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Section II: Tutorials

Solution: Follow the step-by-step instructions to solve the problem. 1- Open a new case.

Tutorial 1
Physical Properties

2- Add a new component list Problem 1: Physical Properties of Water Calculate the properties of a stream of water at 25 C and 1 atm with mass flow rate of 125 kg/hr.

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3- Select water from the Components list and then close the active window by clicking on cross button.

5- Select the Fluid Package (Make sure selecting Component List -1in the component list).

4- The cross button is not seen on the figure and you could move the active window to see the cross button in order to close it.

6- Add a new Fluid Package

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7- Select the Peng Robinson or SRK equation of state from Property Package.

9- Drag a material stream to the PFD. (Choose the stream from the Object Palette by pressing F4 or by F11). Rename the stream if needed.

8- Close the Fluid Package by clicking on cross button. After this step, it is also possible to import /export the Fluid Package. Enter to Simulation Environment.

10- Save the simulation work (e.g., problem-1).

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11- For the N components stream, N+2 parameters are needed. Enter 2 out of 3 (temperature, pressure and vapor fraction) and mass flowrate in the Worksheet/Conditions page:

13- The stream properties can now be calculated (seen in the Worksheet/Properties page). Items in blue and black indicate user-defined and calculated properties, respectively.

12- Enter 1 for mole fraction of water in the Worksheet/Composition page.

14- By putting the curser on the stream, the Fly-By window appears showing the main properties of the stream.

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Problem 2: T-xy diagram Plot the T-xy diagram for the binary mixture of 1-butanol and water.

Solution: Follow the step-by-step instructions to solve the problem. 1- Open a new case.

2- Add a new component list

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3- Select 1-butanol and water from components list then close the active window by clicking on cross button.

5- Select the Fluid Package (Make sure selecting Component List -1in the component list).

4- The cross button is not seen on the figure and you could move the active window to see the cross button in order to close it.

6- Add a new Fluid Package.

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7- Select the UNIQUAC activity model from Property Package.

9- Drag a material stream to the PFD. (Choose the stream from the Object Palette by pressing F4 or by F11). Rename the stream to H2O.

8- Close the Fluid Package by clicking on cross button. After this step, it is possible to import/export the Fluid Package. You may now enter to Simulation Environment.

10- Save the simulation work (e.g., problem-2).

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11- Select another material stream for 1-butanol. Define both streams (100 C and 1 atm) as outlined in the previous problem.

13- Use the set function from the Object Palette to keep the total molar flow of these streams equal to 1. In this way, independent mole fraction variables could be defined for mixture.

12- Enter the molar flow rate for water stream (e.g., 0.7 kmole/hr) and its composition (mole fraction=1) in order to fully define this stream. Enter the composition of 1-butanol stream (mole fraction=1).

14- Double click on the set icon to define the target variable (1-butanol molar flow).

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15- Choose H2O as a source stream.

17- There are different ways to keep the total molar flow rate of these streams constant instead of using set. For example, use a mixer (from the object pallet) and set the molar flow rate of outlet stream to 1 kmole/hr. The flow rate of 1-butanol stream is adjusted accordingly.

16- Click on the parameters section to define the multiplier and offset in order to keep the total molar flow rate of these streams equal to 1. The molar flow rate of the second stream is adjusted so that the total molar flow rates of these two streams remain constant.

18- Connect the inlet and outlet streams by double clicking on the Mixer. (The stream properties can now be calculated).

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19- In order to plot the T-xy diagram, the bubble and dew point should be calculated for the water stream flowrate varying from 0 to 1. A Heater and a Cooler are added to the flow sheet for this purpose.

21- To calculate the bubble and dew point for a given flowrate of water stream (0.7 kmole/hr), set the vapor fraction at the exit of the Heater and Cooler equal to zero and one, respectively.

20- Assume no pressure drop in the Heater and the Cooler (Constant pressure for T-xy).

