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THE TIME-BINDER
portrait of Alfred Korzybski by Mira Edgcrly Korzybska presented to the Chicago Art Institute by John G. Shedd in ig22

A

MANHOOD BY of HUMANITY ALFRED KORZYBSKI AUTHOR OF SCIENCE AND SANITY An Introduction to N on-aristotelian Systems and General Semantics SECOND EDITION WITH ADDITIONAL MATERIALS THE INTERNATIONAL NON-ARISTOTELIAN LIBRARY PUBLISHING COMPANY INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS. DISTRIBUTORS LAKEVILLE. CONNECTICUT .

. Second Printing Third Printing Fourth Printing June 1921 August 1921 .. December 1921 December 1923 COPYRIGHT 1950 BY ESTATE OF ALFRED KORZYBSKI All International Rights Reserved SECOND EDITION First Printing . New York .. DUTTON & COMPANY All Rights Reserved FIRST EDITION First Printing . P. June 1950 Printed in the United States of America by COUNTRY LIFE PRESS CORPORATION Garden City.Copyright 1921 by E. . ..

TO THE QUICK AND THE DEAD I DEDICATE THIS WORK .

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he started one day in a facetious (or prophetic?) moment . and on edited by me. the introduction as he had planned it was never completed by him. In the spring of 1949 when I was working with him on that introduction as his editorial assistant. as it .' he said. this must be so.' 1950 he suddenly died. to dictate to me. . New new hopes should animate mankind. inFor due to the pressure of deed. . 'My military . for those who have copies of this present edition.EDITOR'S 'Tis time NOTE . The new material will also be available separately. . The manuscripts on which he had worked will be edited and incor1. other work since that date. light should dawn Robert Browning This quotation from Browning was chosen by Korzybski to begin the new introduction he was preparing for the second edition of this book.^'This book was an immediate result of the First World War. He had planned to write of some of the experi- ences in his life which were influential in the for- mulation of his work. March porated into later editions of this book. 'This new introduction by Korzybski has been was not finished Now.

we have to understand the mechanism of how this funda- . and his early supervision of the farming activities. and finally it dawned upon me that humanity so far had never had a "just conception" of the "nature of man". his training in scientific and mathematical orientations by etc. constructive or destructive.' His childhood experiences on the family estate of Korzybie near Warsaw. and so to properly evaluate them. his father. were other factors which shaped his outlooks. ( It seemed to Korzybski that the new functional definition of 'man' as a time-binding class of life. 'All human achievements. and its potentialities for the future work of others have begun to be felt.. are man-made. The fertility of this 'germinal idea' has been amply shown in his own work. given originally in the first edition of this book. without con- fusing the two. I began to search for the origin of such recurring catastrophes. his education as an engineer. and sharpened my awareness of the hopelessness of the old evaluations. The question had bothered me practically since childhood of how to talk intelligently about different manifestations of life as found in animals and J in humans. Poland. is more important today than development of his ever.vi Editor's Note experiences gave me a very serious insight into the character of those endless historical disasters which have beset mankind from time immemorial.

The it functional definition cannot be denied. indicating the workability of the new methods.' he wrote. yet once accepted. not only verbally but as a life orientation.Editor's Note vii mental characteristic activity of humans [time-binding] works.. as given 1933 in his Science and Sanity. useless to argue in terms of "capitalism" or "communism".' he said. the working of which can be judged . 'Both involve some economic theory. which own life we may assume involve a slow liber- ation of nuclear energy from the radio-active carbon of which all life consists. with the Soviet dictatorship. He was 'It is particularly concerned with international etc. however. leads automatically to the foundation of a science of man based on It led the application of up-to-date scien- tific (physico-mathematical) methods. problems today. and the in theory of sanity. 'A beginning of such under- standing has been made. The extent of the revision in our orientations which this new notion is of man as a time- binder requires. etc. new introduction he was also dealing with the electro-colloidal character of our nervous sys- tems.'' him to the formulation of the first non- aristotelian system first and general semantics. not generally realized. In his An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Sys- tems and General Semantics. suggesting investigations of the effect of the continuous cosmic ray bombardments on our processes.

by our understanding of "human nature". involving responsibilities. the other two appendices have been added in this second edition. Those issues have to be lation of past experiences and taught through the accumuand theoretical research. and on the theoretical side.^ Appendices I. 'Here I may mention the well-known manifestations called "intellectual honesty" and "linguistic conscience". In Appendix IV.' \ ('He was also writing about symbolism considered as a form of human behavior. and so in the long run will not cover human needs. nor with an understanding of its mechanisms. Ob- viously no system which disregards or violates "hu- man nature" can possibly survive in time. both of which are against our time-binding potentialities. II. which under the absolutism is am}.viii Editor's Note only by the empirical results. be it the dictatorship of "Wall Street" or the "Proletarians". We humans are importance and not born with a consciousness of symbolism as such. 'Some Non-aristotelian Data for Efficiency in Human Adjustment. rigidity of dictators impossible. no matter how many more wars and revolutions we may have. in accordance clarified with Korzybski's plans.' he deals with ex- . What we have to analyze intelligently is the problem of dictatorship. and III were published in the first edition of this book. In a future sane society individuals must have the freedom to revise their premises.

Editor's amples in Note ix our daily living which involve exponential functions. Korzybski gives a brief history of the term 'general semantics'. which should not be confused with 'semantics'. management in industry. how he happened to intro- duce the term 'general semantics'. and grow Re- searches in the essentials of business. the Author's Note from Selections from Science and Sanity. as the reader will see. are given The following is quoted from the manuscript he was preparing for this book: 'In reading what I wrote in this book in 192 1 I find that I have nothing to retract. when he wrote this book he intended. are non-additive. In Appendix V. Only some typographical corrections have been made. and appendix. He explains that life complexities in exponential function. His reasons for in the changing the name. to call his work 'human engineering'. Although General Semantics originated with this book in 192 1. and that the problems dealt with here have become more urgent than ever. such as the last two appendices and What I . The reader will find that different kinds of punctuation have been used in my earlier writings than in more recent writings. and military organization are cited which the show through work of Graicunas and that strict limits are placed on the factors which the Urwick number of separate human nervous system can handle simultaneously without breaking down.

at long last. Also. 'I must express here. a mathematician. a profound student of humanity. here and there the terminologies differ. The thoughtful reader will be amazed at this example of the exponential character of our time-binding process. It an exceptionally deep and beautifully written contemplation. revealing the extent to which our knowledge of the world and ourselves has grown in only twenty-nine years. and I can do no better than refer the reader to Chapter XX is reprinted here from Mathematical Philosophy by the late Professor Cassius Jackson Keyser. and pictures the potentialities of a time-binding class of life with the "forward-leaping" exponential function of time. as they do not interfere with the more fundamental 'I issues.x Editor's Note Believe. we might have written such an inspiring chapter. an indebtedness . It deals with the exponential function of time as applied to a self-perpetuating living and organism called "mankind". is 'Our human progress an exponential function of time. could and. in those issues have also deliberately kept specifically in which deal with the problems 1921. Only Keyser. which and scientific knowledge current historical now have a more aspect. which are in conformity with the style of the Non-aristotelian Library publications. For the sake of ex- pediency. a poet. a philosopher. say. these minor deviations have not been changed.

gave most helping freely of his time in I me with the original manuscript. Miss Kendig has been the Educational Director of the Institute of General Semantics since in it was founded by Korzybski in his 1938 as the center for training work. She has its been the Associate Director since 1942. Professor Edward Kasner. which wrote in a language at that time new to me.' The outstanding mathematician. who was a warm friend of both intended after the First Korzybski and Keyser. 'I am also grateful for the encouragement which the late Jacques his urging Loeb gave I to me. In 'A Memoir: Alfred Korzybski & His Work' Miss as a M. He not only helped instances me greatly by his editing. My dear friend and mentor. Kendig human has given us a picture of Korzybski being. that did not return to Poland as I had World War. and pro- . It me to stay in this was because of country and develop my work here. but in some practically rewrote my original rather clumsy expressions. has set a keynote for the re- appearance of Korzybski's basic work in his Foreword to this new edition. and contributed toward a deeper understanding of his work as a whole. feeling that this new theory of time-binding was very important.Editor's Note xi which Professor Keyser did not wish expressed at the time this book first appeared.

What I Believe. Charlotte Schuchardt Lakeville.xii Editor's is Note gram tion. Connecticut April IQ$0 . originally written in 1948 as a con- tribution to a symposium 'The Faith I Live By.' It is included now in this volume. now being carried forward under her direc- There could perhaps be no more eloquent sum- mary of Korzybski's life work than entitled his own 'credo'.

Processes of Approach to a New 1 III. What is Man? 27 46 66 93 119 139 155 167 V. Keyser MAN Philosophy 287 . lxv Method and II. II. Engineering and Time-Binding IV. Survival of the Fittest VIII. Concept of Life Childhood of Humanity Classes of Life IV. Author's Note from Selections from Science I. Kendfg Believe (1948) Preface to the First Edition I xv & His Work xvii xli What CHAPTER I. Elements of Power IX. Capitalistic Era VII. lix Acknowledgment Introduction. Wealth VI. 209 224 255 265 and Sanity ( 1 948) 278 KORZYBSKI'S CONCEPT OF Lecture XX from Mathematical By Cassius J. Conclusion 204 APPENDICES Mathematics and Time-Binding Biology and Time-Binding III.CONTENTS PAGE Editor's Note By Charlotte Schuchardt v A Foreword By Edward Kasner Memoir: Alfred Korzybski By M. Some Non-aristotelian Data on Efficiency for Human Adjustment (1943) V. Manhood of Humanity X.

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is that man. sionality. Korzybski and Keyser. Just as the sphere different in dimen- and though both are round objects. differ in essence.FOREWORD I am happy to write a brief foreword to this new edition of Korzybski's of Humanity. a new presentation of Korzybski's and clarifi- ideas together with Keyser's exposition cation is particularly urgent. Indoctrinated from childhood with a zoological view of his own nature. good-will and broad humanitarian interest. so man is unlike animal. while as 'natural' as animal. both men of keen intellect. selfishness and competitiveness. They of inspire and direct our continued efforts to find solutions for the very real and perplexing problems they do us an human welfare everywhere. man tends to accept as inevitable human greed. With the engineering of world peace more im- Manhood perative each day. Edward Kasner New Columbia University York City . we can gain much-needed insight into a basic cause of war. Indeed inestimable service. thesis of the is The fundamental book circle. From the convictions of these two gifted thinkers. being a time-binder as well as a space-binder.

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in this formulated his life book. the integrity. He lived and studied men on the soil of Poland. autobiography of the man who made Alfred Korzybski came to America 191 5. related to the creativeness. concretizing. the practicality of his work and methods. this book in in December when he was 41 1920 years old. before he came to America. the simplicity of the man. the relentless vigor.'- — that man is. I believe his report: 'From babyhood was had nothing to say. he contemplated what he saw. It so far as I know. how. All his he looked wide-eyed at the world. He seemed possessed by a passion for comprehension. on the battlefields of the eastern front. in the cities of Europe. slowly slowly bringing the most complex problems down to their structural essentials in terms of simple earthy examples — I I could well silent. in his first written work published or unpublished any language. He wrote is. . why. made English functional definition of his language. Over the years visualizas I observed him and his method of work — ing. he questioned. To me this has always seemed a very significant thing.A MEMOIR: ALFRED KORZYBSKI & HIS WORK Every scientific discovery is in a sense the it. the depth.

. He developed the impli- cations of the obvious characteristic of man and of man's unique environments of symbolism and valuations. life in his later writ- and in his working with dents. He verbalized the obvious in his functional definition of of life: man is. in books and at the universities — the successes and the tragedies of man- made could life. of the poetry of feeling. He questioned why so? was —how we do better in our time? He a lover of of music. in his seminars. as a time-binding class Not what man What men do f as an ex- ponential function of time. and Sanity 1933). and stu- on through to the end of his ings. they could predict outcomes. trial When men used them and findings. They fitted the life facts. of live in this society. He loved mathematics. pass on their progress in their control of non-human things. civilizations. they escaped from animal error. He saw the significance of the obvious and the implications of the obvious. of finding a new country and this open new language which suited him for the formulation of his non-verbal 'thinking' these among others were precipitants. His lifetime fell into studies and questions new focus.— xviii Alfred Korzybski & His Work He studied the history of men. Why was this not so in The impact coming to of his experience in human affairs? World War I. engineering. ( in Time-Binding: in his Science The General ( Theory 1924— 1926).

of the social feelings engendered by this new 'image of man'. first Meantime. plans for publication had been completed and Second Be- Edition must appear without his introduction. viz. and many have little notion what the term time-binding and its implications represent. and Science and Sanity has been increasingly read. Institute have. and he was working on this when he As the 'Editor's Note' indicates. In these years Korzybski did his major teaching at the Institute of General Semantics. meditating on a new still introduction it for over three years. Korzybski was himself so of the significance of time-binding. never held a copy of Man- hood of Humanity in their hands. an uneasiness as if they were missing something method- ologically in the socio-cultural import which they felt but could not find made explicit in Science full and Sanity. Some of these persons have expressed in diverse ways vague discontent. Science and Sanity. need re-publication of his steadily. Korzybski's own recent paper. 12 hundred copies bought from 1933 to 1938 17 thousand since. I suspect.Alfred Korzybski & His Work xix This book has been out of print for eleven years. requests for book have been mounting He was died. Very many who have read Science and Sanity and who have studied general semantics with him at the . or someone else's writings about general semantics has been their first introduction to Korzybski. I do not believe that he saw this until quite recent years. Fortunately. 'What I .

his writings. to this book. summarizes his life's Work work. his feelings and his methods. his life. the work he did. I were singularly feel indivisible. He re-educated me as an educator. They serve now as introductions. first at a school where I was principal and then at the Institute he founded and which I am now privileged to carry on. The my friend and colleague Charlotte Schuchardt. I studied with him intensively and used his methodology at the school.xx lieve' Alfred Korzybski & His (1948). impelled to communicate something of that in 'seeing' his unique human-being-life-work complex. In writing I have a picture of the potential readers of this book and tend to see them mostly as people who have read Science and Sanity and other writings dealing with general se- . and contemporary. has asked me to add some prefatory words before the volume goes to press. I came to feel that Alfred Korzybski. In this brief memoir. I also observed most of the 1800 who studied general semantics with him at the Institute seminars. work as a whole. and to record an approach I have found clarifying it. emphasiz- ing the central role of his time-binding definition of man. and I gained insights into multiple aspects of his life. retrospective editor. This paper and Professor Keyser's chapter on 'Korzybski's Concept of Man' (1922) were already planned for inclusion. I knew and worked with Alfred Korzybski for fifteen years. Over the years.

. . For this I ask indulgence from other readers of the book. This seems to me important: Korzybski's time- binding definition makes a sharp distinction between men and animals.) As a new theory must. amoeba! in-western-civilization toda y Smith x natural represent in phe- nomena ity. that is. his encompassing man's biological but psycho-symbolic nature. and his accomplishments (e. must use Korzybskian formulations and terminology without explanation.e.g. Work I xxi To convey briefly something of what would like to convey to these readers. But he emphasized the differences without dismissing the similarities (not either-or) without. He reduced human phenomena to something already known. — breaking the continuity of a dimen- sional hierarchy of life. Viewed on a scale of increas- ing orders of complexity. not He only formulated a basic theory for the foundations of a natural science man. He satisfied the creative edies of histories scientist's striving human for unification and simplification principle of of premises (i. mathematics. he made man and the accomplishments of men. etc. the exact sciences. in- time-binding covered all the old assumptions. the arts.Alfred Korzybski & His mantics per I se. With the time-binding theory. the successes and the trag- and cultures comprehensible. . ethics. differ not in kind but degree of complex- the number of factors to be taken account of. evident. Mach's of economy).

inevi- tably. principles. it 'is not science'. but a 'miracle creed'. can only be assayed by what comes out of it by the process of 'methodo-logic' develop- ment. eluded and explained He may say this Admittedly so theory. he called General Semantics. to the formulation of a first non-aristotelian system on premises of great simplicity. and by empiric demonstration of workability of principles and methods derived from it. lead more adequate evaluations. The theory of time-binding led Korzybski. doctrines. led to the discovery of new factors. and their incorporation into that theory. The skeptic will question this. greater predictability and so sanity — in the lives of individuals. in their . etc.xxii Alfred Korzybski & His Work new or neglected factors. and methodological procedures and fit techniques for changing the structure of our neuro- symbolic reactions to an assumptive world of dynamic processes. The values of a scientific seems. human values of his formulathe practice of general Would semantics liberate to human time-binding energies. his hypotheses. For the rest of his life Korzybski was concerned with testing out the tions.. — perhaps. ural science and the extensional He described this whole discipline as an empirical nat- method as a general- ization of the physico-mathematical 'way of thinking' applicable in all human evaluations. and to the formulation of a modus operandi for that system. This body of coordinated assumptions.

from the standpoint of predictability and human survival. Published it in 1933 after tirelessly checking the data necessary for his methodological synthesis of modern sciences and testing the structural implications of the terminology in which he cast his formulations. He called this testing of the structural implications of terms (and formulations) his 'linguistic conscience'.' In those pages. 'On the Mechanisms of Time-Binding. because he felt he should emphasize that interrelation.Alfred Korzybski & His conduct of effects Work xxiii human affairs. narrowing the gap be- tween these rates of progress? Twelve years of study went into the formulations before he was ready to publish Science and Sanity.' The changes Korzybski made first verbalization of his formulations from his to Science book in and Sanity make a fascinating study development of linguistic rigor. He changed the title and Sanity practically on the eve of publication. 'All the scientist creates in a fact the language in which he enunciates in the it. As Poincare is said. 'at their best and at their worst' as he put it. . and so eventually in the of science on society. He studied human evaluations in science and mathematics and in psychiatry. The verbal continuity between Manhood and Science and Sanity he preserved in the title of Part VII. He wrote the first draft of Science and Sanity in 1927—28. Few know to Science that Korzybski originally intended to call his major work Time-Binding.

the reader familiar with Science and Sanity can see and trace back the process of methodo-logic development from 1921 to 1933. . 1 Differential. Kendig.xxiv Alfred Korzybski & His Work system 369—561. etc. 3-10). and 'From Classical Physical to Modern Scientific Assumptions' (pp. He will see how the Structural the principle of consciousness of ab- method and devices. his non-aristotelian Many readers have appar- ently missed this continuity. Editor (Chicago: Institute of General Semantics. 'Historical-Cultural Significance of Non-Aristotelian Movement and the Methodological Contributions of Korzybski' (pp. In this book. —an invariant This formulation of the neuro-linguistic and neuro-semantic environments (and the neurological mechanisms involved) seems to 1 me one of the great For more on this development. M. 69-78) in Papers From the Second American Congress on General Semantics. came out of the theory and the related investigations of the mechanisms of time-binding. the extensional among lation others. He will see. Reiser.. in any culture at any time relation. and in his early papers outlining the general theory of time-binding. he expounds and general semantics. the beginnings of Korzybski's formu- of neuro-linguistic and neuro-semantic en- vironments as the unique inescapable environment conditioning the reactions of the human-organismas-a-whole. stracting. 1943). He can see how the non-aristotelian system and general semantics followed from the theory of time-binding as inevitably as theorems from geometric postulates. see two papers by Professor Oliver L.

even if he can all repeat verbatim the principles and terminology. empiric has studied Science and Sanity. papers on the publication list of the Institute of General Semantics. et al). Pavlovian social sciences. eventually unify and simplify the premises of cultural anthropology. He can assay the values great or small to him of what came out of Korzybski's time-binding theory and compare his evaluations with the reports of others who. with it various degrees of competence. I me and many believe. It generalizes to a higher order the 'psycho-cultural approach' (Lawrence K. . has made his own non- verbal demonstration of empiric workability. The reader who trained his nervous system with the techniques of the non-aristotelian discipline of general semantics. It has made other the mechanisms of cultural conditioning and cultural continuity comprehensible to students. has slight criteria for his evaluations. op. Frank. cit. and Lewinian psychology.Alfred Korzybski & His Work xxv and most useful of Korzybski's higher order generalizations directly derived from time-binding theory. . etc. The reader who has merely read Science who 'knows' it verbally. have applied in many and fields. He may or i.e. other papers distributed to 'Members of the Institute' and the recently inaugurated General Semantics Bulletin published for Members by the Institute. It will. psychiatry. 2 See for example Papers From the Second American Congress on General Semantics. may not get insights from the reports of others. applied it in his life and work. 2 Sanity.

in the abstract. If enjoys skepticism he can argue as endlessly about the validity of the reports as he can about Korzybski's theories. the engineer. culties 'I its strength —and the diffi- he faced in his let's pioneering efforts. human life and cannot be fitted Some have dismissed Korzybski's work ing new'. Others consider 'unscientific') it as 'noth- 'too radical' (or too for serious 'scientific consideration'. when faced with something new. see !' was another pet saying of his. he may balk at 'accepting' the empiric value of anything that deals with the multiple variables of into his formula. 'Don't talk.' ('It is strictly empirical. some scientific specialty. Such receptions of the in the history tific' new and different are not rare 'scien- of science. . This was the attitude he. took toward his formudon't know.') This epito- mizes the non-verbal character of the working mechanisms of the discipline.. or disproved by talking.xxvi Alfred Korzybski & His shown Work he accept their evaluations as in practice. Korzybski had a favorite expression. if he knows the trained in words he knows 'all' any proposition can be proved etc. If he is can. etc. Do it. where he can. or thinks he narrow his problems down so that he has only two variables to control. The aristotelian tradition has trained him to do that: words and experience are equated in the tacit assumption that . For 'philosophic' or skeptics who wished to argue a priori about his work.

Work xxvii That is. The words Korzybski founded the Institute were 'peace in our time' by 'democratic appease- ment'. his reactions World War terms of his formulations and work was taking. June 1938. autumn of His papers written during the next II. * In most matters of uniquely human significance. Only those who knew and worked with him intimately know the the direction his depth of his social feelings. an appropriate scientific meth- odology for the time-binding theory and for general education toward realizing human in time-binding' potentialities. and the facts were war and more dictatorships — to as Korzybski sadly predicted in his seminar that '38. whole person about the war. he was his own best skeptic —he knew. Some famous words of the fighting-war years bring them sharply . how he suffered The daily chaos in his — 3 day blunts our memories of what he — of to- all of us have 3 lived through then. in seven years record the impact on him. In September Chamberlain went to Munich. the ency versus for pitfalls of 'logical' consist- life reactions. for example. we have to be content with observing phenomena that cannot be quantitatively measured as of 1950. in fact. He remained 'the skeptic' many years until he saw (had empiric evidence which satisfied him*) that the formulations.Alfred Korzybski & His lations. the verbal and non-verbal techniques of the extensional method he expounded and demonstrated in his seminars on general semantics were teachable and workable —were.

the sensitive reader may re-live the background Korzybski did his work against in the first six years of the Institute. He carried on a mountainous correspondence. was 59 years old the summer he founded the The work he set himself to do there radhis life pattern. the vast methodologic synthesis he in Science had encompassed and Sanity.xxviii Alfred Korzybski & His Work He ically Institute. beginning he directed the Institute down to minutest He taught seminar courses and worked with individual students interminably. 'I Can Hear It Now.' Volume i. Murrow (Columbia Masterworks ML4095. feats of endurance were ahead of him. Narrated by Edward R. For is re- markable to us who know the care he lavished on many years he still hoped I to write another book. incorporating refer to the recording. sine qua non of creative work. In the details. . which he needed. 'mental' power and vigor. More The new conditions were ill-suited to his make-up. 'I Can Hear It Now. Long Playing. Murrow and Fred Friendly. edited by Edward R. Among his others they deprived him of long periods of silence and isolation which were the us do physical comforts. also on standard records). back to me. The number of papers he was able to write under the circumstances everything he wrote for publication. craved as most of For the next eleven years he was surrounded by people and pressures. changed Behind him was a tremendous feat of physiological endurance. The elegant simplicity of his formulations can be misleading in counting what they cost him as an organism.' In a half hour's listening.

For example to popularize his work. cerned about the scientific integrity took easier paths and did not understand his position. and their eventual comparison with what was accom- plished by prevailing methods. and so eliminating the possibilities of demon- strating the human. 'cultism'. . 'jealousy'. i. scientific values of the general semantics methodology in clear-cut applications. to theoretical position and so compromise orthodoxies to with current academic and scientific woo if it acceptance at the universities and support by the foundations. labelled it 'monomania'. lack of tute He was constantly harassed by our Insti- money and security in carrying and by the anomalies of a situation in which he could not approve or accept some well-intentioned suggestions and efforts made to help us gain accept: ance and support. him to be modify his less forthright in his presentations.e. etc.Alfred Korzybski & His Work made on the xxix the deductive presentation of the non-aristotelian system and general semantics which he in his seminar courses. to He had to continue al- work beyond so. was too high for him to pay meant compromising the integrity of the disprice The cipline. Some wanted him Others wanted rewrite Science and Sanity for 'the man in the street'. though he was well aware of the disadvantages of doing Persons who themselves seemed unconof the discipline. the institutional 'safety zone'.

year after year.xxx etc. He en- gave seminar after seminar. He both taught and studied the students in his seminar courses. His durance seemed endless. If we set out to solve a problem by non-euclidean geometry. position seemed as simple as saying. his This fretted and saddened him. They were chief source of happiness in the 1 arduous Institute years. facts best. in private work with each of the 40 to 50 students. turning back to some example He . had his own peculiar style of lecturing. lives The results he saw in the their reports to and work of hundreds of these students and him over the years were not only his his empiric evidence that his formulations did work. postulates. Alfred Korzybski & His Work To him. 'Let's stick to our premises. We would just make We have fits to have some honesty. stick to the method we start out with and then compare results. just as passionately absorbed in testing his He was work as he had been in formulating 30 to 50 hours of vigorous sive courses eight hours a Each seminar meant some intenday. we don't switch to euclidean a mess. lecturing. It meant hours of it. a nonlinear method of developing his exposition of nonaristotelian orientations by going round and round in widening circles. Which the in which gives the most predictability doing what we set out to do?' The and Institute was for Korzybski a training school his research laboratory.

. etc. People were seldom neutral about him. doctors. to 'shake amples from daily life. 'has to work with anybody in any activity or it's human no good. psy- chiatrists. This may all sound chaotic. Often his face. At times he was elegant.' seminar. He used shocking examples from his study in his mental hospitals. could enroll for a evaluation.. from psychiatry. One educator said he was the 'most powerful and effective teacher' he knew. from mathematics. The more he shook their complacency. it) criminals. was effective. the etc.Alfred Korzybski & His Work xxxi in given at the beginning to illustrate a mechanism his later lectures. young college students. Another said he was 'the worst. humorous and discursive. the more they learned. his hands. artists. should study pedagogy'. conveyed as much as his words and diagrams. In private interviews he to apply the showed individuals how methodology in ating their personal lives analyzing and re-evaluand problems. all same classes. 'Because a general method of he said. to 'get under the them up'. — sisted that anyone who wished to. or how he did it. from (as he called own experience with deeply maladjusted people. laborers. 'a master of pedagogy'. He used exfrom the history of science. He inskins' of the class. irritated them by 'rubbing in' the method. sat in it businessmen. suave at others. researchers. social workers. what he did. crisp.' Professors. he taught .

' he touch the 'my enemies for life. The student must rigorously and continuously apply the extensional method in his personal living.' which Some like to call the seminars a 'school of wisdom'. You have to have a method for applying it continuously. uncovers "the cultural unconscious". the methodological in any field. 'Ten percent of every it. etc. whether science. for successful application in handling 'impersonal' problems problems — the in his human work relations. class. 'but wisdom not enough. alone. con- These personal applications. he contended. them question their rationalizations.' A He significantly large in with Korzybski tinue to benefit. Only then would he have a sure basis stantly.' (When you . attitudes. therapy scious we do is makes it "conscious". must come first.' said Korzybski. carried in the structure of language judgments.* In psychothe "same" with the personal uncononly a special case of the cultural. 'modes of thought' learned from our neuro-linguistic and neuro-semantic environments. There's been plenty of wisdom in this world for millenniums and what? Wisdom. value about man. confrom the training in various degrees. 'got nothing out of said. business.' had his failures. art.xxxii Alfred Korzybski & His to Work etc. medicine. doesn't work. 'Korzybski deals with.. .' he claimed. number of those who studied some 56 seminars benefited. is 'Maybe. changes unconscious assumptions about the world. 'Some became. A psychiatrist said. * That is to say. education.

(i. However in this last month something apparently has happened. 'cor- knew all the principles and terminology and techniques. .) Some 'got quickly and as easily fell back into old habits of thinking-feeling. At that time your and my summer good friend Dr. and an explanation. general semantics 'intellectually' tically'). 'They "re- fused" to work at themselves. Some learned verbally.e. over the years. Because to I me shows many want to quote a letter written to Korzybski in April 1950 by a research psychiatrist who had not heard of his death: Dear Count Alfred: I think I owe you a little apology. thing happened. and then it —somethings. Some 'got it' very slowly. their work.Alfred Korzybski & His Work xxxiii fundamental verbalisms around which an individual has organized his life pattern. . their living reactions. [deceased] took me with him to your Seminar. thalamic portion [change in living. it may it' be too dis- turbing for him to face. It apparently had no effect on their lives. They use the words but not the method. feeling] seemed to elude me.' he said. but simply could not apply them. I could 'get' the cortical aspect [verbal] but for some reason the . a vote of thanks. change their evaluations. in the As you recall it was of 1939 that I first became aware of General Semantics. I begin now for the first time to 'feel' that General Semantics .

He was continuously aware that some infantile evaluation he might be struggling to change in an individual were symbolic of students. 'Well I did it it' . Just to let you little know that sometimes in. In working with power of caring about any individual bit of humanity before him. was running He no longer tramped up and down the platform waving his stick. his life it so happened. . Title of paper by Alfred Korzybski: 'Functional Determinants of Perceptual Processes: Language. . University of Texas. What do not know all I can give you is the answer my small son (thirty-four months) gives me when I ask him why he does has something the explanation is I — — this or that. b) Aristotelian and Non-aristotelian Language Systems. That vast physiological endurance out. Blake and Dr. Robert R. his 'thinking' as creative as ever. To be published by Ronald Press. under the direction of Dr. he simply says.xxxiv Alfred Korzybski & His I Work need and which can help. Ramsey. I takes a while for things to sink remain. New York.' . he exhibited a tremendous 4 Clinical Psychology to Personality. His lecturing was as vigorous. The circumstances of his death. a) The Effect on Perceptual Processes of the Language System. and work. 1950. proach Presented by Symposium 1949-50 on Perception: An ApThe Department of Psychology. Glenn V. Semantically yours Korzybski held his last seminar December 27— January 4. In Jan- uary and February he wrote for the Clinical Psychology his last scientific paper Symposium on Percep4 tion at the University of Texas.

science for its application practice.' In it was finished in he must this fulfilled the criteria have in set himself after he had completed book 192 1 from the point of view of theory. A methodological synthesis needed for progress of our knowledge of man-as-awhole-in-his-environments. He had lived for 70 we can had say his years. heredity and en- vironment. research and in a single brain. world of facts than space and time. To him. For us the work of the future operative calls for more co- endeavors. 7 months and 29 days. another hardly begun. in and education. spent the last few hours of his ing on life at his He desk work- such a problem. split verbally only for convenience. psyche and soma. no 'insignificant' problems. the extravagant at three warmth of his social feelings. For him the sense that he work was 'finished. inductive verification to and deductive methods. Its has been elaborated use values have been demonstrated by Korzybski himself and by a substantial number of individuals trained in the . the lavish ways he spent himself. human problems were Thus the intensity. individual and society were Empirically. split in the they could no more be etc. o'clock in the He died March first morning.Alfred Korzybski & His Work xxxv mirrored a symptom from the social syndrome. the In his non-elementalistic orientation. and empirical a considerable degree (page xliv). In one way.

been carried on in an amorphous atmos- phere. community etc. Pioneering the discipline has. Together these persons represent a cross section of problems arts. To go forward we less shall need to coalesce. They have been undertaken by courageous individuals as individuals. Thus Korzybski's time-binding efforts will live and grow. A. Books and reprints of papers may be ordered from the Institute. U. 5 in extra-neural space. Fostering such development now becomes a function and aim of the Institute as the center for non-aristotelian training and work. To date their efforts have a common characteristic. I doubt that anyhis influence one would care to take the measure of Korzybski's work. Stood together they measure exactly 4 and j/2 inches. spontaneity but more consensus on need inter-discipline in on directions. 5 and the extent of of it in our time. We cooperation and some mechanism for working groups. writings A complete bibliography Korzybski's published which and comments. industry. We need not essentials. and education. —theory human and and practice in the sciences life. At this date. In his life he wrote two books and 22 papers.xxxvi Alfred Korzybski & His Work activities non-aristotelian discipline. is available on request from the Institute of General Semantics. . of necessity. S. developed in ways to meet inThese individuals have been isolated from each other by geography and more dividual situations. Address: Lakealso includes brief introductions ville. Connecticut. intangible factors.

historic accidents in its development. and accept his bold hypotheses and method- . has changed slowly in the non-aristotelian direc- tion towards non-elementalistic 'concepts' of society. etc. Such are some of the artificial obstructions. Added to the inherent difficulty of changing to new premises. non-aristoto the exclusion of other telian orientations. etc. and with the word 'semantics' as now popularly used. linking his Among others these have resulted in name with language and communication aspects of his work in scientific and educational circles. man in By now it may be that some in these dis- ciplines are ready to review Korzybski's works as a whole.. have retarded 'seeing' I sense work as-a-whole in proper perspective. the psychologies. the arts. emphases. psycho-somatic medicine. The re-publication of this book with the inclusion sig- of Professor Keyser's early appreciation of the nificance of time-binding ski's and with three of Korzybthe first more recent papers may be step towards work as a scientific discipline from a web of narrow conceptions and mis-conceptions fabricated from certain methododisentangling the values of his — logic necessities.: Alfred Korzybski & His Work xxxvii Those who know these works might join me in saying Seldom if ever in human history has so little represented so much for human understanding and progress. As the 'climate of opinion' in cultural anthropology.. they his it.

if you prefer. That is looking far far ahead twenty-five. his hopes. I hope. I look upon as a en- challenge and a program for future workers dowed with creative imagination who will take the foundations Korzybski has left us in time-binding. an inter-discipline disof cipline to cover the whole of human life and the potentialities of time-binding. by social scientists and edu- — cators. his conclusions. and students can trace the develop- ment of his thinking in historic sequence. fifty years perhaps. One from unsuspected tensions. re-formulate the theories and practices of their them to a higher-order 'science science' or. In these twelve pages we — have what we fare in all may consider Korzybski's 'testament' a bequest to workers concerned with human welit the sciences and arts. In the paper which follows this memoir and which he wrote during 1947 and 1948. the non-aristotelian system and general semantics. Korzybski has summarized his life's work.xxxviii Alfred Koreybski & His Work ology for further verification. in a quite remarkable way. One has . The slender bulk of his works may encourage study or re-study especially. Reading this book for the first time seems to me specialties. generalize — — — an experience very much like getting a look at first clear human beings and human history after wearall ing glasses with distorting lenses feels a release one's life. All his writings are now available.

Ignore the allusions which date 1920. at 'man' less. with so little it — — since he wrote. new way of looking remarkable with the passage of time. The audacity and ski's Work xxxix simplicity of Korzyb- approach that cut through ages-old problems to seem more. and is a trite this book historically to the socio-eco- nomic-scientific contexts of the post-war world of it might have been written last year. that only now after thirty years are we ready to take in the significance of his first book. It and easy thing to say a man lived before his time. however. Kendig Institute of General Semantics Lakeville. not We have and done learned so much about 'man' and 'society' a fresh. M. Connecticut 11 May IQ50 .Alfred Korzybski & His some hope. I believe.

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gave me the feel of the world's most imporhappens that I tant scientific discoveries of the nineteenth century. of 26. and includes such international contributors as Gandhi. When I was five years old my father. and engineers. Holmes. etc. M. which I wish to gratefully acknowledge. The Faith I Live By.WHAT I I BELIEVE AM deeply honored to participate in the Sym- posium. New Delhi. Radhakrishnan and others. It is to be published soon. India. tial scientific achievements of the twentieth century and remain The feel of the differen- calculus. The Faith I Live By. to contribute to a symposium entitled. I would never have undertaken the difficult task of formulating such a condensed summary of life studies and experiences which any 'credo' would require. which prepared the groundwork for the fundamentally valid today. xli . Krishna Mangesh Talgeri. as well as non-euclidean and four-dimen- sional geometries. I admit that without Mr. jurists. Talgeri's invitation. Atul Grove. where I do not need to go into theoretical explanations. compiled and edited by Krishna M.A. Montessori. and to contribute this paper particularly written for the contemplative audience of Indian readers. and the most valuable assistance of Miss Charlotte Schuchardt. Nehru. mathematicians. come from an old family of agriculturists. * This which he conveyed to me at that was originally written in 1948 in response to an invitation from Mr. John H. an engineer.* This is the first opportunity I have had to write a It 'credo'. Talgeri. soldiers.

or 3 ) and.. with the most highly developed nervous individual or a generation to begin tem.. history of cultures. I called this essential capacity 'time-binding'. This can be accomplished only by a uses symbols as ity which means for time-binding. 2) Neither of these approaches could give us a workable base for understanding the actions of Smithj. a capac- depends on and necessitates 'intelligence'. many branches of sciences. com- convinced me that: Human evaluations with reference to them- were mythological or zoological. free from the old mythoand zoological assumptions. 'psychology'. parative religions. mathematical foundations. means of communication. re- etc. My observations and theoretical studies of and mathematics. also history. 'philosophy'. are uniquely characterized by the capacity of an where the former class of life left off. On this inherently human level of interdependence time-binding leads inevitably to feelings of responsibility. logical showed that sys- humans. duty toward others and . but. i) selves etc. high-order abstractions as 'mind'. A functional analysis. extremely complex (deeply inter-related) . uniquely human. or a combina- tion of both. Smith 2 living.xlii What life. generalized in such 'intellect' . 'logic'. I Believe time shaped the future interests and orientations of my and became the foundation of my whole life work. Such etc. anthropology.

we psycho-biological mechanisms of time^. 'emotion'. not on statistical aver- ages on the level of homo homini lupus drawn from primitive and/or un-sane semantic (evaluational) reactions which are on record. It human nervous was a fundamental error of the old evaluations to postulate depends to 'human nature' as 'evil'. a misguiding approach implying the inherited actually cannot be split. Instead of studying ele- mentalistic 'thinking'. creeds or rationalizations. and so behaviour. I archaic. are based on the study of human potentialities... divisions or schizophrenic splits of human characteristics which talistically the investigated functionally and therefore non-elemen- binding —how they work. By induction pass from particulars to the gen- . artificial. als.What the future. etc. that our approaches to the problems of vitiated humans have been evaluation which still by primitive methods of often dominate our attitudes and outlooks. 'Human nature' a large extent on the character of our etc. 'intellect'. 'feeling'. I In the time-binding orientation acteristics for took those char- granted as the empirical end-products of the functioning of the healthy system. I Believe xliii and similar and therefore to some type of ethics. morsocial and/or socio-cultural reactions. our criteria of values. With a time-binding consciousness. build up our socio-cultural I believe for these ultimately and other environments.

having accumulated data by induction (statistical averages). we try to learn acteristics of the from the study of the individual the main charphylum (the human race). random which then would become the all. for the time to my knowledge. but perhaps this a may become the turning of I page of human history. the older could not use. of time-binding as explained here establishes the deductive grounds for a full-fledged where I both inductive and deductive methods are utilized.xliv What However. distorted. The human understanding 'science of man'. believe that this very point of inductive scientific and deductive methods with regard to humans tangibly marks a sharp difference between the childhood and the manhood of humanity. I human potentialities may be wrong. if not hopeless. is foundation for predictability. In other words. this I Believe is eral. method not reliable enough. further studies. This. after the main aim of all science. but had to base my analysis on the much more complex 'organ- . So far what we 'knew' about 'man' were statistical averages gathered inductively. and so our human world picture was rather sad. Now first with the time-binding theory. We have pirically to build a deductive system and verify em- whether the general applies to the eventual particular. in my 'organism-as-a-whole' approaches. we can start with what we indi- have learned about the phylum and analyze the vidual from the point of view of as a phylum.

: What neuro-linguistic I Believe xlv ism-as-a-whole-in-an-environment'. In these investigations I discovered that physico-mathematical methods have application to our daily life on all levels. economic. linking science with problems of sanity. This statement entirely general. I had to include and neuro-semantic (evaluational) environments as environments. so-called 'normal person' so extremely complex as to practically evade an over-all analysis. because of their exceptional predictability. etc. mathematical physics. etc. ecological. in the sense of adjustment to 'facts' I and 'reality'. the foundations of mathematics. exact sciences. and also had to consider geographic. and applies to highly civilized people as well as the most primitive. found that human reactions within these two limits do not differ in some objectified 'kind'. as in mathematics. but only in psycho-biological 'degrees'. person hovers somewhere in and that the 'normal' between the two ex- . and b) reactions at their worst. Common vinced is sense and ordinary observations con- me that the average. which exhibit the deepest kind of strictly human psycho-logical reactions. socio-cultural. is and so even group behaviour.. conditions as factors which mould human personalities.. as exemplified by psychiatric cases. physico-chemical. political. So I had to concentrate on the study of two extremes of human psycho-logical reactions a) reactions at their best.

socio-cultural asset to the evolution of humanity. must be classified among time-binders.. etc. and nobody is as sane as that which a textbook of sanity would give. For instance. 'unhappiness'. and what we call 'subjective' may also be considered 'objective' for the same reasons. Linguistic and grammatical structures also have prevented our understanding of human reactions. 'happi- ness'. particularly dictators of every kind. the world. My analysis showed that happenings in the world label outside our skins. as 'insane' as the composite picture a textbook of psychiatry would give us. and also such organismal psychological reactions inside our skins as those we 'feelings'. still use a terminology of 'objective' and both extremely confusing. have blocked this capacity considerably. 'resentment'. 'emotions'. 'hate'. we used and 'subjective'. as saboteurs or twisting that knowledge to suit their purposes.. 'love'. and from. or . 'thinking'. the author included. 'fear'. 'pleasure'. as the so-called 'objective' struct made by our nervous must be considered a consystem. 'pain'. some inaccessible dogmatists in power.xlvi What Nobody is I Believe tremes. withholding from the people knowledge of. However. etc. The mechanisms of time-binding se- are exhibited in most humans except those with vere psycho-biological illnesses. 'anger'. Clearly police states of secrecy. and certainly not a 'iron curtains'. occur only on the non-verbal.

also become unified by a methodology. This sharp. yet thoroughly unorthodox differentiation between verbal and non-verbal about 'the levels auto- matically eliminates the useless metaphysical verbal bickerings things'. such as solipsism. never being the 'reality' behind them. I Believe xlvii verbal levels. which I call 'non-aristotelian'. that the words are merely supposed to represent. the aims and formulations of Aristotle.What what I call silent levels. of millenniums etc. Signifies. 'feelings'. Different philosophical trends as found in disciplines such Nominalism. Phenomenalism. Realism. nature of 'human nature'.. with the comes result that an empirical general theory of values. bepossible.. and. have been the result of the identifications of verbal levels with the silent levels of happenings. with its roots in the exact sciences. as cludes. the silent or un-speakable levels. or general semantics. Semiotic. and inherently natural. . this can science of methods of become the foundation of a sci- man. For many metaphysical verbal futile arguments. Logical Positivism. but not the on. For through the study of exact as ences we can discover factors of sanity. and Our speaking occurs on we can speak about. or 'the un- knowable'. with internationally applicable techniques. etc. etc. yet goes it in- beyond and brings up to date. Such psycho-logical manifestations as those mentioned above can be dealt with in a unified terminol- ogy of evaluation.

with often disastrous consequences. as Wittgenstein wrote. cannot be said. ful Note the sadness of the beautilv. silent first the and the verbal based on a levels. ing' in verbal terms. passage of Eddington on page silent levels He seems to be unhappy that the levels. This and studies of 'think- belief my own observations. 'What can be shown. Indeed. Whatever we may say something obviously is not the 'something' on the silent levels. Is this can never be the verbal not an example of unjustified 'maximum expectation' I ? firmly believe that the consciousness of the differi. inwardly and then searching for fit the proper structure of language to the supposedly . is the key and perhaps the step for the solution of is human problems. He would then realize organis- mally that the first-order psycho-logical direct experiences are not verbal.e.xlviii What I Believe is. is misleading.. ences between these levels of abstractions. There silent. as in our living reactions most of us identify value the two entirely dif event levels. unless The simplicity of this statement we become aware of its implicain tions. is tremendous difference between levels.' In my experience I found that it is practically impossible to convey the differentiation of silent (un- speakable) levels from the verbal without having the reader or the hearer pinch with one hand the finger of the other hand. the endless observations of other investigators. on non-verbal and 'contemplating'.

'less than'. such as 'order' 'between-ness'. cyclic.). observations and creative In contrast. making keen. Mathematicians solved impasse simply and effectively. as fac- tors of structure. tures work well-nigh impossible. etc. silent and verbal. and so remain our rut of old orientations. we act and project onto the silent levels in the structure of the language we use. which apply equally to levels. but ex- pressed above form 'knowledge' would be imthis possible. we may discover new aspects and relations on theoreti- silent levels. 'after'. give the sole content of all human to knowledge. So far the only possible link between the two levels is found in terms of relations. in pic- when we 'think' without words. 'more than'.What I Believe xl IX discovered structure of the silent processes that modern science tries to find. Practically all important advances are made that way. They introduced postulational meth- . 'before'. It has been said that 'to know anything we have it know everything. 'equality' or 'inequality'. etc. unbiased. 'space-time'. or (which involve structure and therefore rela- tions). both non-verbal and verbal (serial. and so may produce important cal results in the general search for a similarity of structure between the two levels. Relations. If as biased observers we 'think' verbally. linear. spiral.' Unfortunately in the is true.

Later.1 What I Believe ods. as all if the verbal levels could ever possibly cover the factors and chains of antecedents of the 'be' silent levels. Mathematicians solved these inherent dilemmas by stating explicitly their undefined terms in their postulational systems. etc. The identification (confusion) of verbal with si- lent levels leads automatically to the asking of indefinitely long arrays of verbal 'why's'.. beyond which the further 'why' were is ruled out as leading to the logically 'verboten' nite regress'. or in science ever limit the silent levels. terms which label nothing but occurrences on the lent levels. lar psycho-logical patterns with historically known . in the attempt for unification. dictators. which have followed simi- have led to the most cruel religious wars. perhaps to strengthen the power of the priesthood. to which there cannot be an answer. si- Metaphysicians of many kinds or many creeds since time immemorial tried to solve the same perplexities by postulating different 'prime movers' or 'final causes'. Originally religions 'infi- polytheistic. 'fuehrers'. This is why we our 'why' to the data at hand. humans to make monotheisms were invented. Different rulers. thus avoiding the unlimited metaphysical questioning without data. out of which the limited 'anything' follows. and also because of the increasing ability of generalizations. thus limiting the 'everything'.

etc. main aim of my work. modern. brief.What I Believe li destructive or constructive results. security.. any religion science' longings to-date . which find their proper expression according to the date of the specific sci- human developments. because all man-made. rapport with. for solace. guidance. potenIn tially assumptions and hypotheses. we have take into consideration organismal longings spread over continents for millenniums. culminating in self-real- ization through a general 'consciousness of abstracting'.. consciously the same to human feelings. The progress of modern science. Some of these involve archaic and false-to-fact assumptions. hypotheses. such as sciences. involve verifiable. ourselves included. from and/or which we try to build some understanding of. Religions and ences are both expressions of our human search for and so predictability. etc. In our human evolutionary development the struc- tures of religions and sciences. others. They all fundamental assumptions. If we are supposed not to separate elementalistically 'emotion' and 'intellect'. at a date. The above state- ments are limited by the historical contexts. this world.. including the the new science of man as a time-binder. feelings of 'belonging'. may be considered 'primitive to satisfy human unconscious organismal and modern science may be considered 'upto satisfy religion'. do not differ psycho-logically. depend on etc. has been due uniquely .

etc. In fact. inferential knowledge today leads to testing very creative. Another important point which clarifies the problem of the 'unknowable'. and so is Epistemologically the fundamental theories must develop in converging lines of investi- . in search for structure. but on inferences from observed happenings. religions.. a freedom prohibited ences' underlying in 'primitive sci- and also in dictatorships. evolved enough and so mature enough as humans to be able to understand such problems at scientific practice. which involve hidden assumptions. which is not based on sense data. asking 'why' under consciously limited conditions. etc. Probably in the future this problem will be shown to be no problem. I have 'solved' effectively for myself by the conviction that we are not yet this date. As to the space-time problem of the 'beginning and it the end of the world'. as exemplified. In however. electro-colloidal. for instance. undefined etc.. I would go on. in the new quantum mechanics. our reflections. All modern sciences on the submicroscopic. science has already solved first By now many dilemmas which at seemed insoluble. in unexpected fields..lii What freedom of assumptions. and the solution will be found in the disappearance of the problem. to the tal scientists to revise their terminologies. past and present. is that we humans have a capacity for inferential knowledge. levels are of this 'as if character. I Believe fundamenterms.

needs. inherited from the 'childhood of humanity' and perpetuated linguistically. wishes. murder. and they are revised. religions in represent non- elementalistically his inferential 'knowledge'. I firmly believe that the still prevailing archaic.What gation. Inferential knowledge today in science is much us. keep our human reactions and so our cultures levels. where we are . This in sharp contrast to the peaceful progress we have in science. are man are practi- an extremely hampering influence to any understanding of the potentialities of 'human nature'. through violence. which involves his 'feelings'. but based on primitive or prescientific assumptions. on unnecessarily low tricate ourselves from which we try to exrioting. as combined inseparably in living reac- tions with his 'intellect'. The most primitive religion in which the savage believes. These outlooks. fears. I Believe it is liii and if they do not converge an indication that there are flaws in the theories. split. desires. and in larger expressions of mass sufferings. which without a modern science of cally impossible to avoid. through is revolutions and wars. which become creeds. more reliable than sense data. or the more generalized and more organized which the 'man in the street' believes. and what not. schizophrenic orientations about ourselves. which often deceive In religions we also translate the still unknown into inferentially 'known'.

instead of the older and 'soma'. carries very far-reaching scien- psycho-logical.liv What I Believe where we free to analyze our basic assumptions. which often remain lasting. revolutionized the whole of medicine and rescued it from being merely glorified 'psyche' veterinary science. silent levels of Thus. I give these specific ex- amples to indicate the general practical value of structural linguistic innovations which express and convey to others our new structural outlooks. Non-elementalistic 'psychology' psycho-somatic considerations. 'space-binders'. revolutionized physics.. instead of and 'biology'. elementalistic newtonian 'space' and 'time'. This new functional definition of humans as time-binders. not mere tific. etc. I firmly believe that an adequate structure of lan- guage is fundamental for human adjustment to the happenings. I am first deeply convinced by theoretical considera- tions and empirical data that the new (historically to the my knowledge) enormous light formulation of time-bind- ing throws on our understanding of formulate new per- 'human nature'. today verified . The non-elemen- talistic psycho-biology of Adolf Meyer. the non-elementalistic Einstein-Minkowski space-time. 'feelings'. etc. and will help to spectives for the future of time-binders. marks the sharp difference between humans and animals. Etc. and use a language of appropriate structure. instead of the split. moral and ethical beneficial con- sequences.

: What in I Believe lv many thousands of instances. once the fact is pointed out. Keyser expresses this very aptly: "It is obvious. Eddington describes the same problem in these words: "And yet. so to say. the character of human conduct. Here is a hint of aspects deep within the — . making us by necessity destinies. and the character of all our human institutions depend both upon what man is and in equal or greater measure upon what we humans think man is. To this end he must first discover himself and his 'essential nature'. in regard to the nature of things. In 1942 in Monograph III published by the Institute of General Semantics. we wrote 'It should be noticed that in human life self-reflexiveness has even "material" implications. and the builders of our All through history own man has been groping to find his place in the hierarchy of life. iw^rdependent. It explains also how we humans." This is profoundly true. Professor Cassius J. before he can fully realize himself civilizations will pass —then perhaps our me that simiself-reflexiveness by peaceful evolutions from of humanity. and humans alone. which introduce serious difficulties. their childhood to the It is a manhood source of deep satisfaction to lar notions about the circularity and of human knowledge are taking root in our orienta- tions as expressed by other writers. Kendig. 'Professor Arthur S. that the character of human history. were able to produce sciences and civilizations. this knowledge is only an empty shell a form of symbols. and not knowledge of content. It is knowledge of structural form. which must surely be the stuff of our consciousness. his role in the 'nature of things'. to discover. in my foreword with M. All through the physical world runs that unknown content.

lationists We cannot be psycho-logical iso- and try to be constructive time-binders. For he is both the marble and the sculptor. and general semantics es- enormous majority of humanity so far lived and live on the animal biological level of mere subsistence. and yet unattainable by the methods of physics. human achievements its With made our new formula- tions. anthropology. it is And Lo! our own. to account for its origin. we have found that where science has progressed the farthest. but just as aptly: "To progress again man must remake himself. And he cannot remake himself without suffering. but psycho-biological. For time-binders are not tablish firmly that the merely biological organisms. the mind has but regained from nature that which the mind has put into nature. and this consciousness a may now mark new period in our evolution. which so we did not know how to handle. the consciousness of this special capacity with profound implications has become generally teachand chil- able on all levels. we have succeeded reconstructing the creature that made the foot-print. At last. Alexis Carrel formulated the same difficulty differently. that of uneducated people dren included. The old notions about 'man' have hitherto led to a generally sick and bewildered society. History." Those self-reflexive and circular mechanisms are the the uniquely human types of reaction which possible.lvi What I Believe world of physics." 'Dr. without the opportunity to realize their potentialities. and far this introduces incredible complexities. moreover. "We have found a strange foot-print on the shores of the unknown. And. or . one after ' in another. We have devised profound theories.

