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portrait of Alfred Korzybski by Mira Edgcrly Korzybska presented to the Chicago Art Institute by John G. Shedd in ig22



December 1921 December 1923 COPYRIGHT 1950 BY ESTATE OF ALFRED KORZYBSKI All International Rights Reserved SECOND EDITION First Printing . June 1950 Printed in the United States of America by COUNTRY LIFE PRESS CORPORATION Garden City. ... Second Printing Third Printing Fourth Printing June 1921 August 1921 . .Copyright 1921 by E. P. New York . DUTTON & COMPANY All Rights Reserved FIRST EDITION First Printing . ..



. . . 'My military . this must be so. light should dawn Robert Browning This quotation from Browning was chosen by Korzybski to begin the new introduction he was preparing for the second edition of this book. inFor due to the pressure of deed. The manuscripts on which he had worked will be edited and incor1.EDITOR'S 'Tis time NOTE . In the spring of 1949 when I was working with him on that introduction as his editorial assistant. as it .' 1950 he suddenly died. the introduction as he had planned it was never completed by him.' he said. March porated into later editions of this book. 'This new introduction by Korzybski has been was not finished Now.^'This book was an immediate result of the First World War. he started one day in a facetious (or prophetic?) moment . to dictate to me. New new hopes should animate mankind. and on edited by me. other work since that date. for those who have copies of this present edition. The new material will also be available separately. He had planned to write of some of the experi- ences in his life which were influential in the for- mulation of his work.

I began to search for the origin of such recurring catastrophes. his training in scientific and mathematical orientations by Editor's Note experiences gave me a very serious insight into the character of those endless historical disasters which have beset mankind from time immemorial. his father. and its potentialities for the future work of others have begun to be felt. is more important today than development of his ever.. constructive or destructive. 'All human achievements. without con- fusing the two.' His childhood experiences on the family estate of Korzybie near Warsaw. and finally it dawned upon me that humanity so far had never had a "just conception" of the "nature of man". The fertility of this 'germinal idea' has been amply shown in his own work. given originally in the first edition of this book. Poland. were other factors which shaped his outlooks. his education as an engineer. ( It seemed to Korzybski that the new functional definition of 'man' as a time-binding class of life. The question had bothered me practically since childhood of how to talk intelligently about different manifestations of life as found in animals and J in humans. and his early supervision of the farming activities. and sharpened my awareness of the hopelessness of the old evaluations. are man-made. we have to understand the mechanism of how this funda- . and so to properly evaluate them.

suggesting investigations of the effect of the continuous cosmic ray bombardments on our processes. not generally realized. etc. In his An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Sys- tems and General Semantics.' he said. the working of which can be judged . problems today. as given 1933 in his Science and Sanity. indicating the workability of the new methods. with the Soviet dictatorship. however. not only verbally but as a life orientation. 'Both involve some economic theory. leads automatically to the foundation of a science of man based on It led the application of up-to-date scien- tific (physico-mathematical) methods.' he wrote. new introduction he was also dealing with the electro-colloidal character of our nervous sys- tems. useless to argue in terms of "capitalism" or "communism". The it functional definition cannot be denied. and the in theory of sanity. 'A beginning of such under- standing has been made.Editor's Note vii mental characteristic activity of humans [time-binding] works. which own life we may assume involve a slow liber- ation of nuclear energy from the radio-active carbon of which all life consists. The extent of the revision in our orientations which this new notion is of man as a time- binder requires. He was 'It is particularly concerned with international etc. yet once accepted.'' him to the formulation of the first non- aristotelian system first and general semantics..

In a future sane society individuals must have the freedom to revise their premises. both of which are against our time-binding potentialities. In Appendix IV. which under the absolutism is am}. by our understanding of "human nature". no matter how many more wars and revolutions we may have. II. Those issues have to be lation of past experiences and taught through the accumuand theoretical research.^ Appendices I. rigidity of dictators impossible. and so in the long run will not cover human needs. the other two appendices have been added in this second edition. 'Some Non-aristotelian Data for Efficiency in Human Adjustment. nor with an understanding of its mechanisms. involving responsibilities. and on the theoretical side. Ob- viously no system which disregards or violates "hu- man nature" can possibly survive in time. be it the dictatorship of "Wall Street" or the "Proletarians".' \ ('He was also writing about symbolism considered as a form of human behavior. and III were published in the first edition of this book. What we have to analyze intelligently is the problem of dictatorship. We humans are importance and not born with a consciousness of symbolism as such.' he deals with ex- . in accordance clarified with Korzybski's plans. 'Here I may mention the well-known manifestations called "intellectual honesty" and "linguistic conscience".viii Editor's Note only by the empirical results.

The reader will find that different kinds of punctuation have been used in my earlier writings than in more recent writings. Only some typographical corrections have been made. when he wrote this book he intended. the Author's Note from Selections from Science and Sanity. to call his work 'human engineering'. He explains that life complexities in exponential function.Editor's amples in Note ix our daily living which involve exponential functions. In Appendix V. His reasons for in the changing the name. and that the problems dealt with here have become more urgent than ever. are given The following is quoted from the manuscript he was preparing for this book: 'In reading what I wrote in this book in 192 1 I find that I have nothing to retract. are non-additive. and appendix. how he happened to intro- duce the term 'general semantics'. as the reader will see. and military organization are cited which the show through work of Graicunas and that strict limits are placed on the factors which the Urwick number of separate human nervous system can handle simultaneously without breaking down. Korzybski gives a brief history of the term 'general semantics'. which should not be confused with 'semantics'. management in industry. Although General Semantics originated with this book in 192 1. such as the last two appendices and What I . and grow Re- searches in the essentials of business.

these minor deviations have not been changed. as they do not interfere with the more fundamental 'I issues. Only Keyser. here and there the terminologies differ.x Editor's Note Believe. which are in conformity with the style of the Non-aristotelian Library publications. in those issues have also deliberately kept specifically in which deal with the problems 1921. The thoughtful reader will be amazed at this example of the exponential character of our time-binding process. an indebtedness . a mathematician. we might have written such an inspiring chapter. and I can do no better than refer the reader to Chapter XX is reprinted here from Mathematical Philosophy by the late Professor Cassius Jackson Keyser. say. a poet. revealing the extent to which our knowledge of the world and ourselves has grown in only twenty-nine years. which and scientific knowledge current historical now have a more aspect. For the sake of ex- pediency. 'I must express here. It deals with the exponential function of time as applied to a self-perpetuating living and organism called "mankind". is 'Our human progress an exponential function of time. a philosopher. It an exceptionally deep and beautifully written contemplation. a profound student of humanity. at long last. could and. and pictures the potentialities of a time-binding class of life with the "forward-leaping" exponential function of time. Also.

and pro- . that did not return to Poland as I had World War. Miss Kendig has been the Educational Director of the Institute of General Semantics since in it was founded by Korzybski in his 1938 as the center for training work.Editor's Note xi which Professor Keyser did not wish expressed at the time this book first appeared. It me to stay in this was because of country and develop my work here. who was a warm friend of both intended after the First Korzybski and Keyser. He not only helped instances me greatly by his editing. but in some practically rewrote my original rather clumsy expressions. and contributed toward a deeper understanding of his work as a whole. Kendig human has given us a picture of Korzybski being. feeling that this new theory of time-binding was very important. 'I am also grateful for the encouragement which the late Jacques his urging Loeb gave I to me. Professor Edward Kasner. She has its been the Associate Director since 1942. has set a keynote for the re- appearance of Korzybski's basic work in his Foreword to this new edition. My dear friend and mentor.' The outstanding mathematician. In 'A Memoir: Alfred Korzybski & His Work' Miss as a M. gave most helping freely of his time in I me with the original manuscript. which wrote in a language at that time new to me.

originally written in 1948 as a con- tribution to a symposium 'The Faith I Live By.xii Editor's is Note gram tion. What I Believe. now being carried forward under her direc- There could perhaps be no more eloquent sum- mary of Korzybski's life work than entitled his own 'credo'. Connecticut April IQ$0 .' It is included now in this volume. Charlotte Schuchardt Lakeville.

