aisles (a) are the pedestrian walkways sometimes provided. thus: Figure 2 Figure 3 . The lay-out may be varied for several types of angle parking. and the wider aisle (b) between rows of spaces is the aisle for maneuvering the cars.
and 300 is a more commonly accepted figure. Now 250 square feet per car is considered too small an area for shopping center lots.Figure 4 The total parking lot area per car space (including aisles) affects the customer in terms of his difficulty or lack of difficulty in getting into a parking space. Whatever figure is taken. not more than 200 square feet need be . for head-in. Baker and Funaro in Shopping Centers: Design and Operation state that 350 feet is the minimum that can be considered satisfactory. with a minimum of 192 square feet and a maximum of 307 square feet. the lots studied averaged 246 square feet per car. 90 degree parking. The Eno study showed that.
they should be at least 7 feet wide to allow for the overhang of the front ends of the cars. we can talk about the parking area actually needed for a shopping center. exits and entrances. Since cars are about 7 feet wide. Table 1 illustrates the relationship between these two methods of calculating parking in relation to sales area. we have 3. So.) . The Parkington Shopping Center. and to allow room for two people carrying packages to pass each other without difficulty. 10 cars can be parked in that 3. How much space? The quantity of parking space is measured in two ways.000 square feet of store space.000 square feet of parking. and 150. If they are installed. We have been assuming that parking would be laid out around the outside of the store group.000 square feet of floor space is devoted to retailing.or 10-feet wide. Thus. with the interior mall reserved for pedestrian movement. is equivalent to saying 10 spaces per 1. and 3). because of the relatively high cost per parking space. it is almost necessary that the structure be a self-service parking garage. we would say the ratio is 3:1. By the old method. Baker and Funaro recommend a space 9 by 18 feet. The Parkington self-parking structure has separate ramps leading directly from each floor to the ground.) then 3. Walking from the space to the stores: Once the shopper has safely gotten his car into the best available space. particularly in the size of the spaces and aisles on each floor. Covered walkways for shoppers can be an important feature. etc. The rest of the area (150 square feet per car by their standards) will be used up in aisles.devoted to the space itself. With these measures in mind. Gruen and Smith have worked out a parking "demand" for a proposed shopping center having 800. and the weather often inclement. a ratio of 3:1 meant that there were three square feet of parking for every square foot of retail space. and this fact raises some problems of design in a multi-level garage. a ratio of 3:1 by the old method. The older method is to compare the total area devoted to parking with the net retail area of the stores.000 square feet. 3.000 square feet of retail space. At 300 square feet a space.000 square feet to parking area. is able to boast that no shopper need walk more than 110 feet from his parked car without being under some cover. No land will be saved by making spaces less than 9 feet wide. (See Figures 5–11 below for design of the parking areas in relation to the possible types of store grouping.000 square feet of parking area. landscaping. and landscaping. Therefore.) Some parking lots have concrete sidewalks between the rows of parked cars (aisles marked "a" in figures 1.000 square feet of floor space and described in Shopping Centers: The New Building Type (see biblio. Multi-story parking garages. except where the amount of land is limited and its cost per square foot is high. he has only to walk to the stores. 2. which is served by a five-story self-parking structure in the interior of the store grouping. If we assume that each space takes up a total of 300 square feet of parking lot area (including aisles. if 50. especially where the parking is spread out considerably. A more recently used measure is to compute the number ofparking spaces per 1. are not usually recommended by shopping center developers.000 feet of retail floor area.3 cars can be parked for each 1. for 1. and one 10 by 20 feet should be ample. and the width and design of the ramps leading to the floors. and the result will be even fewer usable spaces than if they were 9. a smaller space will encourage straddling the dividing lines. For shopping center purposes.
Framingham. Detroit. Michigan) Figure 7 .. Figure 6 (Similar to Northland.Figure 5 This design is similar to Shopper's World. which is experiencing financial difficulty apparently because no second major store has located at the open end of the mall. Mass.
2100 parking spaces.Figure 8 (Similar to Boulevard Shopping Center. 32 stores.) Figure 9 . Montreal — 207 acres.
Illinois) Figure 11 . Chicago.Figure 10 (Similar to Evergreen Plaza.
· Leisure time/lifestyle centers are replacing the mall experience by attempting to create a sense of community and positive. make their purchases and leave. Instead. Two general categories of open-air centers are capturing these dollars: leisure time/lifestyle and convenience/value centers. Customers park outside of an attractive set of buildings and walk into a pedestrian friendly environment. These two concepts cover the majority of retail development today. although developers are trying to differentiate their centers in an attempt to build a ―better . home goods. entertainment. drive up. books. park in front of the store.‖ · Convenience/value retail strip centers are providing time-starved consumers with targeted shopping destinations. music. These niche centers are smaller and focus on food. Consumers often return to their car simply to drive to the other side of the parking lot to shop at a different store. openair centers are being built and are taking more retail dollars out of the mall. Consumers know what they need to buy. etc. varied experiences. These centers are successful in affluent markets and focus on ―shopping.Open Air Centers Growing Very few malls are being constructed today.‖ not ―buying.
. 55% of retail stores were developed in shopping centers. Today. Developers of shopping centers are concerned with this trend as it erodes the market share of shopping centers. that percentage has dropped to approximately 20%. 80% of new retail developments are free-standing. there is usually no foot traffic. Despite their proximity to other stores.‖ Free-Standing Retail Growing Fifteen years ago.mouse trap. These stores are often built next to or across the street from a Wal-Mart or other large store. Accordingly.
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