S. then we may approach future with some hope. A. I are taught in many schools and uniall versities. and there are study groups on continents.' Alfred Korzybski Lakeville. the and men thousands of cases of 'battle fatigue'. with telling results. We must begin to realize our potentialities as humans. stamped si as he his foot on the ground after recanting the Copernican theory before the Holy Inquisition. To may quote from my new preface to the third edition of Science and Sanity : 'We need not blind ourselves with the old ture cannot be changed". of time-binding and extensional methin ods of general semantics have been tested educational and managerial fields. "Eppur muovet't The evolution of our it human de- velopment maybe retarded. The theory scientific. April IQ4Q . Today new methods conclude. but cannot be stopped. We may feel with Galileo.What we are I Believe in lvii bound to be bogged down an asocial morass of conflicts. for dogma that "human nawe find that it can be changed the [if we know how]. many Even on the battlefields of World War officers II they were applied in by American physicians. U. Connecticut.

after extensive studies of the mechanisms of time-binding. D. J 949> 'The Brotherhood of Doctrines'.C. and before the Washington Psychopathic Society in 1926. Lee. New York. in Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Systems and General Semantics. It culminated. with a physicomathematical approach. April 1924. third edition 1948. first published in 1933. It was further elaborated in my 'Fate and Freedom'. A.lviii What I Believe Bibliographical Note The time-binding theory was first propounded in my Manhood of Humanity: The Science and Art of Human Engineering. with additions. this distributed by the book. Dutton. The Builder. Mathematics Teacher. I introduced for the first time the new appropriate scientific methodology for the time-binding theory. Harper. Institute of General Semantics. second edition 1941.K. second edition. New York. reprinted in The Language of Wisdom and Folly by Irving J. P. May 1923. Institute of General Semantics. in my papers read before the International Mathematical Congress in Toronto in 1924. In which I called 'extensional method'. Elizabeth's Psychiatric Hospital in Washington. Distributors. . to be published in 1950 by International Non-aristotelian Library Publishing Company. E. when I was studying at St. before the Washington Society for Nervous and Mental Diseases in 1925. The International Non-aristotelian Library Publishing Company. with principles of essential simplicity. 1921.

and every individual understands and uses this word in a personal and private way. but in this to Man from a scientific-mathematical point of view. Man it takes into considermake Man what he certain it If some readers do note the absence of does not expressions familiar to them." not in because the author has any belief or disbelief . such phenomena there is no need for beliefs because some such phenomena exist. but because the word "spiritual" is not scientifically defined.PREFACE 'T^HIS book is primarily a study of all Man and ulti- mately embraces the great qualities and prob- lems of Man. The author has done his utmost to use such words as convey only the meaning intended. no matter what we may think of them or by what name we call them. and in the case of some words. As a study of ation all the characteristics which is. mean that the author does not feel or think as ple —he does— and very much effort many other peo- an has been made to book approach the problem of so. such as "spiritual. and therefore great pains have been taken not use words insufficiently defined. Hx To be impersonal the . or words with many meanings." there has been superadded the word "so-called.

useless to argue be "natural" or of "spiritual" "5?//>miatural. If all we succeed the laws of human nature. physical. point of view. has not been approached from the The problem from which point of view of any private doctrine or creed. paratively easy task — the rest will be a com- the ethical. his spiritual. but a mathematical." origin.— lx Preface author has had to indicate this element by adding "so-called. moral." I repeat once again that this book is not a "materialistic" or a "spiritualistic" book a study of — it is "Man" and therefore does and should phenomena because only the complex of these phenomena coninclude materialistic as well as spiritual stitutes the complex of Man. then civilization will be a human It is civilization — a permanent and peaceful one if electricity not before. social. Man is —what must first be ascertained what is his real nature and what are the in finding basic laws of his nature. social it or political status. we do not ask these we endeavor to find it out the natural laws governing live wires and in handling we do not argue or speculate about them . obvious that to be able to speak about the great affairs of Man. economic. It is impersonal and passionless. of "material" or As a matter of fact questions in studying electricity. economic and political status of Man should be in accord with the laws of his nature. is an engineering.

and ." "soul" and "spirit" — but has been written with the deep desire to find the source of these qualities.Preface lxi we use rubber gloves. it if and the confusion book be read with the defini- will be seen that. their scientific significance and a scientific proof of them. and the great affairs of Man —we have. Though this book has been lous care to avoid written with scrupu- ing —and things though it words or terms of vague meanoften may seem coldly critical it of metaphysical. urge of the truth —our human call heart — the craving for spiritual yearning for the higher potentialities of that which it we "mind. and misinterpretations that are caused by the color of personal emotions. the right valuation and especially the control and use of the higher human powers. greatest help will ultimately be in guiding the investigation. and care. but have been using a tongue new to me. The in original manuscript was very crude and foreign form. intro- In writing this book I have been not only ducing I new ideas and new methods of analysis. has not been written with indifference to that great. first of to know what Man is. so that they may be approached and studied by the best minds of the world without the digressions. though the clarifying tion of the classes of life has been chiefly used in the book for its its great carrying power in the practical world. It will be the same with Man all. perhaps the greatest. etc.

Brandeis. S. with great practical To all those who have read and J. R. Petrunkevitch Grove-Korski. J. Moore. to the authors. E. Polakov. E. H. Steinmetz. Charles P. J. Riley. H. for their kind permission to quote them. L. I wish to express my wish also to acknowledge the deepest gratitude wife. A. Conklin. Vice-President of the Ameri- can Society of Mechanical Engineers. criticized. Ross. not only in giving criticism his exceedingly me a thorough from the point of view of the Engineer. C. manuscript or helped otherwise — Professors E. criticized the H. Champlain L. I am also under great obligations to Walter Polakov. Robinson. Keyser. War- basse.lxii Preface greatly indebted to various friends for their I am patient kindness in correcting the many errors of my poor English. J. I Wolf. son. for helpful suggestions. C. Wolf. Loeb. Doctor of Engineering. H. E. Burges Johnand Doctors J. but first also in devoting his energies to organizing the "Time-binding Club" where these problems have been discussed and results. Vice-President of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers. formerly to my in this discovery of the natural Mira Edgerly. G. J. P. A. B. Miss Josephine Osborn. O'Higgins. who has found law for the human . . Robert B. Robinson. sincere appreciation. J. W. Keyser. Mead.

has kindly consented at New York with request to act. January 17. Dutton & Co. has given criti- me incomparably inspiring help and valuable It is cism. K. which saved my time. 1921 New York City. as I wish also to thank John Macrae. P. Walter Polakov of trial New York my City. Indusin Counsellor and Industrial Engineer City. . as my representative to in any further queries should be addressed sence whom my abper- from America. because of her interest my work.. my authority.Preface class of life. Esq.. Mr. the Vice-President of E. not an exaggeration to state that except for her steady and relentless work and her time. and who. for his unusual attitude toward A. this book could not have been produced in such a comparatively short time. publishing the book. the solution of lxiii her in life long search. all To other friends who have helped in many sonal ways I express thankfulness.

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Keyser. Harper & Brothers. for permission to quote from "The Human Worth of Rigorous Thinking. D. Harry Y. Vol. for per- mission to quote from cine. New York and London. Messrs." by Harvey O'Higgins. Calhoun." by Jacques Loeb. for permission to quote from "Corporation Finance. for permission to quote from "Forced Movements. Appleton & Company." by C. P. Messrs. 27." by James Harvey Robinson. C. J." by Edwin Grant Conklin. Benedict and John W. for permission to quote from "Mastering Power Production. Ixv Polakov. Karpinski. J. D." by Jacques Loeb. Columbia University Press. S. Heath & Company. Messrs. The Journal of Experimental Medi- The New quote from School for Social Research. . for permission to quote from "From the Life." by Walter N. B.ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author and the publishers acknowledge with gratitude the following permissions to make use of copyright material in this work: Messrs. for permission to quote from "Heredity and Environment. Mead. Messrs. The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Imaginary Portraits of Some Distinguished Americans. The Engineering Magazine Company. for permission to quote from "Organism as a Whole" and "Physiology of the Brain. Lippincott Company." by E. Princeton University Press. for permission to "An Outline of the History of the Western European Mind." by Louis C. G. for permission to quote from "Unified Mathematics. Putnam's Sons.

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at last a victim to the relentless rules of humble Arithmetic. No to see that its importance supreme. By Human Engineering the science and It art of directing the energies and capacities of human beings to the advancement human weal. if to be estabfacts lished it must be founded on ascertained is must accord with what must be based upon characteristic of a just conception of Man it what Man — — it . Arithmetic is the first of the sciences and the mother of safety. as he was obsessed with the delusion that two and two makes five. need not be argued in these times that the establishment of such a science of human welfare is — — the science is an undertaking of immeasurone can fail able importance.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION METHOD AND PROCESSES OF APPROACH TO A NEW CONCEPT human and OF LIFE "For a while he trampled with impunity on laws divine but. O stranger. f~T is the aim of this little to a new science and art — book to point the way I the science and art of Human mean of Engineering." Brandeis. he fell. such a science is It is evident that. " Remember.

the which human beings have to most important by far is Man himself —humankind—men. tions with anyone knows that to confuse frac- whole numbers would wreck the science and art of arithmetic. if needs only a re- ceive the nature of we humans radically misconman if we regard man as being — something which he higher than is not.2 Manhood of Humanity is —upon No a right understanding of Man's place in the scheme of Nature. Now. everyone knows for example. For little it requires no great wisdom. one need be told how indispensable it is to have true ideas the — just concepts — correct notions to — of things with which we humans have deal. it is perfectly clear that of all the things with deal. true. to see that. human women beings and children. It follows that for us nothing else can be quite so important as a clear. scientific concept of as Man it — a right understand- ing of what we human beings really are. whether it be something an man or lower —we thereby commit error so fundamental and far reaching as to produce . flection. just. everyone knows that to mistake a desert mirage for a lake of fresh water does but lure the fainting traveler to dire disappointment or death. that to mistake solids for surfaces or lines would wreck the science and art of geometry. everyone knows that to mis- take vice for virtue would destroy the foundation of ethics.

This done. One of the answers biological man is an animal. and they are both of them is current to-day. not only from the minerals and the plants but also from the world of animals. teristic this peculiar or characI human faculty or power or capacity shall . the other is answer sophical a mixture partly biological and partly a combination or union of animal mythological or partly biological and partly philo- —man is with something supernatural. An important part of show that both of these answers are radically wrong and that. the I question remains: clearly What is Man? hope to show found and convincingly that the answer is to be in the patent fact that human beings possess in varying degrees a certain natural faculty or power or capacity which serves at once to give them their appropriate dignity as human beings and to discriminate them. beyond all things else.— A New life. a certain kind of animal. in Concept of Life 3 In individual every manner of confusion and disaster community question life and in the life of the race. therefore. they are primarily responsible for what is dismal in task will be to the life my and history of humankind. to consider Man? What is a man? What is a human being? What is the defining or characteristic mark of humanity? To this all is fundamentally: What is question two answers and only two have been given in the course of the ages. first The of we have.

ing will be clearly the discussion. private doctrines as their own and . or to doubt everything. the Man? — be answered by say- a being naturally endowed with time- binding capacity binder — — that men. preferring to have their thinking done for them they accept ready. that a human being is a timewomen and children constitute the life. made individual. to believe everything. give us a growthe welfare ing body of scientific wisdom regarding of mankind including The purpose nature to of this introductory chapter is to consider certain general matters of a preliminary tion — provide — to indicate the spirit of the undertaking a short course of approach and prepara- to clear the deck. both ways save us from thinking.— 4 call the Manhood of Humanity time-binding faculty or time-binding power or time-binding capacity. The majority take the line of least resistance. and make ready for action. What it I mean by time-bind- and fully explained in the course of question ing that —What man is and when Is has been will made clear. time-binding class of l There will then remain the great task of indicating and in a measure sketching some of the important ways in which the true conception of man as man will transform our views of human society and the world. affect our human conduct and all posterity. There are two ways to slide easily through life: Namely. so to speak.

and thereby to gain the desired results. or cow. Nature's law.A New follow them looks upon Concept of Life less blindly. But the power of human beings to determine their own destinies is limited by natural law. The opposite is A farmer must know the natural laws that govern he will not his wheat. and thus influences every step we are free to take within the structure of our social system. or corn. including the laws of human nature. as otherwise have satisfactory crops. For two hundred or more generations of our historical past this attitude has been repeated two hundred or more times. otherwise humans will not create the conditions and . It is the counsel of wisdom to discover the laws of nature. and unless we are very careful our children will have the same attitude toward us. whereas the knowledge of these laws enables him to produce the most favorable conditions for his plants and animals. Humanity must know the natural laws for humans. There can be no doubt that humanity belongs which to a large extent to its a class of life determines own destinies. establishes its own rules of education and conduct. 5 more or Every generation its own creeds as true and permanent and has a mingled smile of pity and contempt for the prejudices of the past. or the quality and abundance of milk he desires. and then to live in accordance with them. folly.

in . and the conditions of the earning of a livelihood influence and shape quality our mental processes and the and the form of human inter-relationship. he can not determine the capacity and requirements of his power plant. a temple.6 Manhood of Humanity human activities the customs that regulate which will make life. resulting in happiness in life — collectively and individually —because activities. as discovered by observation and experiment and formulated by mathematics and mechanics. and when anything is to be attempted that involves any number of individuals methods of coordination have to be considered proven to be the best suited for such are engineering the — — methods which have undertakings methods— engineering an the of idea toward to a complete realization. it possible for them to have the most favorable circumstances for the fullest which means the human development in release of the maximum natuin mental. ral-creative energy and expression all moral. be it a scientific dis- covery. has to be conceived in the home first or a plan thought out —before mind — the it can be made a reality. material and spiritual and of in the other great fields human work all activities. Every human achievement. a picture. else he can not calculate the forces at his disposal. a bridge. know the materials with which he has to Every engineer has work and the natural laws of these materials. a statue. he can not compute the resistance of his materials.

Except for productive human labor. roughly determined by the analysis of human nature. dinated sum-total rightly understood. moral. it depends upon the discovery and the apof plication natural It is. which was a gigantic industrial process. therefore. laws. It has been found that maximum when production may is be attained when and only the production carried on in conformity with certain psychological laws. Human Engineering embody the theory and practice — the science and . is Production essentially essentially a task for engineers. This is why it is an engineering task. our globe too small to support the it. not a task for old fashioned philosophical speculation nor for barren metaphysical reasoning in vacuo. psychological. the is human which is not material but mental. including the laws of human nature. is the coor- of human knowledge gathered its through the ages. with mathematics as strument chief inwill and guide. Lately in all and particularly itself during the late World War. is human population now upon Humanity must produce or perish. he can not of Life 7 make the most profitable use of his industries resources.A New Concept short. namely. another factor manifested itself and proved to be of the utmost importance: factor. it is a scientific task and involves the coordination and cooperation of all the sciences. For engineering.

commit the sin of preferring the worse to the better. supreme law of intellectual Here of I have to make it clear that for the purpose Human Engineering the old concepts of matter." is This quality alone generally do not like why people mathematics and why even some sufficient to explain scientists bluntly refuse to have anything to do with reasoning is problems volved. wherein mathematical in- In the meantime. Those who deliberately refuse to think "rigorously" — that is mathematically is — in connections where such thinking possible. a philosophy wherein precise. they deliberately violate the rectitude." and one of is distinctive characteristics "precision. sharp and rigorous is thinking essential. if has very anything. completeness of definitions. it is not a system of mere formulas and theorems.8 Manhood of Humanity all —of aim — art engineering branches united by a common the understanding and welfare of mankind. Keyser. mathematical philosophy little. space and time are sufficient to start with. but as Here beautifully defined by Professor Cassius J. they are . to do with mere calculait tions or with is numbers as such or with formulas. I want to make it very clear that mathematics is not what many people think it is. matheis matics the science of "Exact thought or rigorous its thinking. sharpness. 191 6). in his ing book The Human Worth of Rigorous Think(Columbia University Press.

They were no more able to underlife stand the "production" of the universe and they are than now able to understand or grapple with exist- "production" as a means to provide a happier ence for humanity. Philosophy ence and daily in its old form could exist only in the absence of engineering. Human throw a new light on many old conceptions and will help the study and understanding of matter. and perhaps will ultimately lead to an under- standing of their absolute meanings. space and time were good enough to prevent the collapse of a bridge. Figura- tively speaking Human Engineering it is a higher order of bridge engineering — aims at the spanning of a gap in practical life as well as in knowledge. but with engineering in exist- more active and far reaching. a The to old mechanics lead directly to such intrinsic knowledge of the as laws governing the uni- verse suggest the Engineering will new mechanics. They failed because their vene- rated its method of "speculation" can not produce. and must be taken by mathematical think- place . the old lost their verbalistic philosophy and metaphysics have reason to exist. The same old meanings of matter. the understanding of space and time as used will protect society in this book from periodical and humanity collapses.A New Concept sufficient in of Life o much the same way as they have been sufficient in the old science of mechanics. space and time in their relative meanings.

" the will The world of producers predominating majority of human beings a welcome philosophy of ordered thought and of them. have their duties no if production. who keep themselves aloof from If they are indifferent. ulators" will Only a few parasites and "specthe disappearance of their old mourn — companion "speculation. Indeed there very little difference in kind between the medieval fanaticism of the "holy inquisition. istic Engineering driving verbal- philosophy out of existence and humanity gains decidedly thereby. but they do not fully use their education they do not try to broaden their sense of responsibility toward up in a all selves mankind instead of closing themnarrow specialization where they find Neither engineers nor other right to prefer their scientific their pleasure. for as long as we presuppose the situation . men have any own personal peace to the happiness of mankind.— io ing. Manhood of Humanity Mathematical reasoning is displacing is meta- physical reasoning. The scientists. All kinds of intellect must get together. their place and their duty are in the front line of struggling ity. it may is be proved that undue pessimism is as dangerous a "religion" any other blind creed. or discouraged because they feel or think that they know as that the situation is hopeless." and modern intolerance toward new ideas. human- not in the unperturbed ranks of those life. all doubt.

for engineers know that wrong methods are alone responsible for disastrous results. who know why and how neglect to act. The spirit of Human Engineering does not know the word "hopeless". we have been made . the situation will indeed be hopeless. no system or class would care to disregard Their knowllife edge is the very force which makes the and of hu- manity pulsate. If the scientists the engineers have had no common such that base upon which to unite. a common base must be provided. Most of the scientists and engineers do not yet realize that their united judgment would be invincible. The whole history of mankind If those and especially the present plight of the world show only too sadly how dangerous and expensive it is to have the world governed by those who do not know. it. and the world will continue to flounder. In paying the price of this war.A New Concept of Life ir to be hopeless. One aim of this book to fur- nish the required stimulus by showing that Human Engineering of will rescue us from the tangle of private all opinions and enable us to deal with life the problems and human society upon a scientific basis. is To-day the preswith- sure of life we cannot go forward But first out their coordinating guidance. The task of engineering science is not only to know but to know how. there must is be the desire to act. and that every situation can be successfully handled by the use of proper means. those who do not know will act.

In writing this book I have had to wrestle with expressing tremendous difficulties in and their in indicating new methods. and put into better form. in life is The method used phenomena as physics is in this book analysing life essentially an engineering method.12 Manhood of Humanity to realize that even the private individual can not afford to live wrapped up in his own life and not take his part in public affairs. He must acquire the habit of taking his share of public responsibility. but the general public to cooperate in establishing the practice all of Human and Engi- neering in the affairs of human society life. and to mathe- and mechanics always suggest maticians that new fields for analysis. new thoughts The reader who stops to criticize words or expressions because of more or less happy or unhappy use will miss the whole point of the work. The humEngineering blest role of mathematicians in Human . not engineers and scientific men only. it is not improbable Human Engineering will give mathematicians new and interesting fields for research. must be done in the way of educating. This work. new enterprise is too difficult unaided labor of one man — and too vast for the too short. The reading of it should be done with a view to seeing be found in it of what is how much can new and good that may be This elaborated further. signifies that a all very great deal of very simple pointing in the direction of a greater work.

I make no contribution to On the contrary. I contend. scientific thinking. by rigorously true conception of what a we can human being arrive at the really is and that in thus discovering the characteristic nature of man we come nature of to the secret and source of ethics." By "philosophy" he means mathematical philosophy is — him rigorously scientific. to seek for one serves merely to betray one's ignorance of mathematical philosophy.a A New may put in Concept of Lite 13 be likened to that of "Public accountants" who order the affairs of business. phil- strating that the acteristic. Russell says: "The hope of tion to our satisfac- more human desires." This brilliant is mot no it of the eminent philosopher of mathematics doubt just and can teach us profoundly that it significant. mathe- matics the manhood is of logic. is world has or that ethical charI not one which. the this hope of demoncan see. that by mathematical philosophy. Elsewhere Mr. and in this book hope to show. for no such line exists. I to satisfy. the least is is useless to try to find a dividing line between logic and mathematics. In relation to mathematics Bertrand Russell has said: "Logic is is the youth of mathematics. so far as osophy can do anything whatever philosophy that speculative. Ethics as a science will investigate and explain the essential man and the obligations which the essential . not vaguely am entirely unable to agree with that such a philosophy can ethics.

then will be seen that the laws of human nature . far from being are artificial fictions. I hope I have not given the impression. matical in spirit. natural — natural revelations natural law. the spirit of mathematics is always right and always sound. be seen that to live righteously. rules for ethical conduct — —the more only possible 5«/>^rnatural are no is and no more man-made than tion. no cause for wonder that mathematical think- ing should lead to such a result. and. is have merely wished to indicate that the spirit of it conceived and undertaken in the mathematical spirit. by re- peated allusion to mathematical science. for no thought.14 Manhood man or Humanity It will is nature of imposes upon human beings. there are a few simple mathematical considerations which . or any other natural law. for It is the law of gravita- example. and the of of rigorous thinking. man's Man is a natural results mind facts is a natural agency. to live ethically. Whilst I do not intend to trouble the reader with any highly technical mathematical arguments. be non-mathe- can be trusted. although mathe- maticians sometimes make mistakes. which must be the guiding if Human Engineering. and when is clearly seen that man a natural being. a part of nature literally. that this book task is to be in I any technical sense a mathematical treatise. Jive in to accordance with the laws of it human is it nature. for being.

that in some of the great matters progress proceeds in accordance with one law and one rate of advancement and in others in it accordance with a very different law and rate. in the the production and fine arts. in distribution of wealth. and so to a maintain the integrity and continued prosperity of the whole complex body of our social life. I ask the reader's best attenis One of the ideas that of an arithmetical is progression. that of a geometrical Neither of them involves anything than the most ordinary arithmetic of it more difficult the secondary school or the counting house. which are of exceedingly great importance for our purpose. but will be seen that they throw a flood of light upon many human concerns. is therefore a fact of the utmost importance that progress in each of the cardinal matters must keep abreast of progress in the other cardinal matters in order to keep a just equilibrium. it is fact. a proper balance. natural sciences.A New anyone of Concept of Life 15 fair education can understand. is . Because we are human beings we are all of us progress in law. in economics. It is a fact that all these great it matters are interdependent and interlocking. therefore. and to which. a fact of observation. in ethics. in all the affairs affecting the welfare of mankind. in the practical arts. tion. another one progression. in phil- osophy. in the in jurisprudence. interested in what we call progress of the most important — in government.

8. and destined to be again disturbed periodically with- out end. 4. a and made evident by readiffering laws son. a fact of observation fact attested by all history and sad experience.. concerns of humanis the balance and equilibrium among the parts in disturbed. 128. The one is a simple . AP : 2. 256. but it is it is an equilibrium born of violence. 16. the facts just stated are so extremely important that they deserve to be stated with the utmost emphasis and I clarity. 1024. does indeed establish a kind of new equilibrium. the second one {AP) GP : 2. that owing to the widely and rates of progress in the great essential ity. the strain gradually increases until a violent break ensues insurrections. a fact that the readjustment that follows. 4. geometrical is progression a simple arith: denoted by (GP) metical progresson —denoted by 32. Taken in combination. form of revolutions and war. 12. 8. after an earth- quake. 10. etc. 512. To this end side beg the reader to consider very carefully and series of by side the two following first numbers. 64. 16.16 Manhood of Humanity a fact. the as social it is conflicts. . 14. 18. 20 ? etc. 6. unless by some science and art of Human Engineering progress tial to in all the great matters essento proceed in accordits human weal can be made ance with one and the same law having in the nature of validity man.

I it is called the common again for the convenience of comparison that have chosen the same number for both common the easy ratio and common 2. Why have I introduced these two series? they serve to illustrate perfectly two widely different laws of process —two laws observe representing vastly dif- ferent rates of growth. increase. observe that the (GP) each term is got from the preceding term by multiplying by 2 and that in the {AP) each term . difference and for the sake of simplicity that I have taken for this number number Other choices would Because be logically just as good. rapidly do successive terms increase. no matter how be. Do not fail to in this connection the folis lowing two facts. One of them that the magni- tude of the terms of any geometric progression whose ratio (no matter how small) is 2 or more will over- take and surpass the magnitude of the corresponding terms of any arithmetical progression. got from its predecessor by adding 2 is in the first series the multiplier 2 in the called the common ratio is and second series the repeatedly added 2 difference. so that the . or advancement.A New Concept of Life I 17 For convenience of comparison taken 2 for this initial is let them begin I with the same number and for simplicity have in term. large the common a difference of the latter is may more The ratio other fact to be noted of its that the greater the the geometric progression.

Consider tance for etc. example. sum for in- sum of is the first six terms of the geometof the is progression 126. no matter so one geometric progression how fast. As any geometric progression (of ratio equal to 2 or more). the rical six we go. the sum of 8 terms is 510 for the (GP) and 72 for the {AP) the difference between these sums (of only the difference between the . if now we take the sums of the first 10 terms. now any two matters of human weal jurisprudence science It is as plain as and natural sun that. 8 they will be 2046 and no having a difference of great imporfor 1936. terms each) being 438. already much larger than before. no matter how slow.8 \ 1 Manhood of Humanity may increase a terms of one geometric progression thousand or a million or a billion times faster than the corresponding terms of another geometric progression. two sums being 84.. etc. — —or any other two major con- cerns of humanity. To every one it will be obvious that the two pro- gressions differ in pace. and that the difference be- tween their corresponding terms becomes increasingly larger and larger the farther stance. if the noon-day progress in one of the matters advances according to the law of a geometric progression and . whereas the first terms of the arithmetical progression only 42. may be far swifter than another one of the same type. outruns every arithmetic progression.

progress in the former matter will very quickly and ever more and more rapidly if outstrip interests progress in the latter. for example. like that of a steam engine or a printing press. kind and especially the present condition of the world force. progress of no less importance has advanced only at the rate of an arithmetical progression or at best at the rate of some geometric progression of relatively slow growth. or some discovery of scientific method. a strain is gradually produced in is human affairs. social equilibrium at length destroyed. My contention is that while progress in some of the great matters of in human concern has been long proceeding in the accordance with the law of a rapidly increasing other matters geometric progression. or . It unite in ical. To see it and to understand it we have and a to pay the small price of meditation. a little observation little Some technological invention is made. the two involved be interdependent (as they always are). like that of analytical geometry or the infinitesimal calculus. showing that far from being merely hypothet- the case supposed has always been actual and is actual to-day on a vaster scale than ever before. there follows a period of readjustment by means of violence and must not be fancied that the case supposed The whole history of manis merely hypothetical. so that.A New Concept of Life 19 the other in accordance with a law of an arithmetical progression.

in mathematics. happens? bodies or the Newtonian law of gravitation. once so seemingly vast. in physics. the children produce their kind tion to generation.20 Manhood of Humanity like that of falling some discovery of natural law. What What is the effect upon the progress of knowledge and invention? Each invention covery to new leads to The effect is stimulation. in in applications of astronomy and them. from genera- and the spectacle we behold scientific is that of advancement in logical knowledge and technolaw and rate of a power according to the rapidly increasing geometric progression or logarithmic function. in chemistry. And now what must we ences — the pseudo sciences —of say of the so-called ethics sci- and jurispruand dence and economics and politics and government? For the answer we have only behold the world. in larger and larger process goes on from decade to decade. and manifold peoples of divers tongues and tions tradi- and customs and institutions are now con- . time and space and matter have been already conquered to such an extent that our globe. science begets science. in biology. to open our eyes By virtue of the advancement that has long been going on with ever accelerated logarithmic rapidity in invention. invention breeds inven- tion. has virtually shrunken to the dimensions of an ancient province. new inventions and each disof knowledge families. the discoveries.

because of their lagging that the world has come the needed to be in so great distress. they have it is lagged behind. a new economical wisdom. The answer is not far to seek nor difficult They have lagged behind. it is Do you ask why that the "social" sciences etc. they have lagged bedepended upon the philosophy barren methods of verbalistic — they . a new legal wisdom. a new political wisdom. tion men who know the explanation? not what to Why? is edy at The quesdouble: Why the disease? And why no remhand? The answer is the same for both. the so-called sciences of ethics. —have lagged behind? to understand. And is What the answer is that the so-called sciences of ethics and jurisprudence and economics and politics and gov- ernment have not kept pace with the rapid progress made in the other great affairs of man. partly because they have — they have looked backward instead of forward. a new wisdom in the affairs of government. and it is because of their lagging that they have not now wisdom to effect a cure. demanded a new ethical wisdom.— A New There is Concept or Life 21 strained to live together as in a single community. For the new visions our anguished times thus cry aloud but the only answers are reverberated echoes of the wailing cry mingled with the chattering voices of excited public do. partly hampered by the traditions because they have been and the habits of a bygone world hind.

the fundamental cause. revolutions and wars. At rapid present I it am is chiefly concerned to drive home the fact that the great disparity between the the progress of natural and technological sciences on the one hand and the slow progress of that sooner or later so disturbs the the metaphysical. have been metaphysical instead of they have lagged behind. they have lagged behind. so-called social "sciences" on the other hand.22 Manhood of Humanity scientific. equilibrium of in those human affairs as to result periodically social cataclysms which we call insurrec tions. partly because they have been often dominated by the lusts of cunning "politicians" instead of being led by the wisdom of enlightened statesmen. partly because they have been predominantly concerned to protect "vested interests." as we may them — — such such violent read- . With tial these two monstrous conceptions of the essen- nature of man I shall deal at a later stage of this writing. despite their being by their very nature most immediately concerned with the affairs of mankind. they have not discovered what really is Man but have from time immemorial falsely reelse as garded human beings either as animals or combinations of animals and something supernatural. such The reader should note carefully that cataclysmic call changes "jumps." upon which they have in the main depended for support. of their lagging behind is found in the aston- ishing fact that. however.

Progress Jump Revolution or War. . — Peaceful progress. when equal a'2. be. represent the arithmetical law of progression in the so-called social sciences (peaceful evolution) Both of these during the same periods of time. I And would have him see clearly that. This highly significant may be graphically illustrated in the following figure: Geometric evolution of the natural and technological sciences." —Non-peaceful Peaceful social progress." accelerated by "jumps. AB. cd. CD. 2d. EF. Jump Revolution or War. ab. because the disparity which produces them increases as we pass to generation from generation of our progressions — — from term fact to term the "jumps" in question occur not only with increasing violence but with increasing frequency. 248 Arithmetical 16 32 evolution violent of the so-called social "sciences. represent the geometrical law of progression in the natural and technological lagging sciences (peaceful evolution) A'2. A New justments in Concept of Life affairs 23 — human and human relationships are recorded throughout the history of mankind. 2a.. 24 Peaceful 6 \ / 8\ Peaceful \ / / Jump Revolution or War.

This is another example which explains how the theory of dimensions is vitally important in life and shows why it is absolutely essential to take account of dimensions in the study of life problems. digress a bit. CD. ab. the "jumps" or revolutions first of time. be. with BC. it may be interesting to add. represent the aftermath of revolution of ideas — the "jump" violent readjustment of ideas to facts events. and so on. but the slower than the occur at shorter intervals as time goes on and thus more facts. DE. that they have to absorb their food through surfaces which as growth goes on increase only as squares. when the organism becomes larger. that in the infancy of an organism only a part of the food goes to maintain life. It is obvious that at some point. and this last process will stop. 3 2 = 9. all the absorbed food will be used to maintain life and none will be left for growth. obvious. . while the bodies to be fed. the absorbing surfaces growing proportionally to the square.— 24 Manhood of Humanity revolutions or wars. 22 it is =4. increase in size as cubes increase. 3 3 = 27. the difference will be 9 and 27. take the same amount second progression being much one. In case of 3 times.* *To tion sion. that popula- and the need of people increase in a geometrical progresand also that the growth of individuals is limited by the fact. 23 = 8. —forced by and AB. frequently force us to coordinate our ideas to Periods of peace or seeming peace alternate frequently with periods of violence. its absorbing capacity has become four times larger. more and more is the mentioned disparity of progress in peaceful times the hatching seed of future violence. Suppose our organism has grown to a size twice as large. as the cubes of the same base grow faster than the squares. EF. FG. the larger part goes for growth. cd. the food is spent to build the mass of the volume of the body and is spent proportionally to the cube. being volumes. its volume eight times larger.

no one has reached any result universally acceptable. for instance. Here friend I may quote a characteristic of life as ex- pressed by one of the "heroes" of my esteemed Harvey O'Higgins. such words as "good" or "bad" or "truth". Let us take. volumes upon volumes have been written about them. we should not be able to proceed any further Our life problems have always been played with vague words and "solved" by verbalists and rhetorical metaphysicians who cleverly who always ignored the supremely important matter of dimensions because they were ignorant of it. If only these three words could be scientifically defined. but what that some- thing is still awaits scientific determination. ethics and psychology would cease to be "private theories" or verbalism and they would advance to the rank and dignity of sciences. From the . phil- osophy. called mathematics or mathematical nevertheless." "bad. or even the understanding of them. without bringing attention to these very simple mathematical ideas than in the past. law. in his book. In the meantime something corresponding to each of the terms "good. There was no possible way to arrive at an agreement on the significance of words. the to effect has been multiply warring schools of philosophy — secta- rians and partisans.A New As a Concept of Life 25 matter of fact these few mathematical concan siderations hardly be philosophy." "truth" exists as matter of fact.

his would probably have been something like this: there is 'There society. what better can we expect than that which we see in the history of humanity? ethics. is not any reason whatsoever why we should despair. is not necessary to be a highly trained specialist. justice and morality are laws only of human are But society. life. But the fact that the old philosophy. but he had philosophized. practical psychology. Y. "Warren never theory of life philosophized. in nature or in natural laws. is no justice. a and enough common sense to to talk nonsenr e. natural and all civilization subject in their larger aspects to natural laws tradict morality to and outrage lesser justice —and —which con- the statesman has move with " those laws and direct his people in accordance with them.). can be solved. N. an open mind. freedom from blinding prejudice. the only qualifications required are candor. thoughtfulness. The problems it To follow the reasoning of this book. politics and sociology could not solve the problems of humanity. despite the tice.26 Life.' by-laws of morality and jus- If such are the creeds of "distinguished people" anywhere. real desire for truth. law. no morality. if he handled facts as an artisan handles his tools. Manhood of Humanity Imaginary Portraits of Some Distinguished Americans (Harper. understand that to talk of adding three quarts of milk to three-quarters of a mile is .

for humanity. This childhood has been unduly long.CHAPTER II CHILDHOOD OF HUMANITY HP HE conclusion of the World War is the closing of the period of the childhood of humanity. has shown us the price of life. All of them have contributed something to human progress. as any childhood. have to keep our oath to make the future woidry of their sweat and blood. the "red wine of youth. can be characterized as devoid of any real understanding of values. but none of them has been 27 able to give the world a ." the wanton waste of and we will life. Early ideas are not necessarily true ideas. but happily we by are near to the end of this it. as is that of a child who uses a priceless chronometer to crack nuts. shaken war. enter its is coming to its senses and must soon manhood. This childhood. There are different kinds of interpretations of history and different schools of philosophy. real sense of values The sacred dead will not have died for naught. a period of great achievements and rewards in the new and dawning upon us.

and their interpretations or misinterpre- tations have from the earliest times formed systems of law. approximately in coordi- What we call progress consists nating ideas with realities. it was obliged and not of to supplement the old systems with special boards for food.28 Manhood or Humanity basic philosophy embracing the whole progress of science and establishing the life is life of man upon the abiding foundation of Fact. railroads. The evident laws of nature were the inspiration of genuine science in its cradle. Some unmistakable truths were revealed. and of philosophy. etc. great reality. be it that of an individual or that of the race. The world had to create new economic conditions. Our bound to develop according to evident or else concealed laws of nature. be produced to destroy hostile power. The World War It in has a taught something to everybody. the nations to orin ganize for producing greater power order to con- . coal. shipping. labor. Human intellect. forms conclusions which have to be often revised before they correspond to facts. it was found that the old political and economic systems were not adequate to the task put upon them. Facts and Power had to force were the things that counted. of ethics. The World War emergency compelled quer power already great. reality it was indeed accustomed us to think in those terms of phantom speculation.

truth scientific. ." . for experiments which yield great and tangible benefits to humanity. We have only to collect them this lesson will and analyse them. the ability "to do things. This war butchered millions of people lives of tens of millions. they blow and they are strong and red.. . In this case. except for the poetry and the manuring of the battle fields. and right use of Normally. this writing is But the purpose of not the celebra- tion of poetry. that the "poppies blow" stronger is and better fed? gained as Or the death of ten men on the battle field to be of as is much worth sacrifice in knowledge analysing? if the life of one rabbit killed for experithe ment? Is great worth yes. "In Flanders Fields the poppies blow is . There can be only one answer be desired. rejecting mere "opinions" as cheap and unworthy.Childhood of Humanity If there is is 29 it anything which this war has proved. but the elucidation facts. "opinions" are tolerated only all when facts are lacking. the analysis must be In science. in scientific laboratories. the fact that the most important asset a nation or is an individual can have. Such as understand know how to act for the benefit of all. and ruined the health and Is this climax of the pre-war civilization to be passed unnoticed. — But. when and we have the facts necessary." that too true. thousands of rabbits and guinea pigs are used and killed.

or even by the injury of minor parts of them. but for the preservation of the life of humanity. a and think" not for the saving of few lives in railroad accidents. and listen" crossings listen. In the early days there was much speculative thinking. Living organisms. of the lower and simpler types. did not have science. even more easily destroyed are the more ad- vanced and complicated social organizations. their speculations were often very clever. in its cradle. it had only the faculties of observation and speculation. Theology and philosophy flourished. —must — . look. "Stop. but higher organisms are instantly killed by the removal of such appliances.30 Manhood of Humanity At present the future of mankind is dark. Humanity. but it was without any sufficient basis of facts. the prudent caution at railroad be amended to read "stop. The creeds first question will is: what are to be the scientific methods that eliminate diverse opinions and from an analysis of facts and ensure correct deductions based upon them? A short survey of facts concerning civilization will help to point the way. look. in which the differentiation and for a considerable time the integration of the vital organs have not been carried far. can move about after being deprived of the appliances by which the life force is accumulated and transferred. but all their primitive notions about facts — such as the structure of the .

to the past — often to the remote past. Our convictions. our knowl- edge. prejudices.Childhood of Humanity 31 heavens. meteorological or physiological phenomena —were for almost all is of them wrong. . mechanical principles. H. Excessive conservatism of primitive peoples. R. of the historical developments of the human mind and contains a long list of the most substantial modern books on historical questions. opinions.) "Late appearance of a definite theory of progress. 1919. Robinson gives us a precise answer: "Man's abject dependence on the past gives rise to the continuity of history. . intellectual tastes. New York." * memory lies its alone can explain the present and in this most unmis- The savage regards every group of phenomena as agent. R. H. The Greeks speculated on the origin of things. history? What What is its significance humanity? Dr. History it is an ex- pansion of memory. our methods of learning and of applying for information we owe. H. and like takable value. This little volume gives condensed statements. and phenomenon or caused by some personal striking from remotest antiquity the mode of thinking has changed only as fast as the relations among phenomena have been established. All the further historical quotations will be taken from this exceptionally valuable little * An book. as in a nutshell. . and for convenience they will simply be marked by his J. the form of the earth. Outline of the History of the Western European Mind. but they did not have a conProgress ception of the possibility of indefinite progress — . by The New School for Social Research. J. initials f (J. with slight exceptions. James Harvey Robinson.

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) made it his chief ing notions. Influence of slavery in checking the development of science. were in physics and mechanics. . . which was condemned by Roman Inquisition 1616. Lord Bacon (1561-1626). Undreamed of achievements possible if only the the distrust of right method of research be followed Galileo's chief discoveries . sity of escaping from the scholastic methods of 'tumbling up and down in our reasons and conceits. . and theatre. . aided by apparatus. and failed to recognize the fundamental necessity of painful scientific research. . . Galileo His telescope speedily improved so as to magnify (1 564-1642).32 Manhood of Humanity Human of nature was always asking "why"? and not being able to answer why. . . Copernicus. appreciation of the existing obstacles to scientific advance. . Unfulfilled promise of Hellenistic science. . Little history of Natural science. There was no steady accumulation of knowledge to offset the growing emotional distrust of reason. All the weaknesses of the Hellenic reasoning. . . Bruno burned Keppler (1571-1630) and by the Inquisition at Rome. however brilliant and ingenious they might be. his discovery of the elliptical orbits of the planets. . . the 'Buccinator' His lively of experimental and applied modern science. . . • . Isaac Newton (1642-1727) proved that the laws of falling bodies apply to the heavens. cave. . 1543. combined with those of the Christian Fathers. . . . which. . Fundamental weakness of Hellenic learning. . His attitude toward the Copernican theory. . . . . market-place. . were based on a very slight body of exact knowledge. they found their answer man from the earliest time till the opening of the 17th century almost altogether unconscious. . in our sense of the word. This made a deep impression and finally the newer conceptions of the universe began to be popularized. opinions. . Still believed in fixed Starry his debt to ancient philosophers. taught in the universities. . 32 diameters. the Necesidols of the tribe. 'De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium.' Libri Copernicus' own introduction acknowledges VI. . . It was an imposing collection of speculation.' and studying the world about us. business to think out and set forth in Latin and Italian the implications of the discovery of Copernicus. . His discovery had little immediate effect on prevailSphere. and guesses. . . The deficiencies of Medieval culture. underlay what appeared to be a most logically elaborated and definitive system of thought. Defects of the university education. . .

totemism. Spontaneous generation of superstitions. . "Association of religion with the supernatural. or a successful control over. His claim to originality and his rejection of all authority. magic. (J. 33 The unknown was Gods or God. he proposed to reach the truth through analysis and clear ideas. fetishism..* ancient authority. the censorship of the press exercised by both church . They make it a crime to disagree with the Church. . . on the assumption that God will not deceive. animism. and science in its infancy. their were the monopolies of one power. . The 16th book of the Theodosian Code contains edicts relating to the Church issued by the Roman Emperors during the 4th and 5th centuries. — . and * state. . they provide harsh penalties for heretical . . law. or ecclesiastical organizations. 'dream logic' spontaneous rationalizing or 'jumping at conclusions'. . . etc. . . (2) Conduct. Beliefs (3) Priestly. (4) about supernatural beings and man's relations to them: the latter may take the form of revelation and be reduced to creeds and become the subject of elaborate theological speculations. religion has always had for its primary object the attainment of a satisfactory adjustment to.Childhood of Humanity through another factor "who. the sacred. dependence. class and the source of . the taboo (cf. dogmatic theology. Prevalence of symbolism. clean and unclean. mana. . which may take the form of distinctive religious acts (ceremonies. . the superThe cultural mind viewed as the product of a natural. sacrifices." . ethics." From the early science the days of humanity. Descartes (i 596-1650). our modern idea of 'principle'). H. ." called. self-distrust. long and hazardous process of accumulation. . the universities still dominated by Aristotle. Obstacles to scientific advance. 'good works') or the observance of what in primitive conditions are recognized as 'taboos'. .. prayers. . aspirations. . His fundamental interest in mathematics.).) "Phases of religious complex. R. . and the question came to be "how. the theological faculties. 'Religious/ a vague and comprehensive term applied to: (1) certain classes of emotions (awe. . . . But with the progress of "why" became more and more evident.

Allegory put an end to all literary criticism. . .' The leaders of both parties agreed in hampering and denouncing scientific discoveries. Penalties.. Psychological power and attraction in the elaborate symbolism and ritual of the church. the comfortable nature of the traditional and the habitual. . . The painful appropriation of new ideas. How with a growing appreciation for natural law and a chastened taste in wonders. . . . alike. miracles have tended to become a source of intellectual distress and bewilderment. any unusual or startling occurrence attributed to the intervention of either God or the Devil. life and were their domain. . . licensing of ecclesiastical and civil authorities. . . . . Trial of those suspected of sorcery. . . . and grant privileges to the orthodox clergy (exemptions from regular taxes and benefit of the clergy). . . . Its doctrine of exclusive salvation and its conception of heresy both sanctioned by the state. . . . . Ethics is too fundamentally important a factor in civilization to depend upon a theological or a legal excuse. Older conceptions of disease as caused by the Devil. Those who tried to discredit witchcraft denounced as 'Sadducees' and atheists. . . The witches' mark. Witchcraft in its modern form emerges clearly in the 15th century. Protestants of 16th century accept the theory of intolerance. Doubt and error regarded as sinful. . . Fear. . .. teaching and writing." . Protestants shared with Roman Catholics the horror of 'rationalists' and 'freethinkers. . Science brushed aside all sophistry and became a reality. . . . Christianity becomes a monopoly defended by the state.34 Manhood of Humanity The first to break this power were the exact sciences. hanging. . . . . Tortures to force confession. strangling. . burning alive. Tens of thousands of innocent persons perished. . Great prevalence of witchcraft during the 16th and 17th centuries in Protestant and Catholic countries. vested interests. Beginnings of censorship of the press after the invention of printing. . . They progressed realities too rapidly to be bound and limited by obscure old writings and prejudices. The psychology of intolerance. . . Our legal expression 'act of God' confined to unforseeable natural disasters. . . Flourishing of the miraculous. The intolerance of the Catholic Church: a natural result of its statelike organization and claims. .

punishment of the offenders against Dogmatic theology is. Law was always made by the few and old in general for the purpose of preserving the "existing order. its very must be very conservative.* by their "The Socio-psychological foundations of conserv*(J.) atism: Primitive natural reverence for the familiar and habitual Natural conservatism greatly reenforced by religion and law. . nitely. Those who suffer most from existing institutions commonly. by its very nature." or for the reestablishment of the order and the it. R. helplessly accept the situation as inevitable. to the natural laws of human nature.Childhood of Humanity ethics 35 must conform ideas. date from the beginning of Legal speculation was wonderfully deparallel lines veloped in with theology and phil- osophy before the natural and exact sciences came into existence." . Position of the conservative. Laws. unchangeable. he urges the impossibility of altering 'human nature' and warns against the disasters of revoluConservatism in the light of history: History would seem tion. static Theology and law are both of them nature. legal civilization. Futility of the appeal of the conservative to human nature as an obstacle to progress. of all professions. Culture can not be transmitted hereditarily but can be accumulated through education and modified indefi. to discredit conservatism completely as a working principle in view of the past achievements of mankind in the recent past and the possibilities which opened before us. Law was and is to protect the past and present status of society and. . . H. if not reactionary. The same can be said in regard to the spirit of the law. by essence. . .

gresses faster than our ideas. revolutionary progress of technic and the steadily changing conditions of life. of morals in politics and business. because static.— 36 Manhood of Humanity Philosophy. to be effective in a dynamic world must be dynamic. reactionary. We are forced to realize crushed. which are could not duly influence the dynamic. fall and so we witness a tremendous downLife proideas. be adjudged responsible circumstances which in a large measure for the made the World War Under ings the flash of explosives of those antiquated ideas some of the workwere exposed or The World War has profoundly changed economic conditions and made it necessary to erect new standards of values. opposed to change. and thus becoming more and more unable the mighty social burden of the to support modern world. they must be made vital enough to keep pace with the progress of science. life and In recent civilization ethics. Medieval legalism and medieval morals the basis of the old social structure —being by their nature conservative. must inevitable. law and ethics. controlled by theology and law. which do not understand each other. and so medieval methods and judgments are constantly applied the conditions and problems of to modern is life. This discrepancy between facts and ideas sible for the dividing of greatly respon- modern society into differ- ent warring classes. that evolution by transformation is a cosmic process .

Weisman. . Character of the opposition to the evolutionary theory.* it 37 it. of sciences. .Childhood of Humanity and that reaction. Evolution facts is the only theory which harmony with life is and with static.' Revolutionary effects of the new point of view. H. lative." the world.) tionary hypothesis. The significance of the doctrine for intellectual history. The genetic method adopted in all the organic sciences. Darwin's 'Origin of the Species/ 1859. as defined by Fichte. all branches of science. Herbert Spencer Haeckel (1834-1919) and others clarify. not Philosophy. including the newer social sciences. which overwhelming. Weakening of the special creation theory by other evidence such as archeology and biblical criticism. . philosophy had to be purely specuor no regard to realities. . DeVries and others. . Subsequent development of the evolutionary doctrine by Mendel. Problem of adjusting history to the discoveries of the past 50 years. with little But if * "Formulation and establishment of the evolu(J. Does away with conception of fixed species (Platonic ideas) that had previously dominated speculation. . . of it on the other is side. though entirely stop it. may retard can not The is idea that organic species are results of special creation has no scientific standard whatever. Bearing of evolution on the theory of progress. the evidence.'evolution. The in hypothesis of special creation a mere fossil is of the past. Organic evolution and social evolution. . when exact sciences were in their infancy. . There is all not one fact tending to prove special or separate is creation. Discovery of the great age of the earth. Popular confusion of 'Darwinism' with . (1820-1903)." . defend and popularize the new doctrine. Its is the "science aim was to solve the all problems of In the past. dynamic. R. gradual development of the evolutionary theory.

scientific Through endless. The Darwinian hypothesis has rendered preposterous any conception of a wholly static social system. lective The world has no Life is col- or organized higher ideals and aims. the general growth of knowledge has reacted in a stimulating way upon the sciences of society. In the meantime. This failure scien- of philosophy to tific fulfill is her boasted mission of coordination responsible for the chaos in the world of general thought. nor even fixed general purposes. she unable to follow her growing hatchlings. the growth of criticism and liberalism has made the analysis of social institutions somewhat less dangerous. we find that those branches have grown so large and various. the progress of life and science goes on. far beyond her reach. that the Mother science looks like a hen with her in a little ducklings paddling is pond. divided into many branches. However.38 Manhood or Humanity we regard philosophy as a Mother science. irrespective of the cackling of metaphysics. the modern social sciences in our capitalistic order meet much the same resistance from the 'vested interests' that theological radicalism encountered in the Middle Ages and social science has in no way approached the objectivity and . an accidental game of private or collective ambitions and greeds.) theological anthropology and reassert the dignity of man. R. H. and for want of coordi- nation the great world-problems suffer.* * "The Deists and philosophers destroy the older (J. fulfill Philosophy does not her initial aim to bring the results of experi- mental and exact sciences together and to solve world problems. scientific specialization branches multiply. the great increase in the number. complexity and intensity of social problems has proved a strong incentive to social science.

Childhood of Humanity 39 Systematic study of chemical and physical phe- nomena has been and these two of an enormous carried on for many : generations sciences now many include facts. inordinate development of organization and regimentation in of present . theories and laws before the subject science. . our present educational system.. hypotheses. . ." . As yet our education has not been brought into close relation with prevailing conditions of our ever increasing knowledge. Psychological disadvantages of our conventional examination system. effects of vested rights in . . which relates. . {Because of absolute lack of any scientific base. is understood to include Facts alone do a pile of the above mentioned parts. fertile ( 1 ) knowledge number of (2) a large body of natural laws. not even do facts and laws alone. Grave hampering experiments and readjustObstacles to readjustment presented by consecrated ments. Author. there must be facts. which must precede any effective social reform. not constitute a science any more than of stones constitutes a house. (3) working hypothhelpful theories eses respecting the causes and (4) regularities of natural phenomena. .. it When a subject is spoken of as a all science.) General nature of the problem of social reform: psychological problems involved in social reform movements: violent resistance of the group to that criticism of the existing institutions. and hypotheses giving finally many held subject to correction by further testing of the rise to them. is entitled to the rank of a The primal function of a science is to enable us it to anticipate the future in the field to progressiveness . . . day natural science. Excellent aims and small achievements of sociology in practical results. . . Influence of modern commercialism in the traditions.

selves. Knowledge of facts would have told us that the war lords were only the representatives of the ruling classes. and better opportunities for develop- so they have had ment. no official warning of the coming of the World War the greatest of catastrophies. commonly regarded as The technical branches of science have been strongly backed and generally supported by those to whom they have brought direct profit. for example. The future was not past been very effective. Ethics in the stifling grip of is myth and legalism influ- not convincing enough to exercise controlling ence. neither — the so-called social sciences —have in the There was.40 Manhood or Humanity philosophy nor its Judged by kindred this standard. we looked upon it World War as a per- sonal creation of a "war-lord. We neglected to use our comits mon sense and look deeper into origins." because those interested in told us so. to perpolitical form for ourselves the duty which losophy did not perform for us phi- — the duty of think- ing in terms of facts and not in terms of metaphysical speculations. A system of social . Such is the situation in which still we find ourlike Being in our childhood and thinking the savages. — anticipated because political philosophers did not possess the necessary basis of knowledge. just To be we must admit that philosophy has been but it is little aided financially because unnecessary.

" it not peculiar to any one country." nature of life. and controlled our we see. . pessimism opposed to optimism. common sense and knowledge. 41 selfishness.Childhood of Humanity and economic order tition. except the exact ones. socialism. It is the same in the realm of religions . is the motto of our whole civilization and is the inevitable outcome of our stupid philosophy regarding the characteristic man and the proper potentialities of human Where are we to find the true doctrines? Where the true philosophy? If we go back over the history of civilization. realism to idealism. colored our mental procdestinies. and so on tatious systems has a large Each of the dispunumber of followers and All of each faction looks upon the others as deprived of truth. built exclusively fittest. private opinions and theories have shaped our esses beliefs. is which is "grab what you can." on greed. The carried the whole system under which its they lived to logical conclusion and natural This motto issue. ruling classes and so war was the consequence. for ex- ample. we find that in all "sciences. materialism to spiritualism. or exist by means of war. "survival of the and ruthless compe- must cease to exist. The representatives of this system determined to con- tinue to exist. them play with the words "natural law" which they ignorantly presume to have as the basis their and content of there are own particular doctrine. capitalism to endlessly.

Each group. the second Idols of the third Idols of the that of the confutation of sophisms does to 41. 211 million medans. Francis Bacon. or Taoists. "The for everybody (in addition to the errors common to the race . all the perceptions both of the senses and the to mind bear reference man and not to the Universe. 177 million Protes- 115 million Orthodox Christians the 157 million Animists. {Novum Organum. tants. It is. distort and disfigure them. for the doctrine of idols bears the same relation to the interpretation of nature as Idols of the Tribe.42 Manhood or Humanity Roman Moham- approximately 291 million Confucianists. 261 million Catholics. "The idols of the tribe are inherent in common logic. 137 million Buddhists. to speak only of — most important religions. but the idols and medieval fetishes which he so masterfully describes are equally venerated to-day. 40. on the contrary. idols of the 42. the Market. believes faith to be infallible theory or its and all the others to be false. and they its are rather large groups. "The information of notions and axioms on the foundation of true induction is the only fitting remedy by which we can ward off and expel these idols. of great service to point them out. to which have assigned names. human mind rewhich impart their own prop- from which rays are emitted and den are those of each individual. for man's sense falsely asserted to be the standard of things. the fourth Idols of the Theatre. however. Bacon seems a bit remote. by 34. and the sembles these uneven mirrors erties to different objects. calling the Den. 209 million Hindus. human nature is and the very tribe or race of man.) "Four species of idols beset the (for distinction's sake) first we human mind.

which interand corrupts the light of nature. as it happens to be preoccupied and predisposed. throw everything into confusion. or from his reading. but words are formed at the will of the generality. creating and theatrical worlds. — and these all we denominate idols of the theatre: for we regard the systems of philosophy hitherto received or imagined. world. or of the philosophy and sects of the ancients. as fictitious many numerous other plays of a similar nature can be still composed and made to agree with each other. confused. and. there are idols which have crept into men's minds from the various dogmas of peculiar systems of philosophy. "Lastly. Nor can the definitions and explanations with which learned men are wont to guard and protect themselves in some instances afford a complete remedy words still manifestly force the understanding. or from his education and intercourse with others. since . as it were. which we call idols of the market. and there arises from a bad and unapt formation of words a wonderful obstruction to the mind. Nor. or from the different impressions produced on the mind. 44.Childhood of Humanity of 43 has his own individual den or cavern. Nor do we speak only of the present systems. so plays brought out and performed. actuated by chance. and Heraclitus said well that or men search for knowledge in lesser worlds. and also from the perverted rules of demonstration. the causes of the most opposite errors being generally the same. and lead mankind into vain and innumerable controversies and fallacies. or equable and tranquil. and the like. "There are also idols formed by the reciprocal intercourse and society of man with man. so that the spirit of man (according man) cepts to its several dispositions). and the authority acquired by those whom he reverences and admires. either from his own peculiar and singular disposition. for men converse by means of language. is variable. and not in the greater common 43. from the commerce and association of men with each other.