Conclusion 204 APPENDICES Mathematics and Time-Binding Biology and Time-Binding III. Keyser MAN Philosophy 287 . II. Kendfg Believe (1948) Preface to the First Edition I xv & His Work xvii xli What CHAPTER I. Engineering and Time-Binding IV. Author's Note from Selections from Science I. lxv Method and II. 209 224 255 265 and Sanity ( 1 948) 278 KORZYBSKI'S CONCEPT OF Lecture XX from Mathematical By Cassius J. Concept of Life Childhood of Humanity Classes of Life IV. Wealth VI.CONTENTS PAGE Editor's Note By Charlotte Schuchardt v A Foreword By Edward Kasner Memoir: Alfred Korzybski By M. lix Acknowledgment Introduction. Manhood of Humanity X. Elements of Power IX. What is Man? 27 46 66 93 119 139 155 167 V. Capitalistic Era VII. Processes of Approach to a New 1 III. Some Non-aristotelian Data on Efficiency for Human Adjustment (1943) V. Survival of the Fittest VIII.


so man is unlike animal. we can gain much-needed insight into a basic cause of war. Edward Kasner New Columbia University York City . Just as the sphere different in dimen- and though both are round objects. Indeed inestimable service. They of inspire and direct our continued efforts to find solutions for the very real and perplexing problems they do us an human welfare everywhere. differ in essence. thesis of the is The fundamental book circle. being a time-binder as well as a space-binder. selfishness and competitiveness. a new presentation of Korzybski's and clarifi- ideas together with Keyser's exposition cation is particularly urgent. both men of keen intellect. while as 'natural' as animal. Indoctrinated from childhood with a zoological view of his own nature. sionality.FOREWORD I am happy to write a brief foreword to this new edition of Korzybski's of Humanity. Korzybski and Keyser. is that man. From the convictions of these two gifted thinkers. With the engineering of world peace more im- Manhood perative each day. man tends to accept as inevitable human greed. good-will and broad humanitarian interest.


on the battlefields of the eastern front. made English functional definition of his language. To me this has always seemed a very significant thing. concretizing. in his first written work published or unpublished any language. this book in in December when he was 41 1920 years old. I believe his report: 'From babyhood was had nothing to say. . He lived and studied men on the soil of Poland. He wrote is. slowly slowly bringing the most complex problems down to their structural essentials in terms of simple earthy examples — I I could well silent. the depth. how. autobiography of the man who made Alfred Korzybski came to America 191 5. he questioned. in this formulated his life book. in the cities of Europe.'- — that man is. It so far as I know. All his he looked wide-eyed at the world.A MEMOIR: ALFRED KORZYBSKI & HIS WORK Every scientific discovery is in a sense the it. the relentless vigor. related to the creativeness. the integrity. he contemplated what he saw. why. the simplicity of the man. He seemed possessed by a passion for comprehension. Over the years visualizas I observed him and his method of work — ing. before he came to America. the practicality of his work and methods.

He developed the impli- cations of the obvious characteristic of man and of man's unique environments of symbolism and valuations. They fitted the life facts. and stu- on through to the end of his ings. and Sanity 1933). in his seminars. they could predict outcomes. He loved mathematics. civilizations. of finding a new country and this open new language which suited him for the formulation of his non-verbal 'thinking' these among others were precipitants. . He verbalized the obvious in his functional definition of of life: man is.— xviii Alfred Korzybski & His Work He studied the history of men. life in his later writ- and in his working with dents. in books and at the universities — the successes and the tragedies of man- made could life. trial When men used them and findings. He questioned why so? was —how we do better in our time? He a lover of of music. He saw the significance of the obvious and the implications of the obvious. they escaped from animal error. of the poetry of feeling. ( in Time-Binding: in his Science The General ( Theory 1924— 1926). His lifetime fell into studies and questions new focus. Why was this not so in The impact coming to of his experience in human affairs? World War I. pass on their progress in their control of non-human things. engineering. as a time-binding class Not what man What men do f as an ex- ponential function of time. of live in this society.

or someone else's writings about general semantics has been their first introduction to Korzybski. I suspect. In these years Korzybski did his major teaching at the Institute of General Semantics. Fortunately. Korzybski's own recent paper. and Science and Sanity has been increasingly read. and he was working on this when he As the 'Editor's Note' indicates. Some of these persons have expressed in diverse ways vague discontent. plans for publication had been completed and Second Be- Edition must appear without his introduction. I do not believe that he saw this until quite recent years. never held a copy of Man- hood of Humanity in their hands. Institute have. need re-publication of his steadily. 12 hundred copies bought from 1933 to 1938 17 thousand since. of the social feelings engendered by this new 'image of man'.Alfred Korzybski & His Work xix This book has been out of print for eleven years. first Meantime. an uneasiness as if they were missing something method- ologically in the socio-cultural import which they felt but could not find made explicit in Science full and Sanity. and many have little notion what the term time-binding and its implications represent. viz. requests for book have been mounting He was died. meditating on a new still introduction it for over three years. Korzybski was himself so of the significance of time-binding. Science and Sanity. Very many who have read Science and Sanity and who have studied general semantics with him at the . 'What I .

Over the years. emphasiz- ing the central role of his time-binding definition of man. first at a school where I was principal and then at the Institute he founded and which I am now privileged to carry on. work as a whole. I knew and worked with Alfred Korzybski for fifteen years. his writings. I studied with him intensively and used his methodology at the school. to this book. In this brief memoir. In writing I have a picture of the potential readers of this book and tend to see them mostly as people who have read Science and Sanity and other writings dealing with general se- . retrospective editor. I came to feel that Alfred Korzybski. I were singularly feel indivisible. has asked me to add some prefatory words before the volume goes to press. the work he did. They serve now as introductions. summarizes his life's Work work. He re-educated me as an educator. The my friend and colleague Charlotte Schuchardt. his feelings and his methods. impelled to communicate something of that in 'seeing' his unique human-being-life-work complex. and to record an approach I have found clarifying it.xx lieve' Alfred Korzybski & His (1948). I also observed most of the 1800 who studied general semantics with him at the Institute seminars. and I gained insights into multiple aspects of his life. and contemporary. his life. This paper and Professor Keyser's chapter on 'Korzybski's Concept of Man' (1922) were already planned for inclusion.

But he emphasized the differences without dismissing the similarities (not either-or) without. in- time-binding covered all the old assumptions. . Viewed on a scale of increas- ing orders of complexity. Work I xxi To convey briefly something of what would like to convey to these readers. and his accomplishments (e. This seems to me important: Korzybski's time- binding definition makes a sharp distinction between men and animals. He reduced human phenomena to something already known.e.g. — breaking the continuity of a dimen- sional hierarchy of life. He satisfied the creative edies of histories scientist's striving human for unification and simplification principle of of premises (i. differ not in kind but degree of complex- the number of factors to be taken account of. that is. etc. mathematics. Mach's of economy). not He only formulated a basic theory for the foundations of a natural science man. evident.) As a new theory must. For this I ask indulgence from other readers of the book. his encompassing man's biological but psycho-symbolic nature. ethics. amoeba! in-western-civilization toda y Smith x natural represent in phe- nomena ity. the arts. must use Korzybskian formulations and terminology without explanation. he made man and the accomplishments of men. . . With the time-binding theory. the successes and the trag- and cultures comprehensible.Alfred Korzybski & His mantics per I se. the exact sciences.

— perhaps. ural science and the extensional He described this whole discipline as an empirical nat- method as a general- ization of the physico-mathematical 'way of thinking' applicable in all human evaluations. inevi- tably..xxii Alfred Korzybski & His Work new or neglected factors. to the formulation of a first non-aristotelian system on premises of great simplicity. his hypotheses. eluded and explained He may say this Admittedly so theory. can only be assayed by what comes out of it by the process of 'methodo-logic' develop- ment. but a 'miracle creed'. in their . it 'is not science'. led to the discovery of new factors. and to the formulation of a modus operandi for that system. The theory of time-binding led Korzybski. doctrines. and their incorporation into that theory. and methodological procedures and fit techniques for changing the structure of our neuro- symbolic reactions to an assumptive world of dynamic processes. The values of a scientific seems. principles. human values of his formulathe practice of general Would semantics liberate to human time-binding energies. greater predictability and so sanity — in the lives of individuals. etc. lead more adequate evaluations. he called General Semantics. This body of coordinated assumptions. and by empiric demonstration of workability of principles and methods derived from it. The skeptic will question this. For the rest of his life Korzybski was concerned with testing out the tions.

from the standpoint of predictability and human survival. He changed the title and Sanity practically on the eve of publication. narrowing the gap be- tween these rates of progress? Twelve years of study went into the formulations before he was ready to publish Science and Sanity.Alfred Korzybski & His conduct of effects Work xxiii human affairs. He called this testing of the structural implications of terms (and formulations) his 'linguistic conscience'. because he felt he should emphasize that interrelation. and so eventually in the of science on society.' The changes Korzybski made first verbalization of his formulations from his to Science book in and Sanity make a fascinating study development of linguistic rigor. As Poincare is said. 'On the Mechanisms of Time-Binding. 'All the scientist creates in a fact the language in which he enunciates in the it.' In those pages. Published it in 1933 after tirelessly checking the data necessary for his methodological synthesis of modern sciences and testing the structural implications of the terminology in which he cast his formulations. . Few know to Science that Korzybski originally intended to call his major work Time-Binding. The verbal continuity between Manhood and Science and Sanity he preserved in the title of Part VII. He studied human evaluations in science and mathematics and in psychiatry. He wrote the first draft of Science and Sanity in 1927—28. 'at their best and at their worst' as he put it.