22- To plot the figure, press Ctrl+D to open Databook.

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23- Click on insert button in order to sample the variables from the flowsheet.

25- Go to case studies and add a new case.

24- Sample the variables from the flowsheet (temperature for S-bubble stream, S-dew stream and flowrate of water stream).

26- Choose the molar flow as an independent variable (to represent x in T-xy) and the temperatures as dependent variables (to represent T in T-xy) and then press view.

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27- Specify the low, high bound and step size values of independent variable and press start.

Problem 3 Flash Calculations Consider a stream of gas (T=40 C and P=30 kg/cm2) containing methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and n-pentane with molar flow rates of 60, 25, 15, 10 and 10 kmole/hr, respectively. Calculate: a) Pressure of dew point at 40 C. b) Pressure of bubble point at 40 C. c) Temperature of dew point at 30 kg/cm2. d) Temperature of bubble point at 30 kg/cm2. e) Stream enters to a separator. Calculate properties of outlet streams. f) Plot outlet molar flow rate of ethane in the gas stream as a function of the operating temperature (sensitivity analysis). g) Adjust the drum temperature to reach 50% liquid.

28- After the completion of simulation, press Results button to view the T-xy diagram.

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Different thermodynamic models may be selected to generate T-xy diagram and to compare the simulation data with the experimental data to figure out the proper physical property models to be employed in simulation.

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Solution: Follow the step-by-step instructions to solve the problem. 1- Open a new case.

3- Select components from components list, then close the active window.

4- The cross button is not seen on the figure and you could move the active window to see the cross button in order to close it. 2- Add a new component list

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5- Select the Fluid Package (Make sure selecting Component List -1in the component list).

7- Select the Peng Robinson equation of state from Property Package.

6- Add a new Fluid Package.

8- Close the Fluid Package by clicking on cross button. After this step, it is possible to import/export the Fluid Package. You may now enter to Simulation Environment.

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9- Drag a material stream to the PFD and enter two out of three properties (temperature, pressure and vapor fraction) in the Worksheet/Conditions page.

11- Enter molar flow rate of components in the Worksheet/Composition page.

10- Save the simulation work (e.g., problem-3).

8- By pressing OK button, the properties of stream will be calculated.

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a) For calculating the dew point pressure at 40 C, first erase the pressure of the stream. Then enter 1 in vapor/phase fraction of stream. (Pressure of dew point is 1105.5 kPa).

c) For calculating the temperature of dew point, erase the temperature, and then enter 30 kg/cm2 for pressure and 1 for vapor fraction. The dew point temperature is 68.092 C.

b) For calculating the bubble point pressure at 40 C, enter 0 in vapor/phase fraction of stream. Pressure of bubble point is 10775 kPa.

d) For calculating the temperature of bubble point at 30 kg/cm2, enter 0 for vapor/phase fraction of stream. Temperature of bubble point is calculated to be -73.314 C.

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e) Return the stream conditions (temperature and pressure) to initial conditions (40 C and 30 kg/cm2). Then put a separator on the PFD from the Object Palette (F4).

The properties of streams are seen in the Worksheet/Conditions page.

Double click on the separator to open it. Enter inlet and outlet vapor and liquid streams on the Design/Connections page. The calculation is performed for an adiabatic separator immediately.

f) To complete a sensitivity analysis, go to Tools/Databook or press Ctrl+D.

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At the first page of Databook, variables appear, use insert to sample variables from flowsheet.

Select molar flow rate of ethane from the vapor outlet stream (stream vap).

From the variable navigator, select the object and variable, e.g., choose 1 as object and its temperature as variable, press add button to select another variable.

Then go to the Case Studies page and add a new case study by clicking on the Add button.

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Specify temperature as an independent and molar flow rate of ethane as a dependent variable.

Press Start button and then go to the Results page to see the plot or table. The results may be exported to any spreadsheet software for further processing.