) of the scientific discoveries to daily life has revolutionized our methods of supplying our economic needs. — tion and isolation." . and sectarian querulous. Problems of capital and labor. R. be a period that will witness the gradual extension of method to all the in- " During the past two centuries the application * (J. and the whole range of the relations of mankind. implicit credence. extent of investments. selfish political philosophies. ignorance. confused and blind —such is characteristic of the childhood of humanity. do Manhood of Humanity we allude merely to general systems. machinery has in turn begotten the modern factory with its vast organized labor. The tremendous increase in the production of wealth and the growing interdependence of nations has opened up a vast range of speculation in regard to the betterment of mankind to the abolition or reduction of povMan advances from a . the modern city and finally. and war. Industrial processes become dynamic and everchanging a complete reversal of the old stability. and neglect. expansion of commerce.44 again. coal. The rise of the tool-using to a machine-controlling animal. our well nigh perfect means of rapid human inter-communication. but also to elements and axioms of sciences which have become inveterate by tradition. increased division of labor and specialization of industrial procThe great increase in the volume of capital and in the esses. the separation of capital and labor and the growth of impersonal economic relationship. labor organizations. erty. disease. H." * many Metaphysical speculation and eny of blind and opinions. . private "truths." and private sectarian opinions. unemployment and the labor of women and Increased productivity and the children. and steam essential to the development of machinery on a large scale. I doubt not. our social and intellectual life. iron. The period of humanity's a scientific period — manhood scientific will. its swarming progprivate doctrines. factory system. The impulse of invention. repeti. the concentration and localization of industry. sectarian "truths" doctrines.

man and of establish. at the science and art directing human energies and human in capacities to the advancement of human weal human nature accordance with the laws of .Childhood of Humanity terests of 45 mankind — a period in which man will dis- cover the essential nature of length.

but they are exceedingly impor- To classify phenomena correctly. will use language easily to be under- stood by every one. 46 . that to "talk business." or to put has no practical value. is ill As a matter of fact our common is daily speech adapted for the precise expression of thought. is for they say that "business" language good enough "something over" — the other fellow. precision is But a little explanation will show that often of the greatest importance. sake of clearness and. that it is useless and un- stress it on correct thinking and precise expression. even so-called "scientific" language often too vague for the purpose and requires further Some may say necessary to lay so much refining. problems to be dealt with in this chapter are not easy. for clear ideas are essential to sound thinking. avoiding as I will For the use the simplest illustrations as possible the difficulties of much technical terms. they must be correctly analysed and clearly defined.CHAPTER III CLASSES OF LIFE ^f^HE tant. In some cases the words will it indeed have a technical meaning and will be neces- sary to exercise great care against the danger of giving false impressions.

For instance. would be guilty of "resisting the supreme law" and would deserve to Now in the second instance. other millions have defined it as a "natural. . the people save what they can and try to extinguish the fire. practical life is a peculiar class of life which. attempt to save the house or anything to because do so would be against the "definition" which prothe claims evil. the population naturally made no it. if caught in the open by a storm they take refuge under a tree of safety involving — a means maximum danger but the people do not know it. in its some in determines own destinies. which bring about important practical consequences. a stricken building is treated just as any tree overturned by storm. yet other millions have defined as an of spark. periodical pheit nomenon" "electric . therefore words and ideas become facts — facts. when in lightning struck a house. the behavior of the popuis lace the same in one respect. moreover." phenomenon to be a "punishment for any attempt to prevent or check the destruction act. many millions of human beings have defined a stroke of lightning as being the "punishment of God" of evil men. casual." What first has been the result these "non-important" definitions in practical life? In the case of the definition.Classes of Life 47 Humanity degree. the sinner would be an impious be punished by death. In both instances.

" to imperfect and often the time steadily and subject in change all and dynamically obedience to some all known or un- known law. then of course reactionaries would of defi- be a "danger to the natural order" and they should be treated the same way. in which the popula- have a scientifically correct definition of light- ning. as has to do with our con- ception of the social and economic system. they provide their houses with lightning rods.48 Manhood of Humanity Now tion in the third instance. and the state. they put them- selves in a position of minimum exposure by lying storm has passed. but is another example of it sufficient vital impor- tance to be given here. but when the storm is directly over their heads. To know the world in which we live. flat on the ground there until the Such examples could be given without end. at least put in jail for life. such facts as we have we know in to analyse facts by help of facts daily practice and such as are established in scientific laboratories where men . The importance nitions can be seen in all other fields of practical life. If our institutions given" — are considered static "Godre- sacred and therefore — every But now. definitions create conditions. our institutions are "man made. and if they are caught by a storm in the open they neither run nor hide under a tree. former or advocate of change should be treated a criminal or "a danger to the existing order" as and if hanged or foolish.

of merely good sense and fair talent. for nothing else than a few correct definitions. a few just concepts. and necessary to Fortunately the solution of a few leads automatically to the solution of many others. correct definitions. and it is The probselect. Newton and Leibnitz a few correct definitions. endless. and true propositions.Classes of Life do not jump await to conclusions. This will be necessary to indicate the trend of the analysis. I am speaking of such definitions of phenomena as result from correct analysis of the phenomena. — tive genius. a few and a few true propositions. progressive. 49 it In some places will be necessary to make statements that will have to at a later stage of the dis- full justification cussion. The aim process is of the analysis is to give us just concep- tions. The matter portant. The lems are infinitely many. but analytic definitions are definitive propositions and are true . nitions. Nominal definitions are mere conveniences and are neither true nor false. Some of the greatest and most far-reaching just concepts scientific discoveries have been Such. but these have been extended and multiplied. and often almost automatically by men of definition. I I have said. sometimes by men of creaexample. was the work of Euclid. is very imdefi- am not now speaking of nominal which for convenience merely give names to known objects. a few true propositions. slow.

. let us say. a kind of energy which flows. that lightning is so and so . of degrees of truth and degrees of falsehood. valid in infinity {A k ) say a final definition. . we call 2 ( the first . the and its was the most mistaken application brought the most harm. An . . This lightning that illustration gests the important idea of relative truth and rela- falsehood — the idea. . . and gives us an absolute or final truth.5<d Manhood or Humanity false. there were three. " truth " A\ ( alpha i ) . 3. through a glass this tube filled with charcoal. the second one A one A3 (alpha 3). was the "true one" and it brought the sug- maximum tive benefit. A definition may- be neither absolutely true nor absolutely false. In the illustration of the definitions of lightning. or else Let us dwell upon the matter a little more. Then of course definition would immediately make obvious it. .. is. for illustration's sake. one of them may If. . the third under the present conditions of our knowledge. but of two definitions of the same thing. the secfirst ond was less incorrect and the practical results less bad. we may appears who has the faculty to surpass relative truths alpha 2 ) the third suppose that a genius all the other A\ t A A 2. what use could be made of unlimited flow of available We could erect glass towers filled with charcoal free and so secure an energy and our . be truer or falser than the other.

Classes of Life whole life 51 would be affected in an untold degree. more and more nearly phenomenon. a metaphysician would say " that is the soul of whiskey" (A 5). reflected in our midst as as in a in a mirror. A reactionarywould call it a "Bolshevik" (A\)\ a Bolshevik would say " My color " (A 2) a color-blind person would say "such a thing does not exist" (As). a Daltonist would say "that is green" (A 4)'. This is final but unknown "truth valid in infinity" somehow perceived and or felt by us as an ideal. a " scientific If this last definition be " valid in infinity " or not nevertheless. but they suggest . But to take another example: there is such a a phenomenon called the " color " red. the modern scientist would say " it is the light of such and thing as . an historian would say "that is the color of the ink with which human history has been written" (Aq). the present condition of our knowledge. Imagine how it might be defined. for in countless years of observation less a series of less true "ideas" about the we have formed false. the reflections may be distorted. an uneducated person would say "that is the color of blood" (A 7). truth " in but it is. such wave length" (An). The "ideas" are reflections of the phenomenon. This example explains the importance of correct definitions. we do not know. convex or concave mirror.

if he be a poor designer. an ideal reflection valid It is of the utmost importance to realize that the words which are used to express the ideas and the ideals are the representations of the ideas and ideal. the drawing of his likeness would have practically no resemblance original features. Let us suppose that a man makes an from a mirror. it is only by words that we are enabled to give to other human beings an exact or nearly exact impression which we have had of It the phenomenon. Let us suppose that the man is has beautiful features but because the drawing very poor. For correct to have analysis cardinal classes of life in and true definitions of the our world it is necessary some just ideas about dimensions or dimen- sionality. explain briefly by an example. Measurable entities of different kinds can not be compared directly. poor designer were to look into and work from to his a concave or convex mirror. into a plane mirror. so. Each one must be measured in . concave or convex. The Britannica gives us some help in I will this connection.52 Manhood of Humanity in infinity. he will draw the likeness badly. may be helpful to illustrate this process by an example. he will see his true likeness. it will not convey the impression that the If this features of the original were beautiful. If he looks experiment of doing his own portrait which even may be plane.

width and therefore. is. we would wreck all the architectural and engineering structures of the world. and at the same time show ourselves stupider than block-heads. and this number will not be so many of length nor of surface but so many solid or cubic units. its cube will have neither 5 nor 25 for measure. it measure of will square (surface) will not be be 25. thickness and sions. will units have 125. To analyse the classes of life different we have name to consider : two very chemistry kinds of phenomena embraced under the collective — — Inorganic name the one the other under the collective . volume has length. It is as plain as a pike staff that. but a a point. a volume — say a see that the cube has surfaces and lines and points.— Classes of Life terms of a unit 53 of its own is kind. for example. this it If upon this square we build a cube. as five units enormous unrealized importance in the case of taking a line of it of length this and building upon a square. and the 25 will not be 25 linear units but 25 square or surface units. said to have three dimen- If cube —we we take. the 5. volume is not a surface nor a line nor Just these dimensional differences have an in practical life. if we confused dimensions when computing lengths and areas and volumes. A line can have : only length and therefore face has length of one dimension is a sur- and width and a therefore said to have two dimensions.

These class. but in organic chemistry — in the chemistry of these compounds is practically unlimited. Hydrogen. . Until now. divisions are made because of the pecu- liar properties of the elements chiefly involved in the second tributed The properties of matter among the elements that three are so dis- of them an enof Oxygen. Up to 1910. — possess The number reactions in inorganic chemistry are relatively few. we knew of more than 79 elements of which the whole number of rethree elements the number of different actions amounted to only a few hundreds. and some instances an unusual energy is produced called electricity. the reactions were unlimited in number and possibilities this fact must have very far reaching consequences. sometimes light. the radio- active elements represent a group too insufficiently known The and for an enlargement here upon this subject. as energies are concerned. but among the remaining three elements and Oxygen tically — —Carbon. As far nature reveals them to us.— Manhood of Humanity 54 Organic chemistry. and Carbon semble of unique characteristics. is essential The in reactions inorganic chemistry always involve the phenomenon of heat. organic compounds being unlimited in number possibilities and with their unique characteristics. and will help enorin mathematical thinking mously. we have to take them as Here more than ever. or the chemistry of hydro-carbons. known Hydrogen to be prac.

the difference between the tries two chemisof the involves a difference of dimensionality. but being. at the same time. a different class of phenomena. energies The higher of the chemistries higher dimensionality are very difficult to define. my descriptions are no better than the description of . besides the few mentioned above there are new and unique energetic phenomena occurring in this dimension. but being unique in many other re- spects. "uniqueness" the reason why these phenomena in- must be classified as belonging to or having a higher dimensionality than belongs to the phenomena of organic chemistry just as the uniqueness of the properties of a erties volume as compared with surface propJust as this depends upon the fact that a volume has a higher dimensionality than a surface. Among the energetic phenomena of organic chemistry. phenomenon stincts" and of the "mind" phenomenon of the "inThese enerIt is getic phenomena are unique for the unique chemistry obvious that this is of the three unique elements. mention may be made of "life. chemical they include the basic chemical ical phenomena involved in all chem- reactions. they also have an infinitely vast field of unique characteristics." the in general. Of the these phenomena. difference of dimensions makes the whole difference between the geometry of volumes and the geometry of surfaces.Classes of Life 55 represent of course.

1881. Autonomous ingestion. Autonomous growth. a bet- which are equally unsatisfactory. The words "Au- tonomous >at activities" are important because they hint the dimensional differences of these energies. Autonomous multiplication. I der Telle im Organismus. But a better sional word should be found between the chemistry to define the dimenactivities differences found in in inorganic chemistry. quote him. life is In the theory of crystals the term rhetorical: science. purely use there is very injurious to sound These old ideas of "life" in crystals are profoundly unscientific and serve as one of the best . Auautonomous excretion. Autonomous assimilation. tonomous transmission of hereditary characteristics and Autonomous development. the not autonomous of crystals —another word than its (or anautonomous) activities life should be found. Autonomous movement. in the same sense which we use the word life to name the curious autonomous phenomenon of organic chemistry. In want of He defines a living being as a natu- ral object acteristic which possesses the following nine charactivities : Autonomous Autonomous change. in his Der Kampf ter.— 56 life Manhood of Humanity given by Professor Wilhelm Roux. which is of another dimension than the activities in inorganic For the so-called life in the crystals chemistry. Leipzig. and those it found organic We see is a mistake to speak about in "life" in a crystal.

form in such a solution when broken even possible to prevent or retard the formation of a supersaturated solution by preventing crystals in in the air 'germs' from getting into the solution. and can regenor injured. If crystals "live. and carbohydrates of the from products.Classes of Life 57 examples of the frequent confusion or intermixing of dimensions logically — a confusion due to unmathematical. but it will do so only in a supersaturated solution of its own In substance. cells of order to make bacteria or the our body grow. and living matcells. Just the reverse is true for living organisms. solu- composing them and not the substances themselves must be available to the cells. It is true that a crystal can grow. . an observation which was later utilized by Schroeder and Pasteur in their experiments on spontaneous generation. the analogies between a living organism and a crystal are merely superficial and it is by pointing out the fundamental differences between the behavior of crystals and that of living organisms that we can best understand the specific difference between nonliving and living matter. ways of thinking. This process of cell division tions of the split products of the substances can not be claimed even metaphorically to exist in a crystal. these solutions must not be supersaturated. growth leads in living organisms to cell division as soon as the mass of the cell reaches a certain limit. A correct appreciation of these facts will give us an insight into the specific difference between non-living ter." "Crystals can erate their it is grow in a proper solution. and 125 cubic units=25 square units absurdities belonging to the incorrect — "childhood of humanity. they must be dilute. . on the contrary. However. The split formation of living matter consists in the synthesis of the proteins. nucleins. fats. . and third. ." then volumes are surfaces. second.

The the animals use the highly dynamic products of class chemistry-binding — the plants — as food." this one of the energies characteristic of class of phenomena. They it are a class of which appropriates one kind of energy. we analyse the classes of life. Jacques Loeb.58 Manhood of Humanity essential "The difference between living and non-living cell matter consists then in this: the living synthesizes its own complicated specific material from indifferent or non- specific simple compounds of the surrounding medium. we readily find that there are three cardinal classes which are radically distinct in function. while in its the crystal simply adds the molecules found super- This synthetic power of transforming small 'building stones' into the complicated compounds specific for each organism is the 'secret of life' or rather one of the secrets of life.) It will be explained later that one of the energetic of phenomena which is organic chemistry — the "mind. is "autonomous." its is "selfproIf pelling" and true to dimensionality. by saturated solution." (The Organism as a Whole. converts into another kind and stores up." they are not The known life it function — plants have a very definite and well the transformation of solar energy into organic chemical energy. . and so I define the plants as the chem- istry-binding class of life. A short analysis will disclose to us that. activities. in that sense they are a kind of storage battery for the solar energy. though minerals have various "living.

human is beings possess a most remarkable capacity which entirely peculiar to them — I mean the capacity to summarise. they have a remarkable freedom and power which I define freedom and faculty LIFE. their spondingly a more dynamic class of is energy kinetic. I the fruits of past labors tual mean the capacity to use as intellecin and experiences or spiritual capital for developments the present. into yet higher forms and the animals are correlife. digest and appropriate the labors and experiences of the past. And because humanity just this magnifi- . trial and success. I mean the capacity to employ as instru- ments of increasing power the accumulated achievements of the all-precious 6pent in trial lives of the past generations and error. say of of human beings? Like the ani- Man? human beings do indeed possess the space- binding capacity but. and so animals as the space-binding class of the plants do not possess to — And now what shall we What is to be our definition mals. over and above that. I mean the move about in space. is mean man is at once the heritor of the by-gone ages and the trustee of posterity.Classes of Life and those products tion 59 —undergo — the results of plant-transforma- in animals a further transformation . I mean I the capacity of human beings to conduct their lives in the ever increasing light of inherited the capacity in virtue of which wisdom.

human nature — of the human The definitions of the classes of life represent the different classes as distinct in respect to dimensionality. and.60 Manhood of Humanity cent natural agency by which the past lives in the present and the present for the in the universal future. It is absolutely essential to grasp that fact of if we are ever to have a science human nature. what is more important than all. obtained from direct observa- tion. the definition and most especially the definition of Man. . to be the time-binding class of These are. an error of the same type and it grossness as to treat a cube as a surface because has surface properties. of Man will give us a starting point for discovering the natural laws of class of life. without making grave mistakes. and this is extremely important for no measure or rule of one class can be applied to the other. life. it definitions of the cardinal classes of life will be noted. tongue of mathematics and mechanics. to treat a a mere space-binder — is human being an animal — as because humans have certain animal propensities. I define humanity. they are so simple and so important that I can- not over-emphasize the necessity of grasping them For these simple definitions and especially that of Humanity will profoundly transform the whole conception of human life in every field of interest and activity. as For example.

their in The humans. with grow. with their "autonomous" capacity grow and to be active in space by the TWO dimen- sional plane PAM. by the "autonomous" capacity to space and to be active in region three dimensional MAPH* H (Humans) -P (Plants) (Animals) Such diagrammatic illustrations must not be taken too literally. to be active time.Classes of Life 61 life in We can represent the different classes of three life coordinates. The minerals. with their be represented by the one dimensional to MP. to line The plants. "autonomous" growth. with their in- organic activities would be the Zero (o) dimension of "life" — that is the lifeless class —here represented by the point M. The reader should upon the simple idea of dimen- . The animals. they are like figures of speech if understood —harmful reflect — helpful if not understood.

a plane and not a animals some plant properties grow. When and only when this fact is clearly seen and . inventiveness. for example. for example erties — autonomous these —but —they animals have other propfor mobility. logical sense. a plane has two. A line has one dimension. —but it properties give —and has other propit is these that its and make So what have it is — own character. will greatly help the reader if he will retire to the quiet of his cloister and there meditate about as follows. or type that —and it is these propensities and powers make human beings human and not animal. for example. mal properties erties or physical appetites or propensities — autonomous —but humans have — ethical make animals animals and not human beings have certain animobility. Just so. other prop- sense. or propensities of higher dimensionality. progressiveness erties —proplevel. it a plane contains lines and so has line properties it ott^-dimensional properties erties —Jwo-dimensional are peculiar to it it.— 62 Manhood of Humanity is sions until he sees clearly that the idea not merely is a thing of interest or of convenience. line. but lutely essential as a abso- dinal classes of life ceiving each class it means of discriminating the carfrom one another and of conto be what it is instead of mixing It confusedly with something radically different. example. properties it of higher dimensionality or type that —and is plants.

they can hardly fail to see clearly that it differs both in function and in type or dimension from what is rightly meant by human progress.* * It may be contended by some that animals have been making "progress" or some may say that animals also "bind-time. with the potencies of accord Human Nature. these things are self evident. which is doubtful because they are an — . it involves the concept of the "continuum". but with the modern theory of de Vries. creators and improvers of in good. dimensions is of the utmost importance in the natural sciences." This use of words would again become mere verbalism." they should invent a suitable word for it to save them from the blunder of confusing types or mixing dimensions. ciety —based upon — the laws of human nature because based upon the just conception of humanity as the time-binding class of life. To adjust the Darwin theory to dimensionality is a somewhat more difficult problem. The peculiar faculty belonging exclusively to humans which I designate as "time-binding" I have clearly defined as an exponential function of time in the following chapter. types. to talk of animal "progress" or animal "time-binding. a jurisprudence and economics.Classes of Life keenly realized. in which there is no intermixing of dimensions. human time-binding capacity lies in an entirely difSo. a governance a science and art of human life and so- mere binders of space. if any persons wish ferent dimension from that of animals. If people are pleased to talk about the "progress" of animals. destined to endless advancement. there will begin the science of - 63 — the science and art of human nature — man for then and only then we shall begin to escape from the agere- long untold immeasurable evils that come from garding and treating human beings as animals. as and we may look forward to an ethics. This mathematical discrimination between classes. because of the transmutation of species. If animals really progress. a mere mere speculation having nothing to do talking about words with facts or with correct thinking.

they have served a great purpose in enabling us to understand natural phenomena in approximate way to make it possible to modern technology and to develop our physical science to the point where it was necessary and possible to make a correction of the Newtonian a sufficiently build up laws." some doctrine or Apples had fallen any important re- from fallen trees for ages. in the which are so brief scheme of the universe. there conception of so-called "truth. . in mathematical terms. A similar organic change. fully stimulated the power- development of all the branches of natural and technological knowledge. we have At "bound" so little time in the course of the centuries. this changed our whole world conception. our sciences and our activities. the bottom of every human activity. to be negligible as an infinitesimal of higher order. the event of the Even in Newtonian laws being proved to be not quite correct. The fact that a apple hit Newton. but without sults in the economy of humanity. historical fact lies or trend of civilization.in our conception life of human and its phenomena is involved in the forelife. going definitions of the classes of they will re- place basic errors with scientific truths of fundamenolder form of life than humans and they have not shown any noticeable progress to the knowledge of man.64 Manhood of Humanity Humanity is still in its childhood. led to the discovery of the it theory of gravitation. their progress is so small in comparison with man's that it may be said.

Classes of Lite tal 65 scientific importance. they will form the basis for a development of the past permanent civilization in place of the periodically convulsive so-called civilizations of and present. . To know the cause of evil and error is to find the cure.

of which too I many have already been written.from that of animals and the characteristic nature of man has not been understood. (2) man has always been regarded either as an animal or as a supernatural phenomenon. which is that of pointing are way to the science and art of Human EngineerThe two facts which have to be dealt with first. that It has never been realized man is a being of a dimension or type different . matters of the task the ing. is The facts are that man not supernatural but is literally a part of nature 66 . but will confine myself to the in more pressing hand. in consequence of which there has never been a proper principle or starting point for a science of humanity. will not recount the reasons. retical. many and important book is reasons for As the subject of this not a theo- academic study of man. are A There this fact. the two which have most retarded human proga just conception of his role in the curious ress: (i) there has never been a true definition of man nor drama of the world.CHAPTER WHAT "\ IS IV MAN? TAN has ever been the greatest puzzle to man.

they are does not matter at time-binder. the fact that he was somewhere. all how the first man. whereas in the study of animals we have to consider only two factors activities in space. this "something" made the it is him that lifted him to a higher dimenenough that in some-wise. we have to analyse man in three coordinates — in three capacities . at mathematically. by the power to make the past pacity to bind time present and the present for the future. his chemistry. they were of two brother apes. These concepts are It first and impersonal. the remains was produced. A alike in every respect. a human. namely. he became the first time-binder. but something strange hap- pened to B. by their ca- —human basic beings are time-binders. : their chemistry and their original Let us imagine that the aboriginal — human specimen was one and B. somehow produced. We have seen live in the human beings are characterized by their creative power. No in matter how. To know anything that is to-day of fundamental interest about man. seen that the their We have animals are truly characterized by pacity that —animals autonomous mobility — their space-binding ca- are space-binders. and especially his in time. over and above .What is Man? 67 and that human beings are not animals. change sion. both were animal space-binders. his activities activities in space. arrived mathematically correct.

AM AN animal. nor was he true to the "animal" which he scorned. "If I am an animal there also in me something higher." With this conclusion he estranged himself." This fatal con- reached by false analogy. could not emulate. which put him life. He had thus a new faculty. first manifest in B. but he is my brother. he observed "A a is my brother. a spark of some thing jw/>^rnatural. by neglecting a human woe for half a million years and it still survives. there was superadded the marvelous new capacity for bindingtime. and because he had this new capacity he was able to analyze his brother "A". in a cul-de-sac of a double He was neither true to the "supernatural" which he could not know and therefore. Having put himself outside the "natural was not demned himself to laws. is He himself. unnatural laws. increased more has been the chief source of and more. with the days and each generation. fact.68 his Manhood of Humanity animal capacity for binding space. . and estab- lished speculative. in the course until of centuries different man said felt himself increas- ingly somehow not from the animal. as something apart from nature. he is an animal. first therefore." he really true to any law and con- a life of hypocrisy. but he to could explain. and formulated the impasse. The timebinding capacity. he belonged to new dimension. of course. but. he did not realize it. artificial. / clusion.

The built science of Human Engineering can not be of upon false conceptions human nature. involves the welfare of mankind throughout an unending sucof generations." other so completely dominates (Cassius J. There society is is no doubt that the engineering of human a difficult and complicated problem of for it tre- mendous cession ethical responsibility. and yet no the human mind. Prob- ably no other single hypothesis has less to recom- mend it. lending its and con- characteristic mark con- and color ing. and partly by force of in inertia and sheer conservatism. Keyser. he has estranged and objectified the world. wont to regard himself as a being quite apart from and not as part of the cosmos round about him. has long been From this he has detached himself in thought. no doubt. partly because of venience. And this age-long habit and life point of view.What is Man? make 69 us! "How blind our familiar assumptions Among the animals.) And this monstrous conception look upon current to-day: millions still man as a mixture of animal and something supernatural. is loc. is to his whole philosophy and art and learnits still maintained. man. the very teeth of the strongest probabilities of biological science. can not be . It can not be built on the conit ception of man as a kind of animal. cit. which has fashioned his trolled his thought. at least. and lost the sense that he is of it.

the natural economics. time-binding class of binding —when comprehended. then really peaceful and progressive civilization.70 built Manhood of Humanity on the conception of man as a mixture of nat- ural and supernatural. beautiful. must be obvious to any one that time-binding This mighty term will be the only natural criterion and standard for the life. to be brought into the education of time-binders. the of the natural laws. is there- will represent every quality that implied while classi- in such words as is good. scientific must be built upon the characterized function. everything that fied as merely space-binding will be "animal" and be thus assessed at its proper value. the natural governance. "time-binding" fore. whole — time- found to em- brace the ethics. without periodical collapses and violent readjustments. . the natural sociology. conception of mankind as by their time-binding capacity alters and This conception radically life. it is Everything which is really in the human dimension. and the world. the natural natural philosophy. Those ignorant "masters of our as destinies" who regard humans throned by scientific animals or as monstrous hybrids of natural and supernatural must be deeducation. our whole view of human It is human society. not before. will commence. just. It must be conception of man as being at upon the once natural and built It higher in dimensionality than the animals. right.

that. physico-chemical base of Humans are thus is "human nature. and to prevent it from ex- pressing itself naturally and freely. the personal morale of the individual has only a small influence upon his conduct. then they will spontaneously . under hypnotic influence. no matter how immoral human The conception of man as a mixture of animal and superselfish- natural has for ages kept beings under the deadly spell of the suggestion that. animal ness and animal greediness are their essential character. One has to stop and think ! There is nothing mystical about the fact that ideas and words are energies which powerfully our time-binding untrue to fact. and the spell has operated to suppress their real human nature the other hand. ideas and false when they teach false doctrines. thought of putting poison into tea or but seem unable to realize that. they are poisoning the time-binding capacity of their fellow men and women. the subject obeys the hypnotic sugthey are. Many people have a just horror coffee. he will murder or commit arson or theft." Hypnotism a made known It has been proved that a in man can be so hypnotized that a certain time which has been suggested to him. On when human beings are edu- cated to a lively realization that they are by nature time-binding creatures.What Humans and at the is Man? 71 can be literally poisoned by false ideas false teachings. affect the activities. gestions.

which THE MATERIALIZATION OF THEIR TIMEtherefore. in order to be able to live (through which is the action of parents —or society) not the case with animals. I which.72 live in Manhood of Humanity accordance with their time-binding nature. But IS not Why number nature. not? Because humans through their timefirst binding capacity are is of all creators and so their not controlled by the supply of unaided only by but is men's artificial productivity. Man. is the source and support of for being self- the highest ideals. . because animals their natural supply from lack of food when insufficient of it is because they have not the it CAPACITY TO PRODUCE ARTIFICIALLY." die out This is true for animals. must act first. Ethics has to recognize the truth that egoism comes before altruism. What ish is achieved if in blaming a man and greedy he acts under the influence of a social environment and education which teach him is that he an animal and that selfishness and greedi- ness are of the essence of his nature? Even Spencer so eminent a philosopher tells and psychologist so as us : "Of it self-evident truths is . . his being. dealt with. the one which here concerns us ture that a crea- must live before can act. by the very intrinsic character of BINDING CAPACITY. true for the human dimension. The misunder- . as have said.

and . Here even the blind must see the effect of higher dimensionality. As a matter of fact. are to be in the human dimension. if humanity were to live in complete accord with the animal con- ception of man. still others. BECAUSE WE ARE ACTING all IN TIME ARE NOT MERELY ACTING IN SPACE is NOT A kind of animal. and this effect becomes in turn the cause of other effects which produce so on in an endless chain. Human excellence in time-binding. and We live because we AND PRODUCE. It is only BECAUSE MAN if so simple. the postulates of ethics must be changed. FOR HUMANITY IN ORDER TO LIVE MUST ACT FIRST the laws of ethics natural laws their — —laws is the laws of right living of human nature —laws — are having whole source and sanction excellence in the time-binding capacity and time-binding activity peculiar to man. If human ethics are to be human. artificial production would cease and ninety per It mankind would perish by starvation. production because binders shelter — —time-binding cent is of just — — human not that beings are not animals but are timefinders but creators of mere food and such vast they are able to live in numbers.. we apply a little sound logic in our thinking about human nature and human affairs. What is Man? is 73 standing of this simple truth largely accountable for the evil of our ethical and economic systems or lack of systems.

is a which. they must be made to progress and to function in the proper dimension — the human dimension and not that of animals: they must be made time-binding sciences. thing to do. from the engineer's point is to analyse the generator with a view to it. chology. must produce crea- and therefore must be guided by applied by technology. politics. and this means that the sopsy- called social sciences of ethics. do work. Can this be done? I have no doubt that it For what is human life after all? To a general in the battlefield. the of view. human life factor can. they must be made scientific. to improve and bring it to the level of maximum productivity. To an engineer human life is an equivalent to energy. sociology. they must be technologized. Experience has shown .74 Manhood of Humanity must be measured and rewarded by time-binding standards of worth. mental or musis and the moment something first found to be a source of energy and to have the capacity of doing work. or a capacity to cular. if properly used. Humanity. tively science. in order to live. can destroy the enemy. Human beings are very complicated energy-produc- ing batteries differing widely in quality and magni- tude of productive power. and govern- ment must be emancipated from medieval metaphysics. jurisprudence. discovering how best to conserve it. economics.

that this fect we must come is it human battery the most per- example of a complex engine. these we call brain. conclusion. glands. These functions are familiar the knowledge From and to the of other physical. and nerves human batteries have the remarkto everybody. finally. divided into branches it This chemical generator each of which has a very different role which must perform in harmony with all the others. What that these batteries are. The mechanical parts of the structure are built in con- formity to the rules of mechanics and are automatically furnished with lubrication and with chemical supplies for automatically renewing worn-out parts. able capacity of reproduction. the batteries will cease to func- will die. teries are not supplied periodically less constant quantity of with a more or some chemical elements called food tion —they and air. teries is Man? of all.. mechanical chemical phenomena of nature. In the examination of the struc- ture of these batteries is we find that the chemical base all is very much accentuated through the structure. The chemical processes not only deposit particles of mass for the structure of the generator but produce some very powerful unknown kinds of energies or vibrations which tion. 75 first chemical batIf these bat- producing a mysterious energy. make all the chemical parts func- we find also a mysterious apparatus with a com- plex of wires which and. has all the .

to elec- and This human engine-battery of unusual strength. durability and perfection. delicate The controlling factors are very is and so the engine very capricious. tricity is that have a striking likeness to certain especially wireless to radium.76 Manhood of Humanity peculiarities of a chemical battery combined with life. if not properly used. What tricity is is electricity? The scientific answer that which exhibits such and such phe- . is thus equipped with both mental and mechanical means for producing work. phenomena. has mental or spiritual capacities. various special branches of is A very noteworthy fact the mental that both the this physical work and work of of its human engine are always accompanied by both physical and chemical changes in the structure machinery corresponding to the wear and tear of non-living engines. The reader may wish sences is of the time-binding power of metaphysical — What is the essence Man? Talk of esscientific. Very special training its and understanding are necessary for to ask: control. a generator of a peculiar energy called it above it all. The in parts and functions of this marvelous engine have been the subject of a vast amount of research science. It also presents certain sexual and spiritual phenomena phenomena. and it is yet very liable to damage and even wreckage. it is not Let me is: elec- explain by an example.

is in physics in — there no talk of too. group of phenomena called electricity We is are study- when we it are studying those phe- nomena. Human Engineering —we has is shall not talk of the essence of time-binding but only of the led to phenomena and the the laws thereof. For that use There — the appropriateness of the term time-binding reflection. Thus So. Some descriptive term was necessary to indicate that human capacity which discriminates human beings from animals and marks man as man. A short time ago these checks had so operated . they multiply in a geometrical ratio. will lead to the science And what Engineer- and Human ing is knowledge of time-binding phenomena —not vain babble about an essence of time-binding power. electric What not development of of electrical knowledge phenomena art of — appliances meta- physical talk about the electrical essence. becomes more and more manifest upon What Is there are the conditions of life upon this earth? war or peace in daily life? All living beings require food. natural and cial. ing Electricity is Man? a 77 certain means nothing but electric. but the tendency is checked by artifi- various counteracting influences. and in so the natural productivity of the soil becomes increasingly inadequate. essences. The tendency true of all to increase geometrical ratio is life — vegetable. animal and human.What nomena. is no mystery about the word time-binding.

therefore. Impoverished exces- sive heat or cold. tion of And so in the last century the populait Europe increased more than had increased soil. is and many other factors are hostile to life. a war carried on by the time-binding power of men its pitted against natural obstacles. that it human It in must especially struggle for existence. the lack of rainfall. excessive moisture. life It evident.78 to annul the Manhood or Humanity law of increase as almost to stop the It is growth of human population. human not be The lesson of the World War should . The war is of every-day life against hostile for the elements war subjugation of physical It is nature and not for the conquest of people. We have just passed through a tremendous worldwide military war and we developed special ways of producing power to overcome the enemy. if seems obvious life. must carry on a perpetual that. there is perpetual war every-day war methods must be applied. contest for self preservation. and progressive in triumph means progressive advancement weal. thus driven to discover We were some of the hidden sources power and all of our old habits and ideas were bent toward military methods and military techof nology. in several centuries before. binding capacity of man technological invention —by — only by the time- scientific progress and that the checks have been overcome.

79 missed through failure to analyse nations. We must learn trouble with the producing that. As a matter of fact our civilization has been for a long time disorganized to the point of disease. due to the great release of power in the new-born giant technology. when there is power of the world. . Lately through the whirl of changing conditions. toil and the slow- gathered fruits of measureless are destroyed. and lawyers do not understand I the problem. and the revision must be made by engineering minds in order that our ideas may be made to match facts. an expert on power. I law and What want to emphasize in this little book. But peaceful war. diplomats. is the need of a thoroughgoing revision of our ideas. we consult a physician or a surgeon. the disorganization has become acute. not a charlatan. ethics.What war with sources to is Man? it. If we are ill. instead of asking those whose profession to fight for the division of things produced by nature or by other human beings. the When nations normal daily war of millions to subjugate natural re- and millions of individuals human uses is interrupted. Politicians. technological philosophy. What am advocating is that we is must learn to ask those who know how to produce things. is what even more important. we have to consult an engineer. involves the use of methods of technology and. war for the conquest of nature.

No mere preaching of brotherly produce one single brick love. are of very to immediate humanity. so ordered production the main of object for humanity. because unfilled soil produces very little food for humans. Money tion is is not the wealth of a nation. will for the building of the future temple of tory — human vic- the temple of human civilization. because (if impossible to call a prayer of thanksgiving any) addressed to a "creator" as payment to gods or men. or class hatred. material and soil. but producis wealth. To pro- raw material or soil. But to have the maximum production. to be enduring. is the cure source.80 Manhood sick of Humanity If The seldom know the cure for themselves. this we have to go to the and can be done only by men familiar. and raw material such as . it is necessary to have production put on a sound basis. But raw in the conditions in little which nature benefit produces them. humanity simply took them and had the use it is of them for nothing. The ( 1 ) three requirements may soil be briefly character- ized and appraised as follows: Raw material and are products of na- ture. to have: (i) we have — and (3) the application of power. (2) instruments for production tools and machines. Ordered production demands analysis of basic This era duce is essentially an industrial era. facts. not only with effects but also with the causes.

oil. The most . mental and muscular. and (b) raw material reproduced by man's mental and muscular activities. we may well conclude that two very distinct classes: "raw material" must be divided (a) raw material as produced by nature its — nature's free gift —which in form and place has practically no usevalue. And. namely: Tools and machines. Raw materials of the second class have an enormous use-value. it is obvious that and machines" are made of raw material by human work. necessary to cut a tree for the is making of timber. only by applying further to is human work is it possible for any human use. it make them available obvious that even raw materials in the form in which nature has produced them." Therefore. indeed they ence of humanity possible. So. and even it necessary to excavate the then.. (3) finally: The application of power. make for the exist- As (2) '"tools to the second requirement production. 8i are completely is iron. useless to humanity It is until after human work ap- plied to them. are mostly of no value and unavailable for use. minerals. Different sources of natural energy and power are known. unless reproduced through the process of "human into creative production. is Man? etc.What wood. copper. coal. by his "time-binding" original capacities.

Alkaloids are compounds of a vegetable origin. The history of the earth and its life is simply the history of different chemical periods. generally of complex composition and capable of producing marked effects upon animals. Nitrous oxide is the so-called is and exchanges.* * It must be remembered here that our world is. of the chemistry. of the wind power. in a combination called nitrates.3-2. analysis shows that they contain approximately: Carbon 50-55%. laughing gas.82 Manhood of Humanity important available source of energy for is the sun — this globe is the heat of the sun. almost all of these combinations are a very powerful source of energy. which. with different transformations of energy. Hydrogen 6. Explosives which are a chemical means of storing tremendous amounts of energy. took and takes different known and unknown forms. first of all. and all of them have a very strong effect upon organic life. abounds in the serum of the blood and forms an important part of the muscles and brain. but once it is a component part of a substance. the substances are burned up by the oxygen given off from the acid. Nitrogen chemically has an exceptional inertness toward most other substances. and of power bound up in coal. with its tendency to combinations Different elements act in different ways. Nitric acid occurs in nature. Sulphur 0. nerves. Nitrite of amyl acts upon our organs in a most violent and spasmodic way. Nitrogen I 5 _I 9%> Oxygen 20-24%. which to-day. All albuminoids found in animals are produced by the processes fulfilled in plants. as well as in the first period of primitive organic life. This solar heat the origin of water power. Venous blood .0%. Nitric acid acts through oxidation. Albumen is an are mostly of some nitrogenous compound. From the soil the nitrates pass into the plant. a dynamic conglomeration of matter and energy. One of these forms of energy the chemical energy. as they are found to form the chief constituents of blood. organic compound of great importance in life. Albuminoids play the most vital role in plant life and are an extensive class of organic bodies found in plants and animals.9-7.5%. Their exact constitution is not known. growth and transforming agency of plants. A strange fact is to be noticed about nitrogen. They all contain nitrogen. besides being the characteristic ingredient in the white of an egg.

Oxygen. It is a curious and significant fact that. even in organisms and parts of organisms where the activities are least. Oxygen. and the seed differs extensive from the rest of the plant in its ability to initiate the changes constituting germination. but we employ for the purpose compounds of the same general class. . Arterial blood: Nitrogen. are extremely prone to decomposition. we find that it is a nitrogenous salt. these changes which constitute the development of the cell.2. and which on decomposing. so constituted that small incidental actions are capable of initiating great reaction and liberating large quantities of power. their decomposition often involving a sudden and great evolution of force.. . . Our modern method of firing a gun is to place in close proximity with the gunpowder which we choose to decompose or explode. — . 14. . in technology. is building up of life. we not only utilize the same principle of initiating extensive changes among comparatively stable compounds by the help of compounds much less stable. 23. Simivital changes larly in the bodies of animals . in every living vegetal cell there is a certain part that contains nitrogen. ." Spencer. 71. . "Nitrogenous compounds .What is Man? 83 All foods which the animals as well as the humans use are. 13. The seed of a plant contains nitrogenous substances in a far higher ratio than the rest of the plant. When we ask what this fulminating powder is composed of. Carbonic Acid. . This part initiates . .3.. . . no other sources of power are avail- contains in 100 volumes: Nitrogen. 62. — .5. We see that substances classed and we see that are all nitrogenous as ferments. which is decomposed or exploded with extreme facility. to be clearly seen that the only source of energy which can be directly appropriated and used by man or animal is vegetable food found in the wilderness.3. Carbonic Acid. .6. . a small portion of fulminating powder. communicates the consequent molecular disturbances to the less easily decomposed gunpowder. . . already. such changes as do take place are initiated by a subWe see that organic matter is stance containing nitrogen. 15. the result of the solar energy trans- formed It is into Transformation of energies what may be called chemical energy. . in general.

they have to be mastered is and directed by human brain.84 Manhood of Humanity first able for direct use. in the little form as produced by nature brain alone. needs. or a steam engine. depending exclusively on wild fruits and the they would be confined to those comparatively small regions of the globe where the climate and the fertility of the are specially favorable. If humanity had only the capacity of apes. the creation of a water. it is essential to realize that is vive only by virtue of the capacity of ploit natural resources — humans to convert the products of nature into forms available for human like. soil But in the case supposed. to understand the processes of production. or a bushel of wheat. these are not available except by the use of the human "time-binding" power. freely supplied by nature. as we have seen.or windmill. have very or no value for humanity. . humanity able to surto ex- Hence. The same true in regard to the getting of animal food. brings us to the conclusion that problems of pro- come ultimately to the analysis of i ) Natural resources of raw material and nat- ural energy. known all to everybody. This short survey of duction ( facts. or the art of using a team of horses. (because (2) The activity of the human human muscles are always directed by the brain) which gives value to the otherwise useless raw materials and energies. which.

to the natural laws of animals. for the stone. Not so with man. an animal.What is Man? 85 humans would not be humans. there are natural laws of inorganic as well as organic is. which help or hinder the processes of production upon which the lives and happiness of mankind essentially It and fundamentally depend. There are other stantly in mind. A stone obeys the natural laws of stones. they are not free to determine their own destinies. in facts which must be kept conis One of them that. it follows inevitably that there must be natural laws for humans. they would not be mere spacetime-binders they would be animals — — binders. there must be fundathis class mental laws which are natural for of life. the plant and the animal do not possess the intellectual power to create and initiate and so must blindly obey the laws that are natural for them. Another of the as before said. that the human class of life has the peculiar capacity of establishing the social laws and customs which regulate and influence its destinies. a part and a product of nature. to conforms to the natural law of liquids. But here the problem becomes more complicated. the natural laws of plants . a liquid a plant. man has the capacity and he . therefore. lost sight of in this connection that is must not be and the human class of life that. in the world facts which we live. phenomena.

or misinterpret. what human ural laws of the tions" The problem is human class of to discover the natlife. What a has been the trouble? being really The trouble has been. Manhood of Humanity through ignorance or neglect or mal-intent. marks the summit of human enterprises. deviate from. for has been evident to thinkers that upon the right solution of the problem must forever de- pend the welfare of mankind. — For to to solve this problem is to open the way to everything which can be of importance to humanity — human welfare and happiness. To discover the nature of Man and the laws of that nature. the natural laws for the human class of life. in every instance. and. Just therein lies the secret and the source of human chaos and woe a fact of such tremendous importance that it cannot be overemphasized and it seems impossible to evade it longer.— 86 can. All the "solu- offered in the course of history and those which are current to-day are of two and only two kinds zoological and mythological. a radical misconception of is. though they have differed common fate — — they have had a the fate of being false. widely. The zoologifalse cal solutions are those which grow out of the conception according to which human beings are ani- . they agree in one respect Many "solutions" have been offered. The great problem has been felt as a powerful impulse throughout the ages of in all times it human striving.

government become nothing but branches of zoology. like scientific enterprises. Such "solutions" contain no conception of natural law. The start are those which nature with the monstrous conception according to in which human beings have no proper place but are mixtures of natural and supernatural — unions or combinations of animality and divinity. they are mythological ab- surdities —muddle-headed and deadly irresponsible metaphysics —well-meaning chattering of crude and no doubt. human nature are the laws of animal nature. What the remedy? all How other are the laws of It is human nature to be discovered? evident that the enterprise. they are the arts of managing and conbeings is trolling animals. law. as sciences. scientifically judged. It is essential to realize that the great. in their effects upon the of mankind. and so the social "sciences" of ethics. all-embracing reality . economics. interests but silly. dominant. human wisdom about human mythological "solutions" animal wisdom about animals. politics.What mals. Such have been and phies of still are the regnant philosois human nature. economics. must be based upon and guided the reality by realities. vitiating ethics. politics and government. they are the studies of animal life . if is Man? the laws of 87 humans are animals. according to this zoological philos- ophy. as arts. law. is central.

nificance except in the capacity to do work. to transform other energies." I have laid so much stress on the absolute necessity of conceiving Man else. ter on "The Classes of we may confidently expect That is why. for able to direct. must be firmly seized and kept steadily is Energy. in the chapLife. In neutral or (3) harmful. It fundamental. uses. is This time-binding energy higher dimensionality it of the higher other rank —than —of natural energies which directs. to use. controls. as being what he really is. lem of discovering and applying the nature" is The prob"laws of human the problem of discovering and applying to the conduct of life the laws of time-binding time-binding activity fact — — of of time-binding energy. but if we conceive aright. the enterprise to prosper.88 of Manhood of Humanity human nature. the enterprise must logically clear that both and clear it in the sad light of history. and so we have defined contains the humanity cept is as the time-binding class of life. That congerm of the science and art of Human Engineering. and not something And we have discovered what man is: we have dis- covered that man is characterized by the capacity or power to bind time. human economy work may be (i) use fid or (2) sig- These words have no human economy. we have noted. and trans- . this fundais mental matter. If we misconceive fail. is The energy of it the is human intellect a time-binding energy. in This mind.

an energy that cre- ates. What is a natural law — law a —whatever — it be a law the is law? sion. destined for the civilization of posterity. We have already noted the law of arithmeti- cal progression and the law of geometric progres- we have seen the immense difference between them. is an energy that loads abstract time of events —with an — the vehicle ever-increasing burden of intel- lectual achievements. an energy that can understand the past and foretell the future it — it is both historian and prophet.— What forms. is Man? • 89 This higher energy —which is is commonly is called the mental or spiritual binding because the present is it power of man makes past achievements time- live in It and present activities in time-to-come. for the — law of human nature of the time-binding energy of man. and we have seen that the natural law of human progress in each and every cardinal matter is a law like that of a rapidly increasing geometric progression. human progress human affairs nature — — — In other words. of spiritual wealth. law of the increase? And what is the natural What is the natural law of great matters of human advancements concern? in all human The question is of utmost importance both theo- retically and practically. the natural law of the natural law of amelioration in the fundamental law of human the basic law of the time-binding energy . it an energy that it is initiates.

PR the third generation starts with PR-}. now denote first by T the number of generations. and so made by the on. . . . PR T PR T+ \ . . . .PR 2 . Suppose PR to denote the field amount of progress by a given genera"first" made tion in —which R some important we may call the generation. . — common the ratio — that is. number by which progress of one generation must be multiplied to amount of progress made by the next genthen the amount of progress made by the second generation will be third generation will be PR 3 2 . adds PR3 and ends with PR + in PR 2 -\-PR 3 . .90 peculiar to Manhood of Humanity man — is a Logarithmic I law — a law of let logarithmic increase. ends with PR-]. the following series will show the law of Then human progress in the chosen field: 5 . the term bewilder beg the reader not to him but to make it his own. PR. Even its mathematical formulation can be understood by boys and girls. It is easy to understand. and the second generation starts with PR. the 2 . PR2 PR3 PR\ PR . that PR . counting the one and all that follow in endless succession. and so on and on. and its significance is mighty and everlasting. first generation ends with PR. the ratio of the where denotes the improvement give the eration. notice how it goes. the gain made . Let us see how the formulation looks. adds PR 2 . .

If we take R the to be 2 (which a very small ratio. That sense we shall have when and only when we discover that by nature we are time-binders and that is My that will so operate the effectiveness of our time-binding capacity is not . given by the formula. the reader must reflect upon the fact that it operates. it does not so operate now in so. requiring progress of each generation to if be merely double that of the preceding one) and take we T to be (say) 10. to gain a just sense of the impressiveness of this law.What the is Man? the total gain 91 T th generation is is PR T \ made in T generations PR+PR2 +PK> + this total gain is . then we see that the progress is made by is the single 10th generation ?X2 10 . and we readily compute that the total gain in 10 generations is 2046 times the progress made in the " first "generation. Moreover. but in all " Operates in all fields " interest. Total gain in T generations =-5 is K—i (PR T — P). . not merely on one field. said. . +PR T n . nor has ever done when we once acquire sense enough to let it do so. as a fields I human have just now of it matter of point fact. as before all fields it pointed out. which first 1024 times the progress made in the " " generation.

peaceful progress so-called social "sciences" ences" of ethics. law. like the natural. the regulator and guide in the science and art of Human Whatever squares with that law of human energy. the equilibrium of social tutions will remain stable and social cataclysms cease.92 Manhood of Humanity is. with an always accelerating acceleration. but to progress more and more rapidly. And so I repeat that the world will have uninterthe rupted. naturally qualified only progress. is wrong and makes for human woe. as in the expression PR T . is right and makes foi human weal. are. insti- then and then only. economics. by the equal pace of progress in all cardinal matters. This great fact Engineering. time-binding is to be at once the basis. whatever contravenes it. as the generations pass. for then and only then will they advance. politics. when and only when they are made genuinely spirit scientific in and method. a logarithmic or exponential function of time as — to function in which time (T) enters an exponent. . only a function of time but as I have explained. religion. philosophy. mathematical and technological sciences. — and government— in when and only when the life-regulating "sci- are technologized. so that we humans not unlike animals. conformity to the fundamental exponential law of the time-binding nature of man.