Editor (Chicago: Institute of General Semantics. 1943). M. the reader familiar with Science and Sanity can see and trace back the process of methodo-logic development from 1921 to 1933. He will see. he expounds and general semantics.. 'Historical-Cultural Significance of Non-Aristotelian Movement and the Methodological Contributions of Korzybski' (pp. stracting. the extensional among lation others. .xxiv Alfred Korzybski & His Work system 369—561. 3-10). He will see how the Structural the principle of consciousness of ab- method and devices. Reiser. He can see how the non-aristotelian system and general semantics followed from the theory of time-binding as inevitably as theorems from geometric postulates. In this book. etc. 1 Differential. —an invariant This formulation of the neuro-linguistic and neuro-semantic environments (and the neurological mechanisms involved) seems to 1 me one of the great For more on this development. the beginnings of Korzybski's formu- of neuro-linguistic and neuro-semantic en- vironments as the unique inescapable environment conditioning the reactions of the human-organismas-a-whole. see two papers by Professor Oliver L. his non-aristotelian Many readers have appar- ently missed this continuity. came out of the theory and the related investigations of the mechanisms of time-binding. Kendig. in any culture at any time relation. and 'From Classical Physical to Modern Scientific Assumptions' (pp. and in his early papers outlining the general theory of time-binding. 69-78) in Papers From the Second American Congress on General Semantics.

eventually unify and simplify the premises of cultural anthropology. has slight criteria for his evaluations. papers on the publication list of the Institute of General Semantics. may not get insights from the reports of others.Alfred Korzybski & His Work xxv and most useful of Korzybski's higher order generalizations directly derived from time-binding theory. etc. . op. Frank. He can assay the values great or small to him of what came out of Korzybski's time-binding theory and compare his evaluations with the reports of others who. It generalizes to a higher order the 'psycho-cultural approach' (Lawrence K. 2 Sanity. have applied in many and fields. cit. and Lewinian psychology. 2 See for example Papers From the Second American Congress on General Semantics. psychiatry. applied it in his life and work. Pavlovian social sciences. with it various degrees of competence.e. empiric has studied Science and Sanity. even if he can all repeat verbatim the principles and terminology. other papers distributed to 'Members of the Institute' and the recently inaugurated General Semantics Bulletin published for Members by the Institute. The reader who trained his nervous system with the techniques of the non-aristotelian discipline of general semantics. . The reader who has merely read Science who 'knows' it verbally. has made his own non- verbal demonstration of empiric workability. He may or i. et al). It has made other the mechanisms of cultural conditioning and cultural continuity comprehensible to students. I me and many believe. It will.

Korzybski had a favorite expression. or thinks he narrow his problems down so that he has only two variables to control.' ('It is strictly empirical. If he is can.xxvi Alfred Korzybski & His shown Work he accept their evaluations as in practice. This was the attitude he. some scientific specialty. If enjoys skepticism he can argue as endlessly about the validity of the reports as he can about Korzybski's theories. or disproved by talking.. if he knows the trained in words he knows 'all' any proposition can be proved etc. see !' was another pet saying of his. 'Don't talk. The aristotelian tradition has trained him to do that: words and experience are equated in the tacit assumption that . culties 'I its strength —and the diffi- he faced in his let's pioneering efforts. Others consider 'unscientific') it as 'noth- 'too radical' (or too for serious 'scientific consideration'. took toward his formudon't know. . when faced with something new. Do it. he may balk at 'accepting' the empiric value of anything that deals with the multiple variables of into his formula. the engineer. human life and cannot be fitted Some have dismissed Korzybski's work ing new'. in the abstract. For 'philosophic' or skeptics who wished to argue a priori about his work.') This epito- mizes the non-verbal character of the working mechanisms of the discipline. etc. Such receptions of the in the history tific' new and different are not rare 'scien- of science. where he can.

in fact. the ency versus for pitfalls of 'logical' consist- life reactions. for example. He remained 'the skeptic' many years until he saw (had empiric evidence which satisfied him*) that the formulations. Some famous words of the fighting-war years bring them sharply . his reactions World War terms of his formulations and work was taking. The words Korzybski founded the Institute were 'peace in our time' by 'democratic appease- ment'. we have to be content with observing phenomena that cannot be quantitatively measured as of 1950. whole person about the war. In September Chamberlain went to Munich. and the facts were war and more dictatorships — to as Korzybski sadly predicted in his seminar that '38. autumn of His papers written during the next II. the verbal and non-verbal techniques of the extensional method he expounded and demonstrated in his seminars on general semantics were teachable and workable —were. he was his own best skeptic —he knew.Alfred Korzybski & His lations. how he suffered The daily chaos in his — 3 day blunts our memories of what he — of to- all of us have 3 lived through then. an appropriate scientific meth- odology for the time-binding theory and for general education toward realizing human in time-binding' potentialities. in seven years record the impact on him. * In most matters of uniquely human significance. June 1938. Work xxvii That is. Only those who knew and worked with him intimately know the the direction his depth of his social feelings.

For is re- markable to us who know the care he lavished on many years he still hoped I to write another book. 'I Can Hear It Now. also on standard records). More The new conditions were ill-suited to his make-up. Long Playing. edited by Edward R.' Volume i. Murrow and Fred Friendly. the vast methodologic synthesis he in Science had encompassed and Sanity. He carried on a mountainous correspondence. Narrated by Edward R. craved as most of For the next eleven years he was surrounded by people and pressures. Among his others they deprived him of long periods of silence and isolation which were the us do physical comforts. incorporating refer to the recording. 'I Can Hear It Now. was 59 years old the summer he founded the The work he set himself to do there radhis life pattern. which he needed. back to me. feats of endurance were ahead of him. 'mental' power and vigor.xxviii Alfred Korzybski & His Work He ically Institute. The elegant simplicity of his formulations can be misleading in counting what they cost him as an organism. sine qua non of creative work. beginning he directed the Institute down to minutest He taught seminar courses and worked with individual students interminably. . changed Behind him was a tremendous feat of physiological endurance.' In a half hour's listening. the sensitive reader may re-live the background Korzybski did his work against in the first six years of the Institute. Murrow (Columbia Masterworks ML4095. The number of papers he was able to write under the circumstances everything he wrote for publication. In the details.

to theoretical position and so compromise orthodoxies to with current academic and scientific woo if it acceptance at the universities and support by the foundations. was too high for him to pay meant compromising the integrity of the disprice The cipline. 'cultism'. For example to popularize his work.Alfred Korzybski & His Work made on the xxix the deductive presentation of the non-aristotelian system and general semantics which he in his seminar courses. Some wanted him Others wanted rewrite Science and Sanity for 'the man in the street'. etc. and so eliminating the possibilities of demon- strating the human. scientific values of the general semantics methodology in clear-cut applications.e. to He had to continue al- work beyond so. the institutional 'safety zone'. and their eventual comparison with what was accom- plished by prevailing methods. labelled it 'monomania'. him to be modify his less forthright in his presentations. . i. lack of tute He was constantly harassed by our Insti- money and security in carrying and by the anomalies of a situation in which he could not approve or accept some well-intentioned suggestions and efforts made to help us gain accept: ance and support. cerned about the scientific integrity took easier paths and did not understand his position. 'jealousy'. though he was well aware of the disadvantages of doing Persons who themselves seemed unconof the discipline.