Click on the view button and enter low, high bonds and step size values for the independent variable. Number of states will be calculated by HYSYS.

g) In order to adjust the drum temperature to reach the 50% liquid, the duty should be specified for drum to be able to run it isothermally.

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At this stage, the specifications for the drum are incomplete. The drum temperature (vap stream temperature) is now specified to run it.

Use the spreadsheet to define the new variable being the ratio of liquid stream to feed stream.

Close the active window. The drum temperature is now initiated. It could be changed by the Adjust function to control the bottom flow rate. Drag the adjust function from the object pallet to the PFD.

Double click on spreadsheet and import the flowrate variables from the flowsheet.

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Click on the spreadsheet button and create a new variable (liquid_to_feed_ratio) and calculate its value (the formula used in cell B4 is the ratio).

The calculation is now completed.

Close the active window and double click on Adjust. Specify the drum temperature (vap stream) as the adjusted variable and the value calculated in spreadsheet as the target value. Then click on start.

Click on the Monitor button to view the Adjusted temperature.

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Problem 4: Plot the physical and thermodynamic properties Plot vapor pressure and surface tension of dimethylsulphide as a function of temperature in a desired range.

Solution: Follow the step-by-step instructions to solve the problem. 1- Open a new case.

2- Add a new component list.

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3- Select components from components list.

5- Select the Fluid Package (Make sure selecting Component List -1in the component list).

4- The cross button is not seen on the figure and you could move the active window to see the cross button in order to close it.

6- Add a new Fluid Package.

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7- Select Peng Robinson equation of state from Property Package.

9- Drag a material stream to the PFD and Rename it to Feed. Enter temperature, pressure and molar flow in the Worksheet/Conditions page.

8- Close the Fluid Package by clicking on cross button. Enter to Simulation Environment.

10- In Worksheet Compositions page, enter mole fraction of the components. The stream is now calculated for a base case.

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11- Save the simulation work (e.g., problem-4).

13- The first page of the Databook is variables.

12- To plot the surface tension of dimethylsulfide vs. temperature, go to Tools/Databook or press Ctrl-D.

14- Click on Insert button to sample and add the variables from the flowsheet. Herein, temperature of feed stream is sampled from the variable navigator.

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15- Also, insert the surface tension of the Feed stream.

17- Go to the view page and enter low, high bounds and step size values for independent variables (e.g., -250, 50 and 20).

16- Go to case studies page and add a new case study. Select the temperature as an independent variable and the surface tension as the dependent variable.

18- Click on start button. Then go to the Results page to view the results. The results are shown both in the graph and table format.

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19- To plot the vapor pressure of dimethylsulfide vs. temperature, drag the spreadsheet function to PFD.

21- Use the Antoine vapor pressure expression where 6 coefficients from a-f are needed as extracted from the scope navigator (Basis).

22- The coefficients are now imported to the spreadsheet. Press spreadsheet button in order to enter the equations.

20- Click on spreadsheet, press add import button to import the vapor pressure equation coefficients (10 coefficients) from the navigator scope Basis.

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23- Enter the equations in the spreadsheet to complete the calculation. In cell B9, the temperature is calculated in K.

25- Go to Tools/databook or press Ctrl-D.

24- By clicking on the Formula button, all equations used in the spreadsheet are shown.

26- The first page of Databook is variables.

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27- Click on Insert button to sample and add the variables. Herein, the vapor pressure of methylsulfide is sampled from the Spreadsheet object.

29- Go to Case Studies page and add a new case study. Select the temperature as an independent variable and the vapor pressure as the dependent variable.

30- Go to the view page and enter low, high bounds and step size values for independent variables (e.g., 0, 250 and 12.5). 28- Press OK. The variable is now added to the Databook. Click on Case Studies.

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31- Click on the Start button. After the completion of simulation, go to the Results page to view the results. The results are shown both in the Graph and Table format.