—by which — destructive and constructive is at the same time.CHAPTER V WEALTH BEG the reader to allow me to begin this chap- The reader is aware may be that Criticism I mean Thought any one of three kinds: it may be purely destructive. and thus to save our mental energy for other work. it is not an easy service to render. even one does not offer a substitute for the snake. or it may be both ter with a word of warning. just as it is good snake lurking by a human pathway. sometimes highly usegenuine service to If an old idea or a system of old ideas be false it and therefore harmful. habit indispensable to it enables us to do many easily. are protected alike by habit and by the inborn conservatism of many minds. useful things automatically and therefore without conscious thinking. attack to take it is a if and destroy it even nothing be offered to destroy a rattleif its place. Purely destructive criticism ful. however and harmful. it may be purely constructive. useful destructive criticism But. but for the same 93 . however false may be. for old ideas. indeed is exceedingly useful the effective conduct of life — even — for Now.

has to overcome both the difficulty of destructive criticism and that of constructive thought. These are of two people varieties the difficulty of showing who are content with their present stock of old ideas that the new ones are interesting or im- portant. he finds that he machines. is for the art of being clear and very. has : difficulties of own. Is such criticism or thought It easy? Far from it. The kind of thought structive — third kind of criticism the kind that is — and the third at and constructive —has once both de- a double aim — that of destroying old ideas that are false and that of replacing them with new ideas that for it are true is . to reflect a little if he will be good enough upon the matter. and the great difficulty of clear making new ideas and intelligible. therefore. and so dif- the third kind of criticism or thought ficult the most of all. purely constructive criticism constructive thought — — purely consists in introducing ideas of a kind that do not clash. can not fail to ap- . seem its with old ones. habit Manhood of Humanity is often very harmful. On new to the other hand. or do not clash. very hard to acquire perfectly intelligible to practise. The reader. it makes us pro- tect false ideas automatically. structive critic endeavors to and so when the dedestroy such ideas by is reasoning with us. trying to reason is with automats difficulty —with Such the chief encountered by destructive criticism.94 reason.

felt I with especial keenness in the present chap- therefore beg the reader to give very special cooperation — me is here the cooperation of openIt mindedness. for a reason to be presently explained. diffi- every stage of this writing. greatly enhanced and ter. for he must perceive. not only that the critical it thought. essen- keep in mind the nature of our enterprise as a whole. culty. which is that of pointing the way to the science and art of Human Engineering and laying the foun- we have seen Human Engineering. felt at This great is. world-wide and it old. we have seen that the ages-old and current con- ceptions of man — zoological and mythological con- ceptions. candor and tial to critical attention. its we have seen that this science and art must have nature — basis in a true conception of human is a just conception of what Man still really and of his natural place in the complex of the world. them contribute most of effectively to the advancement human welfare. when developed. while the true ideas seeks to substitute for them are fundamental and new.Wealth 95 preciate the tremendous difficulties which beset the writing of this little book. but work belongs to the third kind of what is much more the errors — — aims to destroy are fundamental. according to which human beings are either animals or else hybrids of animals and gods —are . is to be the science and art of so directing human energies and capacities as to make dations thereof.

to be as rightly conceived and scientifically defined life." not because they play a more important part in human affairs than do the I call genuine sciences of mathematics. far from being an animal or a compound of natural and supernatural.96 Manhood of Humanity mainly responsible for the dismal things in human history. the fundamental principle and the perpetual guide and regulator of Human Engineering is bound to work a profound transfor- — mation ticular. so to say. is a perfectly natural being characterized by a certain to bind capacity or power — the capacity or is. for they are not more important than these. economics. chemistry. we have seen that humanity therefore. in their sciences . sociology. in par- must alter the so-called social "sciences" — the life-regulating "sciences" of ethics. more immediate and more obvious These life-regulating influence and effects. physics. in all our views on radically human affairs and. we have seen that man. we have seen that this conception of man —which must be the basic concept. closer. politics and government and — ad- vancing them from their present estate of pseudo sciences to the level of genuine sciences tech- nologizing them for the effective service of mankind. the time-binding class of fore. there- the laws of time-binding energies and time- binding phenomena are the laws of human nature. them "life-regulating. power time. astronomy and biology. but because they are. we have seen that.

with must be content here to illus- one of them by way of tration and suggestion. Capital and present chapter I shall discuss three of terms to —Wealth. 97 ulti- of course. Which one shall it be? Now among is these life-regulating "sciences" there its one specially marked by the importance of subits ject.— Wealth are. sciences will have to be transformed to make them accord with the right conception of man and qualify them for a large their proper business will eventually require volume or indeed volumes. very briefly. by its central relation to the others in the public and by prominence reason mind. I mean Economics For that In the principal a the "dismal science" of Political I Economy. they depend mately upon the genuine sciences for much of their power and ought to go to them for light and guidance. In this introductory work I I cannot deal fully with one of those "sciences" nor in suitable outline with each of them separately. but what I mean here by saying they are not independent is that they are dependent upon each other. deal. enlarged and elevated they are to accord the so- with facts and laws of human nature and . Money —with if view showing that the current meanings and interpre- tations of these familiar terms must be very greatly if deepened. not independent. its have chosen to deal with economics. interpenetrating and interlocking in innumerTo show in detail how the so-called able ways.

is The difficulty not merely that of destroying old ideas that are . difficulty And here comes into view the very special alluded to above and which led me to request the reader's special cooperation in this chapter. so universally. It is to be shown that the meanings currently attached by political economists and others I to the terms in question belong to what have called the period of humanity's childhood. false it is not merely that of replacing them with it is true ideas that are new.98 Manhood of Humanity them is called "science" which employs to become a genuine science properly qualified to be a branch of Human Engineering. as the make it desirable for the sake of new meanings new names. Let us apply this wholesome maxim in . capital. By the secret of "philosophy" Leibnitz meant the secret of what we call science. so uniformly with meanings that are false. be seen that the new meanings to differ so radically from the old ones this. said Leibnitz. it and is to be shown that the new meanings which to the terms must receive belong It will the period of humanity's manhood. that of causing people habitually to associate meanings that are new and true with terms associated so long. is The secret of philosophy. money — are so deeply imbedded in the speech of the world. old terms — impracticable because the wealth. as to treat familiar things unfamiliar. But is clarity to give however scientifically desirable.

such as cattle. Examine "the facts" I "the phenomena" — for bending facts to theories to facts a vital danger. the familiar terms let us. accounts for the meaning of our familiar word pecuniary. repre- senting and expressing values of and in wealth. Thus we see that money came mean simply But what the accepted unit for measuring. Human values —some beings have always had some sense of In it perception or cognition of values. regard wealth. of growing trade. while bending theories essential to science and the peaceful prog- ress of society. or units of exchange." or Finally a unit called money to was adopted in which the base was the value of some weight of gold. order to express or measure values. and the word pecunia. for ex- The Latin word for cattle was pecus. People began to measure values by means of agricultural and other products. The earliest units for measuring became unample. capital and money — as unfamiliar. was necessary to introduce units of measure. let us deal with examine openmindedly the facts to them afresh. in so 99 far as — we can. which came to signify money. is wealth? I have said that the old . suited to the increasing needs traffic. let us the phenomena — which the terms relate and ascertain scientifically the significance the terms must have in a genuine science of say —examine is is human economy. "business.— Wealth our present study.

stupidity them — money this in order to reveal and folly.— - ioo Manhood of Humanity money conceptions of wealth. The change that must be made in our conceptions of the great It is terms is tremendous. capital and ceptions that are still — the con- current throughout the world —belong ceptions to the period of humanity's childhood I — they are childish conceptions. capital and money are to be found in modern books of political economy all — definitions belonging to humanity's childhood. capital. tells us that wealth consists of "useful or agreeable things which possess exchangeable value. the impression that there to gain a true conception is One or no real desire — a scientific conception to prefer an emotional of wealth. definition Everybody seems — a definition that suits his personal love it. Mill." nitions is Of capital one of the simplest defi- this: . little All the gains Furies of private interests are involved. have said that they must be replaced by fit scientific conceptions —by con- for humanity's manhood. and the childish conceptions of their falseness. of this writing they sufficiently and books For the purpose agree —they of them look alike are all — they of them childish. To do we must enter the field of Political Economy — a field beset with peculiar difficulties and dangers. of wealth or his hatred of Many definitions of wealth. necessary to analyse the current conceptions of wealth. for example.

or to enjoy it. to tender to others in discharge of debts or full payment for commodities. or to break wood and trees for a shelter and to make some weapons for defense and hunting. for commodities.Wealth "Capital Industry. Trade and Industry) "Money full that which passes freely from hand final to hand throughout the community in discharge of debts and payment it. . his brain blood poisoning he had not used a piece or the attacks of wild animals. ethics The are elements of natural logic and natural absent. primitive forefather in the jungle would cold. in turn. based on the zoological conception of man as an animal." (Alfred Marshall. so as to use his hide for clothes and his meat for food. heat.) is ioi is that part of wealth which devoted to obtaining further wealth. Economics of defines Walker (in his Money money as follows: is . or apply it to any other it use than." economy has many different schools of Its reasonthought and methods of classification. being accepted equally with- out reference to the character or credit of the person offers it who to and without the intention of the person who receives consume it. and legalPolitical istic. its ethics is zoological ethics. metaphysical. The Our sophisticated ideas about the subject of political economy. to kill an animal. and muscles to take some stone or to of wood knock down fruit from trees. if have died from hunger. bluntly do not correspond to facts. ings are mainly speculative.

those natural laws that belong to his class of — he had ceased to be static progressiveness had —he had become dynamic got blood—he was into his above the estate of animals. he discovered. evolution had brought him to that level. An Essay on the Production of Wealth. We tions. he established one of the first facts in technology. acquired experiences. even after his death. effect of fire and also the good effect of broiling his food in by finding some roasted anim'als nature revealed to him one of its a Thus the its great gifts. he was reflecting life. we see the appropriation of one article for the purpose of aiding in the acquisition of another and thus we discover the origin of capital. He was already a time- binding being." (R. also observe that primitive commodities. he warm fire.102 Manhood or Humanity "In the first stone which he (the savage) flings at the wild animal he pursues.) Our fire primitive forefather's first acquaintance with was probably through lightning. Torrens. . man produced made observa- and that some of the produced commodities had a use-value for other people and remained good for use. the possibility of making rubbing together two pieces of by wood and by felt the striking together two pieces of stone. stored-up energy of the sun in vegetation and primitive beneficial use. in the first stick that he seizes to strike down the fruit which hangs above his reach. fire probably by chance. Being a product of nature.

All of our conceptions are relative and all comparative. (As we know. and some work on his part which finally shaped the thing. means the doing it. as defined in mechanics. but was initiated into all of his experiences and observations. yet even in its wildest imagination it can not picture tangibly a fourth dimension. all of this mental and manual work consumed an amount of time. is childishly undeveloped Humanity has some conceptions about dimensions and talks of the world in which we live in others. We must notice the strange fact that. any use-value. though very developed in some ways. It is obvious that all of these elements are indispensable to produce anything of any value. power. humanity has not learned to grasp the real meanings of things that are basic or funda- mental. the engineering point of view. nay. or of His child not only directly received some of the use-values produced by him. but has not known that this man from capacity was his defining mark.) ratio of work done to the time used in All those things are time-binding phenomena pro- duced by the time-binding capacity of man. humanity.Wealth The produced commodities were composed 103 of raw material. of them are based upon matters . freely supplied by nature. combined with some mental work which gave him the conception of how to make and to use the object. as having three dimensions.

We have yet to learn and apply the lesson that not only our material wealth and capital but our science and art and learning and all wisdom that goes to constitute our civilization —were produced. not by our own labor. electricity. and thus slowly progress of humanity went on. and so on. way to release Through the work of his a brain and its direction in the use of his muscles. In political economy the meagreness of our understanding is especially remarkable. by finding up energy. we talk of time. for example. the he made better ones. we have not yet grasped the obvious fact import for all — a fact of immeasurable that with little of the social sciences — exception the wealth and capital possessed by a given generation are not produced by the inherited fruit of its own toil toil but are dead men's — a free gift of the past. gravity. nevertheless of the greatest importance —we —and terms of a fact to use it is learn how many things which we do not fully understand and are not yet able to define.— 104 Manhood of Humanity which we do not yet understand. at first. space. Primitive man used natural laws without knowing to cause them or understanding them. but he was able nature to express nature's stored itself. but by the time- binding energies of past generations. in but no one has been able to define them the data of sensation. I will not enlarge . he his appliances found that some of were not good.

. that being called into existence they had a natural right to exist and to use freely the gifts of nature in the preservation of their life. and that is what they did. some of the objects pro- duced by him still survived. In the earliest times the religious. The morale at that time was a natural morale. They felt. philosophical. objects made by someone for some particular use could be used by someone else. or the caves adapted for ing. They its it "proper" to "expropriate the creator" and legalistically appropriate the earth and treasure for themselves. such as weapons. Humans did not knew feel that they did not create nature. again the experiences acquired by one member of a family or a group of people were taught by example or precept to others of the same generation and to the next generation. Such simple facts are the corner stones of our whole civilization and they are the direct result of the human capacity of time- binding. fishing liv- or hunting instruments. users. even after the death of one or more successive to be nourished for baby had it parents or would have died. in their unsophisticated morale. After the death of a man.Wealth upon the history of the evolution of because it is 105 civilization told in many books. a its some years by Those facts had important consequences. legal and ethical systems had not been invented.

through its peculiar time-binding power. are augmented in the present. and use in it. the star verified. and because humanity. civilization. full of controversy about and money. is But there another peculiarity in wealth and wooden or iron "inch" be allowed to rot or rust quietly on some shelf. progress is made by the fact that each generaspiritual tion adds to the material it and wealth which inherits. time. so involved its though it increases arithmetically. in a certain place there is a star. with other quantities. for after further search with telescopes of greater power. money: If a this unit of one of the measures of space. Past achievements time — — the fruit of bygone thus live in the present. advances geometrically. binds this element "time" in an ever larger and larger degree. fruit. Was it that the calculation was wrong? No. the essential element. that. and transmitted to the future.106 Manhood or Humanity to-day is The world wealth. But if we take the mental value of an inch. the controversy becomes more is and more acute. the process is goes on. this "inch" does not represent anything besides this piece of wood or iron. Civilization as a process the process of binding time. be for years looked for gives a prophetic answer that. is found and the calculation thus . capital. the contemplation of the it skies for the solving of an astronomical problem. this star may in vain.

the living fruit of dead men's For sion of this reason. or the laborer of it. like Hoarded money is an iron "inch" upon a shelf — a useless lump. money. in the main. is being the measure and representative of wealth. involves the element of time as the chief factor. but when used it as a measure and representative of wealth rightly understood. And so we to discover how money. the measure and the representative of toil. rightly understood.Wealth It is 107 obvious that the "unit" but is — —has no inch it value by the itself. very precious as a unit for measuring length. really look for this is replaced by mechanical or animal power as soon as . it is useless to argue who is the more important. It is exactly the rightly understood. for then serves to measure and represent toil. is conis nected with time — the main function of money measure and represent the accumulated products of the labor of past generations. who has legal possession of but little In the laborer. we have seen. which it phenomenon of and that is perfectly repre- sents. properly understood. for. dead men's generations. money renders invaluable service. same with money if the term be Understood aright. why was introduced. the capitalist who has legal posses- most of the material fruit of dead men's toil. for his physical we do not now muscular labor ALONE. wealth is almost entirely the product of the labor of by-gone This product.

some good may be accomis plished. according to their "power-value. (i) the intellectuals. will we always need. ( 1 ) The intellectuals are the men and women .— 108 it Manhood of Humanity What we do need from is can be. but corresponds to Of course some individuals belong to all two of the classes or even to three of them." tion that this is is There but is no asser- an ideal moved to exclaim division!" — —"what and classification. (2) the rich. an after-war product." From an engineer's point of view humanity apparently to be divided into three classes. but essen- tially. that is. The population of the world if may be divided into different classes. they belong to the one class in proportion to the characteristic which is the most marked in their life. but IT IS the division foolish the only By DIVISION which it CORRESPONDS is TO FACTS this in life. facts. This division would seem it to be contrary to all the rules of logic. and (3) the poor. and what his time-bind- ing power. the classes are not here enumerit ated in the customary way. unscientific I will is answer by saying: "I grant that unscientific. his brain— labor. in the sense of social classes based on magnitude of values. as nearly as possible. sary to classify is because it is neces- human beings. and 'foolishness' not the writer's fault. if someone a foolish.

so that he was able to give to his child only a few useful objects and . to of life as a whole. and his lifetime being so limited. mere ex- have little or no opportunity to exercise their time-binding capacity. go back to the beginning —back We have by to the savage. (2) The control of the toil rich are those who have possession and most of the material wealth produced by of bygone generations wealth that is dead — unless animated and transformed by the time-binding labor of the living.Wealth who terial 109 possess the knowledge produced by the labor of by-gone generations but do not possess the ma- wealth thus produced. they are exercising their time-binding energies and making the labor of the dead live in the present and for the future. are limited to the struggle for istence. the total of his successful achievements was very limited. We have seen what were the conditions that for each sucto wrestle with a of his work and progress. Let us now try to ascertain the role of the time- binding class necessity. In mastering and using this inheritance of knowledge. we saw had cessful achievement he often very large number of unsuccessful achievements. (3) The poor are those who have neither the knowledge possessed by the over. because nearly all intellectuals nor the material wealth possessed by the rich and who. moretheir efforts. under present conditions.

is an exponential power or function generation flows on. increasing in arithmetical progression. This stupendous fact is the definitive mark of humanity —the Time ever-increasing power to roll up continuously the achievements of generation after generation endlessly. say. the mathematical equivalent of adding his parent's years of life to his own. adding unto generation. they up or roll up more and more geometric progression progress rapidly. and something new. but the son does not need to give fifty years to discover and create the to discover same achievements.no the Manhood of Humanity sum of his experience. fifty years two truths in nature and succeeded in making two or three simple objects. His mother's work and experience are of course included — the name father and son being only used representatively. augmenting in accordance with the law of a more and more rapidly increasing progression. T is The typical term of the PR in where PR denotes the ending made the generation with which we . where he started somewhere near where his father left off. We have seen that this time- binding power of time. Generally speaking. His father gave. but the results of human energies working in time pile do not go on arithmetically. each successor did not start his life at the point his father started. so he has time to achieve He thus adds his own achievements this is to those of his father in tools and experience.

" number of generations The quantity. All of their nitrates are highany- or low explosives. PR T of progress made is in the Tth generation contains T as an exponent. a remarkable builder of dams. They is powerful sources life of some new in Animal uses these "explosives" as food and life life. correspondingly more dynamic. its characteristic. Nature in is the source of life. energy. hi R denotes the ratio and T after the chosen denotes the " start. is A beaver. increase. the highest known its class of has time-binding capacity as discriminant. the lowest form of the have a definite role to perform is economy of nature. all energy. Their function the forming of albuminoids and other substances for higher purposes. in this higher class of It is an unrealized fact that . animals ration. make any progress from generation is to gene- it so small as to be negligible. for example. and so the quantity. but it animal time does not play the role plays in human If Animals are limited by death permanently.Wealth agree to start our reckoning. Plants. explosives. but in the he does not progress ther development. Finally life. varying as time T passes. its peculiar and definitive mark. humanity. called an exponential function of the time. way of inventions or furis A beaver dam always a beaver dam. but explosives are way.

measure of the power that the total work. . PR T = Power. (i) or work.. PR T represents the progress made work done in the Tth generation (7" being counted from some generation taken as start. being done in one generation. lime accordance with the law of We have seen that. is W. W= ^ (PRT-P) .. In mechanics we have the well-known formula . —the — ing point of reckoning) this progress. done in the T generations (3) W = PRi+PR (4) 2 +PR*+ .ii2 life. (2) N = —Work=P£ = 1 r lme = rower. (i) N Work ~— = rower. does the work. Now. we have by . that is. _ 1 that is. is this means that the number in PR T which measures the work done also the a given generation. +PR T . in geometric progression. Manhood of Humanity the law of organic growth develops into the law of energy-growth — the mind — the time-binding energy — an increasing exponential function of time. That fact is of basic importance for the science and art of Human Engineering. achievement.

Properly understood. it is produced by Man and only Man. namely PR T . PR 2 .) . as well as R. etc. the quotient would be a power that would have to act through T generations fail to produce The reader should not to notice very carefully that the expression (4) for total progress made total wealth produced work done— the —the — the course of T generatotal in W is an expression for the tions and he should especially note how the expres- sion involves the exponential function of time (T). Animals do not produce wealth. (In this writing it is not important to look deeper into these proposed series. we divided this sum by W. The formula makes mathematically evident the time-binding capacity characteristic of the human class of life..Wealth It 113 expression for of should be noticed that by (2) this W may also be regarded as the sum T different powers PR. T. are peculiarly increasing series of a geo- metrical character — the precise form will be de- veloped in another writing. The foregoing ity of basic formulation should lead to further similar developments throwing much light upon the process of civilization and serving to eliminate " private opinion " from the conduct of human affairs. each working during one and if only one generation. The fact remains that P. wealth consists of the fruits or products of this time-binding capac- man.

The first kind perishes the commodities composing — it deteriorate and in become it is useless. are knocking out the barriers of time. the other. Wealth is of two kinds: one is material. is the impulse .ii4 Manhood of Humanity achievements and progress. This fact is the vital and dynamic difference between ani- mal life and human life. unlimited in I time. The energy of body which is due to its motion. one discovery. the other is knowledge. The energy is of a body which due to its called potential energy. — We stood. have seen that the term wealth. The other is per- manent character. shape and so forth. one thought. dynamic. is called kinetic Here the material use-value has value through its position. the former call potential use. rightly under- means the fruit of the time-binding work of humanity. Both kinds have use-value. and has not the capacity to progress. Analysis will justify the names. it imperishable. because cumu- Human lative. it may be lost or forgotten but does not wear out. is limited in time. position.value. The one latter. is the kinetic use-value. As plants gather in and store up solar energy into sheaves for the use and growth of animal and man so humans are gathering and binding the knowledge of past centuries into sheaves for the use and development of generations yet unborn. it is immobile if not used. Mental use-values are not static but permanently a energy.

"is must return to the current conceptions of cited. by trick or trade." we are are told that is any useful or agreeable thing which pos- sesses exchangeable value. That they are indeed especially if tions the reader can not fail to see he will reflect upon them and with the he will compare them according to which scientific conception wealth consists of those things understanding —whether they be material commodities or forms of knowledge and — that have been produced by the time-binding energies of humanity. before "Wealth. and according to which nearly time is all the wealth of the world at any given the accumulated fruit of the toil of past gen- erations — the living work of the dead. Here told. II. with the creating of wealth." conceptions are childish — — such definitions — have said that such of wealth and capital they belong to the period of humanity's childish concepif childhood. I do not mean that they contain no element of truth . (See app. they follow the tial 115 law of an increasing potenThis is function of time. wealth and capital. by the product of labor. In calling the old conceptions childish." And we I "Capital is that part of wealth which devoted to obtaining further wealth.Wealth to others. It seems unnecessary to warn the reader against confusing the "making" of money by hook or crook.) to the why these names correspond I two names of the two mentioned classes of energy.

conIt suming the precious time of short human is lives. but by the . bcause they are blind. experimentaall imagination. The fundamental in the im- portance of time as a factor wealth — production of the fact that wealth and the use-values of literally wealth are the natural offspring of the spiritual union of time with toil —has been completely overlooked. The use-values are produced by time-taking transformations of the raw materials. and in so far they are right. the element of time enters as an absolutely essential factor. I Manhood of Humanity mean that they are shallow. But how do such use-values arise? The potential use-values in wealth are created by human work operating in time upon raw material given by nature. not only by the economics. deduction and invention. wrong in their accent. these transformations are wrought by human brain labor and human muscular labor directed by the human brain acting in time. regarding the central matter that wealth is the natural offspring of Time and Human Toil.n6 whatever. of wealth are also created the intellectual tion. obvious that in the creation of use-values whether potential or kinetic. I especially mean that they are dumb. The kinetic use-values by human toil mainly by — labor of observation. narrow in their vision. The old conceptions do indeed imply that wealth and capital involve both potential and kinetic use-values. scientifically or spiritually meagre.

Wealth
ethics, the

117

jurisprudence and the other branches of

speculative reasoning, throughout the long period of

humanity's childhood. In the course of the ages there
has indeed been

much

"talk" about time, but there

has been no recognition of the basic significance of

time as essential in the conception and in the very
constitution of
It is

human

values.

often said that

"Time
It is
is

is

Money";

the state-

ment
is

is

often false; but the proposition that
is

Money
pro-

Time

always true.

always true

in the

found sense that
of

Time and Toil the crystallization of the time-binding human capacity. It is thus true that money is a very precious thing, the measure and symbol of work in part the work of the living but, in the main, the living work of the dead. Nature's laws are supreme; we cannot change them; we can deviate from them for a while, but the end is evil. That is the lesson we must learn from
Wealth
the product of
the

Money

the measure and symbol

history of Humanity's childhood.

ceptions of

nature

—have

Man

—ignorance

False con-

of the laws of

human
un-

given us unscientific economies,

scientific ethics,

unscientific law, unscientific politics,

unscientific

government.

These have made human

history the history of social cataclysms
tions,

wars, revolutions
lust as of

—sad tokens not

insurrec-

so

much of

human

human ignorance

of the laws of

n8
human

Manhood of Humanity
nature.

There
art of

is

but one remedy, one hope

a science

and

Human

Engineering based
as the time-

upon the

just conception of
life

humanity

binding class of

and conforming

to the laws of

nature including the laws of

human

nature.

CHAPTER

VI

CAPITALISTIC ERA

'""PHE immortal work done by
and Leibnitz was
for mathematics

Descartes,

Newton

to discover
fit

powerful methods

the only

language for express-

ing the laws of nature.

Human
first

Engineering will be the science by which

the great social problems will be solved.

For the
will

time since the

first
its

day of man, humanity
status;

really understand

own nature and

and

will learn to direct scientifically the living

and the

non-living forces for construction, avoiding unneces-

sary destruction and waste.
It

may seem

strange but

it is

true that the time-

binding exponential powers, called humans, do not
die

— ever—
ence,

their bodies die but their achievements live fora

permanent source of power.

All of our
experi-

precious possessions

science,

acquired by

accumulated wealth

in all fields

of

life

are

kinetic

and potential use-values created and
in the past,

left

by

by-gone generations; they are humanity's treasures

produced mainly
use,

and conserved for our

by that peculiar function or power of

man

for

the binding of time.

That
119

the natural trend of life

120

Manhood

of Humanity
this treasury

and the progress of the development of
is

so often checked, turned
is

from

its

natural course,

or set back,

due to ignorance of human nature, to

metaphysical speculation and sophistry.

Those who,

with or without intention, keep the rate of humanity's

mental advancement down to that of an arithmetic
progression are the real enemies of society; for they

keep the life-regulating "sciences" and institutions
far behind the gallop of life
is

itself.

periodic social violence

—wars and
use-values

The consequence
revolutions.

Let us carry the analysis of potential and kinetic
use-values a
left to us
utility.
little

further.

All potential use-values
differ in

by the dead are temporal and
potential

Many
On

are

found

in

museums and have very
tical life.

limited value to-day in prac-

the other

hand some roads or water-

ways

built

by the ancients have use-value to-day; and
list

an almost endless

of

modern

potential use-values
to

have or

will

have use-values for a long time

come,

such as buildings, improved lands, railroad tracks,
certain machines or tools; the use-value of

items of material wealth will last for

some such more than one
permanent
in

generation.

Kinetic use-values

are

their character, for,

though they

may become

anti-

quated, they yet serve as the foundation for the de-

velopments that supersede them, and so they continue
to live in that to
I

which they lead.
at this point to

would draw attention

one of the


Era

Capitalistic

121

most important
engine.

kinetic

duced by humanity

and potential use-values prothe

invention

of

the

steam

Through
toil,

this invention,

humanity has been

able to avail itself, not only of the living fruits of

dead men's

but also of the inconceivably vast
in the in

amounts of solar energy and time bound up

growth of vegetable
the

life

and conserved for use
life in

form of

coal

and other

fuels of vegetable origin.

This invention has revolutionized our
less directions.

count-

To
in

be brief, I will analyse only the

most

salient effects.

Human
the

Engineering has never
In

existed

except

most embryonic form.

remote antiquity the conception and knowledge of
natural law was wholly absent or exceedingly vague.

Before the invention of the steam engine, people

depended mainly upon human powers
"living

powers"

that

is,

upon

the powers of living men, and the

living fruits of the labor of the dead.

Even then

there were manifold complications.

The human

invention of the steam engine released for
use a

new power of tremendous magnitude power of solar energy and ages of time. But we must not fail to note carefully that we to-day are enabled to use this immense new power of bound-up solar energy and time by a human inventhe stored-up
tion, a

product of the dead.
full significance

The

of the last statement requires

reflection.

The now dead

inventor of the steam

122

Manhood

of Humanity

engine could not have produced his ingenious invention except by using the living

men

powers of other dead

except by using the material and spiritual or

mental wealth created by those who had gone before.
In the inventor's intellectual equipment there was
actively present the kinetic use-value of "bound-up-

time," enabling him to discover the laws of heat,

water, and steam; and he employed both the potential

and

kinetic use-values of mechanical instruments,

methods of work, and scientific knowledge of his time and generation use-values of wealth created

by the genius and
invention

toil

of by-gone generations.

This

ago, because civilization

was not produced, let us say 6000 years was not then sufficiently adall

vanced: mathematically considered, the production
of this great use-value had to await
lated the accumu-

work

of six thousand years of
So,
if

human

ingenuity

and human labor.

we

choose, the steam engine

may
or

be considered a kinetic use-value in which the
is

factor of time
let

equal to something like 6000 years,

us say roughly 200 generations.

It is

obvious that, in one

life time,

even a genius

of the highest order, could not, in aboriginal condibuilt a steam engine, when was unknown. Of course if the same inventor could have had a life of several thousands of years and could have consecutively followed up all the processes, unhampered by the prejutions,

have invented and

everything, even iron,

Capitalistic
dices of those days,

Era

123

and been able to make all of these inventions by himself, he would represent in
himself
all

the progress of civilization.

By

this illustration

of the words

we

see the

profound meaning

the living powers of the dead;

we

see

the grave importance in

human

life

of the factor

TIME; we behold the significance of the time-binding
capacity of man.

The steam The
and
life

engine

is

to be seen

anew, as in the main the accumulated production of

dead-men's work.
short,

of one generation

is

and were

it

not for our

human

capacity to

inherit the material
toil,

spiritual fruit of

dead men's

augment it a little in the brief span of our own lives, and to transmit it to posterity, the process
to

of civilization would not be possible and our present
estate
is

would be that of aboriginal man.
its

Civilization

a creature,

creator

is
it

the time-binding

power
belong

of man.

Animals have

not, because they

to a lower type or dimension of life.

Sophistry avails nothing here; a child, left in the

woods, would be and remain a savage, matching
wits with gorillas.

his

He
of,

becomes

a civilized

man

only

by the accumulation

and acquaintance with dead
generation
left

men's work; for then and only then can he start

where

the
is

preceding
peculiar to

off.

This

capacity

men; the

fact can not be re-

peated too often.
It is

untrue to say that

A

started his life aided

124

Manhood

of Humanity

exclusively by the achievements of (say) his father,

for

his

father's

achievements
his

depended

on

the

achievements of

immediate predecessors; and so
the life of humanity.

on
all

all

the

way back through

This

fact,

of supreme ethical importance, applies to

of us; none of us

may

speak or act as

if

the

material or spiritual wealth

we have were produced

by us

;

for, if

we be
is in

not stupid,

we must

see that

what

we

call

our wealth, our
the

civilization,

everything

we

use or enjoy,

main the product of the labor of men now dead, some of them slaves, some of them
"owners" of
slaves.
is

The metal spoon
a product of the

or the knife
of

which we use daily
generations,

work

many
the

including
it,

those

who

discovered

metal and the use of

and the

utility

of the spoon.

And

here arises a most important question: Since
is

the wealth of the world

of the past
to

in the

main the free

gift

the fruit of the labor of the dead
it

whom

does

of right belong?
Is the existing

The

question can

monopoly of the great inherited treasures produced by dead men's toil a normal and natural evolution? Or is it an artificial status imposed by the few upon the many? Such is the crux of the modern
not be evaded.
controversy.
It
is

generally

known

that the invention of the
re-

steam engine and other combustion engines which

lease sun-power for mechanical use, has revolution-

Human Engi* Let us glance briefly at the problems from another . in the future. that wealth or capital and also. the bound-up power of dead men's labor. It is further obvious that only the men or organizations that are able to concentrate the largest amounts of money. all this requires the use of is That But why this era is it is necessary to stop in the here and analyse the factors of value to be engine made and in the money used for the purpose of making use of the stored-up energies of the sun. money. so that the only release of sun-power. can have the fullest use of the stored-up energies of time and the ancient sun. toil way is to obtain the benefit in the by using the product of the of the dead. We all have found that the major part of the engine and factors connected with its production are the com- bined power of dead men's labor. are main. and vast amounts of money. it is necessary to connumber of living men in one place. Thus the monopoly of the stored-up energies of the sun arises from monopolizing the accumulated fruits of dead men's toil. to set pro- ducing the engines. called the capitalistic era.Capitalistic Era 125 ized the economic system. representing the work of the dead. These problems will. in the its We have found symbol. be the concern of the science and art of neering. up machines used in to build factories. for the building of engines in the scale of centrate a great modern needs.

600. 1906. this will give us approximately the number as 1. not theoretically equal to 1.000.000 living man-powers of the dead. annum will for each one of the world's pop- we have: (1) (2) 1.600. 10.- 000. Manhood of Humanity The power developed is in the combustion of 1 one pound of coal foot pounds. to the work of our whole living population. and sun-power equal.000.126 angle. zation.000 living men.580.000. $35.500.000.70 as the average living ex- penses per ulation.- 000 in {Social Progress.000. a still broader view of resources 1.000 utili- But by our imperfect methods of more than 1. Let us take have beings (all . . available between 1902 and 1906) a wealth of approximately $357.000 man-powers that are producers but not consumers.000 sun man-powers. is man for a The current production of coal in the world If about 500. Hence 300 pounds of coal will represent the labor of a year. work. for simplicity's sake.000 foot pounds are made available. page 221) which in our is analysis dead men's work.000.000. we suppose that only half of this coal goes for mechanical use.000.000 living approximately censuses we human .600.000 tons (1906). This is about the amount of physical power exerted by a man of ordinary strength during a day's work. or equal to 1. Taking.600.

precisely the . is day by three different populations. The reason why we progress very rapidly. . explained very clearly by the mathematical law of a geometrical progression. is in this stage of civilization. 10. we would be just aboriginal sav- ages having nothing and progressing very slowly. 1 PR T P is the in the human progression PR ' PR'. The essential elements of a progression are the first term P and the ratio R and the number of the terms T.000.000 sun man-powers.000.000 living living man-powers of the dead.000. that additional producing but not consuming population.600. has been produced mainly by the work of generations. PR\ course. So we see that this world to wit.000. two use-values — the in potential and the All living men have of power. of them dynamic and active: men. the first all if our past It is said "mainly" because. Thus it is obvious beyond any argument.600.000 sun man-powers. to show roughly how human progress goes on. .Capitalistic (3) Era 127 1. Of .000. they are able to direct some degree this type and use basic really populated toall powers. we were generation. this 1.* the geometric progression does not represent law of human progression. better perhaps than any other simple mathematical means. classification needs a reflection: Such sically man is intrin- an increasing exponential power and always produces kinetic.000 1. it is here employed because it is familiar and serves.600. with an ever increasing number of terms. the magnitude of the terms increasing * more rapidly all the time. .

The existence of R and T is independent of humans. static if behind. being a law of nature. and the rest must become dynamic. and T. Humans can control only the of those elements by education. T a gift of nature.000 dead man- powers and the sun man-powers vants TO EACH LIVING MAN. they will be forced by violent readjustments. It is obvious that the T is entirely dependent on the magnitudes of Pi?. It is not necessary to use much imagination to see that if humanity had always been rightly educated. PR R P =0 NO PROGRESS P =0 THERE WOULD MAGNI- . Static static economics. Here comes the tremendous responsibility of education. they do not continue to progress peacefully in accord- ance with the law of the progress of science. so far advanced that social insti- tutions can not much longer ethics. is Human progress.600. magnitude.— 128 Manhood of Humanity is This fact artificial the reason why the old unscientific and social system requires and must undergo profound transformation.000. . Here we have living problem of very high importance and enormous magnitude. The existence of R and Z" is entirely beyond human control. or number of generations. and human misery would to-day be relatively small. each term in the case BE of human progression is mainly dependent upon the time and the work done by the dead. we have all To serve 1.000.000 11. science would have long ago discovered the natural forces and laws essential to human welfare. which it would be folly not to recognize and accept as such. continue to lag so far jurisprudence. men. T is time. R is the peculiar capacity of humans to bind time and is a free gift and law of nature. With or progression at all. in many directions. the starting status or R of the initial generation.600. recurring a with ever increasing frequency. WOMAN AND seven serCHILD TUDE starting status of the first generation.

a time-binder. the energies of living men." so-called "scientific shop potential direct and kinetic use-values. Nature made man an increasing exponential function of time. The problem will be solved by Human Engineering. We * labor" and we pretend that human work "manual we need the laborer for See Appendix III. forces in all their and indirect expression. power able to transform and direct Sometimes we hypocritically like to if delude ourselves." * There is a chasm between "Capital" and "Labor. living powers of dead men.— Capitalistic Era 129 included. energy." but nature does not know "Capital" or "Labor" at all. a basic powers. for this will establish the right understanding of values and will show age world problems tific how to man- scientifically. It if would be so way. "space. The present economic system does not realize even the beginning of the magnitude of this truth and the tremendous results which are to be achieved through the adjustment of it. Nature knows only matter. . and the bound-up powers of Time and the ancient Sun." "time. it will give a scien- foundation to Political Economy and transform management" into genuine ^'scientific world management. our delusions are agreeable call and profitable. those fac- we but used all this power in a constructive all eliminating waste and controversy and tors which hamper production and progress. It looks like the millennium.

all This may seem optimistic but engineers are optimists. Like severity must all made the rule and practice toward those control the institutions and great affairs of society. they become pro- only energies of living when quickened by the time-binding men and women. but when we thus speak. their bridges break down. Then only are In nature's economy the the results proportional to the ever growing magni- tude of exponential power. because man belongs and capital of a dimension above machinery. Enginethe power. as the bridge engineer held to-day. no matter be how clever their sophis- they are adjudged criminal. and. who human Periodical break-downs must be prevented. . though differing in degree. and from the engineer's point of view. sun the man-power. Edison and the simplest laborer. mechan- work or can be replaced almost entirely by machinery. then. stupid. time-binders are the intelligent forces. we are thoughtless. work of ductive dead — —mainly are inanimate. are basically the same. What we is will never be able to replace to the by machinery level a Man. else There is none known to us. If they make mistakes. truth.130 his Manhood of Humanity muscular service. are the same in kind. in the ical What we look for worker is is his control of his muscles. their powers or capacities are exponential. The engineers of human society is must be held respon- sible. They deal only with fact if and try. or insincere. Smith or Jones.

the righteousness of tooth and claw. Capitalism neither sees nor keenly Neither . yet no heat. the clash is only an expression of the reaction. laws. Our falsi- of nature's laws makes the controversy. if The truth is often clear and only it be not obscured and complicated by sophistry. simple. Socialism exists as an ism because Capitalism exists as an ism. eternal law of action and We are living in a world of wealth. a world en- riched by many generations of dead men's toil. such conten- tions of lust against lust are 5«£-human such ethics is zoological ethics — — animalistic. It seems simple enough. There may be fire and plenty of coal a stove. an engineer will remove the natural causes of obstruction of the natural process. "Capitalistic" reasoning ing —Nature does not know such all its and "Socialistic" reasonthings.Capitalistic Era 13 r Things are often simpler than they appear first at the in glance. be- tween the lust of the one to keep and the lust of others to get. the fire does not burn well. human dimensions humanity. below the life. there is little to choose. Nature has only one "reasoning" in fying functions. even such a simple thing as the removal of ashes may solve the problem. of the utterly unworthy of the creative energy capacity time-binding feels keenly —of it — Socialism affairs are and sees dimly that in human feels not conducted conformity with natural it.

there always a speculative answer." "right" and so forth. tion will attract all toward construc- and the exploitation of nature for the common capitalists socialists. once introduced. socialists The orthodox do not perceive the tremendous . but their methods can not find the truth nor their language express it. there are those to disperse it. weal. will overrun a wrong understanding of values. There are socialists and capitalists. there are and Among the capitalists there the fruit of dead are those who want wealth men's toil — —mainly for themselves. They speak of "justice. They both of them use the same specula- tive methods issue. Sound reasoning.132 Manhood of Humanity the one nor the other stops to investigate natural laws — nature's laws —laws of human nature — scien- tifically. and that remedy consists in applying scientific method to the study of the subject. not knowing that their conceptions of those terms are based on There is one and but one remedy. contro- will eliminate it the waste of energy forces versies. humanity it as the fields turn green in the in spring. in their arguments. They both speak about the truth. is argument. — Among the socialists the orthodox socialists —who itself seek The former do not perceive that is the product of the labor of the dead if dead not quickened by the energies of living men. and there can be speculative no Against one old-fashioned.

an animal. ma- chines belong to a dimension far lower than that of man. stupid and short sighted. —they autonomy of have not man's time-binding capacity for self-direction. tools. but that of a ghoul. we must learn that to prey upon the treasury left by the dead is to live. Talk of dimensions or dimensionality is by no means theoretical rubbish. instrumentum mutum. if rightly used. but have not the Tools their made by man maker ment. instruments. regard human beings as tools the use of other — is as instruments — To for human beings not only unscientific but are it is repugnant. lust for the When we what is have acquired the just conception of is a human being we shall get Roman conception according to away from the which a human being instrumentum vocale. not the life of a human being. Legalistic c title ownership —does same. The right understanding of dimensions tical life. instrumentum semivocale: and a tool. Whether we be capitalists or socialists or neither.Capitalistic benefits that accrue to Era 133 mankind from the accumula- tion of wealth. — documentary Neither does not alter the act. and self-improve- In their own nature. . for initiation. is of life-and-death importance in pracintermixing of dimensions leads to The wrong conclusions in our thought and wrong conclu- sions lead to disasters.

000.000.000 1 .000 1. and so when humans but 25 units accordance with the standards of the (that of animals).000. and the third dimension. not to be able to see the overwhelming differences between the laws of development of the first. .000 This explains why the intermixing of dimensions is the source of tremendous evil. The reflective reader may analyse for himself what effect these same rules if would have. test.000 100 10.000 3rd Dimension 125 1. With the base (say) we produce in in the third dimension a are paid result of 125 units. expressed and applied in the human "time-binding" dimension. it human the third dimension.000 1.000.134 Manhood of Humanity life as Consider the classes of dimensions (as explained representing three in an earlier chapter). Who sions is can now assert that the problem of dimeneven a quesbut one only of theory? limitation It is not it tion of of mind. That is an illustration of what a part dimen- sions play in practical life. second dimension humanity is deprived of the benefit of 100 units of produced wealth. becomes a question of limitation of eyesight. time being the supreme The 1st 5 following table gives the visual shock: 2nd Dimension 25 Dimension 10 100 1. second. then essentially to the human production belongs or as of I call 5.

000. is in the difference between what earned and what is. are bound up in wealth.600. but to-day it is ignorantly and . are already among private legalistic owners.000 living man-powers of the dead. if wisely directed. 10. The space-binding animal standard of misciviliza- tion has brought us to an impasse — a blind alley is for the simple physical reason that there no more space to "bind. and potential use-values.000 sun man-powers: that is indeed a tre- mendous power to produce wealth for all. What hope there for the ever increasing population? But we have these 1. of bound-up time.— Capitalistic Dollars. money follow found the same rules: the strength and in fact the source of power of modern in is capitalism.000. is in just this difference dimensions — is in the difference between what given and what is taken. it is obvious that money is a measure and seen that kinetic We have symbol of power. and practically divided is all the natural resources." a The problem of dimensions therefore. key which unlocks the secrets of the power of capi- talism and opens the door to a new civilization where the understanding of dimensions will establish order out of the chaos. "made.600.000. and 1. produced mainly by the dead.000 living men.000. of work done." Practically all the habitable lands. which is measured and symbolized by money. This being true. Era or other units 135 of or pounds sterling.

Gibbs. Dewey.136 Manhood of Humanity human beings are not shamefully misdirected. not survival of the "fittest in time-binding capacity. —men like Gutenberg. Russell. The great mass of the wealth of the world has been thus produced by gen- We know that the greatest . Leibnitz. Franklin. Keyser. dead." but survival of the strongest in ruthlessness tition ! and guile — in space-binding compe- Wealth is produced by those who work with hand or brain and by no others. erations that have gone. all to be gained in exploiting nature the time. all and sun-powers. William Benjamin Smith. Whitehead. leieff. in want. Steinmetz. How many late because unable to stand the strain of social con- ditions where animal standards prevail and "survival fittest" of the means. Selfishness and ignorance — is it these that prevent full mobilization of the producing powers of the world? Such as contribute most to human progress and human enlightenment nicus. Watts. because treated in accordance with their nature as the time- binding class of life. Coper- Newton. Sklodowska-Curie. than by exploiting man the time and nature occasionally. Poincare. Einstein. is Much more aimfully. Loeb. MendePasteur. and many others —consume no more bread than the simplest Indeed such men are often a genius has perished inarticu- of their fellow mortals. Edison. with a full mobilization of our living.

news is throughout the world. who in their wickedness and folly fancy themselves divine. To . independent papers are frequently starved by selfish conspirators and forced to close down. how often has man endeavored to render similar service to God." Those who want to use such "God-like" powers to rule the world are modern Neros. Honest. which is main of dead men's toil. must become public property. avail. bitter words of Voltaire seem to be too true: "Since God created man in his own image." and so what is is frequently so limited. in — have in- and are scientific discoverers and ventors. itself the is Thus the press. then the wealth produced by the use of the invention should also become public property it in the course of a like period of years after is thus produced. Unfortunately the press presented as news often controlled by exploiters of the "living powers of the dead. the greatest powers of it modern times commands It the resources of space and time. it affects in a thousand subtle ways the form controls the exchange of of our thoughts. product in the made a means for the Indeed the deception and exploitation of the living. colored and distorted by selfish interests as to be falsehood in the guise of truth. it the course of a few years after is made.Capitalistic wealth producers been Era the greatest 137 — immeasurably men. is Against this proposition no sophistry can One of the Press. If an invention.

tion. but of mad men. is enlightenment knowledge of human nature. and to do it prostituting the living powers created by the dead.138 deceive. I will not say of men. . to exploit. What also is the Revolution? Revolution is mad. remedy nature. ignorant and blind. is the work. rob and by subjugate living men and women. knowledge of educaof man— scientific The only the science Human Engineering. Manhood of Humanity and through deception. remedy? greedy. and art of science applied to all the affairs —knowledge.

revolutions and wars.— CHAPTER VII SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST TTUMANITY is a dynamic affair. This rule. runs our railroads. bark an animal language. the skies comes Electricity. being natural only in the life 139 of plants and animals . the most dynamic known. produced Power must perforce Electricity express itself in some form. produced aimfully. because and direct basic powers. Power has been held by "cleverest"." Those who speak of the "survival of the fittest." as in the Darwinian theory of animals. all by ideas moulded by personal ambitions. Periodically we the have had the evils of the lack of a common aim and scientific guidance. way or it will burst into insurrections. nay. just so the produced in down in an often disastrous manner. personal interests. "God-given" or the seldom has the power been given to the "fittest" in the sense of the most capable "to do. Hitherto we have been guided by those bottomless sciences having only mythological ideas of power or downright ignorance. there must be an issue for it is able to transform is Where power it. enormous power produced by humanity in a constructive must be used aimfully.

140 Manhood of Humanity lower forms of physical with- and appropriate only life. This method way new. where economy. ponential functions of time. will operate naturally. politics and government are honest Simply the right if in their beliefs and speculations. they talk peace and not in any it make war. there has been fighting. such economics." there must be victims. where Is this a "survival. what the users of of doing things is this argument mean? Kaiser. be applied to the time-binding class of life. out disaster. The modern vate purposes. vast accumulation of wealth for prijustifies itself by using the argument of the "survival of the there is fittest. The world most of the masters of as has been accustomed to Personally speculative I for a very long while. politics static. as an . law. exlieves in the wrong thing. will be ethics. the The immediate object of this writing is to show way to directing the time-binding powers of manall. except with profound change of mean- ing. believe that semi-sciences. not There is world of dif- ference between these two words. law. ethics. man be- shown the right way out of the mess he will cease to hamper progress. kind for the benefit of Human technology. and government a dynamic. where Like the there are victims." Very well. to the cannot. where human capacities. he will be of the greatest value to the new world built by Human Engineers.

they have been too well exposed itself to by facts for humanity to allow led again. which were given "Urbi et orbi" in thou* . some basic prinas a it ciples were required foundation for such a necessary to establish a science. not only as a social truth. the in was found enabled all "war patriotism. does not yet exist. but as a known mathematical Those high ideals. Especially was make it certain and clear that "space-binders" the members of the animal world are "outside of the human law" outside the natural laws for the human class of life. This expression used.SURVTVAL OF THE FITTEST art I4I and science. base the states to add up individual powers collective and build maximum power. life of all classes of In the meantime. sudden changes could not be made without endangering the welfare and society. standard. although many of our social problems are very badly managed. In the World War humanity passed through trial a tremendous and for those years was under the strain of an extensive mobilization campaign." efficiency is common This common into a aim. and thus human — — — Present civilization is a very complicated affair. the imcommon base or aim became equally In this case the base. changes must be because the world can not proceed made much longer under be blindly pre-war conditions . The necessity of increasing portance of a manifest. truth. power was manifest.

We shrug our shoulders in acquiescence and proclaim greed and selfishness to be the very core of human . and fancy we are safe. sin- and degrading (see App." but the inevitable is consequence of a "bad system. like an ostrich. ister effect upon humanity . fittest" in "Survival of the the commonly used ani- mal sense is not a theory or principle for a "time- binding" being. As matter of ages-long apaffairs plication of this animal principle to has degraded the whole human human morale in an inconsel- ceivably far-reaching way." to hide our It dangerous heads in the sand. millions of propaganda of. This theory its is only for the physical is bodies of animals. ideas and ideals have fallen. The coming storm is not it is work of any "bad man. II) We see the prin- ciple at work all about us a in criminal exploitation fact. the Calm often it. had a much greater educational importance and influence than most people are aware People have been awakened and have acquired the taste for those higher purposes which in the past were available only for the few. the and profiteering.142 Manhood or Humanity in sands of speeches and papers. but what is going to take their place? We witness an unrest which will not be eliminated until something essential is done to adjust betokens a coming storm. fishness are brazenly Personal greed and owned as principles of conduct. Many old worn-out idols.

inherently possess. is it not only because of unhappy effects. but all it has. is to SUCH a class not only nonsensical but monstrous. call There a class is nothing mystical about naturally selfish it. is the expression of the time- binding element which we . arrives at the laws of wealth. all for granted. very disastrous.a Survival of the Fittest nature. it it is not of extraneous origin. not only has the peculiar capacity for perpetual progress." Of it course the effect chapters have false. of their toils. Human it nature. The preceding is shown that the theory its false. indeis pendently of our "will" it an inborn capacity — . in his famous Wealth of Nations. but from the phenomena of selfishness its — a fact which shows how far-reaching all in dire influence upon humanity is the theory that human is beings are "animals. over and above animal propensities. certain qualities constituting a distinctive dimension or type of life life. Not only our whole collective ideals. but belies the char- acteristic nature of man. all material and spiritual. but proves a love for higher even our dead give us the rich heritage. this time- binding power. not from the phenomena of wealth nor from statistical statements. and let in it We have gone so far our degradation that the prophet of capitalistic principles. This capacity for higher ideals does not originate in some "jwpmiatural" outside factor. take it 143 pass at that. Adam Smith.

it may be. pacity to survive in our deeds. stupendous. as emerged and still emerging natura naturata from some propensive source within. if choose. Conception of embrace us as part. . In the whole universe of events. while . the part retains. consider The moment we in time — Man in his proper dimension — active these things become simple. tending to confine the tides of conscious- ness within their accustomed channels —but is it can be made and. There indeed a fine sense in which we can. I grant that the change in point of view is hard to make old habits.— 144 Manhood of Humanity gift of nature. consciously. as occupying the highest rank perhaps in the ever-ascending hierarchy of being. "Note effected. in the course of time. none more wonderful curious than the birth of wonder. apply the expression survival of the fittest — to the activity of the time- binding energies of man. at all events. by assiduous effort. but. none more than the nascence of curiosity nothing to compare with the dawning of consciousness in the ancient dark and the gradual . of an advancing sequence of developments. . literally. Suppose it done. and beautiful. We we simply are is made this way and not in any other. in and so there and we survive in the deeds of our is brought about the "survival time" of higher and higher ideals. beheld by eyes that are not its own. the radical character of the transformation to be The world shall no longer be beheld as an alien shall thing. tion to use it Having the peculiar cawe have an inclina- creation. as the latest term. really. By that reunion. maintained. the consciousness the latter purloined. the whole and by the whole — like walls of rock. the whole regains. itself.

.) must be emphasized that the development of is higher ideals due to the natural capacity of huis manity. Conception a its com"es- incomprehensible phenomenon its in sence. compound combinations and if it breaks away as quickly as ever —they binding— he have feet that Birds have wings run. does not matter whether we understand the very "essence" of the phenomenon or not. any more than we understand the "essence" of electricity or any other "essence. —they fly. Keyser. different classes of life. J. intellect." Life shows man is has time-binding capacity as a natural gift it. loc." Indeed neither sences" —they nor science bothers about "es"essences" to It is leave metaphysics." nevertheless. It cit. every class of life has impulse to exercise its Nitrogen resists found in it such combinations can. the impulse simply time-binding impulse. having the capacity to procreate we use it without bothering about life "essence. the abiding without loss or break form of fleeting time. An eternity of blindly act- ing. by analysing the functions of the an peculiar capacity or function. through the birth of sense and of continuity.Survival of the Fittest extension of psychic life 145 cos- and illumination throughout a mos that before had only been. unconscious existence. assuming at length. and naturally impelled to use is One of the best is examples pletely procreation. As we have seen. sufficient for which is neither life nor science." (C. transforming. Animals Man It has the capacity of time- binds time.

limit-begotten generalization —a kind . zation consists in the conception or the intuition of ideals and And ideals. austere. logical. Every sort of human activity shoeing horses. kinds. ideals are themselves the very flint of reality. or to sigh and sentimentalize about they are not what would hard in reality were taken away. . cold. or painting profiles admits of a peculiar type of excellence. I have said. world of our human lowly To share in it — to feel the lure of perfection in one or — more types of excellence. thus evident that ideals are not things to gush over . For each type there is an ideal a dream of perfection an unattainable limit of an endless sequence of potential ameliorations within the type and on its level. beautiful no doubt and precious.146 Manhood of Humanity is our purpose that idealization process of time-binding in fact a natural human energy. abdominal surgery. are of two Let us make the distinction clearer. without which there would be neither dignity nor hope nor light but their aspect is not sentimental and soft it is hard. it is is to be human. No sort of activity can escape from its own type but within its type it admits of indefinite improvement. idealization that corresponds to These are produced by the kind of what we have called in the mathematical prototype. Idealibe left if that which is . intellectual. is very im- portant and very precious. though however sub-human. such merits as our ethics has had witness to the natural presence of "idealization" in time-binding "It is human life. The dreams of such unattainable perfecin the pursuit of them. And how- ever imperfect ethics has been owing to the prevalence of animal standards. not to feel to be it But this common kind of idealization. — — — — tions are as countless as the types of excellence to respectively belong which they and they together constitute the familiar ideals. does not produce the great events in the life of mankind.

of the fittest" for human beings as such — that is.Survival of the Fittest of idealization that is 147 peculiar to creative genius and that. in art. in social order. "survival on the other hand. Applying animal standards is to time-binding beings like applying inches to fact. we can only improve their lower status. raise we cannot we add an entirely new function to the former. It is is nothing theological or sentimental a purely it is mathematical truth. measuring weight. Mathematical Philosophy j by Cassius J.) "Survival of the fittest" has a different form for different classes of life. Keyser." (Quoted from the manuscript of the forthcoming book. we can degrade human standards a As matter or one class to a higher class. in education. fatal to apply the "survival of the fittest" theory in the same sense to two radically different classes of life. for making the . Animal standards belong capacity is to a class of life whose Time. which means intellectual or spiritual competition. unless to animal standards. in all the fields and forms of the spiritual life of man. creates new types thereof in science. in ethics. which means and other brutal forms of struggle. in phil- osophy. not content to pursue ideals within established types of excellences. in this not an exponential function of There fact. for time-binders — is survival in time. in letters. but if we apply the reverse method. struggle for excellence. mals — The "survival of the fittest" for ani- for space-hinders fighting — is survival in space.

through the present for the future human beings the means of attaining a precious kind of immortality.148 best survive. This call a is the truth great we instinctively recognize when we man "immortal. and side-stepping. in justice: a competition and struggle for life." We mean that he has . base for natural ethics. or from which there can be no escape. logic points to it human ethics and human will lead to a humanized industrial sys- tem in which competition will be competition in sci- ence. Manhood of Humanity The-fittest-in-time the best survive — — those who make are those all ducing values for This ethics is the scientific who do the most in promankind including posterity. the attainment of excellence in human The time- binding capacity. Human economics. industrial it leads in inevitably to brutalized to system of which fruit cunning of the contrives rob the living the dead. which manifests itself in drawing from the past. a perpetual bless- ing to endless generations of the children of men. in art. it enables them to fulfill the law of their own class of life and to survive evergives lastingly in the fruits of their toil. Therefore time-binders can not use "animal" logic without degrading themselves status as from their proper human beings — their status as established by nature. "Animal" logic leads to "animal" ethics and a "animal" economics.

"man" and man work. Let us analyse mechanical appliances have been produced by alone. the logic natu- will show us that "good" and significance "just" and "right" are to have their defined and understood entirely in terms of nature. as such." we are incorthe rect in this expression." gamblers an end to industrial violence. war and revolutions. in 149 time for the perpetual Human ral logic for man — —mathematical thus logic. Human nature —not animal nature — human is to be the basis and guide of based and guided. in reality? all How this does this "horse" look "horse. will put Human Engineering. insur- rections. strikes. Everything we possess is the production of either dead men's or living men's The enslavement of the solar man-power is human invention in theory and practice. Thus Human Engineering will eliminate and "politicians. the term "horse-power. purely What perfect nonsense to call a the equivalent of so human achievement much . For all work we need and treat in the use it ing power. yet of human brain. Everything we have is evidently therefore a timepurely a binding product. life is largely built The present system of social upon misconceptions or misrepresentations. the human time-bindwe continue to call it "hand-labor" Even in mechanical science." All science." It "wild-cat schemers.Survival of the Fittest done deeds that survive weal of mankind.