His durance seemed endless. If we set out to solve a problem by non-euclidean geometry. lecturing. We would just make We have fits to have some honesty. Alfred Korzybski & His Work To him. had his own peculiar style of lecturing. we don't switch to euclidean a mess. He en- gave seminar after seminar. He both taught and studied the students in his seminar courses. 'Let's stick to our etc. They were chief source of happiness in the 1 arduous Institute years. lives The results he saw in the their reports to and work of hundreds of these students and him over the years were not only his his empiric evidence that his formulations did work. It meant hours of it. just as passionately absorbed in testing his He was work as he had been in formulating 30 to 50 hours of vigorous sive courses eight hours a Each seminar meant some intenday. stick to the method we start out with and then compare results. postulates. position seemed as simple as saying. year after year. facts best. in private work with each of the 40 to 50 students. his This fretted and saddened him. turning back to some example He . Which the in which gives the most predictability doing what we set out to do?' The and Institute was for Korzybski a training school his research laboratory. a nonlinear method of developing his exposition of nonaristotelian orientations by going round and round in widening circles.

the more they learned. laborers. all same classes. Another said he was 'the worst. — sisted that anyone who wished to. 'has to work with anybody in any activity or it's human no good. crisp. At times he was elegant. sat in it businessmen. to 'get under the them up'. from (as he called own experience with deeply maladjusted people. researchers. should study pedagogy'. or how he did it. social workers. The more he shook their complacency. from mathematics. conveyed as much as his words and diagrams. his hands. the etc. artists. People were seldom neutral about him.. irritated them by 'rubbing in' the method. He inskins' of the class. Often his face. it) criminals.. etc. He used shocking examples from his study in his mental hospitals. In private interviews he to apply the showed individuals how methodology in ating their personal lives analyzing and re-evaluand problems. young college students. to 'shake amples from daily life.' seminar. from psychiatry. could enroll for a evaluation. doctors. what he did. humorous and discursive. was effective. psy- chiatrists. One educator said he was the 'most powerful and effective teacher' he knew. 'Because a general method of he said. This may all sound chaotic.Alfred Korzybski & His Work xxxi in given at the beginning to illustrate a mechanism his later lectures. 'a master of pedagogy'.' Professors. suave at others. He used exfrom the history of science. he taught .

etc. You have to have a method for applying it continuously. number of those who studied some 56 seminars benefited. alone.xxxii Alfred Korzybski & His to Work etc. whether science.' said Korzybski. 'Some became. business. 'Korzybski deals with. 'modes of thought' learned from our neuro-linguistic and neuro-semantic environments.' A He significantly large in with Korzybski tinue to benefit. uncovers "the cultural unconscious".' (When you . education. 'got nothing out of said. the methodological in any field. he contended. carried in the structure of language judgments.' he touch the 'my enemies for life. Only then would he have a sure basis stantly. changes unconscious assumptions about the world. must come first. class. attitudes. for successful application in handling 'impersonal' problems problems — the in his human work relations.' had his failures. A psychiatrist said. 'but wisdom not enough. art.' he claimed. therapy scious we do is makes it "conscious". * That is to say. 'Ten percent of every it. medicine. is 'Maybe.* In psychothe "same" with the personal uncononly a special case of the cultural. them question their rationalizations. confrom the training in various degrees. value about man. The student must rigorously and continuously apply the extensional method in his personal living.. There's been plenty of wisdom in this world for millenniums and what? Wisdom.' which Some like to call the seminars a 'school of wisdom'. . con- These personal applications. doesn't work.

Because to I me shows many want to quote a letter written to Korzybski in April 1950 by a research psychiatrist who had not heard of his death: Dear Count Alfred: I think I owe you a little apology. It apparently had no effect on their lives. and an explanation. Some learned verbally.Alfred Korzybski & His Work xxxiii fundamental verbalisms around which an individual has organized his life pattern.e. their living reactions. but simply could not apply them. . general semantics 'intellectually' tically'). 'They "re- fused" to work at themselves. I begin now for the first time to 'feel' that General Semantics . . [deceased] took me with him to your Seminar. thing happened. it may it' be too dis- turbing for him to face. They use the words but not the method. (i. feeling] seemed to elude me. and then it —somethings.' he said. However in this last month something apparently has happened. in the As you recall it was of 1939 that I first became aware of General Semantics. their work. Some 'got it' very slowly. change their evaluations. thalamic portion [change in living.) Some 'got quickly and as easily fell back into old habits of thinking-feeling. 'cor- knew all the principles and terminology and techniques. At that time your and my summer good friend Dr. I could 'get' the cortical aspect [verbal] but for some reason the . a vote of thanks. over the years.

In Jan- uary and February he wrote for the Clinical Psychology his last scientific paper Symposium on Percep4 tion at the University of Texas. Robert R. he exhibited a tremendous 4 Clinical Psychology to Personality. under the direction of Dr. The circumstances of his death. 1950.' . Glenn V. I takes a while for things to sink remain. . Blake and Dr. 'Well I did it it' . a) The Effect on Perceptual Processes of the Language System. Semantically yours Korzybski held his last seminar December 27— January 4. To be published by Ronald Press. Title of paper by Alfred Korzybski: 'Functional Determinants of Perceptual Processes: Language. he simply says. his life it so happened. In working with power of caring about any individual bit of humanity before him. Ramsey. That vast physiological endurance out. What do not know all I can give you is the answer my small son (thirty-four months) gives me when I ask him why he does has something the explanation is I — — this or that. His lecturing was as vigorous. He was continuously aware that some infantile evaluation he might be struggling to change in an individual were symbolic of students. Just to let you little know that sometimes in. proach Presented by Symposium 1949-50 on Perception: An ApThe Department of Psychology. his 'thinking' as creative as ever. University of Texas. was running He no longer tramped up and down the platform waving his stick. New York. . b) Aristotelian and Non-aristotelian Language Systems.xxxiv Alfred Korzybski & His I Work need and which can help. and work.

In one way. the extravagant at three warmth of his social feelings. research and in a single brain. human problems were Thus the intensity. o'clock in the He died March first morning. To him. the In his non-elementalistic orientation. individual and society were Empirically. For him the sense that he work was 'finished. science for its application practice.' In it was finished in he must this fulfilled the criteria have in set himself after he had completed book 192 1 from the point of view of theory. For us the work of the future operative calls for more co- endeavors. world of facts than space and time. Its has been elaborated use values have been demonstrated by Korzybski himself and by a substantial number of individuals trained in the . He had lived for 70 we can had say his years. inductive verification to and deductive methods. and empirical a considerable degree (page xliv).Alfred Korzybski & His Work xxxv mirrored a symptom from the social syndrome. heredity and en- vironment. another hardly begun. the lavish ways he spent himself. psyche and soma. A methodological synthesis needed for progress of our knowledge of man-as-awhole-in-his-environments. no 'insignificant' problems. spent the last few hours of his ing on life at his He desk work- such a problem. split verbally only for convenience. 7 months and 29 days. split in the they could no more be etc. in and education.

Pioneering the discipline has. —theory human and and practice in the sciences life. They have been undertaken by courageous individuals as individuals. S. Thus Korzybski's time-binding efforts will live and grow. is available on request from the Institute of General Semantics. Address: Lakealso includes brief introductions ville. developed in ways to meet inThese individuals have been isolated from each other by geography and more dividual situations. Stood together they measure exactly 4 and j/2 inches. In his life he wrote two books and 22 papers. We cooperation and some mechanism for working groups. writings A complete bibliography Korzybski's published which and comments. We need not essentials. To date their efforts have a common characteristic. Connecticut. intangible factors. and education. 5 and the extent of of it in our time. been carried on in an amorphous atmos- phere. . At this date. of necessity. Books and reprints of papers may be ordered from the Institute. U. 5 in extra-neural space. A. community etc. I doubt that anyhis influence one would care to take the measure of Korzybski's work.xxxvi Alfred Korzybski & His Work activities non-aristotelian discipline. To go forward we less shall need to coalesce. Fostering such development now becomes a function and aim of the Institute as the center for non-aristotelian training and work. industry. spontaneity but more consensus on need inter-discipline in on directions. Together these persons represent a cross section of problems arts.