Everything it in our civilization was produced by man. The human value in work would be thus emphasized again and again. The educational effect would be whole- some and tremendous. it is to be hoped. It is the same kind of blundering as when we intermix phenomena measuring "God" by human standards. on the contrary. The relationship. said is This is an example of the degrading influence of I wrong conceptions and wrong language. (See App.) Human scientific it Engineering will not interfere with any it research. — by animal standards. and respect for human work would be taught. bedif- tween these phenomena or the overlapping of . Grown-ups. it we may call a Zeus or a Zebra but there . or human beings which we chastise children. will stop the nonsense of intermixing dimensions. affected "educational" because even our subconscious mind by this. from the beginning in the schools. This "horse-power" unit part in it causes us to forget the human and it de- grades human work to the level of a commodity. if any. seems only the direct reasonable that this unit of power which is product of Man's work. will promote for in many ways. should be correctly named after him. II. is a very vicious implication in using the to denote a purely name of an animal human product.150 Manhood ! of Humanity "horse-power" ematically Of course it does not matter mathwhat name we give to a unit of power.

so. "Divine" stand- ards to "God. is fatal to mistake solids for surfaces just confuse humans with animals. the results of our calculations are wrong and the outcome is a misconfact once ception of the process of realized. if we stupidly we are interested only in the values of the function of the selves and to arrive at right phenomena by themconclusions we have to use units appropriate to the phenomena. with the complete innocence or misunderstanding of science. The we will cease applying animal measures to man.Survival of the Fittest ferent classes. even theology habit. will abandon the monstrous Animal animals. "who" of things. the "why" of things was explained by the tion culminated. human life. but it studying such relationships of classes. for example. In the reality of life. units human standards and standards are to be applied to to man. this sapiens = animal X spark of supernatufinal monstrous formula was accepted as a truth — as an answer to the question: What is Man? This type of answer became in the hands of church . is fatal to mix the classes. solids. The inter- mixing of units gives us a wrong conception of the values of each phenomenon. too. if we are studying the it relations between surfaces and ." In the dark ages. therein investigaas man was regarded homo sapiens and homo ral. is 151 in interesting and important.

better best of all the creation. The habit of not thinking for one's self the result of thousands of years of subjection. is the be- ginning of mind." will that The truth is that they be found to be far less stupid when addressed fact. Those used their ingenuity to keep the people from thinking. as the proverb rightly teaches." that they have been spoken to in a language of speculation which they instinctively dislike and distrust. in authority. vital and are often called. or better the invention. "Discrimination. no wonis der that they appear "stupid.152 Manhood of Humanity state and a powerful instrument for keeping the others think for people in subjection. and is in My with. psychic act the is The first psychic product of that initial is numerical: to discriminate possible to produce two. simplest example of multiplicity. still The dis- covery. thus there arose the proverb that It is speech was made to conceal the truth." the wonder they are not more "stupid. its with correlate of . "stupid. reason why many humans appear to is The most be. I in- whole theory is harmony the natural feelings of man. of multiplicity the production. The conceptions troduce are based on guage — human nature. Natural lan- so different speculation — will from the speech of metaphysical lead to mutual understanding and the disappearance of warring factions. in general. The them is is tendency of the masses to let not really a natural characteristic — quite the opposite. in the natural language of ascertainable based upon.

common to in our generation. from school. repair at J. burn and hang people for expressing an opinion which the ruling classes did not tion like. most primitive achievement or manLet us. witness the late introBelief in the inferiority of "privi- duction of public schools.) The thinking few knew "thinking". It gave a legalistic excuse to imprison. The elimina- from church. was forced upon. the aim of Human . Loc. became the unwritten law of the it leged classes". fundamental and. then. this "coefficient of ignorance" some people and some classes of people that no effort was spared to keep the world so useful to ignorance. . trust the arithmetic instinct as shall not fail. of any teacher. rubbed into. but there remains much win in the way of freedom. Cit. for instruments of thought that once to the domain of number." proclaimed as As time went became in on.Survival of the Fittest number. . . Keyser. is Freedom. 153 therefore. from universities. rightly understood. the mind of the masses by church and state and was humbly and dumbly accepted by the Ignorance was a bliss. they wanted to power there is in have it and to keep the the advantage of the masses it for themselves. any professor or any minister to who dared It is less exemplify or encourage fearless investigation and freedom of speech became very common. "lower orders" as their "destiny." (C. subconscious alike. is. the ifestation of mind.

law for mankind. the time-binding class of . Survival of the fittest. Human freedom is thus the aim of Human to be Engineering because the science of Human Engineering is human nature and the art of conducthuman affairs in accordance with the laws of human nature. therefore. and protected by such ignorance. I say "when not prevented. an animal is free when it is not prevented from living according to the natural laws of animal life. is fittest. when they are not prevented from thus living by ignorance of what human nature is and by laws of artificial social systems established. for the class of mere space-hinders. nature — A plant when it is not prevented from living and growing according to the natural laws of plant life. licentiousness." for human beings will live naturally and. sists in Human freedom con- exercising the time-binding energies of man in accordance with the natural laws of such natural energies. means Survival where and wisdom. it is not Freedom consists in lawful living accord with the laws of in is accord with the natural laws of free human Man. where fittest ing strongest. in freedom.— Manhood of Humanity But freedom is 154 Engineering. maintained. fittest and a natural life. for best in science ani- mals. is means of the art a natural law for brutes. in living in not license. human beings are free when and only when they in are not prevented from living accord with the natural human life.

in larger measscientific ure than any other nation. let us endeavor to analyse that display much power with mathematical dispassionateness." her structure. Why did Germany more power than any in the other single nation? Because establishment of her "ethics. of and scientific methods. the stage was civilization. political system. forces and impulsions." ment doubtless originates war was creEvery idea or movewith somebody but back of such "originations" or initiations there are favoring conditions.CHAPTER VIII ELEMENTS OF POWER TN the World War Germany displayed tremen- dous power. and her economic achievements Germany availed herself. It is a very common. the actor enters and the show In the instance in question. The stage is set by life and the ages. The true origin of this iS5 war must be looked . set by our whole modern system of lords were the a real one war was — "Deus ex machina" — The show for the a tragedy. and very harmful belief that ated solely by a "war-lord. very erroneous. begins. Restraining our emotions as as possible.

and without the understanding of power. Germany was committed industrial expansion. not intended as an apology for Germany. to a policy of indefinite artificial This expansion had reached its limits. the greatest ever displayed by any nation. her methods were inhuman but Germany displayed power. not the pri- . states The leading European a were not able This writing to is overpower her for long time. bankruptcy. she played her last card. to understand the our creeds.156 in the Manhood economic field. much less to praise her or her war German purposes were nationally narrow and nationally selfish to the root. and lost despite her gigantic power. Germany was on the verge of Only a victorious war could avoid a national catastrophe. but seems to him that the "General Staff" point of view has as much it claim to consideration as different interpretations It is any other among the many of history —perhaps has more. A plain statement here will be enough. It is Human Engineering is possibly a fault of the writer's military trainit ing. of Humanity Our economic system all is the very complicated result of phies and social customs. impossible. lords. philosotherefore impossible It is working of the economic forces based. without understanding the foundation upon which this system of forces is is A short list of works on the subject given at the end of this book.

or military. brain-work. and the more mass that can be given and the greater the force put behind it. which." very far is Their primary aim "victory" and all the if victory be possible without a fight. must be clearly understood that the modern genview has very little happens to coincide with the military point of view. The conduct logical affair — its power to the limit of its of war to-day is a technomethods have to be engineering is methods. Mobilized technology has revealed and demonstrated the fact . World War a scale technology had not been mobilized on so vast nor confronted with a task so gigantic." It seems only reasonable and intelligent to analyse the history of the war from the engineer's point of view. the more Prior to the deadly will be the blow. has to mobilize all nation and generate capacity. War all to-day It is a grim business — but "business" before the resources of a else. point of or nothing to do with the romance or poetry of war. intelligence. It is is — these only a last highly important to bear that in mind. 157 the general staff to "fight. giant it To crush an obstacle. It eral staff. knowledge of facts are the chief weapons. brutal fighting resort. Soldiers and engineers do not argue —they act. in this case.Elements of Power mary aim of from better it. there need of a hammer. Strategy. Ger- many of affords the first its example of a philosophy or a society having for main purpose the generating power to "do things.

We a have only to recollect the story of the simple but very greedy farmer to who was laborer first very a happy make contract with a for month's work. neering and our utter helplessness without nology called is comparatively a new science.158 that it is Manhood of Humanity possible to generate almost unlimited power and has shown the it way to do it. Behold! The bill into millions of dollars is and the month ran farmer was ruined. much the second. Such sion." an staff had to view. by some "semi-science" because it is a deals primarily with the application of science to practical issues. paying him only one cent the twice as day. for the the deadly secret of the geometrical progres- Violent readjustments await any society whose jurisprudence and the like do not keep pace with the developments of engineering. Engineers are the wizards who. using the results . ethics. and so on to the end. force or movement that conforms to such a law. But when adopt his engineer had to be called. at the same time Techit has demonstrated the measureless potency of engiit. the general became necessary "to do things. have already repeatedly pointed out that the a progress of technology proceeds according to like that of a rapidly increasing sion. twice for the third. and all other practices and traditions it were bent I to his ideas. law geometrical progres- and I have stressed the danger of inattention to any phenomena.

pure mathematics and natural law. to take From is that we have our start because that the source of human power. That is precisely what this philosophy was. way. The German philosophy. up the is German power. cause it said "strange. I much as they could be in their time. Hegel in 1805 lectured on history of philosophy. All of them were. as a whole. It influenced not only Ger- . greatly affected the — strange as it may seem. but Hegel was greatly under the influence of the work of and Fichte in in turn under that of a Spinoza. mathemaas ticians in their methods and philosophy. can subjugate or release the concealed powers of nature. It But we look it not had to be so." be- is significant that the mathematical part of their philosophy was just the part if which into built it.Elements of Power of scientific 159 research. because mathematical and mechanical methods are the only ones by which power can be understood and built. and the first thing to consider are those philosophic writers directly who and indirectly have contributed to the build- ing up of building German power. strange. It would be hard to find a better combi- nation for a philosophy of power. has its defi- nite place in the history of philosophy. — the use of the mind — The supreme factor is the exponential function of time the time-binding energy of man. Hegel up of the German mind Fichte.

and so on. It affected An immense most cult of disciples Each one added something to that philosophy of power. though the same in kind. There are the many theories about the state. they must be given a common aim. If they are to be united so as to constitute a whole. These powers. and through these channels consciousness. . ethics. life. sank deep into the national every phase of arose. the problem of the State becomes more and more pressing. brilliant representatives of this One of the movement is who in his Monist Sermons gave the famous advice: "Do not waste energy but give it value." The German understanding of the great Professor Oswald. value of technology directly applied that principle to their philosophy. law. differ in degree and in respect of individuality. they must. so on. be reduced to a common base. them and compute the whole by adding the exponents. but if we give them a comnot unite we can mon base —a common aim or purpose—then we can if readily represent the magnitudes of the whole constituted by them. . With increase of population. politics.160 Manhood of Humanity philosophy but even it man German theology. so to speak. if they be respectively m Y n Z p and X . For the purpose of moment it is important to realize that a state is the governing center of an accumulation of human beings —of time-binding powers —increasing expo- nential functions of time. we take X to be their common .

equal. except powers of living horses can very roughly. purpose or aim. we Xm -Y The cient n -Z p . One living horse work than one mechanical horse-power. . Z=bX. and constant. . = (a n -b p last expression. . and each one a variable. then.Elements or Power aim or base. The German mathematical philosophy of the state did not express itself in just this way. serves to in represent the united powers of t^rms of X. they as do not pull together. but living horses differ in character. and energy is lost. but the not. . . shall have: if 161 Y = aX. and so on. the living horses of a team interfere with each other. men and women and children: . but in using more than one living horse at one time we get less work than by using the same number of mechanical horse-powers. is they are not equal. is . at the Let us look matter is in another way. the common base. the reason is very obvious. but the foregoing gives a clue to the powers of living Germany united it. .)X m+n+p . Hence mechanical horse-powers can be added or multiplied arithmetically. where the parenthetical all coeffi- the product of individualities. = Xm -a n -X n -b p -X p . One mechanical "horse-power" less than the power of can do more one living horse. . or theory we say. The mechanical horse-powers are the same in kind. .

club aims. Such was the aim of German philosophy. the national aim was equivalent to the state aim. they worked. It want to inspire 60 Millions of all is obvious that if we It individuals with one aim. (2) association. The establishment of one aim for was the decisive factor. The fatal error of German political philosophy was an error of aim her aim was too low —too narrow— the welfare of a state instead of the welfare of Humanity. general. (4) national or race aims. German philosophy "good" and equivinflu- made the "state" equivalent to the alent to "power. all some way uniting and including personal aims. they all became con. out of personal or egoistic aims there grows a series of collective aims. In the case of Germany. they studied and taught for the State. law and science. I shall call it simply a collective aim. increasing in generality. (3) class or professional aims. theology." Of course such philosophy . congregation. impersonal. this aim can not be private or personal. But collective aims may differ profoundly in kind. and finally (5) human aims — the natural aims for the time-binding class of life. it gave them a "social" mon solidated in service of that which is called the State. lived and died for the State the State was : their idol.— 1 62 Manhood of Humanity common base it gave them one commood and aim. King and God. must be in a higher aim. collective. such as: (1) Family aims.

" There is is no need to go into further all details. we will readily understand this "world peach. which under the army.Elements of Power enced the whole national sequence life in 163 in con- every detail. nation. and this soon evolved into a plan for the conquest of the world. Special is books give us the data. Here we have to face the fact that geometrically progressing industry can not live without new markets. They both have to use the same in the scientific methods and present conditions of the world they are de- pendent upon each other. Militarism and industrialism are almost synonymous from the mechanical branches of point of view." life leadership in and industry. they are both of them power. first Germany proclaimed herself the nation of the world. "power. directly or directly. with less justice. her being a completely "industrialized If we add to that her nationally selfish and narrow national aim. the impersonal fact That which that what was of interest the strength ." "concentration of power" It "efficiency. by the the case power of with Germany." Those who have tasted it know something of its sweetness. par excellence. If present in- conditions have been largely acquired. Staff as The German General its an institution had. for war cannot be waged without strong industries. as took the aim all and and first object. for and this has been for we curse Germany no being a "military nation" curse we can.

The astute Bismarck can culture not be suspected of being a progressionist in the modern state. effect is upon Marx. public life all that phase of corruption which private in ownership of railroads brings any country. not to the welfare of Humanity. but to that of a relatively small group of people. even when directed.164 Manhood of Humanity is and power of Germany tion the best possible illustra- we have had of what science and a sort of math- ematical philosophy are able to accomplish. State socialindicates. as it gives the rulers an opportunity to show a sort of "advanced liberalism. He was a believer and promoter of the tion of the state and the railways. sense but. believe that the state should in society. It as the name assume the most important functions is obvious that in monarchical countries where "godstate. being a product of all his ideals German and philosophy." which serves to strengthen their power. given" rulers represent the such a theory is not unwelcome. One of the branches of the so-called state socialism. were those of a strong He was a proclaimed advocate of state social- ism. the railroad being the very life of any country. . Bismarck spirit was considered close rela- almost the leading of paternal state socialism. Since 1879 at least. keeping always in view a thorough nationalization which he finally This fact eliminated from German accomplished. The above-cited political philosophies had a very pro- nounced socialism ists.

if The cheapest and quickest way they were not to be grabbed other- wise. to acquire them. the victory in the battle fields. so the vicious circle. Her mili- industrial life followed the military way. her tary strength was built on industrial power. This war was a calamity of unprecedented magnitude for the world and it is our duty to study it. and because of this broader aim. We have to arouse ourselves this from our inertia and go to the bottom of it prob- lem and analyse ruthlessly. She to build applied technological methods in every part of her civil life. was to conquer them by a victorious war. all Her except plans progressed according to the program." for they were disclosed to her by her science and her philosophy. she understood the elements of "power. and thus built her gigantic power. political and industrial forces for long years before the war. And Germany adopted a collective aim instead of a personal individualistic aim. For this she desperately needed new markets. she was able to mobilize and to keep mobilized all her moral. it dispassionately and learn the lesson of if we do not want to be moral accomplices of this great modern crime. no matter whether the . The direct effect of this system of continuous mobilization was over-production. by letting the world drift into an even worse catastrophe.Elements of Power 165 scientific To sum methods up : Germany applied the most up her national power.

1 66

Manhood of Humanity

analysis be pleasant or not.

We

must value every-

one of our "ten sacred dead" at least as much as

we

value one rabbit killed in

scientific laboratories,

and take the lesson
repetition of
If

to heart or be prepared for a

world

slaughter.

Human

Engineering had been established long

ago our

social system

civilization

would have been different, our would have been much higher, this war

would have been avoided.
ourselves.

We do not need to delude
the result of badly

The World War was

balanced social and economic forces.

The world

needs other "balances of power" than such as are
devised by lawyers and politicians, by single-selfish

or group-selfish interests.

Humanity is reaching out for a science and art of human guidance based upon a right understanding of human nature.

CHAPTER

IX

MANHOOD OF HUMANITY

TN
life

a previous chapter I

have said that the World

marks the end of one vast period in the humankind and marks the beginning of another. It marks the end of Humanity's Childhood and the beginning of Humanity's Manhood.
of

War

Our human Past

is

a

mighty

fact of

our world.

Many
escent

facts

are unstable, impermanent,

and evan-

—they
Our
is

are here to-day, and to-morrow they
so with the great fact of our

are gone.
Past.
"It

Not

human
nearly

past abides.
It

permanent.

can be counted on.

It

is

eternal as the race of

man.

Out

of that past

we

have come.
it
is

Into
of all

it

we

are constantly returning.

Meanwhile,

of

the utmost importance to our lives.

It contains the roots

we

are,

and of

all

we

have of wisdom, of science, of
all

philosophy, of art, of jurisprudence, of customs and institutions.
It

contains the record or ruins of

the experi-

ments that man has made during a quarter or a half million
years in the art of living in this world."

(Keyser,

Human

Worth

of Rigorous Thinking.)

In our relation to the past there are three wide-

open ways

in

which one

may
167

be a fool.

ways

is

the

way

of ignoring the past

One of the the way of

1 68

Manhood of Humanity

remaining blankly ignorant of the human past as the
animals are blankly ignorant of their past and so of
drifting through life as animals do, without refer-

ence to the experience of bygone generations. of this type

Fools

may

be called drifting fools or Drifters.

Another way

to be a fool

a very alluring
it

that of falsifying the past by idealizing

—by
its

way

is

stu-

pidly disregarding
fulness,
tues,

its

vices, misery, ignorance, slothvir-

and

folly,

and stupidly magnifying
of the self-complacent

happiness, knowledge, achievements and wisit is

dom;

the

way

the

way

of those who, being comfortably situated and prosv
perous, are opposed to change; the past, they say,

was wise for is good let

it

produced the present and the present
Fools of
this type

us alone.

may

be

called idolatrous fools, worshiping the Past; or static
fools, contented

with the Present; or cowardly fools,

opposed

to change, fearful of the Future.

way

to be a fool

—which
its

is

also alluring

A
is

third

the op-

posite of the foregoing;
falsify the past

it is

the

way

of those

who
dis-

by stupidly and contemptuously
happiness,
its its

regarding
its

its

virtues,

knowledge,
stu-

great achievements, and

wisdom, and by
its

pidly or dishonestly magnifying
its
it

vices, its misery,
its

ignorance,
is

its

great slothfulness, and

folly;

apt to be the

way

of the woeful, the unpros-

perous, the desperate
find escape

especially the

way

of such as
the excite-

from the bore of routine

life in


Manhood
of Humanity
169

ments of unrest, turbulence, and change; the past,
they say, was
all

wrong, for

it

produced the present

and the present

is

thoroughly bad

let

us destroy

it,

root and branch.

Fools of this type

may

be called

scorning fools, Scorners of the Past; or destroying
fools,

Destroyers of the Present; or dynamic fools,
in the

Revelers

excitements of Change.


of

Such are the children of folly: (1) Drifting fools
ignorers of the past

— —complacent change — —
rience

disregarders of race expe-

thoughtless floaters on the shifting currents
affairs;

human

(2) Static fools

idealizers of the

past

lovers of the present

fearful of the future;

scorners of the past

(3)

haters of the present

stroyers of the
fools,

works of the dead
:

—most modest

—enemies of Dynamic —
fools

de-

of

each of them saying
I will

"What ought

to be begins

with

Me;

genius must be free;
ing 'order'


I

destroy

it;

make the world a paradise; but my now it is hampered by the existthe bungling work of the past; I will will start with chaos; we need light

the Sun casts shadows
the Sun; then the
light of

I will

begin by blotting out

world

will

be

full

of glory

the

my

genius."

In striking contrast with that three-fold division of Folly, the counsel of

Wisdom

is

one,

and

it

is

one with the sober counsel of
is

Common

Sense.

What
The

that counsel?

What

is

the united counsel of wis-

dom and common

sense respecting the past?


170

Manhood of Humanity
is

answer
is

easy and easy to understand.

The
it

counsel

this:

Do

not ignore the past but study


to

study
the

it

diligently as being the mightiest factor

among

great factors of our

human world; endeavor
it

view

the past justly, to contemplate
to see
it

whole

as

it

to see

it

in true perspective
its

was and is, mag-

nifying neither

its its

good nor
its

evil,
its

neither

its

knowledge nor
nor
its

ignorance, neither

enterprise
its

slothfulness, neither

achievements nor

failures; as the salient facts are ascertained,

endeavor

to account for them, to find their causes, their favor-

ing conditions, to explain the facts to understand

them, applying always the question
of centuries of cruel superstition

—Why?

Why?

Centuries

Centuries

of centuries of almost complete ignorance of natural

law

—Why?

Centuries

of

centuries

strous

misconceptions

of

human

nature

—Why?

of

mon-

Measureless creations, wastings and destructions of
wealth

—Why?

Endless rolling cycles of enterprise,

stagnation,

and decay

—Why?

Interminable altera-

tions of peace
tions

—Why?

and war, enslavements and emancipa-

Age
gods,

after age of world-wide worship
silly,

of

man-made

savage, enthroned by

myth

and magic, celebrated and supported by poetry and

wayward speculations of ignorant "sages" Why? Age upon age of world-wide slow developthe

ments of useful inventions, craftsmanship, commerce,

and art

—Why?

Ages of dark impulsive groping


Manhood of Humanity
171

before the slow discovery of reason, followed by centuries of belief in the sufficiency of ratiocination un-

aided by systematic observation and experiment

Why? At
science, the

length the

dawn

of

scientific

method and

urable expansion of the universe in

growth of natural knowledge, immeasTime and in

Space, belief in the lawfulness of Nature, rapidly
increasing subjugation of natural forces to
control,

human

growing

faith in the limitless progressibility

human knowledge and in the limitless perfectibility of human welfare Why? The widely diverse
of

peoples of the world constrained by
ress to live together as in

scientific

prog-

one community upon a

greatly shrunken and rapidly shrinking planet, the

unpreparedness of existing
economics,
politics

ethics, law,

philosophy,

and government

to

meet the

exigencies thus arising

—Why?

Such
ple

the

I take to be the counsel of wisdom the simwisdom of sober common sense. To ascertain salient facts of our immense human past and then

to explain
tions
ficult
is

them

in

terms of their causes and condiIt is

not an easy task.

an exceedingly

dif-

one, requiring the labor of
it

many men,

of

many
only

generations; but
in

must be performed; for
learn to

it is

proportion as

we

know

the great facts

of our

human
is

past and their causes that

we

are

enabled to understand our
present

human

present, for the
it is

the child of the past; and

only in pro-

172

Manhood of Humanity
we
thus learn to understand the present

portion as
that

we can

face the future with confidence and com-

petence.

Past, Present, Future

understood singly and separately
together indissolubly as one.

can not be — —they are welded
these

—300,000 human —
of
the rocks
time,

The

period of humanity's childhood has been long
to

relics, ruins

500,000 years, according to the witness and records of the caves and
our imagi-

a stretch of time too vast for

nations to grasp.

Of that immense succession of
it

ages, except a minute fraction of

including our

we

have, properly speaking,
a rude, dim,
call

own no history; we
Herodotus,

have only

broken

outline.

whom we
less

"the father of history" proper, lived

than 2500 years ago.

What

is

2500 years com-

pared with the whole backward stretch of human
time?

We

have to say that the father of human

history lived but yesterday

a virtual

contemporary

of those
this

now

living.

Our humankind groped upon
had even begun. If kind of racial memory, what
history
It
is

globe for probably 400,000 years before the

writing of what

we

call

we regard history as a must we say of our race's memory?
of a

like that

man
less

of 20 years whose recollection extends
like that of a

back

than 3 months or

man

of 60

years whose recollection
of the
first

fails

to

reach any event
to the

59 years of

his life.

Owing

work

of geologists, paleontologists, ethnologists and their

Manhood

or Humanity

173
will

co-workers, the history of prehistoric
just as

man

grow,

we know

to-day

more about

the

life

of man-

kind
self

in the

time of Herodotus than Herodotus him-

knew.

Meanwhile we must

try to

make
as

the best

use of such historical knowledge of
possess.

man

we now

Even
fully

if

the story of humanity's childhood were
in

recorded

the libraries of the world,

it

would

not be possible

in this brief

writing to recount the
fashion.

story in even the most

summary

Except the

tale of recent years, the story
said, only in outline, rude,

is known as I have dim and broken, but for

the present purpose this will suffice.
titudes of details are lost

forever.
facts

nant,

—most But we need our childhood— outstanding —
of
racial

Countless mul-

of them doubtless

not despair.

The

really great

the massive, domi-

facts

are sufficiently clear for our

guidance

in the

present enterprise.

And what do we
human
child-

know?

We
kind
of

know

that the period of our

hood has been inconceivably long; we know
the far distant time, the
first

that in

specimens of humanthe time-binding race

the initial

members of

man

—were

absolutely without

human knowledge

of the hostile world in which they found themselves;

we know

that they

themselves were;

we know

had no conception of what they that they had neither
sci-

speech nor art nor philosophy nor religion nor

though we to-day can hardly imagine that their sole equipment for initiating the career human race was that peculiar faculty which made them human the capacity of man for binding time we know that they actually did that work of initiation. taking not only the step. to we know birds gress that their progress was natural them is as natural as — — swimming is to fishes or as flying to for both the impulse and the ability to proto make improvement — to by help of things already done — do greater things are of the very nature of the time-binding capacity which makes humans human. it just because the originate — power of initiation — the power to is a time-binding power. We know that in that far- animals. without any guidance or example. We know ity for that time-binding capacity —the capacit. enlarging . the third. other words. accumulating racial experience. but the second. and we know that they were able to do of the — . it. that they were progressive creatures. in — not — forever above being. earliest What else do we know of the part of humanity's childhood? distant age. that they made advancement. and so on in- definitely.— 174 Manhood of Humanity ence nor tools nor tion. our ancestors human creatures human dimension animals first —not of life —but continued we know. maxim or precedent. human history nor human tradiwe know. but live in only began to the the level of therein.

insights. inventions. doctrines. but naturally propagate their kind —ideas begetting ideas. if not in degree. as our was the same in kind own. that is. the definitive nature. we know that the mental power. of man. the time-binding capacity. and not . we therefore. but also and this is of the utmost importance upon the total progress made by preceding generations upon the inherited — — — fruit. of the time-binding toil of the dead. the characteristic energy. of our pre-historic ancestors. has been possible and actual simply and tend to solely because the products of time-binding work not only survive. not only upon its native capacity for binding time. the we know that it is highest known agency of Nature. depends. to produce ideas. natural for this capacity. inventions leading to other inventions. knowledge breeding knowledge. accordingly single amount of progress a generation can thus make is what mathematithat the we know cians call an increasing function of time. nothing but progress in the production and right use of material and spiritual wealth. if it have an adequate supply raw material and be unhampered by hostile circumstances. that the know of amount of progress which a single generation can make. knowledge and other forms of wealth: that progress in we know which is what we call civilization.Manhood and transmitting it of Humanity future 175 for expansion — is the peculiar power. the defining mark.

but will thus a swiftness grow towards infinity grow with itself which is not constant but which grows towards is infinity with a swiftness which. if we will . again. it is it I say. and so on indefinitely. if be allowed to operate naturally. progress which we know. again. and so on and on fact. We thus see. is a marvelous and such for us a fact of immeasurable significance. laws of of human nature. as already explained. for is means that the time-binding power of man it that. not constant but increases according to the same faw. laws of the time-binding energies man are very remarkable functions not only do — — they increase with time but their rates of increase are also exponential functions of time and so the rates of increase themselves increase at rates which are. is (PRT-P) also an increasing exponential function of we know from the differential calculus that these functions —which represent natural laws. exponential functions. civilization — the production spiritual wealth — and right use of material and will not only (as mathematicians say). without limit.176 Manhood of Humanity only an increasing function but an increasing exponential function of time — a function like too. that the total T successive generations can thus make is: R-i which time. PR T . that.

the past is present and the dead survive destined to greet and to bless the unborn generations: time. comis pared with no-civilization. we may know well enough what the enemies are. we know. if reflect. meagre. but have always been hampered and are we hampered to-day by hostile circumstances. For we know that those peculiar energies the civilicircumstances. have never been permitted so to operate.Manhood of Humanity it. savage. We know that the total progress made in the it long abso- course of humanity's childhood. our present vast and rich in if civilization many ways. however. we thus see of that in distinctively as human in the life man man. though lutely great. that. And. is literally of the core and substance of civilization. but life-in-time. the time-binding energies of humanity had been always permitted to operate unhampered by hostile would long ere now have produced a state of civilization compared with which our present estate would seem mean. So it has been since the beginning of man. we know that. 177 that only retire to our cloisters and contemplate the proper life of man as is man life. is not life-in-space like that of animals. bound-up time. is is relatively small. they zation-producing energies of man — — far from being always permitted to operate according to the laws of their nature. — the hostile circumstances —have been and We know that in the beginning of humanity's .

by age-long seasons of flood and frost and heat and drought. properties and potencies had discovered. because we have inherited so much bound-up time and because our imaginations have been so little disciplined to understand realities. by im- mense geologic and climatic changes. both sudden and secular. as already said. no capital whatever to no material wealth no existing time —no start with in the spiritual wealth form of knowledge of the world or the nature of fruit of dead men's toil —nothing —no man bound-up to be but wild and raw material. Of all the hostile circumstances. of all the causes which throughout the long period of humanity's childhood have operated to keep civilization and . in a measure too vast for our imaginations. unforeseen and irresistible by earth- — quake and storm. not only destroying both natural resources and the slowly accumulated products of by-gone generations but often extinguishing the people themselves with the centers and abodes of struggling civilization. do we realize that present civilization has hardly begun to be that of enlightened men.— 178 Manhood of Humanity childhood — in its babyhood. we can still scarcely picture to ourselves the actual condi- tions of that far-off time of humanity's less babyhood. moreover. even now. whose all very location. so to speak — there was. that the time-binding energies of our remote ancestors were hampered and baulked. We know.

I do not mean ignorance of physical facts and the laws of physical nature for this latter ignorance the effect of the cause I is in large measure igno- have in mind. mean human ignorance." neous. .Manhood of Humanity in full 179 accord with human welfare from progressing the natural laws of the time-binding energies of man. The other one is the conception according to which human They are two. a cause still everywhere I in operation. the most potent cause and most disastrous. and both of a Both of them are characteristic of humanity's childhood. I What out. I mean human ignorance of Human Nature I mean man's ignorance of what Man is I mean rance I — false conceptions of the rightful place of man in the scheme of life and the order of the world. and so he It is had to grope. beings have no place in Nature but are hybrids of natural and 5z</>£rnatural. Man started with no but his phys- strength and the natural stirring within of the capacity for binding time. It not strange that he was puzzled by himself. remains to be men- tioned. The — mean is far more fundamental and far more potent. animals combined with something "divine. it is Whose is the fault? In a deep sense. both of them are erro- them have done infinite harm in thousand ways. the false conceptions are have already pointed One of them is the conception according to which human beings are animals. capital ical —on knowledge—with nothing the fault of none.

but was not invented by them. it became powerful instrument for it men. visible was was spiritual. ran. The belief monstrous. For the obvious was only an erroneous result of an honest effort to facts understand and to explain. of the believed themselves to be animals. it capacity. it for impostors. his time-binding subtle. and his animal propensities were so obtrusive. for he has animal propensities as a cube has surfaces. slept. organ but an invisible function. grew. intellect it was not a was the energy called or mind. hybrid offspring of beast and god. in a it —animal-hunting — certainly On the one re- sembled animals physically hundred unmistak- able ways. on the other hand. it and so I say it is not strange is indeed very sad and very pathetic — but it is not to be wondered at that human beings have falsely So. once evil vented. all just like while his distinctive mark.180 is Manhood of Humanity not strange that he thought himself an animal. but its easy to understand. rival belief — is the belief that humans are neither nat- ural nor supernatural but are both at once. died animals — —he was — it born. at once brutal and divine. too. hand. ate. which the physical — senses do not perceive. became more and animal-resembling more evident that the same . origin a is it is very pathetic and very in- sad. so very evident to physical sense had legs and hair. created a real puzzle to be explained: and women and children animal-hunted human beings men.

it is our high and solemn duty. then. than all other hindering causes. groping course of humanity's childhood. human all beings have given to the most important of questions — the question: What at. and are doing more to-day. and so it are neither animals nor gods. neither natural nor supernatural. Here was a puzzle. to hamper and thwart the natural activity of the time-binding energies of man and thus to retard the It is natural progress of civilization. It is — — conception that in the state was of answer had to be was —humans — easy to understand what the childish and mythical ." Such. false said. have that the misconceptions involved in and I repeat. a mysterious union of animal with something "divine. no matter how sincere. not merely our privilege. and monstrous. they are both at once. are the two rival answers which. is Man? I have no said that the answers. in the long dark. critical conception avoids the mixing of dimensions feeble infancy. them have done more throughout the by-gone centuries. how honestly arrived I are erroneous. To perform not an The misconceptions in question have come . matter to fact. to the great duty is examine them. easy task. mystery. a mixture.Manhood of Humanity human beings could do 181 many things which animals never did and could not do. planation. a Time-binding curiosity demanded an ex- What was it to be? Natural science had not yet arisen.

are their nakedness ( women. examining them we have forth. Let us keep the in mind. have. they have not clean-cut.) 1 82 Manhood of Humanity to us down from remote singly. I have already results in : repeatedly performed. we have clearly in the third place to detect the fundamental character of the blunder involved in them — to see and coldly wherein they are wrong and why we can." but are both . at the very heart of the social philosophy of the world. and children : — i are (and so they are natural) (2) human beings are neither natural nor 5«/)^rnatural. come down plicated separately. to trace. clear and com- well-defined. neither wholly animal nor wholly "divine. they have come entangled in the mesh of time. their deadly effects both in the course of human history and in the present status of our human world. antiquity. thus disentangled and framed. The task of disengaging the two monstrous misthey are ruinous. if we conceptions from the tangled skein of inherited beliefs and framing them in words. finally. traditional opinions constitute the vulgar "philosophy" —of our — and creeds that the mental fog If we are to perform the duty of first of all to draw them them from our inherited tangle of beliefs and frame them in suitable words. Here they beings Human animals —men. we have next to bring ourselves to realize vividly and keenly that the conceptions. whether they be true or false. to disengage are in fact.

The second part of our task which is the reader's task as much as mine is not so easy. knows that the third in question is the task of detecting and exposing the funda- mental error of the misconceptions a task of the It is. task not. he will not be a "reader" of this book. therefore.— Manhood of Humanity 183 natural and supernatural at once — a sort of mysteri- ous hybrid compound of brute and gods. What is the "kind" of this one? the kind that consists in what mathematicians call "confusion of . and the reason is evident. I We have. therefore. — is utmost importance. mean. rational. said. all What logic. and interested If he is in the welfare of mankind. — He. It is this The false creeds in question — : — the fatal misconceptions they involve familiar to us — — are so they have been so long and so deeply imbedded life in our thought and speech and ways of we have been so thoroughly bred in them by home and school and church and state that we — — habitually and unconsciously take them for granted to be virtually stung into and have an awareness of the fact that we do actually hold them and that they do actually reign to-day throughout the world and have so reigned from time immemorial. to prick our- assume that the reader I is at once hard-headed. to shake ourselves awake. selves into a realization of the truth. that error? I have an error alike in errors are not —they But logical are of It is many kinds.

" can im- not be made in too clear nor too emphatic. Or suppose we notice that solids have certain surface properties and certain properties that surfaces do not have. will again employ the simplest of them child can understand it. I a beg the reader not to shy at. say a cube. as it ought to be. us have the mathematical for else not be heart.— 184 Manhood of Humanity The answer its is types. say that a a surface? — the class That the cube is a member of of surfaces? If we did. we say. two dimensions. we it say. That evident. then. we spirit. little for. logical types. Now we notice that the cube has surfaces and so has certain surface properties. or run away from. that help to There are millions of examples I make the matter clear. or dimensions. for portance the criticism of all our thinking great beyond measure. for the whole question of mathematical one. Here is a surface. we should be fools fools type-confusing is —dimension-mixing fools. it It has length and breadth —and has. breadth and thickness and so has. therefore. —one a is so simple that a It is mathematical ex- ample." or "mixing of dimensions. proceed confidently and at once to our simple example. solid is Do we. next consider a solid. and suppose we say . say a so plane surface. human Let — we should we are all of us mathematicians at us. three dimensions. It has length. all the mere word mathematical. although most of of us have but mathematical knowledge.

Plants are living things. mixtures. unlike the plants. compounds or hybrids of surfaces and something divine or supernatural . fly to creep or crawl or run or — thus evident that. but they have not in space. the energies of sun. of animals? Like the plants. animals belong to a higher order. part animals. if we did that. the autonomous power to move about life we may say that plants constitute the lowest order or class or type or dimension of — the dimension one. energies of sun. soil. What in. and us look squarely and candidly at the facts. transform and appropriate air. Let let now consider animals and human beings.Manhood of Humanity 185 the surface properties of solids are natural but the other properties are so mysterious that they must be "5z//>£rnatural" or somehow "divine". plants. To get a start. compared with plants. is it not evident that. but. animals in it possess the autonomous space is — power to move about swim or class. think for a moment and of plants. they take. and sup- pose we then say that solids are unions. or higher dimension of life. too. take transform and appropriate the air. or higher therefore we may . or higher type. soil and though in large they take them in forms already prepared by the plants themselves. we should be again blundering like fools? Type-confusing fools? Dimension-mixing fools? That such would be the us case any one can see. we see are binders of the basic energies of the world.

human beings have indeed the power of mobility the autonomous power to move the capacity for — binding space. if they pos- sessed no capacity of higher order. children women and would indeed be animals. And now what shall we say of Man? Like the animals. animals do not. by their autonomous power to move about abandon one place and occupy another appropriate the natural fruits of and so to many localities. animals are not. I have called them space-binders because they are in space. men. animals do man invents more and more complicated animals do not. and it is obvious that. proves. For man imtools. if we will but note them and upon them. man progresses. not. man thus a binder of time. animals are not. we will attend to their mighty significance. are such as to show us chasm separating human nature from animal nature is even wider and deeper than the chasm between animal life and the life of plants. of civilization. live in man is a builder man makes the past the present and is the present in the future. only In the light of such considerations. aniif it mals are not. . man is a creator of material and spiritual wealth. to distinguished. But what are that the the facts? reflect The facts.— 1 86 Manhood of Humanity life is say that the type of animal a type of two dimensions — a two-dimensional type. animals do not. or marked. the life of animals is thus a life-in-space in a sense evidently not applicable to plants.

Manhood
is

of Humanity

187

as clear as anything can be or can
life

become, that

the

of

man

the time-binder

tinct

from that of animals mere animal life is distinct from that
as the


is

is

as radically dis-

space-binders

as

of

plants

or

a surface, or that of a surface
It
is,

from that of from that of a line. therefore, perfectly manifest that, when we renature of a solid
distinct

gard human beings

as animals or as mixtures of ani-

mal nature with something mysteriously supernatural,

we

are guilty of the

same kind of blunder

as

if

we

regarded animals as plants or as plants touched by
"divinity"

the same kind of blunder as that of re-

garding a solid as a surface or as a surface miraculously transfigured by

some mysterious
It is
is

influence

from

outside the universe of space.

thus evident that

our guilt
is

in the

matter

fundamental

the guilt of a blunder that

a confusing of types, a

mixing of

dimensions.

Nothing can be more
reader
reflect.

disastrous.

For what are
Let the

the consequences of that kind of error?

He

knows

that, if

our ancestors had
lines

committed that kind of error regarding
of geometry; and he

and

surfaces and solids, there would to-day be no science

knows that, if there were no geometry, there would be no architecture in the
world, no surveying, no railroads, no astronomy, no
charting of the seas, no steamships, no engineering,

nothing whatever of the

now

familiar world-wide

1 88

Manhood of Humanity
made
I

affairs

possible

by the

scientific

conquest of
if

space.

say again, let the reader reflect; for

he

does not, he will here miss the gravity of a most

momentous
posed,

truth.

He

readily sees, in the case sup-

how very
if,

appalling the consequences would

have been

throughout the period of humanity's

childhood, there had occurred a certain confusion

of types, a certain mixing of dimensions, and he

is

enabled to see

it

just because, happily, the

blunder

was not made or, if made, was not persisted in, for, if it had been made and persisted in, then the great and now familiar things of which it would have deprived the world would not be here; we should not now be able even to imagine them, and so we could not now compute even roughly the tremendous magnitude of the blunder's disastrous consequences.

Let

the reader not deviate nor falter nor stagger here;
let

him shoulder the burden of the mighty argument
it

and bear

to the goal.

He

easily perceives the truly

appalling consequences that would have inevitably

followed from the error of confusing types
error of mixing dimensions


in

the

in the

matter of
error

lines

and surfaces and solids, committed and persisted
turies;

if that

had been
just

throughout the cenconsequences

he

can

perceive

those

because the error was not

great things of which (had the blunder been
it

made and hence the made)
here, so that

would have deprived the world are

Manhood
he
can
say:

of Humanity

189

"Behold those splendid things
its

the

science

of geometry and
in

manifold applications
affairs

everywhere shining

human

—imagine

all

of

them gone, imagine the world if they had never been, and you will have a measure of the consequences that
would have followed violation of the law of
and
solids."

types,

the law of dimensions, in the matter of lines, surfaces

But, now, in regard to the exactly simi-

lar error respecting the nature of
is

man, the

situation

reversed; for this blunder, unlike the other one,

is

not merely hypothetical;

we have

seen that

it

was
in

actually

committed and has been actually persisted

from time immemorial; not merely for years or for
decades or for centuries but for centuries of centuries
including our

own

day,

it

has lain athwart the course
it

of

human

progress; age after age

has hampered

and baulked the natural
energies

activity of the time-binding

the

civilization-producing

energies

of

humanity.

How are we to
in

estimate

its

consequences?
is

Let the reader keep

damental

mind

that the error

fun-

a type-confusing blunder (like that supentities)
;

posed regarding geometric
moreover, that
it

let

him

reflect,

affects,

not merely one of our
it is

human

concerns, but all of them, since
ing the center of

them

all

— regarding

an error regardthe very nature

of

man

himself; and he will know, as well as any-

thing can be known, that the consequences of the

ages-old blunder have been and are very

momentous

190

Manhood
terrible.

or Humanity
is

and very

Their measure

indeed beyond

our power; we cannot describe them adequately, we
cannot delineate their proportions, for
truly imagine

we cannot
it is

them; and the reason

is

plain:

that

those advancements of civilization, those augmentations

of material and spiritual wealth,

all

of the

glorious achievements of which the tragic blunder

has deprived the world, are none of them here; they

have not been produced; and so we cannot
the other case:

say, as in

"Look upon

these splendid treasures

of bound-up time, imagine them taken away, and

your sense of the appalling

loss will give

you the

measure required."
prived
in the

It

is

evident that the glories of

which the misconceptions of human nature have de-

manhood must long

remain, perhaps forever,

sad realm of dreams regarding great and noble

things that might have been.
I

have said that the duty of examining the mis-

conceptions imposes upon us four obligations.

Three
the

of these

we have performed: we have disengaged

beliefs in question

opinions in which they have

from the complicated tangle of come down to us from

remote antiquity; we have recognized the necessity

and the duty of

virtually stinging ourselves into an

awareness of the fact that

we have

actually held

them for
nomics,

true

and that from time immemorial they
ethics, eco-

have poured their virus into the heart of
politics

and government throughout the

Manhood

of Humanity

191

world; we have seen not only that the beliefs are
false but that their falseness
is

due to a blunder of

the

most fundamental kind

the blunder of mixing

dimensions or confusing types.

As

already said, the
that of tracing,

fourth one of the mentioned tasks
if

is

we

can, the blunder's deadly effects both in

human

history and in the present status of the world.

We

have
as

just

reached the conclusion that

this task can-

not be fully performed; for there can be no doubt,

we have

seen, that, if the blunder
in,

committed and persisted
spiritual
fruits

had not been the world would now
toil,

possess a civilization so far advanced, so rich in the

of time and

as

to

be utterly

beyond our present power
But, though

to conceive or

imagine

it.

we cannot perform the task fully, our plight is far from hopeless. The World War has goaded us into thinking as we never thought before.
It

has constrained us to think of realities and espeof the supreme reality
is

cially to think

the reality

of

Man.

That

why

the great Catastrophe

marks

the close of humanity's childhood.

The period has
end
is

been long and the manner of
forever

its

memorable

a sudden, flaming,

world-wide cataclysmic
ignorance
is

demonstration
ignorance of

of

fundamental
nature.
It

—human
as

human

just that tragic
pitiless

demonstration, brutal as an earthquake,
fate or famine, that gives us
It

ground for future hope.
it is

has forced us to think of realities and

thought

192

Manhood of Humanity
And
so I say

of reality that will heal the world.

that these days, despite their fear and gloom, are the

beginning of a new order

in

human

affairs

the order

of permanent peace and swift advancement of
weal.

human

For we know at length what human beings are, and the knowledge can be taught to men and women and children by home and school and church and press throughout the world; we know at length, and we can teach the world, that man is neither an
animal nor a miraculous mixture of angel and beast;

we know
out
the

at length, centuries,

and we can

teach, that, through-

these monstrous misconceptions

have made countless millions mourn and that they
are doing so to-day,
for,

though we cannot com-

pute the good of which they have deprived mankind,

we can

trace the dark ramifications of their positive

evil in a

thousand ways

;

we know

at length,
is

and we
a rank

can teach, that man, though he
is

not an animal,

a natural being,

having

a definite place,
life;

of his own, in the hierarchy of natural
at length,
is

we know

and we can teach the world, that what

which makes us human

material and spiritual wealth
to

— power — produce reasoned understanding—
is

characteristic of the

human

class

of life
to

that

the

create

to beget the light of
civilization

it

is

the unique capacity of

man

for binding time, unit-

ing past,
reality

present and future in a single growing
at once with the surviving creations

charged

Manhood

of Humanity

193

of the dead, with the productive labor of the living,

with the rights and hopes of the yet unborn;

we

know

at length,

and we can teach, that the natural
is

rate of

human progress
teach, that

the rate of a swiftly in-

creasing exponential function of time;

we know, and

we can
tion

what

is

good
it,

in

present civiliza-

all

that

is

precious in

sacred and holy

is

the fruit of the time-binding toil struggling blindly

through the ages against the perpetual barrier of
length,

human ignorance of human nature; we know at we can teach, and the world will understand, that in proportion as we rid our ethics and social
of

philosophy

monstrous

misrepresentations

of

human
will

nature, the time-binding energies of humanity
in

advance civilization

accordance with their

natural law
time.

PR

T
,

the forward -leaping function of

Such knowledge and such teaching will inaugurate
the period of humanity's

made True civilization. All the developments must grow out of the true conception of human beings as constituting the time-binding class of life, and so the work
manhood.
It

can be
in

an endless period of rapid developments

must begin with

a

campaign of education wide

enough
all

to

embrace the world.

educational agencies

church, the press

— —must be

The

cooperation of

the home, the school, the
enlisted to

make known

the fundamental truth concerning the nature of

man


194
so that
it

Manhood of Humanity
shall

become the guiding light and habit of men, women, and children everywhere. Gradual indeed but profound will be the transformations
wrought
and
first

in all

the affairs of mankind, but especially

of

all in

the so-called arts and sciences of

ethics,

economics, politics and government.
ethics of humanity's ethics

The

manhood
a

will

be neither
It will

"animal"
of

nor ".M/prniatural"

ethics.

be

a natural ethics based

upon

knowledge of the laws

human

nature.

It will

not be a branch of zoology,

the ethics of tooth and claw, the ethics of profiteering, the ethics

of space-binding beasts fighting for "a
It will

place in the sun."
ology, a branch of

be a branch of human-

Human

Engineering;

it

will

be a

time-binding ethics, the ethics of the entirely natural
civilization-producing energies of humanity.

Whatnot, will

ever accords with the natural activity of those energies will be right

and good; whatever does
"Survival of the
is

be wrong and bad.

fittest" in

the

sense of the strongest

a space-binding standard,
in

the

ethical

standard of beasts;

the

ethics

of

humanity's

manhood
will

survival of the

fittest will

mean

survival of the best in competitions for excellence,

and excellence
and
spiritual

mean

time-binding excellence

excellence in the production

wealth

and right use of material

excellence in science, in art, in

wisdom,

in justice, in

promoting the weal and pro-

tecting the rights both of the living

and of the un-

Mead. whose purpose species of is not that of adverse criticism but is that of showing the generally accepted "sound" bases for prosperous business." "business as usual. for then I have only to say that in the period of humanity's manhood their the moral blindness of such "principles. showing the established. S. I can hardly do better than to ask the reader to ponder a few extracts from that work. is Behold the picture: "Since the bondholder of his principal. (Appleton." in the sale of indul- gences in one form or another and the "divine wis- dom" of ignorant priests. N.). fit to be slaves. E. Y.Manhood of Humanity born. and amazing theories. and both security and interest depend upon the permanence .D. Ph." and the "finance" of "normalcy"? There lies before me an established handbook of Corporation Finance. It is needless to say that in the natural ethics of humanity's manhood those commerce will not be found. and traffic the "supernatural. of "industry." space-binding spirit of calculating selfishness will be and greed. And what shall we say in particular of economics. slavery is regarded with utter loathing as regarded to-day. since solely interested in the security and regular payment of his interest. 195 The ethics that arose in the dark period of humanity's childhood from the conception of beings as mysterious unions of animality and human divinity traffic gave birth to two repulsive species of in traffic — men regarded in as animals. by Mr.

) There we perfection. . the "dismal science" of political economy. .. to fix their on freight and passenger is traffic. . for example. Railroads furnish perhaps the best basis of bond issue because of the stability of the demand . franchises. rather than by the consumer. The more complete is more valuable lies in the monopoly. Stability of earnings depends . .196 Manhood of Humanity stable of income. . upon (1) the possession of a monopoly. . (2) control of sources of patents. . water and trans. a business is not an aggregate of physical property but consists of physical property buildings. for example. manufacturing industries. . the right to use public property for private pur- poses. . boilers. In the period of humanity's manhood. will become a genuine science based upon the laws of the time-binding energies of . .. the furnishing of light. The security of the creditors is here the profitableness of the business which Furthermore. . enables . . .. them . for the transportation service . Monopolies are of various origins. . other things being equal the companies with the most earnings or a market . the high cost of dupli- cating the railroad plant. plus the organization and ability to oper(Italics indicated ate business. the Monopoly is exclusive over a market." by the author. . the socalled "science" of economics. machine tools plus an indus- carried on in the factory. . which produce raw materials and the necessities of life have a more stable demand. The advan- tage of monopoly the fact that the prices of services or commodities are controlled by the producers {meaning owners Author). rates . (3) In (4) high cost of duplicating plant. see the animal standards in their studied Comment would be superfluous. furnish the best security for bonds.. or dominant control this control. . those enterprises raw material . — — trial opportunity. . The most familiar are ( 1 — . portation.

it 197 will become the light of Human Engi- —promoter. not merely a will lized life but a civilizing life. — to the of material and spiritual wealth. — these questions but it will answer them and answer it them aright. know and will teach that a civilizing life is a life devoted to the production of potential and kinetic use-values creation. truths and will discover some obvious many old words will acquire new meanings of man. ancestry of . will teach that will know and spiritual wealth rial — and wealth offspring of the it phenomenon marriage of Time and human is — —both matewealth in a natural Toil. that it is. and guide of human civi- will discover. and is it will teach that a human a time-binding life. neering weal. In seeking the answers. who are relatively few? Or both the living and unborn? The Economics of humanity's manhood will not only ask and Brown? If so. will know and will teach that the the world at any given moment is almost wholly the inherited fruit of time and the labor of the dead. For life. It consistent with the time-binding nature will discover and will teach that the time-binders of a given generation are posterity and ancestry at once — posterity of the dead. and so it will ask: To whom it does the inheritance rightly belong? Does of right belong to Smith why? Or does it of right belong to man to humanity? If so.Manhood of Humanity humanity. it guardian. why? And what does "humanity" include? Only the living.

economics know and will teach that time-binding posterity —can not human posterity inherit the fruits of time and dead men's toil as animals inherit the wild fruits of the earth." if they be not wasted by ignorance and selfishness. time-binding energies. by conflict and competition characteristic of beasts. are to be found the obligations of timeits binding ethics and the seat of will authority. the peaceful energies of inventive mind. are more than suffi- cient to produce a high order of increasing pros- . wealth-pro- ducing energies. but only as trustees for the generations to come.— 198 all Manhood of Humanity the generations to come . of growing knowledge and understanding and skill and light. The economics of humanity's manhood know and will teach that the characteristic energies of man as man are by nature civilizing energies. to fight about them and to devour them. and will teach that these energies of know existing men it will united with one billion six hundred million available "sun-man" powers united with the ten billion living "man-powers of the dead. it will discover and will teach that in this time-binding double relationship uniting past and future in a single living growing Reality. lust to it will know and will teach that "capitalistic" lust to get lust keep for self and "proletarian" for SELF are both of them space-binding level mal lust —beneath — ani- the of time-binding will life.

the basis of cooperation. patriotism — will not perish — in far from — — the love of will it grow embrace the world. and will teach. its the period of manhood economics will discover and will teach that to ation — it produce world prosperity. It will be a natural organic embodiment of the civilizing energies gies — — the wealth-producing ener- characteristic of the human class of life. for the lesson of and a Germany is plain. it will know and teach and all will understand that the common aim. the prosperity of humanity. the of Human Man a State — — Your a "state" and mine will be Cooperative Commonwealth fact democracy and not merely in name. but must be the welfare of all mankind. cannot be the welfare of a family nor that of a province or a state or a race. however. it both necessary and will know and scientific will teach that such coop- eration demands will leadership and a common aim. Its larger affairs will be guided by the science and art .Manhood of Humanity perity 199 in everywhere throughout the world. that scientific knowledge common aim are not alone sufficient. know. the weal of the world — the peaceful production of Wealth without country to the destruction of War. the unifying principle. it In humanity's manhood. cooper- not the fighting of man all is against man —but the peaceful cooperation of 'sufficient. for your country and mine will be the world.

Its functions would be those of encouraging. thing to be done? No one can foresee is the details. it It is a scientific dream and science will make all a living reality. and distribution. manufactures. period of transition natural — There must be a a period of adjustment. and one mathematician. How is the clear.200 of Manhood of Humanity Engineering Human ing "politicians" — —not by ignorant and graft- but by scientific men. Their work would be the development engineering and mathematical sociology of human or humanology. Is it a dream? It is a dream. The Department of Cooperation should include — — various sections. promoting the progress of science. but the dream will come true. but it would be the nucleus of the new civilization. by honest men who know. finance. providing and supervising instruction in the theory . which might be as follows: ( The Section of Mathematical Sociology or ) i Humanology composed of at least one sociologist. A first step would probably be the establishment of a new institution which might be called a Dynamic Department Department of Coordination or a Department of Cooperation the name is of little importance. but in general outline the process Violence is to be avoided. : one biologist. helping and protecting the people in such cooperative enterprises as agriculture. one mechanical engineer.

Their task would be to recommend legislation. They would ject to the elaborate educational projects and revise school methods and books. would then be recomSection: mended (3) to the appropriate legislative bodies. chemical engineers. and (3). selected as above. if ratified in a of sections (1) and (2). lawyers and other specialists in their respective lines. mentary schools and the public bers of the section The mem- would be selected by the appro- priate scientific societies for a term fixed by the selectors. (4) The Cooperative Section: composed of mechanical engineers. accountants. and to bring jurisprudence into accord with the laws of time-binding human nature Their joint session and the changing needs of human legislative society. composed of two one mechani- or three one sociologist. The Educational teachers. cal engineer. to provide means for eliminating "Legalism" from the theory and practice of law. one mathematician. (2) The Section of Mathematical Legislation: composed of (say) one lawyer. selected as above. expert bookkeepers. production engineers.Manhood of Humanity 201 ele- of values and the rudiments of humanology for at large. This section would be an "In- . proposals. business managers. one mechanical engineer. their decisions being sub- approval of the joint session of sections (1). one mathematician. (2).

and no pri- vate person. This section would reg- ulate the duplication of production. etc. and mathema- task being to help with expert advice new en- cooperative people's banks. sociologists. markets. and elaborate plans. but only cooperative societies. . (9) The Commercial Section. financial experts. etc. (10) The News Section: to true. (7) ists The Farming The Foreign Section: composed of agriculture. special- in scientific and cooperative (8) Section: for inter-cooperative foreign relations.202 dustrial Manhood of Humanity Red Cross" (Charles Ferguson) giving exadvice when asked for by any cooperative The its pert society. (6) gineers latest The Promoters' Section: composed of whose duty would be to study all of scientific the facts. The department in the would also study and give advice respecting the gen- eral conditions of the market and the needs various lines of production. (5) Cooperative Banking Section: com- posed of ticians . This paper would give daily news about the whole cooperative movement.. edit a large daily paper giving supplement uncolored news with a special to relating progress in the work of Human Engineering. collect data. Those plans would be published. would be permitted by law to use them.

. the time-binding energies. will and vicious advance peacefully. happily and without fear. The at outline of this plan Its is vague. and rapidly. in virtue of which beings are human. vicious economics politics. Such appointments should be con- sidered the highest honor that a country can offer to its citizens. principal purpose to accentuate the imperative necessity of establishing a national time-binding agency — a Dynamic Departand guarding the ment for stimulating. for this as All the selections work should be made mentioned above —through in the same manner proven merits not clever oratory.Manhood of Humanity All 203 men selected to the places for this should be the very best men in the nation. contin- uously. the wealth producing energies. by vicious ethics. guiding civilizing energies. under the leadership of human engineering. it being suggestive. in accord with the exponential law — the natural law —of the time- binding energies of Man. Every selection should be a demon- stration that the person selected was a person of the aims merely is highest attainments in the field of his work. unretarded by monstrous misconceptions of human nature. work They full should be well paid to enable them to give their energy and time to their duties. For then and only then human human welfare.

vast. a weakness is due to the absence of a true conception of beings are. has a strange the power of enlisting the thought and co204 . British Ambassador to the U. It displays it The literature of the subject skill. having achieved nothing but avoidance of starvation. S. I The have endeavored to approach it afresh. TN conclusion let me say very briefly. with a new the beginning. little book has aimed to Problem of Life is old. great knowledge and Much Its is fitted to inform and to inspire such as really read with genuine desire to understand. but A realization of I have little doubt that it will come. has seized the minds of millions. as I said in be only a sketch. That is what If I I miss in it what human and it is that I lack of fundamental and central thought that striven to supply. Here it would be easy to miss the signs of coming changes. from a is new of point of view. tion." Sir Auckland Geddes. the aimlessness of life lived to labor and to die. that this method. and the birth of children also doomed to the weary treadmill. in a new spirit. IQ20. it power — For a fundamental concepformed and expressed. have I have no fear once — is have succeeded in that. all else will follow quickly. as a matter of course. inevitably.CHAPTER X CONCLUSION "In Europe we know that an age is dying.

is defects in its execution I am not unconscious. with gloom. that whatever imperfections may be observed. important of truths the times are ripe. the shortness of a single life fore. . but in the extreme difficulty of any single man putting into full operation all the parts of so vast a scheme. at least. and the imperfection of every single enterprise. Of this. "Whether or not a question for . Without the truth in this matter. there not only hope but certitude that the old order has passed and that humanity's present day. the the I source of light. I feel certain. there can be no rational hope — history must go on is in its dismal course. I can only plead the immensity of the subject. not in the method proposed. as to the plan itself.Conclusion operation of 205 many minds. not according to the . time will decide. the world is filled with the saddest of memories. But. the fault consists. that I feel the need of great indulgence. in manhood dates from the That I this matter class of life — — have here presented the truth the true conception of the human I I have personally no doubt. It is on this point. but with the truth. of a new civilization. and is have no doubt that that conception guide. and on this alone. Of . forebodings and fear. I have no misgivings. I Whether feel as am mistaken or not. in And no conception can have greater power our conception of the nature human world than a true For that most of Man. to be the base. therewish this work to be estimated. I. felt in Buckle writing his History of Civiliza- tion: I have effected anything of real value competent judges to decide.

of their are right or wrong independently of our will. perhaps.206 Manhood of Humanity but according to the finish of its separate parts. and because. nor can they be even affected by allegation against their supposed tendency. subversive of the interest of Man. way in which those parts have been fused into a complete and symmetrical whole. that his views are. that they who shrink from the sufferings should pause before they reproach those by whom the suffering is undergone. he should remember. after a wider range of study. to be ascertained. the reader has met with opinions adverse to his own. Conclusions arrived at in this way are not to be overturned by stating that they endanger some other conclusions." And why spirit of have I sought throughout to follow the mathematics? Because I have been dealall ing with ideas and have desired. is a task so painful. and to turn aside from those which will not bear the test. own —they and clear. above to be right things else. the same which I have abandoned. To examine the notions in which we have been educated. whether the arguments are fair. The only points. and whether the facts are certain. . as those which I too once held. add. in an undertaking of such novelty and magniand I would moreover. Ideas have a character. I have a right to expect. If these two conditions have been obeyed. therefore. . that tude. if This. hopes and passions and ideas there is In the connection of is an unbreakable thread of destiny. That why in his Mathematical Philosophy Professor Keyser has truly said: . The principles which I advocate are based upon distinct arguments supported by well ascertained facts. and fatal to the progress of his knowledge. . I found them unsupported by solid proof. the principles follow by an inevitable inference. are.

his was an effort in \ the right direction and this quoted conclusion may ) well be a conclusion for ourselves in the 20th century: / "The truth might forever have remained human race. but simply and to understand them . anger. hid from the the final cause of figures. When turned my mind to this subject. tell it is method which can Spinoza even i us genuine truths about ourselves. envy.Conclusion "Mathematics is 207 fate in a physical the study of Fate —not sense. contemplate their affections and passions. which looks not to involved in it. those things with practice. . I determined not to laugh or to weep over the and to men. all hate. arrogance. The muses is are their fates." No doubt mathematics truly impersonal in method. is our freedom? What muse is do you love? of Paint- Poetry? Music? free. but to their essential nature and the properties had not I set another type of knowledge before them. . above selfishness in any form. but in the sense of the binding thread that connects thought with thought and conclusions with their premises. therefore. ing? loves then. Where. math- of life phenomena the only elevates our point of view above passion. such as love. I did not propose to myself any novel or strange aim. and. too impersonal maybe ematical analysis to please the senti- mentalists before they take the time to think. pity other disturbances . . if mathematics. And in order that I might enquire into the matters of the science with the same free- which agree best dom of mind with which we are wont actions of to treat lines and surfaces in mathematics. in the 17th Century had well realized this fact and in although imperfect many ways. Whoso them is Logic the Thought. but simply to demonstrate by certain and indubitable reason.

are these. gain for our minds much joy as by the knowledge of things that are pleasing to pertain to the nature of the atmosphere. Infinity. but as properties peras heat. What broached. though and have certain causes through which we may come to understand them. in the of soul not as vices of taining to it same way thunder troublesome. the senses. and thus. scientific man will open for . For yet necessary. by contemplating them in their truth. Is Time identical with Intelligence? Is either of them the other's cause? Is Time in the Cosmos or is the latter in the former? Is the Cosmos intelligent? Many no doubt and marvelous are the study of fields which the research. cold.208 Manhood of Humanity human nature. nomena Time." If only this little book will initiate the scientific study of Man. for then we confidently expect a science and art that will may know how to direct the energies of man to the advance- ment of human weal. storm. What. else? Many topics have not even been Time-binding energy —what may and so on? In it not achieve in course of the aeons to come? What light may if it not yet throw upon such fundamental pheas Space. it any. I shall be happy. are the limits of Time-binding? are somehow involved all the higher functions of mind.

particularly beg the mathematicians and physicists not to discard this appendix with too hasty a judgment of "Oh! metaphysics. physicists and metaphysicians should read if it carefully. both would find tremendous fields to work in." My answer vital. Some in their first scientists are very pedantic and therefore intolerant pedantry and they to express himself is may say "the fellow should learn how and then ask our attention. and look into the suggestions. that the problems involved are too pressing. and so I beg the reader's patience in regard to the language because some of the ideas are in themselves correct and sometimes very suggestive in spite of the language used. mathematicians and physicists will be moved to investigate the problem. If mathematicians and physicists would be more tolerant toward metaphysics and if metaphysicians would be moved to study mathematics." and also the metaphysicians not to do the same with an equally hasty judgment "Oh! mathematics. I am particularly interested that mathematicians. because scientific psychology such a science is to exist. too too fundamental for humankind. I would by necessity have to be a branch of physics. The problem is of exceeding difficulty to give expression to in any form and therefore much more difficult to express in any exact or correct form. to permit 209 me to delay .APPENDIX I MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING T^HE purpose of this appendix is to give an expression of some new ideas which evolve directly out of the fact that humans are time-binders and which may serve as suggestions for the foundation of scientific psychology. forgive me the form." I hope that if this appendix is sympathetically understood.

Too obviwords. old word "metaphysics" ignorance and an unnecessary word in the an illegitimate child of scientific study of Every phenomenon of nature can be classed and is studied in physics or chemistry or mathematics. or look for a screw in a man. an automobile. "to pull. in spite of being from exact. by one common characteristic. accomplished a great deal.210 Appendix I I for perhaps long years before shall be able to present the subject in a correct and satisfactory form. way supernatural or superphysical. to be more explicit. or chemistry. namely." far nature has been given by the definition its The old metaphysics. not in any but belongs rather to an or physics. in mere verbalism. aeons of pathetic that only after many human exist- ence the dimensionality of man has been discovered and his proper status in of "time-binder. It seems best to give the new ideas to the public in a suggestive form is so that many people may be led to work on them more fully. the problem. The nature." and if we were not to use any other names in connection with them.. this clear. The problem. Metaphysics used words and conceptions of multi-dimensional meanings which of necessity resulted in hopeless confusion. It is etc. what would happen? If we characterized these things or beings. we would try to milk an automobile or we would try to extract gasoline from a cow. in "a talking" about example will serve to make man. may be not that of some new science. An If we were to speak of a cow. unknown or an undeveloped branch of physics. What prevented metaphysics from achieving more was its use of unmathematical method. or all combined. therefore. therefore. its failure to understand the importance of dimensions. or." havoc would be introduced into our conceptions and in practical life. or we would speculate about any or all of these things. but rather that of a new branch of mathematics. a . and a locomotive as "pullers. and also that the to problems involved cover too vast a field for a single man work it conclusively.

fact. in a much more subtle way. ordinary sense without further analysing them. physicists. Can this be probut a special humanized mathematics. known fact that experimental sciences bring us to face facts which require further theoretical elaboration in this way experimental sciences are a permanent source of inspiration to mathematicians because new facts bring about the need of In this closed new methods of book a new and It is analysis. scientific psychology will very much need mathematics.. when the object position at — moving. but. and will powers. the ground for analysis and reasoning at once becomes very slippery. when we in use such words as "life in a crystal" or "memory animals". liberately accept and use them in the popular." and they may not be very much or attentively to analyse it. with undefined terms and inco- . is We duced It ? It seems to is a well me that it can. inclined to look closer into Theologians and metaphysicians probably will speculate a great deal about it vaguely. may it feel that the expression is just a "well adapted one. In using the words mental. but they are mistaken. that a movany one instant. Once the word and concept Time enters. therefore. Mathe- maticians. a fourth dimension is necessary to give its see. able only to space. etc. experimental fact has been the fact that humanity is dis- and analysed. etc. life a time- binding class of time-binding including all where the time-binding capacity or the is energy the highest function of humanity. spiritual. They imagine that dimensions are applic- three dimensional. As a matter of ing body has four dimensions. I de- the so-called mental. a moving object is four-dimensional that is. will. be.. it has three dimensions as any object at rest. spiritual. and so on.. powers. we are thus mentally making a mistake no ing an automobile" less nonsensical than the talk of "milkare baffled by the would which is Laymen word dimension. Mathematics and Time-Binding ously nonsensical 211 —but exactly the same thing happens.

— higher or highest energies of man (one of its branches any- way. Do we in this way approach or go back to "Cosmos"? questions which arise out of this fact Such are the crucial concept of new Man. but will keep us away from the discovery of truth." from "Bios" to "Logos.212 Appendix I herent ideas with incoherent results. does not work psychologically but works abstractly: the higher the abstraction the less there is of the psychological element and the more there is." and mathematics also has its whole by Henri Poincare) foundation in a few axioms. is our own human time. The psychological time as such. sit One chief difficulty their always that humans have to in own case. impersonal time- . in appeared force is mind. the . obliged to use them as definitions. that "the principles of dynamics as experimental truths but we have been . undefined and not understood. of the pure. that is. is also our own human time. or that {The Foundation of Science. action is equal to reaction. In the meantime two facts remain facts: namely. It is by definition that equal to the product of mass by acceleration. One must be borne first to us. scientific time as such." The other fact — psychological fact — is that time exists psychologically by is itself. "self evident. so to say. which will not lead us toward a scientific or true solution." but psychological It must be noted that the time-binding energy facts." now we are confronted with the fact that "Logos" Intelligence and Time-binding are dangerously near to — — — akin to each other. and only a kind of blend of the two exists in its own right. for sake of discrimination let us call it "M") when it works properly. Which one of them is the best conjudgment upon which one more nearly corresponds to the truth about cept "time"? What is time (if any) anyway? Until now we have gone from "Cosmos" to "Bios. mathematically. or may be identical. are mere shadows. mathematicians and physicists have almost all agreed with Minkowski "that space by itself and time by itself.

works automatically —machineits like. no matter what time is (if there is such a thing as time). . shaping correctly the product of is activity. (otl. bios. 0£2. Now if we it put psychological will axioms into the time-binding apparatus. results thrash out true is but whether the results are I another question. that the inestimable value of fact if mathematics. Mathematics does not it presume that its its conclusions are true. scientific This truth represents the "bound-up-time" in our present knowledge. logical truth when it is by which I will mean a psychoapproved by the time-binding facul- or apparatus in the present stage of our development. or relative truth. new divide the concept "truth" into three types: ( 1 ) Psychological. It may happen that after some rewording these definitions may become scientific. I will try to define "truth" and for this purpose I will duce three definitions. by which truth I will mean such conceptions but different • of the truth as any one of person possesses. To be able to talk about these problems have to intro- which are introduced only for practical purposes. which they are. as it were. but is does assert that conclusions are correct.Mathematics and Time-Binding binding energy binder tions. and finally. time-binding taking Is the succession of us right back to cosmos again? the correctly. or private. them is The definition of a facts a definition based on — suggests man as a timemany reflec- One of of the possibility that one of the funcits tions the time-binding energy in pure form. but whether truly another matter. • • from other types OL n ). (2) ties Scientific truth {as). because of the time-binding involved in it. logos. cosmos. then this process at once becomes impersonal and cosmic. 213 — (M). This becomes a very comprehensive we approach and analyse the mathematical processes as some branch (M) of the time-binding process. in the highest abstraction {M).

If it were possible to isolate completely from the other rays— and rays the "mental" process the "logos" the have a complete abstraction (which in the present could only be in mathematics). and so on.. ). a fact that mathematics is correct fact." I or "relative" truths. . M.. . being of course M and of absolutely different character. . between which. n f° r the "psychological. For simplicity's sake I will use the signs a\.. as a matter of underlie it all the basic axioms which mathematics are "psychological axioms" therefore may happen that these "axioms" are not of the a type but are of the f (A B C . or f (A BC. the A rays. namely ABC. sn w iM it he used for scientific truths. Again. the "will" powers. . causation valid in infinity (a x ). C. . the character of any "truth" in question will largely depend upon which of these elements prevail. then the work of could be compared to the work of an impersonal machine which always gives the same correctly shaped product no matter what is the — — M M material put into It is it. is so. 214 (3) of a Appendix The absolute truth. B. —impersonal — pas- sionless.. rays of the time-binding energy. the "spiritual" capacities. M.. . . ocs i S2 will not discriminate. . . for it probably . Psycho- logical truths will then be a function of all rays together. ) personal type and . for the moment.. which phenomenon based upon the I will be the final definition final knowledge of primal 2. . Let us suppose that the so-called mental capacities are the of different dimensions It may happen. and finally will illustrate the sug- a for the absolute truth valid in infinity. To make easier to explain. Let us suppose that the human time- binding capacities or energies in the organic chemistry cor- respond to radium in the inorganic chemistry.M.. the B rays. ." "private. I gestions by an example. that the complex timebinding energy has many different stages of development and different kinds of "rays" A.

if we want really to understand the world and man." axioms concerning normal numbers. M . To express it more than difficult I beg the mathematical reader to tolerate the form and look for the sense or even the feelings in what I attempt to express. The base of mathematics was / {A B C the work. then the old finites or the normal numbers would become very great numbers and the old very my mind . and for the very great numbers. . from O. then take the next very small number as the first finite or "normal number". I will use for the words "very small numbers. . . . As a matter of fact." The base of the whole of mathematics or rather the starting point of mathematics was "infinitesimals" the "psychological truths. . of mathematics is / (M) this is the reason for the "ghosts" in the background of mathematics. To make it less shocking to the ear of the pure mathematician. . mathematics facts. we shall have to start from the beginning. the psychological world. But the rules which govern the small numbers. Here to is to be found the kernel of the whole trouble. . etc. outline a correctly way to embrace psychology. If psychology to mathematical find a in principle.Mathematics and Time-Binding this 215 may be why mathematics is cannot account for psychological be an exact science therefore. and magnitudes that were tangible for the senses. in the meantime. way in which this can is : Here I must be must will endeavor to it be done. . the normal. or psychological numbers. are not the same. ) or the development. M . It seems to me that." the word "number" I will sometimes use the word "magnitude" and under the word "infinity" I will understand the meaning as "limitless. . the very small. ." for the "finite" the words "normal numbers" and for the "transInstead of using finite" the words "very great numbers. And.). is composed exclusively of very great numbers and of very small magnitudes (atoms. electrons. The / (M) evolved from this / (A B C . the physical world.) base a wonderful abstract theory absolutely correct for the normal. and the great numbers. .

that the start would be made not somewhere in the middle of the magnitudes but from the beginning. the concept of numbers. infinity. The infinitesimals are Nature's natural mathematics the infinitesimals were an analytical —an "M"— finites." from the "O" from the intrinsic "to be or not to be" and the next to it would be the very first small magnitude. maybe. become philoThis new science. space. psychological mathematics would be absolutely rigorous. correct and true in addition to which. still it could be changed to a higher order in the way indicated here and sophic or psychological mathematics. or from the limit "zero. it would change or enlarge and make humanly tangible for the layman. This new branch of philosophic. which is a common tangible base for psychological as well infinitesimals) — . of for ordinary purposes. In . continuum. nevertheless. common base from O and next to it very small number. time and so on. real. This new philosophic mathematics would eliminate the concept of "infinitesimals" as such. — losophy in existence. Such a mathematics would be the mathematics for the time-binding psychology. as analytical truths. the physical and therefore psychological continuum (I use the words physical continuum in the way Poincare used them) would become a mathematical continuum in this new philosophic mathematics. Mathematical philosophy is the highest phiorder and so on. but starting from a real.216 great Appendix I numbers would become the very great of the second Such transposed mathematics would become psychological and philosophic mathematics and mathematical The philosophy would become philosophic mathematics. which cept and called is is an artificial conso- not as a concept an element of Nature. immediate and most vital effect would be. course. would not change the ordinary mathematics It would be a special mathematics for the study of old Man dealing only with the "natural finites" (the and great numbers of different orders (including the normal numbers).

conceptions of time. fact This . it would build rather a new philosophic mathematics rigorously correct where analytical facts would be also psychological facts. is that taking zero as the limit and the next to it very small magnitude for the real starting point. the organic growth. The most vital importance. it will give us a mathematical science from a natural base where correct formulas will be also true formulas and will correspond to psychological truths. ing of radium is the same — The formula is only the exponent negative indeed very curious and sugProcreation. This new mathematics would not only give Keeping in mind both correct results but also true results. because of our starting point. repeat once again that this transposition of our starting point would not affect the normal mathematics for normal purposes.Mathematics and Time-Binding time-binding 217 I — necessity. nevertheless. I call it "time-linking" for the sake of diftion of time. If we compare the formula for organic growth y=ek*} with the formula "P R T " we see that they are of the same type and the law of organic growth — We applies to the human time-binding energy. and all we know about Man will explain to us a great deal about time. what we broadly mean by human "intelligence" which makes it obvious that time (in any understanding of the term) is somehow very closely related to intelligence the mental and spiritual activities All we know about "time" will explain to us a of man. is We see. that the time-binding energy also "alive" and multiplying in for the decomposis larger and larger families. too. we may see that the human capacity of "Time-binding" is a very practical one and that this time-binding faculty is a functional name and definition for . instead of positive. the scientific time and the psychological time. The "ghosts" in the background will rapidly vanish and become intelligible facts for philosophic mathematics. have found that man is an exponential function where time enters as an exponent. if we consider facts alone. is also some funcgestive. great deal about Man.

by transformation or by drawwill find that this higher energy directly connected we — on other sources the of energy. but the results for science and are already tremendous because scientific understanding and use of it. the transformation of organic atoms.218 ference. "able If to direct basic powers. is somehow time ing to is. and what is very characteristic — — the results are /mze-binding energies. which seems to be the only supposition. There is only one supposition left." higher exponential energy. is Radium was discovered only a few years ago and life still very scarce. to knowledge." but. that the time-binding apparatus has a source for in tremendous energy the transformation of organic atoms. would bring us to face striking facts. is This supposition almost a certainty because it seems to be the only possible supposition to account for that energy. This supposition. or theological methods. I am confident that. physicists have never attempted to study this energy from that point of view. Thus solar energy transformed into coal for instance. It obvious that no amount of chemical energy in food can account for such an energy as the time-binding energy. — is which with "time" no matter what able to produce. there will be results in which all the so-called . so or the rotary energy in a steam engine. correct and scientific my There is no scarcity in "human radium. but just methods. free from any speculation. mind — is I do not know." we analyse this energy. We methods were applied in the did not use any zoological direct. Not with the this "time-binding. which means a direct drawing upon the cosmic energy. its namely. Happily these things can be verified in scientific laboratories. new energies unknown nature. is transformed into the energy of the drive and on. if once they start. of a piston. Appendix Whether the I or of so energy of procreation for in that of "time-linking" can be accounted units chemical energy taken up in food. and this cosmic energy time and intelligence are somehow connected — — — if not indeed equivalent. namely.

Messrs. It is very difficult to give in quate list of the literature such a book as this an adewhich may help to orient the the great advance science has reader in a general way made its is a pioneer book in no books dealing directly with its subject. Professor Keyser approaches the problems from both the logical and the warmly human points of view in this is the great human and practical value of his work. these two sciences are (i) Mathematical philosophy is and (2) neering. such as are not fakes. final secrets may happen the science of time-binding — the final — truth — in that the science of Man — as will disclose to us the inner and of nature. approaches the problems somewhat from a physicist's point of view. Russell and Whitehead approach the problems from a purely logical point of view and therein lies the peculiar value of their work. It is not for me to advise the reader what selections to make. and so there are subject. . psychic" phenomena. care (deceased) They are two English scientists. J. and one American. Scientific biology. a circumstance giving his philosophy its particular value.Mathematics and Time-Binding 219 "supernatural. for if a thorough knowledge of the subject is desired the reader should read all these books. There are two branches of science and one art which are fundamental for the further development of the in the last few years. valid in infinity. my knowledge only who treat the subject as a Russell and A. will become It scientifically understood and will be conare sciously utilized. Bertrand N. Professor C. . Keyser. the art the art of creative engi- In mathematical philosophy there are to four great mathematical writers distinct science. Whitehead one Frenchman. Henri Poincare was a physicist (as well as a mathematician) and. This book own way. Now they mostly wasted or only played with. spiritual. therefore. Henri Poin. but not all readers are willing . tions These four scientists are unique in their respective elaboraand elucidations of mathematical philosophy.

Y. 1903.. On the notion of cause. "Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy. Infinite cardinal numbers Infinite series and ordinals.220 Appendix I to make that effort toward clear thinking (which in the meantime will remain of the highest importance in science). 1914. be read by every one interested in mathematical philosophy. Kinds of relations.. Holt & Co. of Mathematics. . without doubt. The axiom of infinity and logical types. of Philosophy. : The purely mathematical foundation Russell. Mathematics and N. For many temporary reasons I was not able. N. The ultimate constituents of matter. Some readers will wish to select for themselves and to facilitate their selection I will lay out a feast "Menu" of this intellectual by giving in some cases the chapter heads. The Definition of order. Selection from contents: Definition of number. N. Selection from contents: Mathematics and the metaphysicians. "Our Knowledge of the External World.) am "The Problems 1912. logic. On scientific method in philosophy." Cambridge Uni- this not giving any selections from the contents of book because this book should. as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy. before going list into print. Classes." H." Macmillan. 1919. "The (I Principles versity." Chicago. but there is no stroke of should be read with great attention — their pen but which besides which there is a very valuable literature about their ( I ) work. "Mysticism and Logic. Y." Longmans Green & Co. to give a fuller of the writings of those four unique men . Y. Bertrand. Limits and continuity.

The data of science. Objects. J. "Principia Mathematica. N. ." "Human Worth (2) of Rigorous Thinking. Whitehead and Cambridge. Alfred N. "An Enquiry Concerning The the Principles of Natural Knowledge." London. To every one and especially to philosophers and men of natural science. Nature and thought. The anatomy of some scientific ideas. 221 "An Introduction to Mathematics. N. The organization of thought. The ultimate physical concepts.Mathematics and Time-Binding Whitehead." Selection from contents: Cambridge. The physicist's point of view Poincare. Henri. I. Keyser. method "The Concept of Nature. N. Science and hypothesis. 1910-1913. The theory of objects. "The Organization of Thought Educational and Scientific. It is a noble monument to the critical spirit of science and to the idealism of our time." C. By A. "As a work of constructive criticism it has never been surpassed. This monumental work stands alone. 1920." Bertrand Russell. 1917. Y. The of extensive abstraction. "The Foundations of Science. and relativity. time. 1919." The Science Press. it is an amazing revelation of how the familiar terms with which they deal plunge their roots far into the darkness beneath the surface of common sense." Cambridge. Selections from contents: The principles of mathematics in relation to elementary teaching. The method of extenSpace and motion.. Henry Holt & Co. Space. Selection from contents: Number and magnitude. 1913. Time. Selection from contents: traditions of science." 1911. sive abstraction. Y.

the Constitution of the United ." Forthcoming Book. 1916. and the Old Theology. Columbia University Press." The Rational and The Yale University Press. The mathematical obligations of philosophy. "Supersimian" Wisdom. "The Human Worth of Rigorous Thinking." the Super- "The New Infinity The Yale University Press. Science and the soning. The human The walls of the world. The mathematical sciences. Selection from contents of general interest. test of harmony. The objective value of science. III. point of Keyser. Radiant aspects of an over-world. scientist. A world un criticised the garden of the devil. Mathematics as the study of fate and freedom. The new mechanics. "Mathematical Philosophy. or concerning the figure and the dimensions of the Universe of space. Mathematical productivity in the United States. Mathematical reaAstronomic science. The universe and beyond. The axiom of infinity: A new presupposition of thought. The existence of the hypercosmic." Essays and Addresses. the Study of Fate and Freedom. Space. Lectures for Educated Laymen.222 Appendix I Force. Autonomous truth and autonomous falsehood. Science and method. significance of mathematics. Significance and nonsense. Cassius J. civilizing. The value of science. Mathematical philosophy in the role of critic. Theoretical and practical doubt. The physical sciences. Distinction of doctrine and method. "Science and Religion: rational. The prototype of rea- — — — — soned discourse often disguised as in the Declaration of Independence. Nature. Research in American Universities. Verifiers and falsifiers. Other Varieties of truth and untruth. practical life. Selection from contents: The human worth of rigorous thinking. A diamond Distinction of logical and psychological. Logic the muse of thought. istic Human- and industrial education. view: (3) The human. II.

Meaning of dimensionality. — — — A — mathematics and the mathematics of psychology. in all thought and human Ideals the flint of reality. no thinking. Qualities essential to engineering leadership. Need of The role of infinity history of the Imperious concept. unimaginable worlds. asymmetry of imagination. The theory of logical types. as philosopher. as mathematical thinker as a Man. Importation of time and suppression of time as the classic devices of sciences. The The engineer as educator. Consequent retard- The symmetry of thought. a mighty poem. as economist. Mathematical infinity. as statesman. supreme application of it to definition of man. the Origin of Species. States. The ation of science. — — ideals and idealization. and the science of human welfare. The quest of what abides in a fluctuant world as the binding thread of human The tie of comradeship among the enterhistory. prises of human spirit. its dynamic and static aspects. Huengineer. the Sermon on the Mount. The nature of invariance. Relation function and transformation as three aspects of one thing. Its study. as ethics of the art. as psychologist. is "Mind" a group. Science as engineering in preparation. Both of them in their infancy. The notion simply exemplified in many fields. The problem of time and kindred problems. manity the civilizing or Time-Binding class of life. The concept of a group. scientist. in Distinction of imagination and conception. The ages-old problem of permanence and change. The philosophy of the cosmic Limits and limit processes omnipresent as year. The static and the dynamic worlds. Logical Open avenues to existence and sensuous existence. Engineering Mathematics the guide of the as science in action. No trans- formation. Engineering the guide of humanity. Science and engineering. The psychology of aspiration. the common enterprise of science. Transformation law essentially psychological.— Mathematics and Time-Binding 223 —Nature of mathematical transformation. — — .

same time. and life and false conclusions lead us in wrong directions. not merely wasteful but positively harmful. as pure chance plays too large a part in it. In such a case. consequences ideas because we do at the not use. and knowledge greatly suffer in consequence. suitable lanfalse definitions lead to guage . or take pains to use." not by the production of one man but by a chain of men. they tend to bring us to false con- clusions. When and facts are falsely defined. Until lately. There is no need to establish a new science to replace logic. subtle and yet most ener- phenomenon of nature — is in the main wantonly wasted. we arrive at a com- plete "truth. logic was supposed to be the science of correct thinking. but the initial discovery not only has to be produced but correctly defined before it can be used and What we do not that is the important point to be made. Extensive achievements made almost entirely by many men taking up the work life of one to achieve done by a discoverer. realize is the tremendous amount of mental work that is lost by an incorrect use of words.APPENDIX II BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING '"THE are man is short. we simply have to look closer 224 . Our is progress not a well ordered pursuit after truth. and to very few is it given much in their lifetime. Human getic thought — that unique. but modern thought has progressed so far that the — so old logic is not able to handle the great accumulated volume the great complicated mass of existing ideas and facts —and we are forced to look for another instrument much more expedient and powerful.

bringing about unanimity of all sciences and thus greatly increasing their effectiveness in the pursuit of truth. . doctrines and creeds will have to and Very probably all our be revised some rejected. but why confuse our minds by being afraid of. All the "qualities" will remain because they are facts. Everybody who wants to think logically must think mathethere matically or give up any pretense of correct thinking is no escape and all who refuse to investigate the justice of — this statement put themselves outside the pale of logically thinking people. a fact which. some rectified. I life will even revolutionize mathematics itself. space and time. so will lead to trustworthy results. in much the same way as the disit is covery of radium has affected them.Biology and Time-Binding into the sciences at 225 which was hand and nothing else realize the fact. change the quality of wine? Of course not. The application of rigorous thinking to life will even revolutionize scientific methods by the introduction of right definitions. this new concept may lead to a change in our present concepts of matter. in any way. would this. after investigation. namely. some broadened. we called it by its chemical formula. energy. the analysis of these phenomena presents great technical difficulty. This problem can be solved only by scientific experiments with the time-h'\nd\ng In many. everybody must admit. just language. even in most. and cannot be altered by words. This not a play on words. correct classifications. of the cases. that mathematics and matheis —nature's is it is matical reasoning the same for universal tongue all — than the true logic of nature the one means is of expression that peoples. suggested tentatively how this may be accomplished. This application of mathematics to In App. A most pathetic picture of the havoc and chaos which . As the seemingly ultimate and highest experimentally known energy is the human time-binding energy. with us all the time. or being a slave of words? If instead of calling wine wine.

continuum. dimensions. living complex organisms have been produced which grew to maturity through a chemiare reversible. — — —an — We the accumulator. a galvanic or chemical battery produces the same kind of electricity as the mechanical process of friction in the dynamo. that energy results in a chemical process chemical process results in electricity motion results in electricity the dynamo. The experiments in scientific biology have proved this to be true in living organisms and just this is the tremendous importance of the discoveries in scientific biology. I The thoughts expressed in App. the transformations are reversible. the the galvanic battery. and all classes. electricity results know all energies in motion the electric motor. Light and other energies react on organisms in the same way as the chemical reactions and these phenomena possible. whether the origin of the electricity be chemical. effects The energy are absolutely the same — More than that. For example.. in that their transforma- produced by the same type of no matter what its origin. no matter what is the origin of each. may suggest this "missing link" life. are tion somehow is related to each other. Mathematics has been able to make its most stupendous achievements because of its method of wrong words brings into in all fields of exact analysis of the tions. not of these conceptions in their sharply defined form have had direct application to our daily or to our world conception. or the interaction of cosmic laws as In some instances. ably adjusted. transfinite numbers. mechanical or cosmic as in the dynamo. rela- also of space and time. etc. etc. life Hitherto. —connecting mathe- matics more intimately with Modern science knows that all energies can be somehow transformed from one kind to another and that all of them represent one type of energetic phenomena. The marvel of an electric lamp is the same marvel. functions. .226 Appendix use of II life and science is exhibited thought by the endless and bitter fighting over words not well defined. when our systems are suitis.

I trust. no matter what its origin human time-binding energies (embracing all faculties) are the highest of the known energies equally magnificent and astonishing no matter what the base and the scientific understanding of them will only add to our respect for them and for ourselves. it will unmistakably help us to develop them indefinitely by mathematical analysis. it is equally false for the mind or the so-called spiritual and will powers. as they lead us to a much higher and more em- bracing ethics than society has ever had. TVie scientific understanding ot these phenomena will not "degrade" these phenomena. by Jacques Loeb. It is of course true that applicable to electricity or radium. with some measure of success problems in science and life. The human mind it is is at least an energy which can ing to call direct other energies. Electricity is electricity and nothing else. although a pound of beefsteak may help to save life and be therefore instrumental in the production of a poem or of a sonata. can a beefsteak be taken for either of them. but by no means . to solve these the results are astonishing. — — . Facts remain facts and no scientific explanation of a phenomenon can lower or degrade that which is a fact.) All phenomena in nature are natural and should be ap- proached as such." this statement should be equally sense we do human mind and we when and only when we acquire If we persist in it as natural. not fully understand the nature of the shall learn to understand it enough to recognize saying and believing that the "spiritual evidences cannot be explained on a material base. it incorrect and mislead- supernatural.— Biology and Time-Binding cal or 227 accomplished in the infancy of mechanical treatment of the egg. I have attempted. and this has been (See The scientific biology! Organisms as a Whole. The base is not the phenomenon sulphuric acid and zinc are not electricity. because that cannot be done. for these If this statement is false phenomena. time-binding energies are not a pound of beefsteak. By this analysis .

in other words. etc. WILL KNOW BY HIMSELF. and feel perfectly satisfied as long as one escaped the — — — jail. It is known that in remote antiquity. the methods used by those magicians or shall we squarely face facts? Shall we look upon life. but are exclusively the fulfilment of the natural laws for the nition of the fact that the human class of life. With the supernatural attitude.228 I Appendix II prove that the understanding of this most stupendous but of natural phenomenon tifical human life brings us to the scien- source of ethics and I prove that the so-called "highest ideals of humanity" have nothing of "sentimentalism" or of the "sz/^rniatural" in them. the class of life. simply because we do not understand them? It seems evident that . human ethics will have the validity of natural law. spiritual phenomena. their clever field is not one of argument but one of proved facts. their work is not to befog the air with cloudy expressions or sophistry. but to create. Whereas. the curtain of sophistry human Engineers are not metaphysicians. their method is scientific and their tool is mathematics.. THAT HE IS OUTSIDE THE LAW FOR HUMANS. and the usually so-called mental. by a simple statement "I do not believe" and that was enough to break all bonds and be free from the "supernatural morale" but to get away from the "natural morale" and remain human is impossible. with a morale made clear that it is a natural law for and speculation is removed and everyone who breaks away from the NATURAL LAWS FOR HUMANS. in some temples electrical phenomena were known and were used to keep Shall we follow the ignorant masses in awe and obedience. The recog- are natural and as phenomena of the human mind such conform to natural law has the fur- ther advantage over the "supernatural" attitude in that we human nature than the law of gravity. as supernatural. it was simple can no more evade a law of enough to avoid the issues of life. with an artificially formulated morale it was easy enough to break away by a simple mental speculation.

though is. We don't allow animals to practice the "survival of the fittest. at the moment. life were approached without prejuno supernatural "spark" was bothering us in our analysis an animal was an animal and nothing else we did not problems of animal — intermix dimensions. If we take. The — dice. The high dimensionality of the human mind. The unprejudiced analysis of the so-called "supernatural" does not alter any part of the strange and high functions of it. for example. are facts and must be accepted about time to establish an exact science to deal with them. In modern science facts are not wanting. therefore are we see that the "social struc- ture" of the animals on a farm never breaks down as they managed on a scientific base with an understanding of their proper standards. is 229 natural. and on no occa- sion can the so-called 'Supernatural" be anything else than it may. no matter what the origin." or "competition. of The mind which admits the supernatural blinds and frustrates any analysis or any attempt at analysis." which is far too destructive. we have first but know them. It is will powers. Who does not know the marvelous properties of this — — we see that phenomenon? . no matter it how simple or complicated a phenomenon a completely natural law. and the result is that the hideous proverb homini lupus" has become true. The phenomena of the human time-binding energy are and will remain the most precious. the so-called spiritual and as such. subtle and highest of known functions.Biology and Time-Binding everything which exists in nature. Animals to-day live more happily than man. sulphuric acid and zinc and make what we call a galvanic battery. Facts may not be denied or falsified if analysis is to arrive at correct conclusions. Our present social system imposes these disastrous methods upon man "Homo to alone. from two chemical substances a third a salt is made in addition to which we have a peculiar energy produced called electricity. be attitude above or beyond our present understanding.

it seems the only conception of life which can lead to an understanding of our social the source of ethics.230 Scientific Appendix biology has II progress lately. namely. and which cannot now be denied. and that this con- Man is rigorously scientific and accounts for the highest functions of man — the highest of the mental . law and ethics. made tremendous engineers cannot afford to ignore the facts established in labo- ratory researches. only then can the process of integration in any phase of thought be made without mistakes. But here one objection may be raised. what will take the place of the old philosophy. if human life is nothing else than a physico-chemical process? To quote Doctor Jacques Loeb from his Mechanistic Conception of Life: "If on the basis of a serious survey. — and ethical life will have to be put on a scientific basis and our rules of conduct must be brought into harmony with the results of scientific biology. an objection which for some is a serious one indeed. naturally active as such in time. belong to-day to the realm of practical life. A mathematical philosophy. if truth is what we really want. Engineers. and proves to be none the astonishing though entirely natural." I hope to have proved in this book that scientific ethics is it is based on natural laws for the human class of life. number of scientists all over the world are working at this problem and the scientific facts which they have established." well in hand. of course. Not only is the mechanistic conception of life compatible with ethics. have to know these facts mathematicians have to establish correct dimensions in the study of all the sciences and people will have to study . this question (that all life chemical terms phenomena can be unequivocally explained in physicoAuthor) can be answered in the affirmative. that based on the experimentally proved fact that cept or definition of Man is a Time- binder. The problem less of "life" and of other eneris hitherto considered "supernatural. There is no escape from that. gies.

is which Ears is (no matter what time unique to man. This process of formso ing chemical substances by the passing of an electrical current is called electrolysis and the product it is produced is called electrolyte. One of these energies of organic chemistry which lately has come into the scope of scientific is analysis is called life — its physico- which result I call the "time-linking" capacity or energy. for the consequences it will bring about later on.Biology and Time-Binding and spiritual 231 perfections —without the need of any "superthat life and all of natural" hypothesis. The energy produced by the reactions some organic chemical groups are. of which the human mind is the highest known form. in reproducing the former materials — that is. which manifest themselves in some peculiar energies. in that some of these peculiar energies cause physico-chemical changes in their base. Scientific biology proves the fact its phenomena are the results of some special physico-chemical processes. These phenom- ena have a parallel analogy in inorganic chemistry tricity — — in elec- the difference being only in the scale or dimension. The time- binding capacity or energy of is — if . namely. the process involved I own propose to call biolysis. chemical changes that new compounds electricity is which possess a reversible capacity. of a more complicated character and of another dimension. At is the same time a known fact that organic chemistry of infinitely more complicated and variable than inorganic chemistry. This name is important chemical base the protoplasm. an electric current in passed through a special battery are formed called an accumulator or reversible battery. is When occur. air. These processes are known to be reversible. as I pro- pose to call biolyte the substances produced. is a most subtle comhas man plex the highest known energy and probably sensitive to many the subdivisions. it it is). therefore. are the vibration of Eyes are sensitive to the more subtle vibrations of . generated.

. mechanism C 1 is the physico-chemical base (for simplicity I represent of the the whole complex as one base) human time-binding energy.232 light." exact definition of energy — are embraced in this in the capacity of time-binding." to grow and multiply "autono- same autonomous peculiarity applies to the it grows and multiplies "autonomously" in its own dimension.. Here again we see the same continuity of phenomena. radio-active substances after passing different stages. besides which it has the capacity to register not only all of our sensations but also the time-binding energies of other people. Note that the transformation of the atom or the transformation of mously" and this time-binding energy . A pp. C 1 and E 1 combined. the time-binding apparatus is senmost subtle energies. the energy T3 and so on in produced by a galvanic battery). I. is not complete but probably ends tion in lead. for illustration's sake only.. this new combination produces theoretically without limits. man which it is customary etc. . to call the "men- spiritual and will powers. evolution and of this time-binding energy. . The time-binding energy is a complex radiating energy somewhat like the emanations of radium and it probably also has many different subdivisions. to elec- thought 7\ on the base C1 (corresponding for the same reason to electrolysis and electrolyte in electricity).) All the higher characteristics of tal. the protoplasm as a complex organic physico-chemical unit which has the peculiarity to "live. in a similar sitive to the Appendix II way. ivhereas the transforma- which occurs is in the probably complete or nearly complete and (See production of the time-binding energy is that which I call the time-binding energy. A diagram will better explain the continuity. and it apparently has the capacity to register the energies of the universe. The turn produces a physico-chemical effect E x . process tricity T 1 is the thought produced by a physico-chemical (corresponding. . or C 2 produces T 2 which again in turn affects the base and produces a physico-chemical effect E 2 .

Biology and Time-Binding 233 <f .

way that the physico-chemical base. The animals are not time-binding. degrade human nature not only down animal level but lower still. they have not the capacity of the "spiral". preach who . At the same time. the biolyte must be very diffrom the biolyte of true ideas in the human dimension. and practice animal standards and in the same breath contradict themselves in any talking about "immortality" and "salvation". we affect their time-binding ca- pacities and energies very embraces. of course. The we are animals and essentially brutal and selfish can. Happily now science can explain and prove how fundamentally fiendish in effect are to the these teachings in the life and progress of human beings. until now. It will be a shock to those teach.234 as Appendix II special long as there is any source of energy upon which this energy can draw. it by affecting in a wrong This energy is so peculiar I may use the old expression. This theory which I call the represents a suggestive "spiral theory" working mechanism with the of latest all of the time-binding energy scientific and is in accord discoveries. if seriously. it will be obvious that if we teach humans false ideas. they have not autonomous progress. the highest ideals (when the time-binding energy is unobstructed and is allowed to work normally). and also the most criminal ideas (when the time-binding energy is obstructed by false teachings and in consequence works abnormally). have had no scientific explanation whatever. and it also explains other phenomena which. It explains the processes the mental and so-called spiritual energies which have been such a puzzle to humanity. Whereas human progress can be very seriously affected by false ideas. in other words. therefore. We cannot make animals moral or immoral because they have not this time- binding capacity. Nature or nature's laws happily cannot be completely deviated from or violated the time-binding energy cannot be of false teachings in the animal dimension ferent — completely suppressed in the time-binding class of false teachings that life.

physical conditions are guaranteed. . . Thus cell if we it see that the idea of the immortality of the body can be generalized may be destined to become one of the main supports for a complete physico-chemical analysis of life phenomena since it makes the durability of organisms intel. that life depends upon that one organ. The medical student. . . With open the natural law of time-binding realized." ligible. The mysticism connected and other phenomena of adaptation would disappear if we would be certain that all cells are really immortal and that the fact which demands an explanation is not the with continued activity but the cessation of activity in death." but unhappily we cannot help them. The idea that the body cells are naturally immortal and die only if exposed to extreme injuries such as prolonged lack of oxygen or too high a temperature helps to make one problem more intelligible. seems indeed uncanny that so delicate a mechanism should function so regularly for so this many years.Biology and Time-Binding a little thought 235 makes it perfectly clear that "animal stand- ards" and "salvation" or "immortality" simply exclude each other. by Jacques Loeb. the doing It its duty incessantly for the seventy years or so allotted to man. and the proper outside . problem of synthesis leads to the assumption of immortality of the living cell.) The outlook for those who live and profess selfish. stant synthesis then of specific material "The con- from simple compounds of a non-specific character is the chief feature by This which living matter differs from non-living matter. greedy. "space-binding animal standards" is not very promising as disclosed by the "spiral. the way is to entering scientifically upon the problem of immortality. synthesis should ever as come is to a standstill of its own accord long as enough food available . is amazed at the precariousness of our existence. . who for the first time realizes heart. . since there is no a priori reason why this . {The Organism as a Whole. The time-binding energies as well as "life" follow the same type of exponential function.

formerly at Berkeley University. knowledge few instances it is not because the principles of this theory are wrong. Loeb. drew my attention particularly to the books of Dr. Grove-Korski. clear before nothing better could. have only to collect them and there is little need of imagination to see their general bearing." founded by Dr." For the mathematician and the engineer. Jacques I found there a treasury of laboratory facts which Loeb.236 only time-binding Appendix II the benefit raise humans —can —only fulfilling full natural of laws for give them the their natural capacities by which they will be able to fate. Since we have discovered the fact that Man is a time-binder (no matter what time is) and have introduced the sense of dimensionality into We the study of life phenomena in general. J. but because they intermix dimensions and use words not sufficiently defined which always results in confusion and the If they differ in a checking of the progress of science. is of the greatest interest. a great many facts which were not become very clear now. because this is a theory which analyses the functions and reactions of an organism as a whole and . found with deep satisfaction that the new "scientific biology" is scientific because it has used mathematical methods with notable regard to dimensionality they do not "milk an autoillustrate as I — mobile. I wrote this book on a farm without any books at hand and I had been out of touch with the progress of science for the five years spent in the war service and war duties. themselves above animals and their The results obtained in scientific biological researches are in their growing very rapidly and every advance proves this theory to be true. My friend Dr. the correctness of my theory. Most of the problems touched upon in this appendix from a mathematical point of view are based upon laboratory facts. the "tropism theory of animal conduct.

. and influence upon the These experi- ments are conclusive and the conclusions arrived at cannot be overlooked or evaded. the so-called reflexes. a "mathe- the survey of a life long study of "troto express "forced name given They give the the movements" quintessence of laboratory ex- periments as to what are the effects of different energies such as light (heliotropism). but these books are of such importance that every mathematician and engineer should read them. (2) ." Forced Movements Tropism and Animal Conduct. since tropisms are reactions of the organism as a whole. gravity (geotropism). By Jacques Loeb. inasmuch as both are obviously of a purely physicochemical character." which in organisms. electricity (galvanotropism). "Physiologists have long been in the habit of studying not the reactions of the whole organism but the reactions of isolated While it may seem justifisegments. . one respect. etc. The tremendous practical results of such scientific methods are based upon two principles. however. It would. is — They are. on account of the mutual inhibitions which the different parts of the organism produce upon each other when in organic connection. matical biology" pisms. able to construct the reactions of the organism as a whole from the individual reflexes. while reflexes are reactions Reflexes and tropisms agree.. in their reaction movements and actions of living organisms. therefore. and they must not intermix dimensions. in of isolated segments. — I will quote here only a very few passages. and it is. namely: that.. if I may say so.Biology and Time-Binding therefore there is 237 no chance for confusion of ideas or the intermixing of dimensions. such an attempt is in reality doomed to failure. since the reactions produced in an isolated element cannot be counted upon to occur when the same element is part of the whole. impossible to express the conduct of a whole animal as the algebraic sum of the reflexes of its isolated segments. therefore. be a misconception to speak of tropism as of reflexes. (i) the scientists must think mathematically. their studies of the phenomena must be in "systems" as a complex whole.

. Conklin quote only from his Heredity and Environa repetition of the title of ment and italics are to save the book. tion of the proteins would therefore be responsible for the genus heredity. The hemoglobins of any species are different substances for that species. I will indicate the quotations by using only his name. .238 Appendix II they must see the danger and not be afraid of old words with wrong meanings. If a sceptical or doubtful reader is interested to see an ample proof of how deadly is the effect which an incorrect or unmathematical manner of thinking brings into science and life he — — also tions may be referred to these books. who have shown by crystallographic measurements that the hemoglobins of any species are definite substances for The following sentences by Reichert and that species. The different species of a genus have all the same genus proteins. This has been done for hemoglobins of the blood by Reichert and Brown. These books give ample proofs of how misleading and obscuring are the words used and how basically wrong are the conclusions arrived at by such scientists as still persist in using the anthropomorphic or teleological methods of analysis. Brown seem to indicate that this may be true for the crystals of hemoglobin. . ' . or verbalism. I From Dr. . But upon comparing the corresponding substances hemoglobins in different species of a genus it is generally found that they differ the one from the other to a greater or less degree. (All indicated by A.) "It would be of the greatest importance to show directly that the homologous proteins of different species are different. the differences being such that when complete crystallographic data are available the different species can be distinguished by these differences in their hemoglobins' The facts thus far reported imply the suggestion that heredity of the genus is determined by the proteins of a definite constituThis constitution differing from the proteins of other genera. but the proteins of each species of the same genus are apparently different again in chemical constitution . but must use clear and rigorous thinking to eliminate the prejudices in science the poison of metaphysical speculating with words. K. . . The following quota* different prove biologically that dimension — man is of a totally a totally different being than an animal.

micro-organisms. species. cattle. and every germ cell comes from a pre-existing germ cell. from the germ cells which are not made by the bodies of the parents but have arisen by the division of the antecedent germ Every cell comes from a pre-existing cell by a process of cell. . reptiles. and yet the latter is a fact of universal observation which cannot be relegated to the domain of hypothesis or theory. class and phylum are of course inherited. and the organization of the germ determines all the possibilities of development of the mind no less than of the body. " No fact in human experience is more certain than that the mind develops by gradual and natural processes from a simple condition which can scarcely be called mind at all. genus. whatever the ultimate relation of the mind and body may be.Biology and Time-Binding 239 and hence they may give rise to the specific biological or immunThe Organism as a Whole. The animal ancestry of individual. The only possible scientific position is that the mind or soul as well as the body develops from the germ. order. because they have come from different kinds of germ cells. worms. Men do not gather grapes of thorns nor figs of thistles. — . . fishes. Consequently it is not possible to hold." Conklin. body and mind." Conklin. "The entire organism consisting of structures and functions. otherwise there would be no constant characteristics of these groups and The chief characters possibility of classifying organisms. "The development of the mind parallels that of the body. develops out of the germ. that the body generates germ cells." "All pecularities which are characteristic of a race. . Men. sponges. no fact in human experience is fraught with greater practical and philo- no — . polyps. mollusks. ity reactions. by Jacques Loeb. birds. . nor that the soul generates souls. though the actual realization of any possibility is dependent also upon environmental stimuli. insects. the race is surely no more disturbing to philosophical or religious beliefs than the germinal origin of the individual. and which can not be Now we know that the child comes successfully denied. It is a curious fact that many people who are seriously disturbed by scientific teaching as to the evolution or gradual development of the human race accept with equanimity the universal observation as to the development of the human mind as well as body. . Every living thing produces off-spring after its own kind. of every living thing are unalterably fixed by heredity. all of the million known species of animals and plants differ from one another because of inherited peculiarities. horses. division. there can be no reasonable doubt that the two develop together from the germ.

" "The hen does not produce the egg." (Author. the germ-plasm is the continuous stream of living substance which connects all generations.) "In education Any are strangely blind to proper aims and education is bad which leads to the formation we . much more rapidly than man but that development sooner comes to an end. of development." "The germ This . is .) "Through intelligence and social cooperation he is able to control environment for particular ends. The children of lower races of man develop more rapidly than those of higher races but in such cases they The prolongation of the also cease to develop at an earlier age. . in the same sense that the elements of the other psychic processes or of the organs of the body are there present. tion to generation. due to interactions with one another and with the environment. and yet no fact is more generally Conklin. Another methods. the nerve cells. . . but lather in the form of elements or factors." the undeveloped organism which forms the bond between successive generations. and in several other animals which may be assumed to have a sense of identity.240 Appendix II sopnical significance than this. ... but the egg produces the hen and also other eggs. not as a miniature of the adult condition. immortal substance." . and in this sense the person is merely the carrier of the germ-plasm. especially those of the brain." "Doubtless the elements of which consciousness develops are present in the germ cells. is what I call "time-linking. the mortal trustee of an Conklin. which by long series of combinations and transformations.. Individual traits are not transmitted from the hen to the egg. disregarded." (Author. The person nourishes and protects the germ. but they develop out of germinal factors which are carried along from cell to cell. in a manner quite Other animals develop impossible in other organisms. . sidelight given also on the "Spiral theory. and these identical cells persist throughout the remainder of life. the person is the developed organism which arises from the germ under the influence of environmental conditions. period of infancy and of immaturity in the human race greatly increases the importance of environment and training as factors Conklin. give rise to the fully developed condition.. the person develops and dies in each generation. and from genera. It is an interesting fact that in man. cease dividing at an early age.