. has changed slowly in the non-aristotelian direc- tion towards non-elementalistic 'concepts' of society. and with the word 'semantics' as now popularly used. linking his Among others these have resulted in name with language and communication aspects of his work in scientific and educational circles. As the 'climate of opinion' in cultural anthropology. historic accidents in its development. etc.. man in By now it may be that some in these dis- ciplines are ready to review Korzybski's works as a whole. non-aristoto the exclusion of other telian orientations. the arts. they his it. Such are some of the artificial obstructions. the psychologies.: Alfred Korzybski & His Work xxxvii Those who know these works might join me in saying Seldom if ever in human history has so little represented so much for human understanding and progress. psycho-somatic medicine. Added to the inherent difficulty of changing to new premises. and accept his bold hypotheses and method- . etc. have retarded 'seeing' I sense work as-a-whole in proper perspective. emphases. The re-publication of this book with the inclusion sig- of Professor Keyser's early appreciation of the nificance of time-binding ski's and with three of Korzybthe first more recent papers may be step towards work as a scientific discipline from a web of narrow conceptions and mis-conceptions fabricated from certain methododisentangling the values of his — logic necessities.

by social scientists and edu- — cators. his conclusions. his hopes. Reading this book for the first time seems to me specialties. fifty years perhaps. In these twelve pages we — have what we fare in all may consider Korzybski's 'testament' a bequest to workers concerned with human welit the sciences and arts. One from unsuspected tensions. if you prefer. All his writings are now available. The slender bulk of his works may encourage study or re-study especially. an inter-discipline disof cipline to cover the whole of human life and the potentialities of time-binding.xxxviii Alfred Koreybski & His Work ology for further verification. and students can trace the develop- ment of his thinking in historic sequence. generalize — — — an experience very much like getting a look at first clear human beings and human history after wearall ing glasses with distorting lenses feels a release one's life. I hope. in a quite remarkable way. In the paper which follows this memoir and which he wrote during 1947 and 1948. One has . Korzybski has summarized his life's work. the non-aristotelian system and general semantics. I look upon as a en- challenge and a program for future workers dowed with creative imagination who will take the foundations Korzybski has left us in time-binding. That is looking far far ahead twenty-five. re-formulate the theories and practices of their them to a higher-order 'science science' or.

new way of looking remarkable with the passage of time. not We have and done learned so much about 'man' and 'society' a fresh. It and easy thing to say a man lived before his time. with so little it — — since he wrote. however. Connecticut 11 May IQ50 . that only now after thirty years are we ready to take in the significance of his first book. I believe. The audacity and ski's Work xxxix simplicity of Korzyb- approach that cut through ages-old problems to seem more. and is a trite this book historically to the socio-eco- nomic-scientific contexts of the post-war world of it might have been written last year.Alfred Korzybski & His some hope. at 'man' less. Kendig Institute of General Semantics Lakeville. M. Ignore the allusions which date 1920.


where I do not need to go into theoretical explanations. New Delhi. tial scientific achievements of the twentieth century and remain The feel of the differen- calculus. gave me the feel of the world's most imporhappens that I tant scientific discoveries of the nineteenth century. an engineer. and includes such international contributors as Gandhi. When I was five years old my father. come from an old family of agriculturists. Atul Grove. Holmes. and engineers. M. mathematicians. jurists. I would never have undertaken the difficult task of formulating such a condensed summary of life studies and experiences which any 'credo' would require. to contribute to a symposium entitled. The Faith I Live By. Radhakrishnan and others. which prepared the groundwork for the fundamentally valid today. Talgeri's invitation. and the most valuable assistance of Miss Charlotte Schuchardt. The Faith I Live By. Nehru. of 26.A. Krishna Mangesh Talgeri. soldiers. and to contribute this paper particularly written for the contemplative audience of Indian readers. India. which I wish to gratefully acknowledge. Montessori.* This is the first opportunity I have had to write a It 'credo'. Talgeri. etc. John H. * This which he conveyed to me at that was originally written in 1948 in response to an invitation from Mr.WHAT I I BELIEVE AM deeply honored to participate in the Sym- posium. I admit that without Mr. It is to be published soon. xli . as well as non-euclidean and four-dimen- sional geometries. compiled and edited by Krishna M.

Such etc. My observations and theoretical studies of and mathematics. free from the old mythoand zoological assumptions. means of communication. anthropology. also history. On this inherently human level of interdependence time-binding leads inevitably to feelings of responsibility. 'philosophy'. history of cultures. or a combina- tion of both. generalized in such 'intellect' . or 3 ) and. parative religions.. duty toward others and . 2) Neither of these approaches could give us a workable base for understanding the actions of Smithj. but.xlii What life. Smith 2 living. many branches of sciences. This can be accomplished only by a uses symbols as ity which means for time-binding.. high-order abstractions as 'mind'. 'psychology'. re- etc. with the most highly developed nervous individual or a generation to begin tem. logical showed that sys- humans. 'logic'. A functional analysis. uniquely human. i) selves etc. extremely complex (deeply inter-related) . are uniquely characterized by the capacity of an where the former class of life left off. I Believe time shaped the future interests and orientations of my and became the foundation of my whole life work. com- convinced me that: Human evaluations with reference to them- were mythological or zoological. mathematical foundations. I called this essential capacity 'time-binding'. a capac- depends on and necessitates 'intelligence'.

and so behaviour.. morsocial and/or socio-cultural reactions.. build up our socio-cultural I believe for these ultimately and other environments. With a time-binding consciousness. I In the time-binding orientation acteristics for took those char- granted as the empirical end-products of the functioning of the healthy system. 'emotion'. are based on the study of human potentialities. we psycho-biological mechanisms of time^. als. Instead of studying ele- mentalistic 'thinking'. a misguiding approach implying the inherited actually cannot be split. divisions or schizophrenic splits of human characteristics which talistically the investigated functionally and therefore non-elemen- binding —how they work. 'intellect'. creeds or rationalizations. 'Human nature' a large extent on the character of our etc.What the future. By induction pass from particulars to the gen- . It human nervous was a fundamental error of the old evaluations to postulate depends to 'human nature' as 'evil'. not on statistical aver- ages on the level of homo homini lupus drawn from primitive and/or un-sane semantic (evaluational) reactions which are on record. artificial. that our approaches to the problems of vitiated humans have been evaluation which still by primitive methods of often dominate our attitudes and outlooks. I Believe xliii and similar and therefore to some type of ethics. our criteria of values. 'feeling'. etc. I archaic.

distorted. Now first with the time-binding theory. we can start with what we indi- have learned about the phylum and analyze the vidual from the point of view of as a phylum. The human understanding 'science of man'. but perhaps this a may become the turning of I page of human history.xliv What However. after the main aim of all science. We have pirically to build a deductive system and verify em- whether the general applies to the eventual particular. but had to base my analysis on the much more complex 'organ- . the older could not use. believe that this very point of inductive scientific and deductive methods with regard to humans tangibly marks a sharp difference between the childhood and the manhood of humanity. for the time to my knowledge. I human potentialities may be wrong. This. this I Believe is eral. and so our human world picture was rather sad. of time-binding as explained here establishes the deductive grounds for a full-fledged where I both inductive and deductive methods are utilized. So far what we 'knew' about 'man' were statistical averages gathered inductively. random which then would become the all. is foundation for predictability. we try to learn acteristics of the from the study of the individual the main charphylum (the human race). having accumulated data by induction (statistical averages). in my 'organism-as-a-whole' approaches. method not reliable enough. In other words. if not hopeless. further studies.

: What neuro-linguistic I Believe xlv ism-as-a-whole-in-an-environment'.. and also had to consider geographic. is and so even group behaviour. the foundations of mathematics. physico-chemical. ecological. Common vinced is sense and ordinary observations con- me that the average. but only in psycho-biological 'degrees'. so-called 'normal person' so extremely complex as to practically evade an over-all analysis. economic. political. etc. person hovers somewhere in and that the 'normal' between the two ex- . because of their exceptional predictability. exact sciences. linking science with problems of sanity. So I had to concentrate on the study of two extremes of human psycho-logical reactions a) reactions at their best. and applies to highly civilized people as well as the most primitive. conditions as factors which mould human personalities. This statement entirely general. and b) reactions at their worst. as exemplified by psychiatric cases. mathematical physics.. found that human reactions within these two limits do not differ in some objectified 'kind'. which exhibit the deepest kind of strictly human psycho-logical reactions. socio-cultural. in the sense of adjustment to 'facts' I and 'reality'. as in mathematics. etc. In these investigations I discovered that physico-mathematical methods have application to our daily life on all levels. I had to include and neuro-semantic (evaluational) environments as environments.