. . carelessness." pendence. "From sands to stars. Any religious or social institution is bad which leads to habits of pious make-believe. if the great progress from ape-like men to the most highly civilized races has taken place without conscious human control. time-binding impulses conscious. : This proves the great importance of knowing the natand making natural ural laws for the human class of life. in their This shows the importance of keeping the study of humans own dimensionality. . . Here it is immaterial how the first "time-binder" was produced.an profit by them. science recognizes everywhere the inevitable sequence of cause and effect. the universality of natural processes." Conklin. open-mindedness and inde. from the immensity of the universe to the minuteness of the electron. psychological possibilities were predetermined in the germ cells from which we came. ." Conklin. a part of the great mechanism of the universe. "All that man now is he has come to be without conscious human guidance. instead of habits of industry. other- wise the biolyte will be "animal" in substance as well as in effect. insincerity. slavish regard for authority and disregard for evidence. Man can not change a single law of nature but he can -put himself into such relations to natural laws that he -. Man also is a part of Nature. in living things no less than in lifeless ones. the question may well be asked Is it possible to improve on the natural method of evolution? It may not be possible to improve on the method of evolution and yet by intelligent action it may be possible to facilitate that method. the reign of natural law. physiological. and all that he is and does is limited and prescribed by laws of nature. thoroughness and success. every step of which is determined by antecedent causes. for then only will the spiral give a logarithmical accumulation of the right kind. instead of habits of sincerity. . the fact that he is of another dimension is of the greatest importance. Every human being comes into existence by a process of development. and also the importance of find- . If evolution has progressed from the amoeba to man without human interference. failure. Our anatomical. . .Biology and Time-Blnding 241 of habits of idleness.

.. ." . reflection and inhibition man is much freer than any other animal. The influence of environment upon the minds and morals of men is especially great. religion are the results of the environment and education of our early years. This understanding will enable man to discover new "time-binding" laws for their conduct. "Adult characteristics are potential and not actual in the germ. . ideals." "Owing to this vastly greater power of memory. thoughts." Conklin. our responsibility. .. satisfactions. their state. Human happiness is based upon the possibility of a natural and harmonious satisfaction of the instincts. . It may be added here that the "spiral theory" explains how our reactions can be accelerated and elaborated by ourselves.242 Appendix the II for the mg life. impersonal natural laws it human class of Now can be realized that all the so-called human none else than the ever growing fulfillment of the natural "time-binding" laws. their business relations. and their actual appearance depends upon many complicated reactions of the germinal units with one another and with the environment. our actual personalities are not predetermined in the germ cells.. Animals which learn little from experience have little freedom and Conklin. In short. To a large extent our habits. It is rather "The . words. There the will be no difficulty in the settlement of facts with new philosophy of "Human Engineering. then and only then natural laws but will be in human progress will have a chance to develop peacefully. the more they learn the freer they become... "Because we can find no place in our philosophy and logic for self determination shall we cease to be scientists and close our eyes to the evidence? The first duty of science is to appeal to fact and to settle later with logic and philosophy. morality. . and how truly we are the masters of our destinies. . which will not ideals are be a contradiction of the real.. but our possible personalities are." view analysis of instinct from a purely physiological point of ultimately furnishes the data for a scientific ethics. our aspirations. accord with them..

The instinct of workmanship would be the greatest source of happiness if it were not for the fact that our present social and economic organization allows only a few to satisfy this instinct. compelled by want to sacrifice a number of instincts especially the most valuable among them.g. vidual can ruin or diminish the value of its life by a onesided development of its instincts. We are instinctively forced to be active in . go away from the light. . . first by lowering the temperature and second by increasing the concentration of the sea water. despotism and miserable economic conditions is intelligible. dissipation. whereby the cells of the animals lose water. it is at the same time true that the economic and social conditions can ruin or diminish the value of life for a great number of individuals. We can vary at will the instincts of animals. This instinct can be again reversed by raising the temperature or by lowering the concenI have found repeatedly that by the tration of the sea water. for the play and learning of the child. that of workmanship. same conditions by which phenomena of growth and organizaThis tion can be controlled the instincts are controlled also. . Robert Mayer has pointed out that any successful display or setting free of energy is a source of pleasure to us. . frequently imagine that only want makes man work. . . .. the same way as ants or bees. in order . That such an ethics must have had a comforting effect upon the orientals. that of workmanship included. can be maintained at a But while it is certain that the indicertain optimal intensity. and it is perhaps due to a continuation of the unsatisfactory economic conditions that this ethics still prevails to Lawyers.. e. indicates that there is a common basis for both classes of life phenomena. This is an erroneous view.. can be forced to go to light in two ways. . A number of marine animals .Biology and Time-Binding 243 remarkable that we should still be under the influence of an ethics which considers the human instincts in themselves low and their gratification vicious. This common base is the physical and chemical character of the mixture of substances which we call protoplasm. criminologists and philosophers some extent. as well as for the scientists or commercial work of the man. It is no doubt true that in our present social and economic conditions more than ninety per cent of human beings lead an existThey are ence whose value is far below what it should be. The greatest happiness in life can be obtained only if all instincts. This is the reason why the satisfaction of the instinct of workmanship is of such importance in the economy of life. whose instincts were inhibited or warped through the combined effects of an enervating climate.

. . . physical free-will. . But for an increase of happiness only that amount of money is of service which can be used for the harmonious development and satisfaction of inherited instincts. Cruelty in the penal code and the tendency to exaggerate punishment are sure signs of a low civilization and of an imperfect educational system. we do not deny personal responsibility. scientific management is or . comparatively little is necessary. The idea of specific energy has always been regarded as the terminus for the investigation of the sense organs. As a matter of fact. that of eating. The scientist gets this satisfaction without diminishing the value of life of his fellow being. We . is the satisfaction of the instinct of workmanship or the pleasure that is connected with a successful display of energy. it might perhaps be rational to let many suffer in order to have a few cases of true happiness. If those who amass immense fortunes could possibly intensify their lives with their abundance. and the same should be Although we recognize no metatrue for the business man. can fill the memory of the young generation with such associations as will prevent wrong doing or dissipation. the only true satisfaction a multimillionaire can possibly get from increasing his fortunes. . and is nothing else than the expression of the natural impulse of the "Time-binding" energy. but the physics of these Physiology gives substances is still a science of the future." Comparative Physiology of the Brain.244 Appendix II to save the lowest and most imperative. In the present social and economic system very few have a possibility to satisfy this instinct. If we are anxious to develop a dynamic of the various life-phenomena. The rest is of no more use to a man than the surplus of oxygen in the atmosphere. . us no answer to the latter question. Mach expressed the opinion that chemical conditions lie at the foundation of sensation in general. It seems to me that we can no more expect to unravel the mechanism of associative memory by histological or morphological methods than we can expect to unravel the dynamics of electrical phenomena by microscopic study of cross-sections through a telegraph wire or by counting and locating the telephone connections in a big city.. Here it may be added that the "Instinct of Workmanship" in the animal class.. . . becomes in the time-binding class of life the instinct of creation. by Jacques Loeb. . . For this. . we must remember that the colloidal substances are the machines which produce the life phenomena..

.).D.e. of fundamental importance than in finance.7182. the assumption being that in a large tract the rate of growth may be taken the case of i. (from Unified Mathematics. its last "Time- binding" in analysis is creation and only such a social and economic system impulse — as will satisfy this will satisfy Humans — want — this natural the "Time-binders" — and will bring about their fullest "Laws of Growth" growth in work and happiness.. . c is commonly posi- £=2. bacteria as uniform from year to year. and k are constants determined by the physical and e is a constant of nature analogous to tt. Thus the growth of timber of a large forest tract may be expressed as a function of this kind. by —The Louis C.. the increase is in the number of bacteria per second proportional to the number of bacteria present at the beginning of that second. y=ce kt wherein c . Karpinski. x in- "The most immediate application of a function in which the . . "The values of the function of xt ce kx} increase according to the terms of a geometrical progression as the variable creases in arithmetical progression. with unlimited food supplied. . The constant k is the proportionality constant and is negative facts involved. the quantity in question decreases.' obeys what has been termed the 'law and may be expressed by the equation. Any function in which the rate of change or rate of growth at any instant t is directly proportional to t the value of the function at the instant of organic growth. but is not satisfactory to the instinct of creation. function S=P(i-\-i) n in other fields "Compound is interest function. growing under ideal conditions In in a culture. when tive .Biology and Time-Binding may it 245 be satisfying the animal instinct of workmanship. Ph.

and formulas expressing the law of organic growth. with time expressed in days. In the case of vibrating bodies. In inches as units of length of the mercury column. the expected decrease in area. When this aseptic condition is reached. the surface-area of a wound. "The meters.' y e~ tt is a recently discovered law which connects algebraically by an equation and graphically by a curve. and the two measurements of area of the wound-surface. y the law of 'organic decay. Radium in decomposing follows the same law. again between quite restricted limits. expression P=j6o e~ iwio gives the numerical value in of the pressure in millimeters of mercury for h measured The negative exponent indicates that the pressure decreases as h increases. enable the physician-scientist to determine the normal progress of the wound-surface. .' and this index. Healing of a Wound. the rate of decrease of the amplitude follows this law similarly in the case of a noise dying down and in certain electrical phenomena. The decrease in the pressure of the air at the distance h above the earth's surface is proportional to h. function at the instant. the rate of decrease is proportional at any instant to the value of the . .246 growth is Appendix II itself is to proportional to the function the air. is aseptic or sterile.92^ This 26200 is known as Halley's law. h in feet. by washing and flushing continually with antiseptic solutions. measured from the time when the wound of "The Curve — = = . "The growth of bean plants within limited intervals and the growth of children. Closely allied to the e kt. the rate of decrease at any instant being proportional to the quantity. like a pendulum. follow approximately the law of organic growth. two observations at an interval commonly of four days give the 'index of the individual. for this wound- . r = 29. .

.Biology and Time-Binding surface of this individual. and then a mathematical machine. T. . — In nature there are somewhat closely connected two types mathemat- . s=s ie -» which S. "The data given are taken from the Journal of Experimental Medicine. reprints kindly furnished by Major George A.. 191 8. Stewart of the Rockefeller Institute. 171 and 172. the indication still that there infection in the wound. . After each observation and computation of area the point so respective times of observation obtained is plotted to the same axes as the graph which gives the ideal or prophetic curve of healing. computed by using planimeter. . . He it noted that the larger the wound-surface. is the area at the time that the wound is rendered and observations to be plotted really begin. called a areas. Tuffier and R. The diagrams are reproduced from the issue of Feb. . and that the rate of healing seemed more rapidly is to be proportional to the area.. "When is the observed area is found markedly greater than is that determined by the ideal curve. General. pital 75. This proportionality constant not the same for all values of the surface or we would have an equation of the form. "Wave Motion. Desmarres. Paris. article by Dr. Auxiliary Hosin sterile . pp. A rather surprising and unexplained situation occurs frequently surface heals more rapidly than the cate. 1. in this event secondary ulcers woundwould indidevelop which bring the the ideal curve when curve back to normal to "This application of mathematics to medicine is largely due Dr. which measures "The areas of the wound are plotted as ordinates with the measured in days as abscissas. 247 is The area of the wound traced carefully on transparent paper. Alexis Carrel of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research. of recurrent motion. the healed.

SPS (-1 o o C « O <U .M8 Appendix II O H « > e"3 <D (J ~ tBJg ' O J= ° .

— .Biology and Time-Blnding ically. the respiration. to each = X . electrical vibrations or waves. Our curve is traced by a bar forth. "Sound Waves. a smoke-blackened paper. As the bar moves to the right . . as it vibrates. vibrating. By attaching a fine point end of the bar and moving under this bar at a uniform rate. If a tuning fork for note lower C is set the free bar makes 129 complete. repeats the motion in one place. . and in a sense stationary. its axis. the vibratory impulse over an extent of space as well as time. "Both of these types of motion are representable mathe- matically by equations involving a sequence of trigonometric functions. beats. vibrations in vibrating 50 times in 1 second. y= sin x. "Corresponding is movement of the vibrating rod there a movement of the air. fork vibrations recorded on smoked paper. in cycles as is we may say. the tides. "One type of this motion. . and the rotation of a wheel about "The second type of recurrent motion transmits or carries of the sea are of this character. To we the fundamental and basic function involved. . a similar movement is the motion of a vibrating Of this stationary type may be mentioned the heart- the pulse. The waves Sound waves. to will direct our attention in the next section and to simple applications in other sections of this chapter. Tuning The curve y sin (50 2nt). The tuning fork in motion moves through the same space again and again string. a sinusoidal curve is traced on the paper. . back-and- to the one second. and radiant energy vibrations are transmitted by a process similar to that by which the waves of the sea are carried. 249 in- in which repetition of motion occurs at regular tervals.

In I second 1 100 feet at 44 Fahrenheit. "Vibration records produced by the voice: 'ou' as in 'about'..' 'r' 'a' as in 'ate'..250 it Appendix II right and that compresair to the compresses the layer of air to is its sion immediately communicated to the layer of moves back and to the left. frequency 50 per second. If we teach ideas which are untrue." drawing may help to visualize the fact in what expressions and untrue teachings hamper the Every word has its energy and true progress of humanity. gives the vibration frequencies. produces some physico-chemical effects in the time-binding apparatus in accord with the idea which we associate with the sound of the word. 'e' in 'be'. 'father. this disturbance is transmitted The wave length for this sound = / "The wave is length is commonly designated by X. and rarefied. and the time of one vibration. as the bar ^ sound wave. X= Vt. If V the velocity. wave then is ^%^22 feet. of 1 second you have the air adjacent to the rod comIn pressed. during this time the neighboring air is affected and the compression is communicated a distance which is the wave length of this given right. This last manner wrong . and 'a' in fork record. in 'relay'. the pressure on the adjacent air is released and a rarefaction takes place. back to normal. The tuning .

The Prevention of Parthenogenesis). 1905. parative Psychology.: "The Mechanistic Conception of Life. Loeb. New York. J. J." word. The Mechanistic Conception of Life. Loeb. Facts and Principles of Physiological Morphology. On Some VIII. it in in a literal sense of the our civilization are so low.: "The Dynamics of Living Matter. New York.: J. Loeb. Some Fundamental Facts and Conceptions concerning the Comparative Physiology of the Central Nervous System. : "Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Com"Studies Contents 1 II. VII.— Biology and Time-Binding 251 then the physico-chemical effects produced are not proper in other words the human mind does not does not work properly. our minds with the physico- chemical effects of wrong ideas." Chicago. J. On the Nature of Formative Stipulation (Artificial V. 1912. MONOGRAPHS ON EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY Loeb." Chicago. The Significance of Tropisms for Psychology. as the poisoning with wrong ideas or with careless or incorrect words does not in any way differ in consequences from poisoning with any other stupor-producing or wrongly stimulating poison." in General Physiology. There is every reason why the standards that is. work naturally or normally or true to the human dimension. the Death of the Act of Fertilization. Egg through the . III. VI. 1900. On the Nature of the Process of FertiIi7ation. because we have "poisoned." 1906. Pattern Adaptation of Fishes and the Mechanism of Vision. IV. This correct natural approach to the "Time-binding" energies will make it obvious how unmeasured is the importance of the manner in which we handle this subtle mechanism.

Incompatibility of Species not Closely Related. Lippincott. Contents I. Mendelian Heredity and its Mechanism. Specificity in Fertilization. G. 191 6. J. IX. The Cytological Basis of Sex Determination. Heliotropism. Secondary Sexual Characters and Sexual Instincts: 1. Death and Dissolution of the Organism. XI. Determinism in the Formation of an Organism from an Egg. X. The Role of Salts in the Preservation of Life. The Chemical basis of Genus and Species and of Species Specificity. Loeb. Experimental Study of the Influence of Environment on Animais. XII. P. Determination of Sex. The Physiological Basis of Sex Determination. : The Organism as a Whole. Animal Instincts and Tropisms. and Animal Conduct." J. The 2. Evolution. New York. The Influence of Environment. XIV. IV. X. . Loeb. Adaptation to Environment. Galvanotropism. V. VIII. III. Specific Difference between Living and Dead Matter and the Question of the Origin of Life. II. Introduction. Introductory Remarks. VI. The III. J. Artificial Parthenogenesis. Contents I. IV. 1918. Putnam's Sons. B. V. Forced Movements. 2. VII. XIII. Philadelphia. Regeneration. The Influence of One Source of Light. The Symmetry Relations of the Animal Body as the Starting Point for the Theory of Animal Conduct. Tropisms.252 Appendix II IX. II.: "Forced Movements. The Chemical Basis of Genus and Species: 1.

A. 4. D. XVIII. Phenomena of Development. XVI. 2. Two Sources of Light of Different Intensity. The Mechanism of Heredity. in which any reader interested will find a vast storehouse of exact knowledge in this line. XIV. Observations on Inheritance. III. A list of 5J4 books on this subject. 3. Introductory. The Mechanism of Development. Introduction. Geotropism. Direct Proof of the Muscle Tension Theory of Heliotropism in Motile Animals. VIII. XVII." Princeton University Press. The Validity of the Bunsen-Roscoe Law for the Heliotropic Reactions of Animals and Plants. A. Statistical Study of Inheritance. . Asymmetrical Animals. DIS- CONTENTS Facts and Factors of Development. B. X. Heliotropism of Unicellular Organisms. The Germ Cells. An Artificial Heliotropic Machine. Change in the Sense of Heliotropism. XII. Memory Images and Tropisms. Conklin. Thermotropism. The Effect of Rapid Changes in Intensity of Light. C. B. A. Heliotropism of Sessile Animals. General Facts. Experimental Study of Inheritance. Phenomena of Inheritance. 253 VI. II. XI.Biology and Time-Binding 1. XIII. Chemotropism. I. Stereotropism. Instincts. Factors of Development. Forced Movements Caused by Moving Images: Rheotropism: Anemotropism. VII. Edwin Grant: "Heredity and Environment in the Development of Men. C. IX. Cellular Basis of Heredity and Development. XIX. Retina XV. B. The Relative Heliotropic Efficiency of Light of Different Wave Lengths. Author.

East. Control of Heredity: Eugenics. Applications to Human Development: Euthenics." F. Inheritance or Non-inheritance of Acquired Characters. H. G. Functional Activity as a Factor of Development. D. D.. V. Experimental Modifications of Development. and Jones. Author. C. B.254 Appendix II IV. N. H. etc. Morgan. "Physical Basis of Heredity.. E. Relative Importance of Heredity and Environ- ment. VI. E. "The Nature of Animal Light. Glossary of books on this subject. for those who desire to be more fully acquainted with the subjects of heredity and development. A." Parker.. B. Control of Human Heredity. T. E. M." . Genetics and Ethics. "The Elementary Nervous System. "Inbreeding and Outbreeding." Harvey. Influence of Environment. Domesticated Animals and Cultivated Plants. A...

Rarely are the selfish affairs of engineering done with the entirely motive of merely acquiring immediate selfish gain. be the and the last to leave it . 255 . mathematicians and builders. metallurgists and chemists. all The simple steel structure of a bridge. he has to take the immediate consequences of his neglect of the time-binding laws. which seldom happens for no one is entrusted with the work unless he has bound up in his knowledge the accumulated experience sible the riveted steel — of the past. and the pride and the sense of responsibility of the designer and builder of the bridge first to demand enter it that he. yet the transgressors of these natural laws are punished with bridge is all the severity of the common law. When a opened and tested. is familiar to us in every day a clear reminder to us and the bound-up knowledge of countless generations of smiths and mechanics. life. by their very nature. the written laws in some countries and the unwritten in others.APPENDIX III ENGINEERING AND TIME-BINDING THE Arts from other sions of Engineering. the creator of the bridge. and should the bridge collapse. These structures do not collapse unless the natural laws for their construction are transgressed. teachers and engiof the arts of Hephasstus neers who toiled for many thousands of years to make pos- beams which are the elements of modern structure. are derived the work activity of dead only the present but the future. human than any from the errors of intermixing dimen- men and destined to They are freer serve not and from the fallacy of belief in individualistic accom- plishment and pride.

one is at once and bewildered. Mr. tions unrealized in the sciously submit to the degradation. I then turned to Walter N. The No wondrous discovery of modern not even the talking from one hemisphere to another. who first observed the phenomena of magnetism. Chairman of Committee on Service and Information. no student of the Arts of Engineering could ever forget himself to the point of claiming his accomplishments.E. in silent consent. A.256 for even Appendix when this III could be traced — to this unworthy thought disappears in the halo of the glory of the accomplishment. Industrial Counselor. . all to himself. His tower stands to-day as a mechanical proof of mathematical formulas proving the possibility of erecting tall. L. for the origin of the discovery can be traced at least as far back as the days of that barefooted shepherd boy Magnus. Fuels Section. is rightly the accomplishment of any one man. Polakov. at the confusion and contradicmass of evidence. Gantt being no more with us. of humanity.. of see- ing their marvelous collective achievements chained to space- binding aims. no matter how marvelous. Eiffel did not erect his tower haunt Paris with the sight of a steel skeleton towering over the city of daring thoughts. electricity. Again.S. Doctor of Engineering. self-supporting structures and thereby serving future ity. ulties manifested in the In an attempt to trace and evaluate the time-binding facArts of Engineering. human- Time-binding capacity of humans creates and formulates new values for the service of mankind. and how pathetic and deplorable is the sight of hundreds of thousands of workers in the field of engineering toil and creation who unconastonished. Upon the completion of this book I was astonished that there are such a small number of engineers who have the intuitive feeling of the greatness of the assets at their com- mand and of the gravity of their liabilities concerning affairs I was eager to have my book read and analysed by a few leading engineers.M. The late H.

late H. lation of the time-binding principle. " I do not hold that the principles upon which the method is laid out are subject to choice or opinions. few volumes and writings for the New Library of the Manhood of Humanity. in his Mastering Power Production. L.an exaggeration to say that their work.M. "It was not my intention to compile a text book on power engineering. I found. Gantt and Charles P. Vice-President of A.S. that was inevitable. marking the parting of the way of engineering thought from the past and form the first subjection to speculative fetishes. fore. there- some engineers had already beaten the path in the right direction. but I could not avoid trespassing in the adjoining fields of psychology and economics..E. 1921. These books and pamphlets are based on facts analysed scientifically. Both. Wolf. for they are based on . have done a most remarkable work It will not be . Engineering Magazine. Y. first may be considered as the — corner-stones of the science and art of to my Human knowledge Engineering. N. engineering alone has first the distinction of being the into the to have the correct insight vert human problem. for without familiarity with these sciences the mastery of power production is a futile attempt. The task of engineers was to conknowledge brain work "bound-up time" into daily — — — bread by means of conserving time and is naught else but the working out of It This concept the imperfect formueffort. Of all the pure and applied sciences. in their respective lines. together with the work of the Steinmetz. Polakov. it was rather my care to avoid the treatment of any technical subject which could be found elsewhere in engineering literature.— Engineering and Time-B ending and Robert B. How straight and how far this sense of dimensionality has led some of them in their practical work may be seen from the work of Walter N. a 257 In them very sympathetic understanding and my esteem grew as I the character of their became more intimately acquainted with work and their accomplishments. to the full.

This book gives an engineering. If more such books had been written and read by the public. Polakov. Robert B. December 7-10. or be illy chosen. the forthcoming book of Mr. . scientific in the meantime practical analysis of all human problems. "If this work and its underlying idea will facilitate the solving of some of the problems now in the course of rapid evolution in our industrial relations. Appendix III Yet work of this character cannot be complete. I had the privilege of reading the manuscript of Quo Vadis America. a foundation for a new scientific industrial Another very clear outline of the Principles of Industrial Philosophy Polakov in his paper presented at the was given by Mr. annual meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers." examples may Indeed the readers' time will not be lost. I shall feel that my own and my readers* time have not been altogether lost. The outstanding contribution of Mr. I can only regret that in Europe we have not such a knowledge written down concerning European conditions. many crises and catastrophes would have been avoided. for it deals with living and constantly reshaping relations and applies to things in process of development.258 facts. Anyone who has anything to do with industrial or 1920. It is obvious that a scientific knowledge of facts. is of the greatest importance for anyone who cares to approach any problem in a serious way. Statistics which are up-to-date are therefore of primary importance. economic problems cannot afford to overlook the important and fundamental work in this book. It is a deep and practical treatise — — on all great questions concerning modern is industrialism and so-called economic problems and philosophy. psychology and philosophy as applied to engineering. Wolf to engineering was made in his study of physiology. where a most valuable statistical picture of facts in modern America is given and the astonishing conclusions which are to be drawn therefrom. biology.

before the end of the World War. viduality in Industry. " 2nd. it will be of permanent value. That the recording of past events. he will find himself at once plunged into the realm of psychology and mental I can heartily recommend such a course as imphilosophy. with a fine characterization the of the psychological peculiarities of the different races. but the proof that his philos- . not only the a friend and admirer. however. " $th. " 3d. That the human body is such a wonderful organization because it is the product of the forces of creation. mensely profitable and of practical value.Engineering and Time-Binding 259 "If anyone wishes to inquire into the forces which have led up to the individual development of mankind. with the power of consciously recalling them for the solution of problems immediately confronting it. Steinmetz has given in his America and New Epoch a most correct engineering picture of the political situation in the world. Although this book was written in 191 6." IndiBy Robert B. Wolf. Doctor Charles P. what I want to point out is that inasmuch as man's progress depends upon the perfect co-ordination of his forces to produce unity of action. That the conscious intelligent progress made by mankind could not have reached its present level until in the process of evolution a mechanism had been built up in the nervous system itself capable of recording the various impressions which the senses are constantly receiving. we have no right to expect an industrial organization to make progress which it must do as a unit without the establishment of a conscious co-ordinating mechanism similar to the nervous system in the human body. that have to do with the subject in hand are: " 1st. " \th. That this unity would not have been possible without the development of the nervous system. " The five important facts. That its capacity for progress depends upon the maintenance of the unity resulting from this creative evolution and upon a conscious recognition of this unity. because of its deep psychological analysis of the peoples and their institutions which ultimately shape the development of any nation and which do not change with victory or defeat. that is. is absolutely essential to its development. acting through millions of years of evolution. "My homage of tribute to the memory of Gantt will be. " Now.

the results of such elementary mistakes. " 2 The old formula on which our civilization is built. then the other is not. which is identical to such an absurdity as x square inches equal y linear inches plus or multiplied by z cubic inches.' Gantt took 'rendering service' as an axiom. my observation. if our words are true. and human 'time-binding' impulses were. and is mathematical nonsense. or if our deeds are true then the words are camouflage.' animals are 'Space-binding. because the word 'service' belongs to that category of words. the methods of differentiation are mostly correct. in rebellion. was how to find a way out of this contradiction that would be irrefutable. 'we preach give. which would not permit of any blunders in dimensions. the meaning of which can be completely reversed by the verb. shared with many others. is the cause of all the periodical collapses. Mathematics. If one of them is true and natural law for humans. differentiation. but our synthesis. produce tragic consequences. The investigation had to be made from the beginning.' The problem which interested me. that or speaking mathematically. so in life. " These definitions have the peculiarity that they make it obvious. be it 'give' or 'take. plus or multiplied by SPARK OF DIVINITY equal is basically and elementarily wrong. dimensional characteristics: plants are 'Chemistry-binding. The method we use in studying phenomena is analysis. that: I The classes of life have different dimensions. so these .' Humans are 'Time-binding' classes of life. as in mathematics it makes a correct solution impossible. by defining the phenomena of life. we practice take. " 3 This basically wrong formula on which our civilization rests. I found the solution. A rigorous proof is necessary. I soon found. wars and revolu- HUMAN ANIMAL tions. gave me the method.260 ophy Appendix III is scientifically true. " I defined the classes of life by emphasizing their incontestable. in a specific way. and that the intermixing of dimensions. by applying mathematically rigorous thinking. The differentiation correctly lowered the dimensions. with its exact concept of dimensions. but our faulty integration did not restore the original dimensions. "4 The old system was Duilt on animal 'space-binding' standards. all the time. then our deeds are not true. is that our civilization had quite another axiom. " 5 As the theory of gravitation and the calculus made engineers and mathematicians masters of inanimate nature. or process of integration made by the use of metaphysics was faulty.

which will form one unified science of man and his function in the universe. We . it is the highest human aim. or the survival of the strongest. scientifically true laws.' Gantt's methods would be the first practical application toward this end. must be in the human dimension which obviously would be the 'Survival of the fittest in TIME/ resulting in the survival of the best. or willfully destructive. to be summed up. the responsibility is ours to correct the mistakes of our ancestors and to establish a scientific philosophy. are a danger to humanity in directly helping to obscure issues. is bound to collapse again and again in the future. "8 For the 'time-binding' NATURAL LAW NATURAL humans. "11 All of our ideas have to be revised. it is obvious then that in this dimension. " 10 All known facts must be brought to the light. destruction into construction. whereas such a law to be a FOR HUMANS. wherein pending revolutions and wars could be turned into evolution. 'time-binding' is the natural law.' result in fight. and correlated by mathematicians and engineers with the strictest attention to dimensionality. which class of life. "6 All of those who are blinded by traditions and refuse to investigate.Engineering and Time-Binding 261 tangible and incontestable definitions give them a positive base will enable them to approach and solve human living problems. and. as in the past. which will LAWS for correspond to the natural impulses and mankind. " are the masters of our own destinies. a science which I propose to call 'Human Engineering. by establishing the mathematical fact that man is man. "7 The duty of mathematically thinking people is to throw such light on this problem as will stop the stupid. and show whether they are working for or against. "9 Such 'natural laws' as 'survival of the fittest' for animals. scientifically true ethics. which is the 'survival of the fittest in space. must be replaced by 'time-binding' standards. discord into accord of a common aim. the animal 'spacebinding' standards must be rejected as dangerous and destructive. and just this realization will bring about the readjustment of values in life to a human dimension. or to know these mathematical truths. and a scientific sociology. and in helping to maintain the faulty structure which. if understood and analysed. "12 The minds of mathematicians and engineers are by education the first to see the far reaching importance of the facts disclosed by these definitions. not an animal.

W. The Position of an Engineer." Y. In preparation. N. Selection from Contents: The Descent of the Principle of Production for Use. Y. "Principles of Industrial Philosophy. N." Presented at the Annual Meeting of the A._ Selection from Contents: The Engineer as the Industrial Leader. December. The Social Aspect." Yale University Press. Aims of Labor. "Organization and Management. — N.' Discussion by Alfred Korzybski of Mr. Democracy in Production. M. and Profits. 192 1. Two-rate wages. 1919." Polakov. 192 1. Association Press. in Democracy in the Shop. A." Y. "The Religion of Democracy. A. 1921. 1916. . 1920. "Equipment and Machinery. L. (Conditions) Autonomous Co-operation. Democracy Management. . Press. "Quo Vadis America?" . Polakov's paper "Principles of Industrial Philosophy" presented at the Annual Meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Brace & Howe. C. . Economics and Democracy.: "Mastering Power Production. Co. Profit Sharing. Mastering Labor Problems. "Industrial Leadership. S." The Engineering Magazine Co. Y. N.. December 7-10." The Engineering Magazine N. The Basis of Wages. Premium Places.: " 262 Appendix III " Gantt's concept of rendering service is scientifically true because it is 'time-binding/ and therefore true for the human This is why Gantt's class of life and in human dimension. concepts have counted for so much and will survive 'IN TIME.Y. "Work. Walter N. H. "Organizing for Work. C. Mastering Labor Problems. 1913. New York.. Y. UNIVERSAL LABOR {Corresponding exactly to Time-binding Author). Qualification of Men. Energy as a Commodity. ComThe Economic Aspect. Wages. Fatigue. LITERATURE Gantt. The Working Day. Incentive Payments. Association N. E. Y. 1920. pensation. Right to be Lazy and the Right to a Job. Rewarding Individual Efforts. The Power Industry as an Economic Factor. of M. M." Harcourt.

"Incentive and Initiative. N. A. "Creative Spirit in Industry. 1919. S. 1919. Association Press. Vol. Ford Maddox: "When Blood is Their Argument. E. M. N. 1921. "Modern Industry and the Individual. Germany in the Individualistic Era. America in the Individualistic Era. Laughlin. N.: 1912.Engineering and Time-Bending 263 Steinmetz. 4. 1916." Y. Charles P. Y. Her Business Methods Explained. N." American Economic Association. Y." Presented at the Annual Meeting of the A. No.: "Individuality in MISCELLANEOUS LIST OF BOOKS Von Bernhardi." F. "Securing the Initiative of the Workman. Henry: "Germany's Commercial Grip on the World." Hodder & Stoughton." Scribner's Sons ( . Louis: Other People's Money and Use it." E." Y. W. Y. J. N. Wolf. 1917. Y. Association Press. "Non-Financial Incentives." Harper & Brothers." A. C." the Bankers E. 1921. M. Brandeis. London. Shaw & Co. 191 5. L." Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. Arnold. B. N. Y. Nash Co. N. "Germany and the Next War. "Credit of the Nations. 1915. The Other European Nations in the Individualistic Era.: 1918. How Thomas Farrow and Walter Crotch: "The Coming Trade War." Chapman & Hall. Hueffer. N. Hauser. Evolution: Industrial Government. December. Selection from Contents: The Individualistic Era: From Competition to Co-operation. 1914. Industry.. 1916. Robert Pamphlets. A. N. Y. of M. Y. 1918. London. England in the Individualistic Era. N. Stokes. Y. A. August. "The Creative Workman. Y. London.: "America and the New Epoch. I. General F. 1918. Y." Bulletin of the Society to promote the Science of Management. C.

" W. "How Diplomats Make War. Maynard & B. Delaisi. Allen and Unwin. French Opinion." Co.. Boston. By a German (German Stoughton.264 Appendix III in the Maetzu. Opinion). Francis: English Opinion. 1916. 1915. "J'Accuse!" Hodder & . Ramiro de: "Authority. Liberty and Function Light of War. "The Inevitable War. Neilson." Geo. Francis: Small. London. Huebsch. 1915.

writing about the T. evaluated the situation thus: The youthful T. Published 1943 by the Institute of General Semantics. Polakov. in a practically unchanged form. are not difficulties peculiar to this project. 265 . inherited the language and metaphysics of a bygone age. which was then passing through acute managerial difficulties to confusion of function and control. — foundly changed environment.A.V. The difficulties in building the T. Mr. It encounters unprecedented difficulties in expressing new relations in terms of vanished fancies. Polakov. Conn. The night fear of ghosts remains. project. Polakov's summary with his diagram adapted from the original data concerning the 'span of attention' or 'span of control'. as well * Reprinted from Papers From the Second American Congress on General Semantics.V. . They are signs of our time a sort of dangerous epidemic. was a personal in 1934 from Walter N.A. 1941.V. Lakeville. springing out of our slow adjustment to a pro. without a language having correspondence to reality. the out- standing engineer and industrial diagnostician in the United It was due originally written for the Tennessee Valley Authority.APPENDIX EFFICIENCY FOR IV SOME NON-ARISTOTELIAN DATA ON HUMAN ADJUSTMENT* by ALFRED KORZYBSKI The summary communication States.A. of Graicunas' work given at the end of this supplement. In my work with students I have utilized Mr. .

for We must mention here permutations and combinations. and even combinations of higher order which also follow an exponential law. etc. 193 ff. 1 I have found empirically that these are invariably useful for the elimination of the individual's inability to handle personal life situations adequately.8. 1921).8. The different orders in which things can be arranged are called their permutations. For instance. where complications dealing with human reactions grow in a geometrical ratio.e. The work of Graicunas.6. quite a respectable number for a problem so seemingly simple on the surface. The different collections which can be formed from things without regard to the order in which they are placed are called their combinations. 2. 63. The question bells.. and Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Systems and General Semantics (Second edition. : Science Press Printing Co.4. but they occur in the English language in several permutations. For example. a. mean. pp. 354. 134 ff. Penn. xxxm. The disregard of the above considerations has led to many same tile military and managerial disasters..n can form but one combination. 161.. P. etc. amen. Chap. tion. 245 ff. arise.16. 167 ff. lies At the root of the problem the significant fundamental difference in the rate of gression... in what psychiatrists call 'family attachment' (infan- clinging to 'papa' or 'mama'). 217 f. 126 ff.32. Urwick. which grows by multiplicaexample. for example.. Art . pp.. 90-92. in the notorious interfertri- ence of mothers-in-law..266 as related Appendix IV foundations formulated in my own writings. I must stress that the principles apply also to our personal life difficulties. Dutton and Co. U2 ff. as name.800. the four letters. etc. . is based on empirical data from military and managerial experiences. mane... 232 ff.. 2. Science and Sanity will be referred to as S Sf S. or in the tragedies of marital 1 See in particular my Manhood of Humanity: The Science and of Human Engineering (New York: E..4. 176 ff.. may 7 at 'How many changes can a time?' The answer is be rung with 10 taking 604. and geometrical progression. 1941).10. Lancaster. 161. 15-26.m. 264. 255 ff. growth between arithmetical pro- which grows by addition.

etc. Organismal difficulties responses to 'one additive. Thus. etc. ff. disorganizations.. p. demonstrating that ingrained additive tendency in- herent in the aristotelian prescientific orientation. tragedies.. involvements. some 'plus' creeps in. the 'addition' of a single factor results in unnecessary complexities which are certainly not additive. p. and human neurosis or psychosis. are given to show how even with those scientists who realize the fallacy of additivity. and the complications grow following some exponential law. follow. but spread all through life in some geometrical ratio. the complexities often grow beyond the capacity of one human brain to manage them adequately. 3 *S & S. it is Human Adjustment 267 not a question of just an 'added' factor. xxiii a S &S.' Yet later we find that same author saying. 2 hear remarks by some scientists that 'It is impossible to express the conduct of a whole animal as the algebraic sum We of the reflexes of its isolated segments. out of many. 'Thus a clock-work is as little the mere sum of its little wheels as a human being is the sum of his cells and molecules' and later on. a childless couple 'adds' a baby to the family. facts. 605 ff. Similarly. which is obviously false to . but the accumulate in some geometrical ratio.' Another writes. interests. 'The individual represents heredity plus environment.' These two examples. If in personal life we undertake or have to carry too many responsibilities. . life in And so it goes all through the more fundamental relationships.Efficiency for angles. more glass of whiskey' are certainly not learned The followers of sick Schicklgruber-Hitler may have by now that the 'addition' of one more country in- troduces non-additive complexities not included in a naive fool's paradise gained by brute force. very often culminating in maladjustment and even Many times a single painful event in childhood or even later in life distorts the attitudes and colors the whole life. 'to be exact the ego consists of the engrams of all our experiences plus the actual psychism.

' 4 Although Dr. The . pp. 5 most psychotherapy depends on efforts through reinterpretation in treatment. and the etc. three fundamental concepts must be thoroughly understood ( I ) the nature and characteristics of neurotic symptoms. H. defi- nitely a non-additive attitude.. 70-79. "Constitution times Environment times Stress". a latest scientific On few modern psychiatrists familiar with the We developments by necessity realize those additive aberrations. would be N = f(x stress. functional. X3. XXVII (Jan. as the patients or students realize that with the old titudes they are 4 up against impossibilities. related. Kraines has correct representation . many of my is who are physicians. aristotelian to a general non-aristotelian attitude. In my stu- personal experience and the experience of dents. / represents function of. factors were responsible for the introduction. .. educators. xx-xxii. but for prevention of misevaluations in life by everyone. As of the physician to eliminate.268 Appendix IV the other hand. . They become con- S. *S . £f S. some of those original factors which produced worries. x 2 environx n ) indicates special . ment. neurosis. all of which are interSuch psychotherapeutic observations indicate why rn a 'therapy of attitudes' it is so important to change from an functional factors in a given case. 1} x 2 x Sy x n ). therefore: 'Before therapy can be discussed or put into practice. ( x x constitution. fears. Kraines. it is found that the very at- explanation of the above non-aristotelian principles useful. where 2V represents . . 'Brief Psychotherapy. anxieties. and other disorganizations. (2) the formula. and (3) the role that "attitudes" play in : the creation of symptoms. etc. of an enormous ties number of artificial complexi- which made life adjustment difficult or impossible. . . These a matter of fact. and do not plant a falsifying 'plus'. read. his 'times' does not represent the situation correctly. because of ex- ponential laws. not only for psychiatry.' Mental Hygiene 1943).

269 mechanisms of the a solution possible. and so I -f.I =^= 2. and the synthesis must be different. And so the results are not predictable by the principle of S &£j Chap. It attitudes are limited to the additive principle alone the results issues of science and life are bound For example.Efficiency for scious of the Human Adjustment difficulties. One of the most striking consequences of additivity is the predictability from the characteristics of the elements to those of the results. 6 If our in the result. but one gallon of water 'added' to one gallon of alcohol results in less than two galin the most fundamental to be false to facts. one atom of mercury 'minus' one electron becomes one atom of gold. Similarly. If before they begin to teach they would study in a 'mental' hospital and analyze the 'treatises' of the patients. In other words. where it is called 'linearity'. Often be I wonder whether this is true. it means to be detached from living The problem of additivity in life as well as in mathematics. or responsibility has to be laid frankly whether the on the mathematicians. -xxxni. who may 'life imbeciles'. which is the only way life. is of great antiquity because it was the simplest. the new problems are structurally no more of an additive character. lons of liquid because profound inter-molecular issues enter which are not additive. as they would understand what life. The mathematical formulation of additivity (linearity) is f{x-\-y) =zf(x) -f-/(v). . and in fact often repulse their students by the lifelessness of their teachings. they would become better teachers. no characteristic absent in the elements appears is obvious that when we combine elements. to make Mathematicians. Mathematicians quite glibly speak about their students being 'mathematical imbeciles'. better research workers. in their often deliberate detachment from unfortunately have not forewarned us of these kinds of methodological traps. one pound plus one pound in weight results in two pounds. and the results have new characteristics absent in the original elements.

which automatically involve permutations and combinations. depends on the transformation of linear sistant We (additive) equations into non-linear (non-additive) more is still complicated equations. My based on the life implications of this neglect to differentiate between the laws of growth of arithmetical and of geometrical progressions. Because Graicunas. May 1943. and conditional reactions. Horsley Gantt. It is sad to say that combinations of higher order are usually omitted in the textbooks and regarded as mathematical 1 8 S & S. Gantt shows that unconditional reflex reactions may be expressed by a linear (additive) equation. and accounts for many disasters in private lives. their work is based on the same principles. 612 ff. Such neglect was partially responsible for most historical spasms of civilization such as wars and revolutions. realize that fundamental gap between additive and nonadditive relations and attitudes. only by an exponential (nonadditive) equation. 7 But the structure of our ordinary subject-predicate language and corresponding attitudes aristotelian. has been in the and therefore main additive. 8 whole life work.. have discovered by modern science that the world and life are not additive in their fundamental aspects. in which Dr. deal with human relations without disregarding mathematical issues. See 'Measures of Susceptibility to Nervous Breakdown' by W. . even among my readers and students. the founder of a non-newtonian system. and particularly since 1921. precursors of symbolic reactions. The interested reader is urged to consult his elementary algebra about the arithmetical and geometrical rates of growth. and the simple formulations of permutation and combination. This point must be stressed to the utmost. And so it goes. p. Even the epoch-making work of Einstein. Appendix IV As Graicunas shows. American Journal of Psychiatry. the 'addition' of a sixth asby a supervisor may add 20 percent to his human resources. etc. Unfortunately extremely few of us. Urwick. but adds approximately 100 percent to the complexity and difficulty of his task of co-ordination.270 additivity.

p. 8-10. p. in principle follow these combinations of higher computations as such are of little or no practical the methodological implications for life orientation. and so we are both the managed and the manager of our personal lives. importance. & 10 Alfred Korzybski. For further details the reader Jevons' and is referred to my own work. as Carrel says. is thoroughly obsolete and unworkable today. by which the majority of us still live. This nonbased frankly on physico-mathematical Mac- W. Chap. Stanley Jevons. Psychiatry. Ltd. 1940). Psychotherapy and Prevention. The Principles of Science (London: millan and Co. ix. functional orientation. 1941). to This 'epilogue' was written emphasize and partially exaristotelian orientation plain the necessity of passing from the to a non-aristotelian. Perhaps one of the main sources of a great many maladjustments is exactly that self-reflexiveness and circularity which we do not know how to manage simply because we don't know that there are non-aristotelian methods to do so. See particularly the unabridged paper (Institute of General Semantics. 340. Unfortunately and complications.. the supervised and the supervisor. pp. It is generally not realized that with the advance of science the old aristotelian methodology. and even harmful for the best of human adjustment. of Psychiatry XCVIII (Sept. The value. what extent the issues is aristotelian system 9 and to stress to have application in daily life. disregarded by mathematicians. 58 and Chap. however. 205-207. Jour. XXVII. the co-ordinated and the co-ordinator. 'General Semantics. are of primary order. 1920). also S & S. ultimately on the electronic and electro-colloidal levels.Efficiency for curiosities Human Adjustment life facts 271 without application. 10 In such a brief paper it is impossible to go into details short of writing a book. Plenty of books on modern science are available. S S... but they have only very limited applications because the issues had not been formulated methodologically. .' Amer. 9 In human life one of our difficulties is that we are 'both the marble and the sculptor'.

in which there is no 'philosophy' for 'philosophy's' sake. Surveying the chain of historical world tragedies as they accumulate with accelerating acceleration and intensity. the mankind will depend on some new non-aristotelian systems which would be frankly based on scientific extensional principles. have general human ap- even on the level of nursery education.' indicates that science and sanity are interrelated. but a system is not the among many other possible ones. The reader should future of notice that I utilize 'non-aristotelian systems' in the plural. no matter whether the theoretical issues are formulated satisfactorily for everyone. and the new child-like methods can be applied for more efficient management of our private as . and so ultimately on physico-mathematical methods. I emphasize that the title of my book 'Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Systems and General Semantics. one naturally looks for the factors which are responsible for such cataclysms. to be applied for its optimum efficiency. These are not problems for speculation or verbal arguments or debates the issues are empirical and have to be tested by application. 272 methods. In the present unprecedented world crisis we are not facing we are witnessing the death-bed agonies of the inevitable dying of the old aristotelian system which has been applied to its deadly limit. which seems only natural. nor mathematics for mathematics' sake. but here in this first non-aristotelian system we take frankly and explicitly an engineering point of view. nor science for science's sake. as plication. and the dead are buried. This problem may be analyzed in many different ways. or satisfy the author himself. When formulated methodologically. but we consider all those activities as products of the human nervous system. a 'new order'. Appendix IV this volume shows.. This paper is based on experience of how this non-aristotelian system works in practice. because the non-aristotelian system I have produced system. which. the interrelation between science and sanity becomes obvious. I personally have no doubt that after this world crisis is over.

etc. on the primary or the university for the naive 'isolationists' in science. We must become and remain conscious that scientific work as well as our private reactions in life are the end product of the electrocolloidal processes going on in our nervous system. as environment. education. where many have nothing in common.\c environ- ment level.. mathematical physics. law. be it level. The present day isolationism paralyzes the isolationists themselves. and/or in life. even on the nursery of education.e. i. who does not realize the handicaps of specialization without a my experience with classes we have stubelong to widely separated fields such as medicine. the effectiveness of scientists as often does not even Under such conditions human beings is lowered and command the respect of the layman. are not united by a general method. As ex- . because of their innocence of science. and so their inability to take into serious consideration our w^wro-semantic and neuro-\ing\nsX. social work. perhaps a new point of view. linguistics. their 'superiority'. The . covered long ago that maximum teachability is found in method. misevaluations in life. it is pathetic to watch university faculty members at meetings. and in particular for prevention of maladjustments. 'Philosophers' should have dismethods. aloofness from nonaristotelian issues. Through their errors of omission. but simply for empirical investigation of how they work. 'philosophers' somehow feel 'above' experimental methods they will argue endlessly on the verbal but they will not experiment with the I new extensional must repeat that the new methods are not a problem for arguments or debates. and in our case ultimately physico-mathematical method. 'philosophers' are largely responsible for the sterility and For example. From this. as well as daily life. preventing them from taking a general extensional attitude. In dents who knit unit because they get a general all method which applies to their professions. we must squarely put the responsibility on 'philosophers'. because they level.Efficiency for Human Adjustment 273 well as public lives. and in a few days they become a more and more closely general method.

in this case from an aristotelian to a non-aristotelian system. non-aristotelian process orientation. Is the blame to be put entirely on the shoulders of scientists or laymen? The answer is 'no'. way for them and find out. and laymen a foundation for mutual co-operation. has actually prevented the co-ordina- tion of diverse efforts for optimum human adjustment. I will not go many hundreds of volumes have been written exhibiting the utter stupidity and incompetence of those are supposed to guide our destinies. experiment. scientists. these processes are deeply affected. 'Philosophers' of course will try to talk their way is out of this dilemma.. I believe. in different ways. The empirical demonstration of the above facts through actual application of the extensional method is. the situation seems hopeless because of their ignorance. and is in fact refusal to accept professional guidance into details. entirely new. like any scientific theory is. etc.274 Appendix IV perience shows. but this will not help because this work has not to investi- been done by them. and amounts to a 'therapy of attitudes'. infinite-valued. This correspondence and close interrelationship be- tween neurological processes and the method used is the key problem in passing from one system to another. because the failure of 'philosophers'. which is a matter of historical record. two-valued orientation it is humanly impossible to have the modern. A great many 'philosophers' will be shocked and consider sacrilegious a mere suggestion that 'philosophy' should become experimental. and therefore it is impossible to 'think' about ourselves in electro-colloidal neurological terms. etc. lack of preparation for human responsibilities. who have neglected this most important w^uro-methodological field. with the result that who we are . With the old.. and so have not given educators. As their to politicians. and the only gate. depending on whether we use intensional or extensional methods. aristotelian. So once again the responsibility is the 'philosophers' '. This reflection is rather heavy in consequences. diplomats. as when help offered them. rulers.

A.Efficiency for Human Adjustment 275 bled white in blood as well as in taxes. In my own work I felt that mathematical methods should have broader applications. tion. VII. human nervous system can or psychosis. or a politician. theory. 1933. and apply to daily life. Urwick. who based their work on the application of mathematical methods ticularly to empirical data about the limitations of what the stand. reprinted the two fundamental papers referred to. in spite of 'philosophers'. Urwick. N. SUMMARY OF SPAN OF ATTENTION BY WALTER For a No. I admit that affairs. can be competent at deal with the problems confronting if he is entirely innocent of the problems raised in this paper. Original sources were published In 1937 the Institute of Public AdministraNew York. V. etc. which may even end in maladjustment. Polakov. becoming more and more disorganized for years to come. as even the smallest managerial unit. see March. where lack of efficiency brings obvious disasters. full exposition of Bulletin of International Mr. a human all to be he the responsible member him teacher. edited by Luther Gulick and L. etc. Graicunas' Management Institute. neurosis. are bound to follow. in different degrees. which follows. In the history of science and civilization living emergencies forced us to find we discover that to some solutions make adjustment to life more efficient. with some new material. which we call the 'family'. also must have some method for optimum human efficiency based on the understanding of human nature and the limitations of what one human brain can stand. under the title Papers on the Science of Administration. I suggest that all my readers study this book. a physician. the work of Graicunas and Urwick. article entitled: 'Relationship in Or- .. Their work dealt parwith industrial and military fields. including the summary by Polakov taken from abroad in 1933. I can not see how anyone who has to deal with of a family.. 3. POLAKOV Vol. So far it has been done by men like Graicunas. Columbia University. Otherwise disasters.

A. entitled 'Organization as a Technical Problem. Urwick.] An individual who is coordinating the work of others whose duties interconnect must take into account in his decisions.. Mr. IOC ? 50 * — 12— I_ I ' No.. Graicunas of Paris has recently shown why this is so. assistants reiar ions 4 s It 6 7 2 1 =»/ a/ */ Co/ 300>s g S = O 490 1. M.— : 276 Appendix IV . V.500 Zfc. Pa is) / jf Numler of'relationships an rina IV/'fk '/>' an e/ect/f/re — 400 — z 3 «9 assistants (funcfiorroi) ) l/o. of assistant! orfuittitm 3 4 5 6 - ganization. September 7.5 •$ S u3 of 2 3 M 6 of .C.1 3.' Reference to this theory is also made in a paper read to the Department of Industrial Cooperation of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. but also his reactions as a practice. assistants denotes rapid increase in eompiexiry of relationships : 150 Q £5 "J 1- 7 *4 K.'SPAN c/> UJ 06 => ^CONTROLV/W^ for 450 {Afteryj..&ra&m'as.703 200c£ note sharp rise in ear ire ieyond four. not only the reactions of each person concerned as an individual. . Leicester. 350.110 11.376 5. A. by Major L. or at the most.' Quoting from the last reference : Students of administration have long recognized that. [His work is the second of the contributions of importance to the technique of organization since 1930.E. O. V 4. 1933.B. in no human brain should attempt to supervise directly more than five. six other individuals whose work is interrelated.374 11 21.080 8 9 10 II O \ . M.

computed on the minimum . . . Efficiency for member Human Adjustment 277 of any possible grouping of persons which may arise during the course of the work. . basis direct the maximum Thus computed on and cross relationships arising for is: the given number of subordinates of Number assistants or functions I er of relationships or problems arising > Numb I (1)* (4) (10) (21) (41) (78) (148) 2 3 6 18 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ii 44 100 222 490 1080 2376 5210 "374 24708 12 * Figures in parentheses are (283) (547) (1068) (2102) (4161) basis. But he adds approximately 100 percent to the complexity and difficulty of his task of co-ordination.. who adds a sixth. It has its administrative counterpart in what may be described as 'the span of control'.c tionships . The proposed formula for the number of direct group is: re- lationships R = where n (— + n - i) =a b represents total direct and cross relan = number of persons supervised a = number of direct single relationships b = number of cross relationships R -f-f. The number of relationships which he must consider increases not by arithmetical but by geometrical progression. The psychological conception of 'the span of attention' places strict limits on the number of separate factors which the human mind can grasp simultaneously. increases his available human resources by 20 percent. A . c z=z number of direct group relationships. Neglect of the limitations imposed by 'the span of control' creates insoluble problems in coordination. supervisor with five subordinates reporting directly to him. .

They found that for some students the full text was too bulky or too expensive. One such teacher.APPENDIX V SELECTIONS from SCIENCE AND SANITY* by ALFRED KORZYBSKI author's note These to selections Non-aristotelian Systems from Science and Sanity : An Introduction and General Semantics were produced on the request of a number of teachers of General Semantics and study group leaders. Following graduation from the University of Illinois in 1938 Mr. yet they needed some fundamental textbook preserving the physico-mathematical approach. teachand other leaders in our civilization. In my judgment the material presented was necessary for them. but not as necessary for beginning students. Library Publishing Com- 278 . undertook the difficult task of making these selections. Janssen. Janssen spent six * The International Non-aristotelian pany. all I wrote Science and Sanity for scientists. Lakeville. Guthrie E. 1948. Personally I would be biased in making any 'selections' from Science and Sanity and so had to rely on some teacher experienced with college and university students. Connecticut. Originally ers.

i. and gave valuable aid in bringing about its realization. 1 For example in the Dictionary of World Literature.. Tokyo. etc. M. For teachers and students who will use this book I wish to include a forewarning concerning the fundamental confusion existing today about what the terms 'semantics' and General Semantics represent. all of them fully explained in Science and Sanity. in a new theory of values. attached for a period to the United States Strategic Air Forces (B-29's). and seeing results of the atomic bomb as one of the first ten Americans to enter Hiroshima. Kendig. and even my 'extensional devices' are called 'semantic devices'. Janssen returned to this country and was granted a fellowship (donated by Robert K. For instance. 'General Semantics' appears under the term Semantics. I wish to express my particular appreciation to . London. Ill.e. It would not 1 . and to the Institute staff and others for their valuable suggestions and help in production. Athens. what is said in the glossary about the use of the term 'semantic' in my 'General Semantics'. Straus) for a year's study at the Institute of General Semantics..Author's Note 279 years as instructor of English and history in American schools in Egypt.. and from an airplane over Nagasaki. there appears a five-page glossary of terms used in General Semantics. particularly the American University at Cairo where he used Science and Sanity as a textbook with university students on the third year level. 4 of ETC. I personally am most grateful to Guthrie Janssen for his considerable painstaking work. No. After travelling in some twenty-seven countries and broadcasting into the NBC network from Cairo. The two disciplines are confused. Janssen was war correspondent and broadcaster for the National Broadcasting Company. wheras such a thing does not exist. the Educational Director of the Institute she urged for many years that such selections should be published. The following two years Mr. Such initial errors lead automatically to further more aggravated misinterpretations. Practically every 'definition' misses the main point and trend of my work. He produced these Selections as part of his working fellowship during 1 946-1 947. Manila. In Vol. Shanghai. Mr. is entirely misleading.

felt that dif- ference in implication and formulated a more organismal Signifies Interna- theory under the tional name in the The Netherlands is still carrying on this work. under the leadership of mathematicians such as Brouwer (the founder of the Intuitional School in Mathematics) and logicians. and thus caused a confusion among the English-speaking people about the use of the term 'semantic' and 'semantics' which persists up to today. to Semantics (p. 9) Rudolf Carnap an investigation explicit reference is made to the user of a language [from a businesslike. The most recent example is an article on 'Semantics. Lady Welby somehow of 'Signifies'. science des significations. psycho-logicians. Both disciplines labelled by those terms were not non-elementalistic enough. 'Semantics Movement may . Semantics: Studies in the Science of Meaning.' In says. As to the relationship between those disciplines. be described as the applica- tion of Signifies within strictly philological limits. Unfortunately the terms are not exactly equivalent in the different languages. epistemologists. and so different researchers attempted further elaborations and amplifications under various old or new terms such as 'semasiology'. which considerably increased the confusion.. nor is there any clarifying discrimination made between the noun 'semantics' and the adjective 'semantic'. 'If in . which was translated into English in 1900 under the title. Moreover. 'semiotic'. . Lady Welby wrote in the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 'semiosis'. Semantique deals with a branch of philology and the historical change of sigliterature by Breal in 1897 The nificance ('meaning'). General Semantics' in Ten Eventful Years. practical point his Introduction be an overstatement to say that definitions of 'semantics' and 'General Semantics' and other terms printed in this glossary must be considered as seriously misinforming the public.280 Appendix original V French semantique was introduced into the i n ms Essai de semantique . an Encyclopaedia Britannica publication. etc. and some statements make no sense. etc. It is not even mentioned that 'semantics' is a branch of philology. . .. it has many misstatements and even falsifications of my work and the work of others.

Korzybski and his followers is psychoaiming to protect the individual against exploitation by others and by himself. tics. "theory of value". dealing with the inner life of the individual. pp. . And if. consisting of the three parts abstract mentioned.e. 80 and 353). However. even he adds to the confusion between 'semantics' and 'General Semantics'. which was published in 1933. Of my work he says. representative of the Viennese school. Carnap is an important constructive worker in the field of 'logic'. and so eliminates the possibility of evaluation as a living issue with a living individual. 2 . 'Studies in Semantics'.] . He seems acquainted with my Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Systems and General Semantics. we are in (logical) syntax.' 2 Obviously such a 'whole science of language' consisting of and 'logic'. finally. which is the main aim of General Seman'pragmatics'. disregards the inner reactions of the individual person. The whole science of language.. etc. and so adds to the linguistic chaos. If we abstract from the user of the language [i.' (p. 'semantics'. we from the designata also and analyze only the relations between the expressions. Further dangers are still ahead. is called semiotic. disregard the [referents?] person] and analyze only the expressions and their designata we are in the field of semantics.Author's Note of view] then 281 we assign it to the field of pragmatics [from the Greek pragmatikos.. The term 'General Semantics' was introduced in 1933 as a technical term in an empirical natural science of evaluation which deals with living human reactions and has nothing to do with 'logic' or mathematics as such. on . Yet in his book published in 1942 he uses the term 'General Semantics' when he actually wants to say 'generalized semantics'. 283). the silent (non-verbal) levels.' Charles Morris says explicitly that 'Semiotic is not then a Of 'Semantics' he writes.. . as Carnap announces on page ix a series of books. where this misuse of language and terms may be propagated. biological in orientation 'The work of A. 'That branch of semiotic which studies the signification of signs.' {Signs. Carnap was eventually entitled to use the term 'semantics'. Language and Behavior. as he may be considered to deal with the philology of logical and mathematical languages. deed. act. in other words. which is called 'semiotic'. business.

as they did not even touch my field. I cal in Toronto in 1924. the term 'human engineering'. The Science and Art of Human Engineering in 192 1 that term has become so abused that I had to abandon it. Thus. on the assumption that intelligent laymen will be able to discriminate between 'semantics' tics'. the General Theory'. I coined the term 'General Semantics'.. 'Semantics'. I believe originally. had not known of the work done in Semantique. and before the Washington Psychopathic Society in 1926 outlined practically my whole system before I became familiar with the works of Breal. which remains as im- Congress for Society portant as ever today. 'signifies'. From a time-binding point of view. and in fairness to the efforts of others. as mathematicians are able to discriminate and 'General Semanbetween the cartesian system and the vector. such as 'semantic aphasia'. The word 'semantic' does not appear in those papers at all. and my work is called 'Time-binding. I selected the term 'General Semantics' for an empirical natural science of non-ele- mentalistic evaluation.282 Appendix here it is V my work in Gen- From what was said obvious that eral Semantics has nothing to do with the above-mentioned disciplines. in the sense of 'evaluational'. tensor. use 'semantic' there only as an adjective with other words. before the Washington Nervous and Mental Diseases in 1925. but since the publication of my Manhood of Humanity . a theory of values. Sigwould have labelled my work by another name. Lady Welby. 'semantic reactions'. but my system would have remained fundamentally unaltered.. I also coined. etc. and actually had to hunt for another term. et al. etc. 'semantic blockage'. my papers before the International MathematiIf I nifies.. etc. General'. Even tics' in the index of Science and Sanity the word 'semanI does not appear except as 'Semantics. although I know and respect the works of the corresponding investigators in those fields. were unusable. with their stated limitations. calculuses as . etc.

the individual has to cope to be human eral at all. 'to mean'. deceiving the individual himself and/or others. 'Foreword' of Meaning Analyzed. into account the individual. That's what I I learned from the theory of time- binding and what siderations. 283 3 different disciplines. allocate Thus we used to inform. which may be vironments. formalism. un-sanity. No. The term 'General Semantics' seemed most appropriate to me because of the derivation from the Greek semainein. I selected it also for historical continuity. leads inevitably to insidious identifications (miseval- uations) of these different levels. as they do not take into consideration undefined terms. General Semantics Institute of General Semantics. as the problems on the non-verbal levels outside or inside our skins are present with us and real. With such problems. academic stupidites. and other types of pathological reactions. levels. . stracting. no matter what. 4 See Alfred Korzybski and M. to A Theory Monographs. or misinform by commission and/or omission. we take him from his reac- nor from his /z^uro-linguistic and /ze«/-o-semantic en- him in a plenum of some values. Ill. must then follow. etc. 4 Confusion between non-verbal silent and verbal levels. infantilism. and a plenum of language. 1942. no matter whether their relations to the verbal levels were solved by my predecessors and contemporaries or not. without exception. 3 Historically it is interesting to note that the original manuscript of Science and Sanity did not contain the word 'semantics' or 'semantic'. in the process of mathematical evolution. A theory of evaluation seemed to follow naturally in an evolutionary sense from 1) if 'meaning' to 2) 'signification' to 3) evaluation. not divorcing tions. Kendig. 'to signify'. tried to convey to others through Gennon-aristotelian Semantics and psycho-biological con- I showed several years ago that theories of 'meaning' are humanly impossible. which label only the silent levels of non- verbal experiences.Author's Note . due to lack of consciousness of abPrimitivism.

community. and they mention my work at all. also use these words. the lated. mostly in that sense. Perhaps the most telling applications were those on the battlefields of World War II. where its original program is being carried on. As the center for training in these non-aristotelian methods. they say explicitly that they use the term 'semantic' in an entirely different sense than I use the term 'General Semantics'. I had to investigate further hidden silent assump- became clear that nothing short of a methodof mathematics and modern empirical sciences would suffice for a general theory of values. The rapid spread of interest in our work. to Lakeville. no results can be expected. or personal interrelationships. whether in law. and they are exactly correct.. General Semantics being the modus operandi and foundation of the system. the more it became ob- vious that deeper studies in tions. the results are usually beneficial. business. Connecticut. The more my researches advanced. Finally it many branches of science were necessary.284 Appendix 'semantic' V The words and 'semantics' are today commonly and physi- used even in newspapers and magazines mostly in the sense of 'meaning'. In the summer of 1946 the Institute moved it Today mantics and this Non-aristotelian System. If the methods are not applied. etc. I must stress that panaceas. first so far to be formu- becomes impossible to separate General SeOne follows from the other. but merely talked about. has indicated the need for the now new methods set forth here. This ological synthesis synthesis turned out to be (although it was not planned as such) a non-aristotelian system. the Institute of General Semantics was incorporated in Chicago in 1938. medicine. mathematicians cists included. Important scientists. education on all levels. national. and vice versa. or international. by on all continents. be they family. of Many if them know something about General Semantics. but experience shows that General Semantics gives no when the methods of General Semantics are applied. as reported by members of the armed .

"Korzybski. I with indefinitely accelerat- am deeply convinced that these problems all unless we boldly search for and revise our antiquated notions about the 'nature of man' and apply modern extensional methods toward their solution. U. Vol.C. as a modern scientific method. New York. Training of Officers for the Naval Service: Hearings Before the Committee on Naval Affairs. also Chief Psychiatrist in charge of the prisoners at Nuremberg..S. and especially by Dr. Greenberg. these basic principles were employed as methods of group psychotherapy and as methods of psychiatric prevention. See also Saunders. Douglas M. pp. human progress. and so the extensional methods and devices of 5 General Semantics can be applied to all existing Chief Consultant in Clinical Psychology and Assistant Consultant in Psychiatry to the European Theater of Operations. including psychiatrists 285 on all fronts. United States Senate. That they were employed with success is demonstrated by the fact that psychiatric evacuations from the European Theater were held to a minimum. D. 5 who reports in part as follows: 'General semantics. These principles were applied (as individual therapies and as group therapies) at every treatment level from the forward area to the rearmost echelon. the complexities and difficulties in the world increase following an exponential function of ing accelerations.Author's Note forces.: A Review of General Semantics. In my experience with over seven thousand cases in the European Theater of Operations. Ill. and consequently hundreds of battalion-aid surgeons were trained in principles of general semantics. Memorandum. Captain James. 55—57.). A Veteran's Re-Adjustment and Extensional Methods. in front-line aid stations. ETC. A. USN (Ret. 1947. offers techniques which are of extreme value both in the prevention and cure of such [pathological] reactive patterns. in exhaustion centers and in general hospitals. It is obvious that the earlier the case is treated the better the prognosis. June 12 and 13. Kelley. . formerly Lieutenant Colonel in the Medical Corps. Author of 22 Cells in Nuremberg. Government Printing Office. Let us cannot be solved at also remember that the methods of exact sciences disregard national boundaries.' 6 daily It is not generally realized that with 'time'. No. 1946. Washington. 4. 1946.

) He announced that he was using the term "general semantics" for his own study {Ibid. One paragraph in particular represents such an excellent.. many new interrelations and formulations. Read's kind permission to reproduce it here : 'The great popular vogue of the word semantics can be traced to the ferment caused by the works of Alfred Korzybski.286 Appendix V languages. Lakeville. p. Before this he has called his work "Time-binding. and eventual agreement. with deep psycho-logical effects on tne users and through them on their countrymen. an international common denominator for inter-communicamutual understanding. came to my attention. 748. and popular writers on "the glamour of word study. 1948 additional note As this was going to press a new paper by Allen Walker Read of New York. p. and that his researches had resulted "in the discovery of a general semantic mechanism underlying human behaviour. Mr. or semantic reaction at all. historical statement of how I came to introduce the term 'General Semantics'. and he was particularly impressed with their work upon attending the "Congres des mathematiciens des pays Slaves" in Warsaw in 1929. Louisiana. Thus the world can gain tion. the general theory. though some of his followers have erroneously associated it with the antiquarianism of Breal.) Thus the background of Korzybski's usage is found in the Polish logicians." ('A Non-aristotelian System and its Necessity for Rigour in Mathematics and Physics." AJL . which is characterized mostly by the semantic approach. and received."). in the first draft of his Science and Sanity. to be published soon. In 1928. Ernest Weekley. he did not make use of semantics.. But . he presented material on "the restricted semantic school represented by Chwistek and his pupils.. In 193 1.." {Ibid. he was keeping in touch with the developments among Polish mathematicians. 750." printed in Science and Sanity. Connecticut AK February. 747-761 quotation. general semantics. pp. 749. terse. that I asked for. p. culminating in a [Non-aristotelian] -system. in a paper given before the American Mathematical Society at New Orleans.

by Scripta Mathematica. Keyser.CASSIUS JACKSON KEYSER LECTURE XX from MATHEMATICAL PHILOSOPHY* 1922 KORZYBSKFS CONCEPT OF MAN ^Mathematical Philosophy in the Collected is to be republished Works of Cassius J. . New York.

.

289 . light and sky and the common air. so omnipresent. A few years vironment. we had not been educated to perceive that we have it almost to discover the laws of its schooled to reflect that 1 Part of this lecture is found in my Phi Beta Kappa address on The Nature of Man (Science. Sept. Dec. its we had not thought deeply genesis nor seriously sought upon the principle of growth. 1921) and some of it in an article by me in The Pacific Review. so interwoven with our whole en- we did not reflect upon it but habit- for granted as the great gifts of Nature.LECTURE XX Korzybski's Concept of Man 1 WHAT TIME-BINDING MEANS— DIMENSIONALITY AND THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF LOGICAL TYPES— THE NATURAL LAW OF CIVILIZATION AS AN INCREASING EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION OF TIME— HUMAN ETHICS AS TIME-BINDING ETHICS. 9. that ually took it all ago our lives were lapt round with in a civilization so rich and comfortable manifold ways. —land and is we take for granted sea. 1921. we had not been we who were enjoying it had neither produced it nor earned its goods. We were hardly aware of literally a the fact that Civilization product of human labor and time. NOT THE SPACE- BINDING ETHICS OF ANIMALS.

" Since then a change has come. — —and we to doctrines are it wont them radical. for they are questions of ethics. of all which we humans have to deal. that. red. of education. We had been born in the midst of a great civilization. of philosophy. and. and so the questions that are everywhere asking are questions regarding men and women Man. The [First] World War awoke us. not to say as "maggots in a cheese. Everywhere men and women are now thinking as never before. of social institutions. Is true that our thinking has been too radical? question would have made Plato smile —Plato who How the had seen his venerated teacher condemned to death . The quesresults. revolutionary. of economics.290 solely as a Lecture XX toil bounty from the time and of by-gone generations. tions have led to some curious to call that alarm. of industrial methods. and they are thinking about realities for they know that there is no other way to the realities with cope with the great problems of a troubled world. of politics and government. we had not been disciplined to feel the mighty obligation which the great inheritance imposes upon us as at once the posterity of the dead and the ancestry of the yet unborn. to proposals that startle. They have is learned. The awakening was rude but it was effectual. the supreme reality Man. in accord with our breeding. too. we lived in it and upon it like butterflies in a garden of flowers.

Why. the trouble is that. XX 291 No. daring but deep. For. and the character of our human and in depend both upon what man is equal or greater measure upon what we huinstitutions mans think man is. Our questionings have been eager and wide-ranging but our thought has been shallow. as we have : ask ourselves the fundamental question in virtue of is which human beings are human? What is that What in the the distinctive place of our human kind is hierarchy of the world's life? I What Man? have called the question "fundamental" fundamental sovereign — — — all it is is the importance of a right answer it is for obvious. if it had been failed. our thought has not been radical enough. that the character of human history. For why enquire we knew the sure we know? But have we known ? edge in this case just? Is our assumption of knowl- Have we really known. once the fact is pointed out. do we know now. the char- acter of human conduct. then. what is in fact the idiosyncrasy of the human class of life ? Do we know critically what we. have we not asked the question? The is it reason doubtless consciously taken that we have when we consciously or Un- for granted that are answer. really are? Here it is es- .Lecture for radical criticism. as representatives of man. it It has been passionate and it has been has not been deep. in the proper sense of that much abused term. to we could not have failed.

immediate inner knowledge — do not doubt that. had it originated in our time. it we have a must have come down to us if entangled in the mesh of our inherited opinions and must have been taken in. by instinct. would have made itself heard of as a grave discovery. it is has of what fishes are or are. in this sense of knowing. knowledge by concepts. knowledge of objects objects. there is a kind of instinctive knowledge. it. we to say that a fish fly. reasonable to suppose that inherited for so important a thing. and our question. —of what a just — nor. a bird We are speaking of concepts. the kind we do know what human of knowledge that a that a bird has of fish beings are. is this Have we humans it is Concept of Man? we If we have. we do to have this sort of knowledge of we do not suppose a bird can have a just conception. what birds other kind of knowledge. any conception. as such opinions are usually . fish or what a number is. — by analyzing them. Now. : you see. it is knowledge. properly speaking. is.— 292 Lecture we XX sential to distinguish. just concept of man. the kind of knowledge we mean when we know how to move our arms or that knows how to swim or that a bird knows how I — knowledge that is instinctive. — —conceptual knowledge of scientific But there is an- objective the kind of knowledge we say is that we know or do not we mean when know what a plant not suppose fish. So I say that. are speaking of knowledge.

the fact should not greatly astonish us.Lecture taken in. is to be both the knower and the object known. only one." Let me say 2 at the outset that one who would read Since writing the foregoing I have observed a learned discussion of the question by Professor E. It is the aim of this lecture to present the it by help of the Theory of Logical Types. so far as I refer to I know. as given by him. I have now to make one en- important exception and. P. you see. Aug. Science and Organized Civilization. the Theory of Classes. XX 293 from the common air." If we discover that we have never had cept of man. the Polish momentous book (The Manhood of Humanity : The Science and Art of Human Engineering*) he has both propounded the question and subgineer. Wm. 2 Count Alfred Korzybski. Ritter in an article. In saying that in the thought of our time the great question has not been asked. Dutton & Company. in the Scientific Monthly. In his } mitted an answer that is worthy of the serious attention of every serious student. 8 E.. 19 1 7. by a kind of "cerebral a just con- suction. the is difficulty that of a ing then to knower having to objectify itself and havform a just concept of what the object is. and the auanswer and to examine thor's closely allied notion of "Dimensions. man. . whatever his field of study. for the difficulty is unique. are so grave as to make one wonder why he did not altogether drop the "animal" element from the definition. Professor Ritter once more defines man as a kind of animal but the distinctive marks of the kind.

But the other two classes are not aware of the fact tral concept . that readers of the book. —they —but are simply because they are not qualified for conceptual thinking save that of the (II) central commonest type. (III) The class of those who firmly seize the cen- and who by meditating upon it see more and more clearly the tremendous reach of its implications. a concept role whose that among the other ideas in the work is like of the sun in the solar system. there would be no science in the world nor genuine philosophy. or of any other book built about a central concept. after further study. If it were not for this class.: 294 the Lecture XX to it book understandingly must come prepared to grapple with a central concept. It happens. who seem to grasp the concept and then straightway show by their The class of those manner of talk that they have not really grasped its it but have at most got hold of some of words. permitted. clusive classes fall into three mutually ex- (I) — have known —not through any cept (I The class of those who miss the central con- a learned historian to miss it) fault of their own. often indeed well meaning and amiable people. In- tellectually such readers are like the familiar type of undergraduate aminations but who "flunks" his mathematical may possibly "pull through" in a is exsec- ond attempt and so to try again. therefore.

not even tradition. no art." In respect of such folk." What I that central concept? What in is Korzybski's as clearly as Concept of can. they were inheritance.— Lecture XX is 295 for they are merely "verbalists. or spiritual wealth." says the author. that is. for they had no history. they knew nothing of the past. ages ago there appeared upon this planet no matter how — the first specimens of our human some to What was their condition? It requires meditation and some realize keenly exercise of imagination what it must have been. —no —no material . no philosophy. in the sense in they had none —no which we humans now use the term. will be clearer to us if we prepare for it by a little preliminary reflection. "Humanity. no religion. Of knowledge. which is indeed momentous. Long kind. they did not know what they were nor where they were. the time and toil from of by-gone generations. the "Behaviorist" school of psychology right for in the psychology of classes (I) and (II) there is no need for a chapter on "Thought Processes" it is sufficient to is have one on "The Language Habit. they had no capital. for they had no knowledge of natural law. they could not foretell the future. It is Man? I wish to present it a concept defining man terms of Time. science. "is the time-binding class of life." What do the words mean? What is meant by time-binding or the binding of time? The meaning.

trines. It is the energy that invents — that produces instruments. without precedents. animal-hunted ancestors of — ours were a new kind of creature in the world new kind because endowed with a strange new gift a strange new a strange new capacity or power — — energy. we all of us have some measure. for they contrived to do the most wonderful of have happened on our globe the creative ants call Civilization. criticizes. . without any light of human experience. movement which is their remote descendever tried to Why? What find it? bling. without speech. I mean. the energy excellence that. institutions and doc- moreover. having invented. they were miracles of genius. was almost absolute. criticizes. thus from creation to creation endlessly. the secret? is Have you The secret that those rude animal-resem- animal-hunting. —they things that initiated. without guiding maxims. it as representatives of Man. and better thus advancing.a 296 Lecture XX without tools. effects What is it? its We know partly by its and in partly by stirring within us for as human beings. having in- vented. then invents again and better. let us call it. as we understand yet. their ignorance. by creative from . And it it is in the world today. invents again activity. And compared with all the beasts. Be good enough to reflect and to reflect again upon the significance of those simple words: advancing in invents. ideas. it is. the term.


Lecture

XX

297

stage to stage of excellence without end. Their sound
is

familiar; but

what of

their ultimate sense?

We

ought indeed to pause here, withdraw to the solitude
of some cloister and there in the silence meditate upon their meaning; for they do not describe the life of beasts; they characterize

Man.

We

are speaking of a peculiar kind of energy

the energy that civilizes

that strange familiar en-

ergy that makes possible and makes actual the great

movement which we call human Progress, of which we talk much and think but little. Let us scrutinize it more closely; let us, if we can, lay bare its characteristic relation to Time for its relation to Time is the relation of Time to the distinctive life of Man. Compare some representative of the animal world,
creative
a bee, let us say, or a beaver, with a correspondingly

representative man. Consider their achievements and
the

a bridge or

ways thereof. The beaver makes a dam; the man, some discovery, analytical geometry,

for example, or the art of printing, or the Keplerian

laws of planetary motion, or the atomic constitution
of

matter.

The two

achievements,

beaver and that of the man,

that

of the

are each of
toil,

product of three factors: time,
terial,

them a and raw ma-

where the

last signifies, in the case of purely

scientific

achievement, the data of sense, in which

science has its roots.

Both achievements endure,

it


Lecture

298

XX

may be for a short while only, as in the case of the dam or the bridge, or one of them may endure
endlessly,

as in that of a scientific discovery.

What
be-

happens
gins

in the

next generation?

The new beaver

ended
one.

where its predecessor began and ends where it it makes a dam but the dam is like the old

Yet the old dam

is

there for the

new beaver

to

behold, to contemplate, and to improve upon. But

dam wakes in the beaver's "mind" no inventive impulse, no creative stirring, and so there is no improvement, no progress. Why not? The answer is obvious: the beaver "mind" is such that its power to achieve is not reinforced by
the presence of the old

the presence of past achievement.

The new
is

beaver's

time

is

indeed overlapped, in part or wholly, by the
its

time of

predecessor for the latter time

present
oldit is

as an essential factor of the old

dam, but that

time factor, though present, produces nothing
as

dead

capital,

bearing no interest. Such

is

tion of the beaver

"mind,"

—of

the rela-

the animal mind,

to time.

Now, what

of the

new man? What does he do?
was
;

What

he does depends, of course, upon his predecesa bridge, he
if it

sor's achievement; if this

better bridge or invents a ship

makes a was the discovery
its

of analytical geometry, he enlarges
vents the calculus; if
it

scope or

in-

was

the art of printing, he

invents a printing press;

if it

was the discovery of


Lecture

XX

299

the laws of planetary motion, he finds the law of
gravitation;
if
it

was the discovery of the atomic
is

constitution of matter, he discovers the electronic constitution of atoms. Such

the familiar record

improvement of old things, invention of new ones Progress. Why? Again the answer is obvious: the mind of man, unlike animal "mind," is such that its power to achieve is reinforced by past achievement. As in the case of the beaver, so in that of man, the successor's time is overlapped by the predecessor's
time for the latter time continues
its

presence as an

essential factor in the old achievement,

dures but,
;

and

this is the point,

which encase, un-

in

man's

like the beaver's, the old-time factor is

not merely

present,

it

works;

no

interest,

it is not as dead capital, bearing and ultimately perishing it is living

capital bearing interest not only but interest perpet-

ually

compounded
is

at an ever-increasing rate.

the interest

ual wealth,

—not merely
skill,

growing wealth,

—material and

And

spirit-

physical conveniences but

instruments of power, understanding, intelligence,

knowledge and

beautiful arts, science, philoso-

phy, wisdom, freedom

That great process, involving some subtle alchemy that we do not understand, by which the /7?w<?-factor, embodied in things accomplished, perpetually reinforces more and more the achieving

— —

in a

word, Civilization.

potency of the

human mind,

the process by which

300
mysterious

Lecture
Time

XX

thus continually and increasingly

augments the

civilizing

energy of the world,

process by which the evolution of civilization
volves the storing up or involution of time,

— —

the
inis

it

that mighty process which Korzybski happily desig-

nates by the term, Time-binding.

The term

will recur

frequently in our discussion, and so I

recommend

that

you dwell upon
seized
it

its

meaning

as given until

you have

firmly. It is because time-binding

power

is

not only peculiar to
tinctive

man
all

but

is,

among man's

dissig-

marks, beyond
one

nificant

comparison the most

it is

because of that two-fold considera-

tion that the author defines

humanity

to be

"the

time-binding class of life."
Such,
then,
is

Korzybski's answer to the most
questions:

important of

all

what

is

Man? Do

not

lose sight of the fact that

we have here

a concept

and that
subtle

it

defines

man

in

terms of a certain relation,
"char-

indeed but undoubtedly characteristic, that
is

man
of

has to time. By saying that the relation

acteristic" of
life,

man I mean that, among known classes man and only man has it. Animals have it not
it, if

or, if

they have
it

they have time-binding capacity,
it

they have

in a degree so small that

may

be

neglected as mathematicians neglect infinitesimals of

higher order.

The answer

in question is
is

not one to which the

world has been or

now

accustomed. If you apply

Lecture

XX

301

for an answer to the thought of the bygone centuries

or to the regnant philosophies of our time, what

answer

will

you get?
it

It will

two kinds:
maine; or

will be a zoological

an animal, a kind or species of animal, the bete huit

will be a

—man mythological answer — man
answer

be one or the other of
is

is

a mysterious

compound or union of animal

(a natural

thing) with something "supernatural." Such are the
rival conceptions now current throughout the world. They have come to us as a part of our philosophical inheritance. Some of us hold one of them; some of and no doubt many of us hold both us, the other
;

of them for, though they are mutually incompatible,
the

mere incompatibility of two ideas does not necessarily prevent them from finding firm lodgment in the
same brain.

That Korzybski's concept of man

portant,
I

entirely just

is just and imand immeasurably important,

have no reason to doubt after having meditated
it.

much upon
self

But the author does not content him-

with presenting that concept; he goes much

further; he denies outright the zoological conception

and similarly denies the ages-old
ical conception,

rival, the

mytholog-

denouncing both of them as being at
effect.

once false to fact and vicious in

Why

false?

Wherein?
first

Let us deal

with the zoological or biological

conception. Natural

phenomena

are to be conceived

302
and defined
tion
in

Lecture

XX
the author
is

accord with facts revealed by observa-

and

analysis.

The phenomena

con-

cerned with are the great life-classes of the world:
plants, animals,
significant facts

and humans. What, he

asks, are the

about them, their patent cardinal

relations, their distinctive
tive ?

marks, positive and nega:

And

his

answer runs as follows
positive

Of

plants the

most

significant

mark

is

their

"bind" the basic energies of the world

power

to

to take in,
soil,

transform and appropriate the energies of sun,

water and

air;

but they lack autonomous power to

move about

in space,

and that lack
plants.

is

a highly signifi-

cant negative

mark of
life;
it

The

plants are said

to constitute the "chemistry-binding" or basic-energy-

binding class of
positive

the
is

name

suggests only the

mark but

essential to note that the

is effected by the positive and marks conjoined. What of the animals? These, like the plants, take in, transform and appropriate the basic energies of sun, soil, water and air, taking them in large part as already transformed by the plants; but this power of animals to bind the positive one of the two defining basic energies,

definition of the class

the negative

marks of

plants,

— —

is

not a defining

mark

of animals;

the positive defining mark of animals is their autonomous power to move 4 about in space, to crawl or Do sessile animals really constitute an exception? It can be

*

shown,

I

think, that such animals are space-binders in

Korzyb-

ski's sense.

Lecture
run or
fly

XX
to
to

303
abandon one
harvest the

or swim,

—enabling them
seen, a negative

place and occupy another and so

natural fruits of

many

localities; this positive

mark,

you observe,
they have,
to time

is

a relation of animals to space; but

— animals

we have

mark, a relation

lack capacity for binding time. Be-

cause of the positive mark, animals are said to constitute the "space-binding" class of life,

but
(as

it is

to

be carefully noted that the definition

distin-

guished from the name) of the class
the positive
Finally,

is

effected

by

mark conjoined with the negative one. what of humans? We have already seen the
life.

answer and the ground thereof
time-binding class of
us

humanity is the For the sake of clarity let
definitions, as fol-

summarize the conceptions, or
:

lows

a plant

is

a living creature having the capacity

to bind basic energies
ability to

and lacking the autonomous
;

move

in space

an animal
ability

is

a living creature

having the autonomous

to

move about

in

space and lacking the capacity for binding time; a man, or a human, is a living creature having timebinding power.
It is to

be noted that, as thus conceived, the great

life-classes of the

world constitute a hierarchy arranged according to a principle which Korzybski calls

life-dimensions or dimensionality, as follows

The

plants, or basic-energy-binders, belong to the
life

lowest level or type of

and constitute the

life-

dimension

/.

304

Lecture

XX
and constitute the
life-

The

animals, or space-binders, belong to the next
life

higher level or type of

dimension

77.

Human

beings, or time-binders, belong to a
life

still

higher level or type of

and constitute the

life-

dimension 7/7.
not

Whether there be a yet higher class of life we do know and that is why in the conception of man no negative mark is present. Now, it is, of course, perfectly clear that, according to the foregoing conceptions or definitions, the

old zoological conception of

man

as a species of ani-

mal

is

false, as the
is

author contends. But

may we

not
it

say that he

here merely playing with words? Is

not entirely a matter of arbitrary definition?
not,

Has

he

merely to please

his fancy,
in

quite willfully de-

fined the

term "animal"

such a

humans from
that

the class so defined?

way as to exclude The answer is
mere word
it

undoubtedly, No.

we

could,

if

Of we

course,

it

goes without saying

chose, define the

"animal" or any other noun so as to make

stand

for the "class" of plants, elephants, humans, jabber-

wocks and newspapers. But we do not so choose.

Why

not? Because we desire our definitions to be

expedient, to be helpful, to serve the purpose of ra-

want them, in other words, to correspond to facts. Let us, then, forget the word for a little while and look at the facts. It is a fact
tional thinking.

We

— — powerfully tends to produce both intellectual and moral obfuscation. be not intermixed in thought and discourse. it is. animal functions. — —namely. thus distinct by an infinite dif- ference of kind of endowment. time. same term "animal" to denote the members of both men and beasts alike. therefore. functions and properties in common is with plants. demand that the two classes. it is. a fact that the difference be- the capacity for binding all is not only beyond comparison the most significant of the the most significant marks peculiar to man. It is indeed true that humans have certain animal organs. and animal propensities. that there is a fact another class of creatures having both it is kinds of capacity. constantly. subtly. therefore. and the blunder is a kind that fundamental — of it is the kind which . but is indeed and precious thing in the world. humans are animals cisely the is pre- same kind of logical blunder as we should plants commit if we said that animals or humans are because they have certain organs. a fact that the author's condemnation of the zoological conception as false to fact is amply justified on the best of grounds. therefore. tween the two. but to say that. sound but the interests of science. it is a fact that use of the classes.Lecture that there is XX it 305 a class of creatures having space-binding is capacity but not time-binding capacity. a fact that not only the interests of ethics.

organ. it —has been unex- pectedly challenged." To say that humans are animals is cause they have certain animal propensities cally logi- on a par with saying that geometric solids are surfaces because they have certain surface properties or with saying that fractions are whole numbers they have certain because properties that whole numbers have. and die. — Common Sense. have legs and hair. due simply to the fact that an old unquestioned. subtle as spirit. Why is it that people for the that first is are shocked on encountering time a categorical denial of their belief a species of man animal? Do is they feel that thus assailed ? their proper dignity as Is it human beings because the animal basis of their space-binding is ethics being thus attacked? Is scientific it that a well- reasoned conviction is suddenly contrais dicted? I do not think the shock these things. . due to any of I believe. uncriticized creed of that great dullard. is — — evident to common it is obtrusively evident to sense-perception. It is. For sense. their time-binding faculty is not thus evident it is not.306 mathematicians classes Lecture call XX calls the confusion of types or of the "mixing of be- and which Korzybski dimensions. it is an intangible function. they feed and grow. all just like animals. a tangible — . that humans have certain animal organs and animal experience they are begotten and born. on the other hand. I mean.

Lecture XX its 307 and so common sense. The answer Because concepts are never "mere" concepts but are. instincts. as in so is . are not controlled by concepts but instincts. the life wrong. I have said that the ancient and modern rival of the zoological conception of conception according to man is the which man is mythological a mysterious compound or hybrid of natural (animal) and as it super- natural. passions. concepts are the means by which Reason does its work. This conception might well be treated today was treated yesterday by Plato (in the Timaeus. concludes that our old dullard lif e-in-space animal. for example). But in this matter. human kind is a kind of many others. guided according to lessly taking for wont by the uncriticized evidence of sense. appetites. "We must accept. and thought- major premise the false proposition is that whatever has animal organs and propensities an animal. in humans. desires. and appetites. passions. desires. leading to prosperity or disaster according as the concepts be true or false. The proper of animals is is the distinctive life of humans life- in-time." said he. "the traditions of the men of old time who selves to be the offspring of the they say —and they must gods — affirm them- that is what their surely have known . But why are mere concepts so important? Our lives. vitally connected with impulses. is : by impulses. we are told.

— is not the way of is the Polish engineer. B Jowett's translation. XX the own How ? can we doubt word of the children of the gods Although they give no probable as they declare that they are or certain proofs. — speaking of what took place in their own family. or — logical blunder as the zoological is. or Confucius. for example. . it involves. our humankind the time-binding class and Korzybski stresses again and again the importance of recognizing that time-binding energy and all the phenomena thereof are perfectly natural — that New- ton. same kind of conception types. that the mythological conception of man is both false and vicious." 5 But the way of the Greek philosopher. bluntly affirms. still. Among is the life-classes of . was as thoroughly natural as an eagle or an oak. not indeed without a blithesome sense of in this The latter is humor but and he matter he tremendously in earnest. the world. we must conform to custom and believe them. this gentle irony.308 Lecture ancestors. it As the to its validity or invalidity. boldly and confidently. that a fatal confusion of mixing of dimensions. To say that man is must be regarded as partly natural (partly animal) and partly a being so inscrutably constituted that he supernatural (partly divine) that a geometrical solid it is logically like saying is a thing so wonderful that must certainly be a surface miraculously touched by some mysterious influence from outside the universe of space. he says. involves.

facts of pure thought are not so obtrusively obvious but there are such facts. one of them is — "If something S has the property P and whatever has P has the property P' t then S has P'. I believe. night. and to disregard them would be facts of sense-perception. —and He has not told that omission doubtless a defect which ought to be remedied in a future edition of the book." Now. of a brief answer that is fairly satisfactory. they are known facts. and so on. regular. is "natural" — at all events. You are aware that the terms "nature" of them so vague as to be and "natural" are currently employed in a large variety of senses —most men. so well ascertained. growth. not for the serious use of scientific What ought we to mean by the term "natural" such a discussion as we are now en- gaged in? The question admits. all such facts are compatible — . such facts are of two kinds : of this and memory. — moving pageant of the birth. so indubitable that they guide in all the affairs of practical life. day. or to perish like unprotected idiots or imbeciles. in fit only for the use of "literary" men. Everyone knows that the things encountered by a normal human in the course of his experience differ widely in respect of vagueness and certitude some of them are facts so . we say. change of seasons. water.Lecture XX ? 309 What does he mean by us. and facts of pure thought. land. not explicitly. the former are familiar in the world sky. death.

and respecting a question of logic. this: Nature {or the natural) consists of as are compatible and only such things [con- sistent) with the best-ascertained facts of sense and of thought. he has not. it were a quesmere mathematicians would. such an . however. however." it and I think very probably is. like his objection to the zoological conception. a question of the logical significance of such data. they. as he uses it is "mixing dimensions" cannot be of the term "dimensions" The meaning unmistakable. defer to the it is opinion of biologists. even biologists. — — for will probably admit entitled that engineers to be heard. these are not in dispute. all what we ought to mean by natural is. the calls importance of avoiding what Korzybski overstressed. —then I fully agree with him that humans are thoroughly natural beings. that time-binding energy is a natural kind of energy. are sensible folk. and that his strenuous objection to the mythological conception of man is. for straight and significant thinking. the others. and mere mathematicians are In this connection I desire to say that. well taken. a question it is of biological data. elaborated an abstract theory of the idea. of course. XX with all as we say. If that be what Korzybski means by "natural. If tion of biological data. I that therefore. like other sensible folk.— 310 each of them take it Lecture fits in. not. too.

very be not essentially identical with. nor dynamics to geometry. and Personality (E. I dynamics. cannot be understood fully in in terms of mechanism. Haldane's doctrine of "categories" as set forth in his very stimulating and suggestive book Mechanism. Dutton and Co. . and personality belong to different categories constituting a genuine hierarchy such that the higher that life. P. briefly dealt with in a previous ture and fully outlined in the Principia it is. Life. an order of ideas similar to that of Korzybski's thesis that humans can be no more explained in terms of animals than animals in terms of plants or plants in terms of minerals. life. if it moreover. I believe. losophy to recognize that there whether we will or no. XX 311 reducible or nearly reducible to that of the show that the idea is Theory lec- of Logical Types. closely allied to. It lieve. Mathematica of Whitehead and Russell.) wherein the eminent physiologist maintains that mechanism. is not reducible to the lower. a hierarchy of categories and to recognize that. you observe.Lecture elaboration would. because it itself. for example. to an understanding of the higher categories. terms of life. nor physics to will. And it is to me at an all is fortified by the analogous con- sideration that geometry cannot be reduced to arithmetic. nor personality It is. Professor J. be- be a great advantage to science and to phiexists. S. order of ideas that recommends events. nor psychology to physics.

under the hypothesis. and he denounces them as vicious their effects. of sense and of thought". Who dynamics illuminates geometry quite as much as geometry illuminates dynamics? In Korzybski's indictment of the zoological and mythological conceptions of seen. we have in two counts he denies that the conceptions are true. the result ethics will continue to be much the same —our .312 Lecture XX important sense in the lower ones. is perfectly evident that there never has been and never can be a system of human ethics having the understandability. and this means that. human kind be will in fact a thoroughly natural is we continue to think that such not the case. though necessary. have already spoken. respecting the convictions are as follows : my i ) if humanity be not a thoroughly natural class of life. it the term "natural" having the sense above defined. Is there not. Of ( former count latter one. a highly which the phenomena of a higher category throw as much light upon those of a lower as the latter can deny that. indeed. although our class. there never has been and never can be an ethi- cal system "compatible with the best-ascertained facts (2) if. : man there are. contending that they are mainly responsible for the dismal things of is human history and for what the woeful in the I present plight of the world. are not sufficient. the authority. and the sanction of natural law. for throw upon the former? example.

industrial method. — the whole conduct and life of a tribe or a state or a nation or a world. of violence. the social life of the its man as a in all world aspects will continue to reflect the tragic miscon- ception. in so. politics. guided and controlled by animalistic ethics. sound or unsound. of brutal competition. This is indeed an unforgettable illustration of the . — an animal —what it always ethics. and be vitiated by fundathe virus mentally false conceptions of is human nature. science. philosophy. so long as we continue to regard species of animal. the space-binding ethics of beasts. on the other hand. combat. and our in large ethics will remain. penetrates them Ethics is a kind of social ether which. has been measure. true or false. art. if ethics all its dimensions and forms. Why so much stress it is upon ethics? Because ethics is is not a thing apart. space- binding ethics. I hardly need remind you that civi- only yesterday the most precious institutions of lization were in great danger of destruction by a powerful state impelled. — and education. all. per- vades life. and war. private and public. not localized but spreads throughout the body affecting the character of all activities politic.Lecture XX (3) 313 carry the confusion and darkness due to the presence in it of mythological elements. economics. an ethics of might. not an interest that it merely coordinate with other interests. government. institutions. whether it be good or bad.

even decisively." Let us upon it a little. undoubtedly Nothing can be more important. it is In view of such considerations a great pleasit is ure to turn to Korzybski's concept of man. tions depends. Indeed we may say of all what re- Carlyle said of Wilhelm Meister: "It significantly tends towards infinity in flect directions. history. it fail to per- we have seen. the future welfare of mankind. for not only a noble conception. not merely tively human conduct and human upon what man distinc- but also in large measure. then that man or state may be expected to act betimes like a beast and to seek justification in a zoological philosophy of human nature. upon what we humans think man is. human other the time-binding class of life. you will its find that the body of implications looms larger and larger and that the range of clearer bearings grows ever it and wider. if —meditation its bearings? is You can- essential. We shall see that human history. Lecture XX institu- before pointed out. you will meditate upon the concept. as implications? And what are its not take them in at a glance but. world. If a man or a state habitually regards humanity as a species of animal. the present status of the all the philosophy thereof. that the character human is. but just. What are its is also. in . are involved. of them The kind is central concept or thesis is that our it is.314 mighty of fact. as none can ceive.

for birds for plants to live after the manner of it plants. Another one. of our human kind. the laws of man is to study and understand the nature of man's time-binding natural laws. and to discover their laws and teach them to the . to study time-bind- ing phenomena. That teristic fact is is fundamental.Lecture words. is XX and that man is 315 in our world a peculiar kind of its its time-binding energy. What are implicates and bearings? One of them we have already though we humans are not are natural beings : noted. it is is the energy that civilizes. we to it is as natural for humans bind time as to fly. also fun: damental. that there energy. its — — the charac- is not an effect of civilization it but is cause. It is that. this time-binding faculty. both material and spiritual. it is natural for fishes to swim. it fol- — — lows that to study and understand energies. It is as natural for man to make things achieved the is means to greater achievements as natural for animals not to do so. Inasmuch as time-binding capacity is the characterizing mark. is whether material or spiritual wealth. a species of animal. I come now to a most grave consideration. of these energies. the idiosyncrasy. — human nature are the laws. not a product of wealth. — the phenomena of civilization. but the crea- tor of wealth. its organ — sole instrument or agency. it is not civilized energy. of humanity.

We have observed that each ended. it is Lecture is XX the supreme obligation of scientific men. we know — —not indeed roughly. for mere space-binders there no advancement. it merits our best attention. new discoveries. its is life and human welfare. discovers. discoveries to tions to new creations. we know that inventions lead to inventions. We know new that. that generation of (say) beavers or bees begins where the preceding one began and ends where is is it law for animals. It the natural law of progress in time-binding — in civilization-building. no time-binding a beaver dam a a is beaver dam — — — a honey comb a honey comb. the children of knowledge and art and wisdom not only produce their kind in larger and larger families but engender endlessly. the secret and process of pro- gressive civilization-building. by which past time embodied as cofactor of during achievements thus survives the dead and works as living capital for is augmentation and trans- mission to posterity. fairly —but of the laws general type. in sharp contrast therewith. man invents. new and higher kinds toil in en- we know that this time-binding process. by such pro- gressive breeding. —and we know now. creates.316 world. well. is the Law thereof — The question is : What gen- the natural law? What its . for evident that upon the natural laws of time- binding must be based the future science and art of human One cisely. I pre- mean. creawe know that.

I have said "approximately. conveniently if called the "first. — the natural law. to a similar law." and R denote the ratio of imin the 2 . the function not only increases but itself increases does so at a rate which according and the rate of increase of the rate of increase again increases in like manner. immortal spring of the spiritual marriage of Time and human it Toil. however. off- for the advancement of Civilization. which always doing. the ratio of improve- . upon a little observation and re- flection. provement. then the progress made generation is second PR. and it makes evident. a rapidly increasing geometric progression — of if P be the progress made in a given generation. it by defect. errs it does not." for does not represent adequately the natural law for the progress of civilization. This is an amazing function. it is evident that R. in the even to the physical eye. — Yet such is approximately the law. for. and so on endlessly.Lecture eral type is XX it is 317 like that you apprehend at once. as it is it T increases. err by excess. how large we do . as every student of the Calculus knows. the involution of time life of man. thus sweeping on towards infinity in a way that baffles all imagination and all descriptive speech. ponent — and —and R a that in the third is PR and that ~ Tth generation will be PR T X Oblarge number. — that the time so the expression T enters PR T ~ is 1 as an excalled an exponential function of Time. is made in the single serve that not know.

if not. though it is. concept of history see. why not? The time-binding energies of mankind have been in Hereupon. most important question Has civilization always advanced in accord with the mentioned law? And. A fundamental principle of the new interpretation must be — man must to a the fact which I have already twice stated. so that the function Pi? only because the exponent increases with the flux of time. however. or of civilization-making. as above contemplated. lead to a new interpretation of new philosophy of history. as the natural law for the progress of time-binding. Had progress conformed to the stated period. to speak of the above-mentioned law.— 3 18 Lecture is XX as time r_1 increases not ment. our world lization so rich law throughout that vast would doubtless now own a civiand great that we cannot imagine it it today nor conceive nor even conjecture it in dreams.000 years. but a variable that grows larger and larger increases. that what man has done and does has depended and . What has been the trouble? as What you have been the Korzybski's hindering causes? Here. and we shall not be thus erring on the side of excess. it is not a constant. but because R itself is an increasing function of time. It will be convenient. according to guess to the estimates of those most competent anthropologists and paleontologists. there supervenes : a operation long —300.000 to 500. inadequate. —namely.

The glorious achievements of which they have deprived the world we cannot now know and may never know. And it is not only the duty it is of professional historians to trace them. in spite by what man is — of them. It the second factor that has given trouble. Korzybski. All that precious in present civilization has been achieved. maintains that the chief causes which have kept civilization from advancing its in accord with natural law of increase are man's misconceptions is of man.— Lecture depends both upon what also. your . It is their joint product which the sociologist or the philosophic historian must examine and explain. by the first factor the peculiar organ of the civilizing is energies of the world. upon what the members of the race have thought and think here two determining factors —what man man is. in XX distinctively is 319 and man very great measure. Throughout the long period of our race's childhood. from which we have not yet emerged. fac- which has hardly ever been noticed and has never its been given due weight. In view of the second tor. We have and what is we humans think man is. the time-binding energies have been ham- pered by the false belief that man is a species of animal and hampered by the false belief that man is a miraculous mixture of natural and supernatural. in answer to our question. but subtle ramifications of their positive evils the can be traced in a thousand ways. These are cave-man conceptions.

Is he over-enthusiastic? do not trans- know. educa- economics. law." of zoological "righteousness" ing in volume and culmination in the momentum did but World War. which is nature. I hope he is not mistaken. for he will discover that those evils evils of — the "magic and myth. and charI acterized by a right understanding of the distinctive nature of Man. Perhaps you closing will write such a add to words of this lecture what I have said a few general questions and work or works. political science. is manhood. — — for centuries grow- leap to a thus to be viewed as only a bloody demonstration of human ignorance of human some of the We major implicates and bearings of the new concept of man. If he not. medicine. philosophy." of space-binding "ethics. life — ethics. Korzybski believes that the great war marks the end of the long period of humanity's childhood and the beginning of humanity's period. religion. he believes. there will be many changes and many figurations. The task demands a large volume dealing with are here engaged in considering the relations of time-binding to each of the cardinal concerns of individual and social tion. This second to be initiated. science. Time is will tell. govart. guided. . In the I can do no more than hints. ernment.320 duty and mine. industry. Lecture XX the duty will be Whoever performs appalled.

that be animalistic ethics. talistic" ethics lusting to it will not self. energies of live in — natural laws. Neither will it be an ethics based upon a mythological it conception of man. be a lawless ethics cunningly contrived for traffic in magic and myth. — as the time-binding." the ethics of might. it be a "capi- keep for nor "prolebe an tarian" ethics lusting to get for self. The ethics of humanity's manhood will thus be . the living expression. will for it be the embodiment. and combat. good or bad. What It will is to be the ethics of humanity's hood? not be an ethics based upon the zoo- logical conception of man. controlling all the moods and ways and institutions of our human manis. that a scientific ethics having the understanda- bility. of the laws. it will not. will not.Lecture I XX most powerful of 321 have spoken of ethics and must do so again. space-binding ethics. it will be. human freedom life will be freedom to accord with those laws and righteousness will that does not contravene be the quality of a them. that is. class of life. for ethics. pervading. crowding. fashioning. world. It will be a natural ethics because based upon the distinctive nature of — mankind civilization-producing. and the sanction of natural law. is the influ- ences. is. coloring. the ethics of beasts fighting for "a place in the sun. the authority. ethics will not having for its golden rule the law of brutes survival of the fittest in the sense of the strongest. —of the time-binding man.

that is. and sway in proportion as science discovers the laws of time-binding." . so that everywhere throughout the world men and women will habitually understand. Williams Institute for Creative Education. that "time-binding should be made the basis of all instruction and The Manhood of Humanity a textbook in every college throughout the world. whether con- sciously or not. with fine insight. be- what time-binding is. as members and representatives of the race of man. is 6 is a monstrous thing. essentially are. will have for its supreme obli- — — gation. In humanity's in school. church. involving the loss human It is birthright by descent to the level of is often said that ethics a thing is which it impossible to teach. and that for humans to practice spacecause bred to understand. Miss Williams has said. binding ethics of their beasts. —and — it will be it will grow in solidarity. —and — the laws. of civi- teaches them to the world.322 Lecture XX natural ethics. lization-growth. Just the opposite true — it is it impossible not to teach ethics. that humans is the dignity of timetheir proper dignity as binding life. education. to teach the young the distinctive nature of man and what they. being essentially involved in the 6 In a recent bulletin of the Cora L. an ethics compatible with the bestascertained facts of sense and of thought time-binding ethics clarity. and will keep the obligation. for the teaching of is subtly carried on in all our teaching. in manhood. And so I am brought to say a word respecting edu- cation. in home.

a nursery of ani- malistic ethics. — — pretty obvious indicating roughly the course which. deliberate. Why should we not learn the lesson which conscious. the the great truly war has so painfully taught regarding the gigantic power of education? If the accumu- lated civilization of many centuries can be imperiled by ethical teaching based upon a false philosophy of human nature. a nursery of a law- less ethics rial. but like to in closing I should ask a few general questions questions lieve. organized. deliberate. every home or school in which there prevails a mythological philosophy of is. unremitting joint effort of home and school and press to teach an ception of ethics based upon the true con- man as the agent and organ of the time- binding. who can set a limit to the good that may be expected from the conscious. ." is 323 "philosophy of human Every home is.Lecture teacher's XX nature. or school in which that philosophy zoological consciously or unconsciously. civilizing energy of the world? I cannot here pursue the matter further. of myth and magic. I be- further enquiry should take. and organized. From immemo- such teaching of ethics. for the most part un- whole world has had. a whole people can be so imbued with both the space-binding animal ethics of might and the mythical ethics of Gott mtt uns that their State will leap upon its neighbors like an infuriated beast. human nature time consciously or unconsciously. And we have seen that when such teaching becomes conscious.

or plutocrats. by Space-binders. and government? sciences economics. and And which best befits the dream of political equality and democratic freedom? Which quisitive of them most favors the prosperity of "Ac- Cunning"? of them is And which the prosperity of Productive Skill? Which Which others? the most friendly to the makers of wealth? And which of them to the takers thereof? of them most favors "boss" repression of the best provision for in- And which makes telligent self-expression ? .324 Lecture XX new concept of of What are the bearings of the man upon the social so-called politics. what are likely to be the principal ences between Government of Space-binders. for Time-binders? Which slaves? of the two kinds of government best befits the social regime of autocrats. Can the new concept transform into those ages-old qualified pseudo-sciences genuine sciences to guide and guard scientific human welfare because based upon understanding of human nature? dis- In view of the radical difference between the tinctive nature of animals and the distinctive nature differ- of man. by Time-binders. for Space-binders and Government of Time-binders.

is the wealth existing at a given moment be almost toil wholly a product of the time and generations. though not an animal. case. be natural energy. for example. Are all the diseases of human beings anidiseases. which has all produced as the wealth of the world. the and if. both material and spiritual wealth. natural energy and of time (which natural) there- fore a "natural resource" like sunshine." in a zoological philosophy of human nature? What are the bearings of the new concept of man upon the theory and practice of medicine? Man. mal diseases or are some of them human . or a newfound lake or land? If not.Lecture XX 325 Which of them depends most upon might and war? And which upon right and peace? Which of them is government by "politics. since is a natural is product of a . is why not? What the difference in principle? Are the "right of conquest" and the "right of squatter sovereignty" time-binding rights? Or are they space-binding "rights" having their sanction in animalistic "ethics. has animal organs and animal functions. to of the by-gone some of the whom does living? To all it it of right belong? To of the living? Or to all of the living and the yet unborn? Is the world's herit- age of wealth. by honest men who know? If man's time-binding energy." by politicians? And which of them by science.

swiftly and endlessly. A final reflection lies : an assumption — under the doctrine outlined there it is that. that is.326 disorders. when men and women are everywhere bred to understand the distinctive nature of our of human kind. Lecture affecting XX humans in their distinctive character as time-binders? Can Psycho-analysis or Psychiatry throw any light upon the question? And what of the power that makes for righteousness? Religion. there The of assumption appears to be the only scientific basis hope for the world. civilization — in the former capacity inheriting as living capital the wealth of erations. in accord with its natural law. it would seem. Must not tion be tried? right-thinking this men and women desire ardently that noble assump- I . is at fault and can be only one test —experimentation. trial. great Nature the world will continue to flounder. the time-binding energies man will be freed from their old bondage and civilization will advance. If the assumption be not true. in a warless world. all Of its truth. has the seat of its authority in that time-binding double relationship in virtue of which the living are at once posterity of the dead and ancestry of the unborn. — from the time and in the latter capacity toil of by-gone gen- holding the inherit- ance in trust for enlargement and transmission to future man.

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