'happi- ness'. 'thinking'. and also such organismal psychological reactions inside our skins as those we 'feelings'. as 'insane' as the composite picture a textbook of psychiatry would give us. For instance. My analysis showed that happenings in the world label outside our skins. withholding from the people knowledge of. 'hate'. 'pleasure'. 'unhappiness'. still use a terminology of 'objective' and both extremely confusing. socio-cultural asset to the evolution of humanity.. Clearly police states of secrecy. as saboteurs or twisting that knowledge to suit their purposes. occur only on the non-verbal. 'pain'. must be classified among time-binders. However.xlvi What Nobody is I Believe tremes. particularly dictators of every kind. 'anger'. 'fear'.. the author included. some inaccessible dogmatists in power. the world. and from. The mechanisms of time-binding se- are exhibited in most humans except those with vere psycho-biological illnesses. etc. 'emotions'. etc. as the so-called 'objective' struct made by our nervous must be considered a consystem. have blocked this capacity considerably. and what we call 'subjective' may also be considered 'objective' for the same reasons. Linguistic and grammatical structures also have prevented our understanding of human reactions. and nobody is as sane as that which a textbook of sanity would give. 'resentment'. we used and 'subjective'. and certainly not a 'iron curtains'. or . 'love'.

with its roots in the exact sciences. or general semantics. and Our speaking occurs on we can speak about.. but not the on. This sharp. Semiotic. Realism. etc. also become unified by a methodology. Signifies. For many metaphysical verbal futile arguments. Such psycho-logical manifestations as those mentioned above can be dealt with in a unified terminol- ogy of evaluation. I Believe xlvii verbal levels. this can science of methods of become the foundation of a sci- man. that the words are merely supposed to represent. nature of 'human nature'.. the aims and formulations of Aristotle. Logical Positivism. .What what I call silent levels. Phenomenalism. 'feelings'. yet thoroughly unorthodox differentiation between verbal and non-verbal about 'the levels auto- matically eliminates the useless metaphysical verbal bickerings things'. For through the study of exact as ences we can discover factors of sanity. etc. with the comes result that an empirical general theory of values. Different philosophical trends as found in disciplines such Nominalism. yet goes it in- beyond and brings up to date. and inherently natural. the silent or un-speakable levels. of millenniums etc. and. such as solipsism. bepossible. with internationally applicable techniques. which I call 'non-aristotelian'. as cludes. or 'the un- knowable'. have been the result of the identifications of verbal levels with the silent levels of happenings. never being the 'reality' behind them.

e. This and studies of 'think- belief my own observations. on non-verbal and 'contemplating'. silent first the and the verbal based on a levels. passage of Eddington on page silent levels He seems to be unhappy that the levels. 'What can be shown. ful Note the sadness of the beautilv. ences between these levels of abstractions. ing' in verbal terms. Indeed. He would then realize organis- mally that the first-order psycho-logical direct experiences are not verbal. as Wittgenstein wrote. Is this can never be the verbal not an example of unjustified 'maximum expectation' I ? firmly believe that the consciousness of the differi. with often disastrous consequences. is misleading. There silent.xlviii What I Believe is.' In my experience I found that it is practically impossible to convey the differentiation of silent (un- speakable) levels from the verbal without having the reader or the hearer pinch with one hand the finger of the other hand. cannot be said.. is tremendous difference between levels. unless The simplicity of this statement we become aware of its implicain tions. inwardly and then searching for fit the proper structure of language to the supposedly . Whatever we may say something obviously is not the 'something' on the silent levels. as in our living reactions most of us identify value the two entirely dif event levels. the endless observations of other investigators. is the key and perhaps the step for the solution of is human problems.

So far the only possible link between the two levels is found in terms of relations. 'less than'. we may discover new aspects and relations on theoreti- silent levels. If as biased observers we 'think' verbally. as fac- tors of structure. 'space-time'.). 'equality' or 'inequality'. Practically all important advances are made that way. etc.' Unfortunately in the is true. They introduced postulational meth- . both non-verbal and verbal (serial. or (which involve structure and therefore rela- tions). which apply equally to levels. making keen. observations and creative In contrast. and so may produce important cal results in the general search for a similarity of structure between the two levels. tures work well-nigh impossible. 'after'. silent and verbal. such as 'order' 'between-ness'. we act and project onto the silent levels in the structure of the language we use. in pic- when we 'think' without words. It has been said that 'to know anything we have it know everything. but ex- pressed above form 'knowledge' would be imthis possible. cyclic. 'before'. Relations. etc. spiral. Mathematicians solved impasse simply and effectively. unbiased. 'more than'. give the sole content of all human to knowledge. and so remain our rut of old orientations.What I Believe xl IX discovered structure of the silent processes that modern science tries to find. linear.

which have followed simi- have led to the most cruel religious wars. Mathematicians solved these inherent dilemmas by stating explicitly their undefined terms in their postulational systems. humans to make monotheisms were invented. This is why we our 'why' to the data at hand. 'fuehrers'. etc.1 What I Believe ods. si- Metaphysicians of many kinds or many creeds since time immemorial tried to solve the same perplexities by postulating different 'prime movers' or 'final causes'. perhaps to strengthen the power of the priesthood. out of which the limited 'anything' follows. The identification (confusion) of verbal with si- lent levels leads automatically to the asking of indefinitely long arrays of verbal 'why's'. as all if the verbal levels could ever possibly cover the factors and chains of antecedents of the 'be' silent levels. and also because of the increasing ability of generalizations. lar psycho-logical patterns with historically known . thus limiting the 'everything'. in the attempt for unification. thus avoiding the unlimited metaphysical questioning without data. Later. dictators. to which there cannot be an answer. beyond which the further 'why' were is ruled out as leading to the logically 'verboten' nite regress'. Different rulers. or in science ever limit the silent levels. Originally religions 'infi- polytheistic.. terms which label nothing but occurrences on the lent levels.

culminating in self-real- ization through a general 'consciousness of abstracting'. etc..What I Believe li destructive or constructive results. brief. do not differ psycho-logically. The above state- ments are limited by the historical contexts. The progress of modern science. this world. rapport with. Some of these involve archaic and false-to-fact assumptions. because all man-made. any religion science' longings to-date . guidance. may be considered 'primitive to satisfy human unconscious organismal and modern science may be considered 'upto satisfy religion'. consciously the same to human feelings. potenIn tially assumptions and hypotheses.. feelings of 'belonging'. we have take into consideration organismal longings spread over continents for millenniums. In our human evolutionary development the struc- tures of religions and sciences. which find their proper expression according to the date of the specific sci- human developments. etc. at a date. ourselves included. has been due uniquely . Religions and ences are both expressions of our human search for and so predictability. for solace. from and/or which we try to build some understanding of. If we are supposed not to separate elementalistically 'emotion' and 'intellect'. including the the new science of man as a time-binder. security. such as sciences. They all fundamental assumptions. hypotheses. involve verifiable. modern.. others. main aim of my work. depend on etc.

past and present... undefined etc. in unexpected fields. science has already solved first By now many dilemmas which at seemed insoluble. for instance. Another important point which clarifies the problem of the 'unknowable'. a freedom prohibited ences' underlying in 'primitive sci- and also in dictatorships. I would go on. levels are of this 'as if character. is that we humans have a capacity for inferential knowledge. In however. which involve hidden assumptions. I Believe fundamenterms. In fact. asking 'why' under consciously limited conditions. As to the space-time problem of the 'beginning and it the end of the world'.. in search for structure. and so is Epistemologically the fundamental theories must develop in converging lines of investi- . All modern sciences on the submicroscopic. Probably in the future this problem will be shown to be no problem. electro-colloidal. in the new quantum mechanics. inferential knowledge today leads to testing very creative. to the tal scientists to revise their terminologies. our reflections. as exemplified. I have 'solved' effectively for myself by the conviction that we are not yet this date. etc. etc. religions. which is not based on sense data. but on inferences from observed happenings. and the solution will be found in the disappearance of the problem. evolved enough and so mature enough as humans to be able to understand such problems at scientific practice.lii What freedom of assumptions.

inherited from the 'childhood of humanity' and perpetuated linguistically. and what not. fears. through is revolutions and wars. schizophrenic orientations about ourselves. keep our human reactions and so our cultures levels. Inferential knowledge today in science is much us. murder. needs. or the more generalized and more organized which the 'man in the street' believes. desires.What gation. which often deceive In religions we also translate the still unknown into inferentially 'known'. but based on primitive or prescientific assumptions. and in larger expressions of mass sufferings. which without a modern science of cally impossible to avoid. split. on unnecessarily low tricate ourselves from which we try to exrioting. and they are revised. I firmly believe that the still prevailing archaic. which involves his 'feelings'. more reliable than sense data. which become creeds. The most primitive religion in which the savage believes. are man are practi- an extremely hampering influence to any understanding of the potentialities of 'human nature'. where we are . through violence. These outlooks. wishes. religions in represent non- elementalistically his inferential 'knowledge'. This in sharp contrast to the peaceful progress we have in science. I Believe it is liii and if they do not converge an indication that there are flaws in the theories. as combined inseparably in living reac- tions with his 'intellect'.

carries very far-reaching scien- psycho-logical. which often remain lasting. revolutionized physics. silent levels of Thus. I am first deeply convinced by theoretical considera- tions and empirical data that the new (historically to the my knowledge) enormous light formulation of time-bind- ing throws on our understanding of formulate new per- 'human nature'. Non-elementalistic 'psychology' psycho-somatic considerations. 'space-binders'.. instead of and 'biology'. I give these specific ex- amples to indicate the general practical value of structural linguistic innovations which express and convey to others our new structural outlooks. 'feelings'. instead of the split. Etc. etc.liv What I Believe where we free to analyze our basic assumptions. marks the sharp difference between humans and animals. and use a language of appropriate structure. the non-elementalistic Einstein-Minkowski space-time. revolutionized the whole of medicine and rescued it from being merely glorified 'psyche' veterinary science. and will help to spectives for the future of time-binders. moral and ethical beneficial con- sequences. etc. The non-elemen- talistic psycho-biology of Adolf Meyer. today verified . instead of the older and 'soma'. elementalistic newtonian 'space' and 'time'. not mere tific. I firmly believe that an adequate structure of lan- guage is fundamental for human adjustment to the happenings. This new functional definition of humans as time-binders.

'Professor Arthur S. and the character of all our human institutions depend both upon what man is and in equal or greater measure upon what we humans think man is. Professor Cassius J. his role in the 'nature of things'. All through the physical world runs that unknown content. Keyser expresses this very aptly: "It is obvious. that the character of human history. so to say. were able to produce sciences and civilizations. which must surely be the stuff of our consciousness. and not knowledge of content. It is knowledge of structural form. in my foreword with M. which introduce serious difficulties. making us by necessity destinies. Here is a hint of aspects deep within the — . Kendig. It explains also how we humans.: What in I Believe lv many thousands of instances. In 1942 in Monograph III published by the Institute of General Semantics. and humans alone. and the builders of our All through history own man has been groping to find his place in the hierarchy of life. we wrote 'It should be noticed that in human life self-reflexiveness has even "material" implications. the character of human conduct. to discover. their childhood to the It is a manhood source of deep satisfaction to lar notions about the circularity and of human knowledge are taking root in our orienta- tions as expressed by other writers." This is profoundly true. before he can fully realize himself civilizations will pass —then perhaps our me that simiself-reflexiveness by peaceful evolutions from of humanity. Eddington describes the same problem in these words: "And yet. To this end he must first discover himself and his 'essential nature'. in regard to the nature of things. iw^rdependent. this knowledge is only an empty shell a form of symbols. once the fact is pointed out.

" 'Dr. that of uneducated people dren included. but just as aptly: "To progress again man must remake himself. For he is both the marble and the sculptor.lvi What I Believe world of physics." Those self-reflexive and circular mechanisms are the the uniquely human types of reaction which possible. moreover. the mind has but regained from nature that which the mind has put into nature. we have found that where science has progressed the farthest. We have devised profound theories. The old notions about 'man' have hitherto led to a generally sick and bewildered society. it is And Lo! our own. one after ' in another. "We have found a strange foot-print on the shores of the unknown. and this consciousness a may now mark new period in our evolution. human achievements its With made our new formula- tions. History. without the opportunity to realize their potentialities. the consciousness of this special capacity with profound implications has become generally teachand chil- able on all levels. Alexis Carrel formulated the same difficulty differently. And he cannot remake himself without suffering. we have succeeded reconstructing the creature that made the foot-print. and general semantics es- enormous majority of humanity so far lived and live on the animal biological level of mere subsistence. and far this introduces incredible complexities. For time-binders are not tablish firmly that the merely biological organisms. but psycho-biological. At last. which so we did not know how to handle. anthropology. lationists We cannot be psycho-logical iso- and try to be constructive time-binders. to account for its origin. and yet unattainable by the methods of physics. or . And.

S. but cannot be stopped. with telling results. To may quote from my new preface to the third edition of Science and Sanity : 'We need not blind ourselves with the old ture cannot be changed". April IQ4Q . stamped si as he his foot on the ground after recanting the Copernican theory before the Holy Inquisition. Connecticut. of time-binding and extensional methin ods of general semantics have been tested educational and managerial fields. I are taught in many schools and uniall versities. A. We may feel with Galileo. the and men thousands of cases of 'battle fatigue'. for dogma that "human nawe find that it can be changed the [if we know how].What we are I Believe in lvii bound to be bogged down an asocial morass of conflicts. Today new methods conclude. and there are study groups on continents. The theory scientific. "Eppur muovet't The evolution of our it human de- velopment maybe retarded. We must begin to realize our potentialities as humans. then we may approach future with some hope. many Even on the battlefields of World War officers II they were applied in by American physicians.' Alfred Korzybski Lakeville. U.

D. J 949> 'The Brotherhood of Doctrines'. A. In which I called 'extensional method'. first published in 1933. Dutton. 1921. Elizabeth's Psychiatric Hospital in Washington. April 1924. in my papers read before the International Mathematical Congress in Toronto in 1924. with additions. New York. to be published in 1950 by International Non-aristotelian Library Publishing Company. P. Distributors. E.C. second edition. Harper. It was further elaborated in my 'Fate and Freedom'. It culminated. Institute of General Semantics.K.lviii What I Believe Bibliographical Note The time-binding theory was first propounded in my Manhood of Humanity: The Science and Art of Human Engineering. before the Washington Society for Nervous and Mental Diseases in 1925. second edition 1941. in Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Systems and General Semantics. Institute of General Semantics. and before the Washington Psychopathic Society in 1926. I introduced for the first time the new appropriate scientific methodology for the time-binding theory. The Builder. The International Non-aristotelian Library Publishing Company. New York. with principles of essential simplicity. when I was studying at St. May 1923. this distributed by the book. reprinted in The Language of Wisdom and Folly by Irving J. after extensive studies of the mechanisms of time-binding. . with a physicomathematical approach. Mathematics Teacher. Lee. third edition 1948.

or words with many meanings. As a study of ation all the characteristics which is. Hx To be impersonal the . such phenomena there is no need for beliefs because some such phenomena exist." not in because the author has any belief or disbelief . The author has done his utmost to use such words as convey only the meaning intended. such as "spiritual. but because the word "spiritual" is not scientifically defined." there has been superadded the word "so-called. no matter what we may think of them or by what name we call them. and in the case of some words. Man it takes into considermake Man what he certain it If some readers do note the absence of does not expressions familiar to them. and therefore great pains have been taken not use words insufficiently defined. but in this to Man from a scientific-mathematical point of view. and every individual understands and uses this word in a personal and private way.PREFACE 'T^HIS book is primarily a study of all Man and ulti- mately embraces the great qualities and prob- lems of Man. mean that the author does not feel or think as ple —he does— and very much effort many other peo- an has been made to book approach the problem of so.

his spiritual. paratively easy task — the rest will be a com- the ethical. If all we succeed the laws of human nature. has not been approached from the The problem from which point of view of any private doctrine or creed. social it or political status. obvious that to be able to speak about the great affairs of Man. physical. economic and political status of Man should be in accord with the laws of his nature. moral.— lx Preface author has had to indicate this element by adding "so-called." origin. Man is —what must first be ascertained what is his real nature and what are the in finding basic laws of his nature. social. useless to argue be "natural" or of "spiritual" "5?//>miatural." I repeat once again that this book is not a "materialistic" or a "spiritualistic" book a study of — it is "Man" and therefore does and should phenomena because only the complex of these phenomena coninclude materialistic as well as spiritual stitutes the complex of Man. then civilization will be a human It is civilization — a permanent and peaceful one if electricity not before. we do not ask these we endeavor to find it out the natural laws governing live wires and in handling we do not argue or speculate about them . is an engineering. of "material" or As a matter of fact questions in studying electricity. economic. It is impersonal and passionless. but a mathematical. point of view.

the right valuation and especially the control and use of the higher human powers. first of to know what Man is. and care. It will be the same with Man all. The in original manuscript was very crude and foreign form. it if and the confusion book be read with the defini- will be seen that. Though this book has been lous care to avoid written with scrupu- ing —and things though it words or terms of vague meanoften may seem coldly critical it of metaphysical. urge of the truth —our human call heart — the craving for spiritual yearning for the higher potentialities of that which it we "mind. and misinterpretations that are caused by the color of personal emotions. so that they may be approached and studied by the best minds of the world without the digressions. though the clarifying tion of the classes of life has been chiefly used in the book for its its great carrying power in the practical world. intro- In writing this book I have been not only ducing I new ideas and new methods of analysis. but have been using a tongue new to me." "soul" and "spirit" — but has been written with the deep desire to find the source of these qualities. etc. and the great affairs of Man —we have. their scientific significance and a scientific proof of them. has not been written with indifference to that great.Preface lxi we use rubber gloves. perhaps the greatest. greatest help will ultimately be in guiding the investigation. and .

Ross. C. A. formerly to my in this discovery of the natural Mira Edgerly. Petrunkevitch Grove-Korski. G. Champlain L. J. manuscript or helped otherwise — Professors E. Charles P. War- basse. not only in giving criticism his exceedingly me a thorough from the point of view of the Engineer. J. I wish to express my wish also to acknowledge the deepest gratitude wife. Steinmetz. Keyser. L. H. P. for helpful suggestions. Polakov. E.lxii Preface greatly indebted to various friends for their I am patient kindness in correcting the many errors of my poor English. . E. J. J. Moore. criticized. Conklin. Keyser. Brandeis. B. Vice-President of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers. Robert B. J. Vice-President of the Ameri- can Society of Mechanical Engineers. Doctor of Engineering. criticized the H. to the authors. S. Wolf. son. Burges Johnand Doctors J. I Wolf. but first also in devoting his energies to organizing the "Time-binding Club" where these problems have been discussed and results. R. W. H. Mead. sincere appreciation. Robinson. Loeb. Miss Josephine Osborn. for their kind permission to quote them. A. Robinson. O'Higgins. H. with great practical To all those who have read and J. Riley. who has found law for the human . C. E. I am also under great obligations to Walter Polakov.

as I wish also to thank John Macrae.. Mr. this book could not have been produced in such a comparatively short time. P. for his unusual attitude toward A.Preface class of life. 1921 New York City. Dutton & Co. January 17. as my representative to in any further queries should be addressed sence whom my abper- from America. Esq. my authority. Walter Polakov of trial New York my City. because of her interest my work. K. has given criti- me incomparably inspiring help and valuable It is cism. which saved my time. the Vice-President of E. publishing the book.. not an exaggeration to state that except for her steady and relentless work and her time. . Indusin Counsellor and Industrial Engineer City. and who. all To other friends who have helped in many sonal ways I express thankfulness. the solution of lxiii her in life long search. has kindly consented at New York with request to act.


Lippincott Company. for permission to quote from "Corporation Finance. Heath & Company." by E. for permission to quote from "Unified Mathematics. Calhoun. Karpinski. Imaginary Portraits of Some Distinguished Americans. The Engineering Magazine Company. Messrs. for permission to quote from "The Human Worth of Rigorous Thinking. for per- mission to quote from cine. Messrs. The Journal of Experimental Medi- The New quote from School for Social Research." by Walter N. ." by Edwin Grant Conklin. for permission to quote from "From the Life. Messrs. Harry Y. for permission to quote from "Heredity and Environment. C. J. Benedict and John W. Appleton & Company." by James Harvey Robinson. for permission to quote from "Mastering Power Production. S. Vol. J. The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Messrs. New York and London." by Jacques Loeb." by Harvey O'Higgins. D. D." by Louis C. Princeton University Press. 27. Columbia University Press. Keyser. Harper & Brothers. Ixv Polakov. Putnam's Sons. for permission to quote from "Forced Movements. for permission to "An Outline of the History of the Western European Mind. P." by C. for permission to quote from "Organism as a Whole" and "Physiology of the Brain.ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author and the publishers acknowledge with gratitude the following permissions to make use of copyright material in this work: Messrs. B. G." by Jacques Loeb. Mead.


No to see that its importance supreme. Arithmetic is the first of the sciences and the mother of safety. f~T is the aim of this little to a new science and art — book to point the way I the science and art of Human mean of Engineering." Brandeis. at last a victim to the relentless rules of humble Arithmetic. O stranger.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION METHOD AND PROCESSES OF APPROACH TO A NEW CONCEPT human and OF LIFE "For a while he trampled with impunity on laws divine but. such a science is It is evident that. need not be argued in these times that the establishment of such a science of human welfare is — — the science is an undertaking of immeasurone can fail able importance. " Remember. if to be estabfacts lished it must be founded on ascertained is must accord with what must be based upon characteristic of a just conception of Man it what Man — — it . By Human Engineering the science and It art of directing the energies and capacities of human beings to the advancement human weal. as he was obsessed with the delusion that two and two makes five. he fell.

if needs only a re- ceive the nature of we humans radically misconman if we regard man as being — something which he higher than is not. It follows that for us nothing else can be quite so important as a clear. that to mistake solids for surfaces or lines would wreck the science and art of geometry. just. everyone knows that to mis- take vice for virtue would destroy the foundation of ethics. everyone knows that to mistake a desert mirage for a lake of fresh water does but lure the fainting traveler to dire disappointment or death. whether it be something an man or lower —we thereby commit error so fundamental and far reaching as to produce . to see that. one need be told how indispensable it is to have true ideas the — just concepts — correct notions to — of things with which we humans have deal. tions with anyone knows that to confuse frac- whole numbers would wreck the science and art of arithmetic. everyone knows for example. true. flection. scientific concept of as Man it — a right understand- ing of what we human beings really are. it is perfectly clear that of all the things with deal. the which human beings have to most important by far is Man himself —humankind—men. Now. human women beings and children. For little it requires no great wisdom.2 Manhood of Humanity is —upon No a right understanding of Man's place in the scheme of Nature.

An important part of show that both of these answers are radically wrong and that. therefore. teristic this peculiar or characI human faculty or power or capacity shall .— A New life. to consider Man? What is a man? What is a human being? What is the defining or characteristic mark of humanity? To this all is fundamentally: What is question two answers and only two have been given in the course of the ages. the other is answer sophical a mixture partly biological and partly a combination or union of animal mythological or partly biological and partly philo- —man is with something supernatural. This done. the I question remains: clearly What is Man? hope to show found and convincingly that the answer is to be in the patent fact that human beings possess in varying degrees a certain natural faculty or power or capacity which serves at once to give them their appropriate dignity as human beings and to discriminate them. first The of we have. in Concept of Life 3 In individual every manner of confusion and disaster community question life and in the life of the race. not only from the minerals and the plants but also from the world of animals. One of the answers biological man is an animal. a certain kind of animal. beyond all things else. they are primarily responsible for what is dismal in task will be to the life my and history of humankind. and they are both of them is current to-day.

time-binding class of l There will then remain the great task of indicating and in a measure sketching some of the important ways in which the true conception of man as man will transform our views of human society and the world. preferring to have their thinking done for them they accept ready. ing will be clearly the discussion. to believe everything. There are two ways to slide easily through life: Namely. both ways save us from thinking. or to doubt everything. that a human being is a timewomen and children constitute the life. What it I mean by time-bind- and fully explained in the course of question ing that —What man is and when Is has been will made clear.— 4 call the Manhood of Humanity time-binding faculty or time-binding power or time-binding capacity. and make ready for action. give us a growthe welfare ing body of scientific wisdom regarding of mankind including The purpose nature to of this introductory chapter is to consider certain general matters of a preliminary tion — provide — to indicate the spirit of the undertaking a short course of approach and prepara- to clear the deck. affect our human conduct and all posterity. private doctrines as their own and . The majority take the line of least resistance. the Man? — be answered by say- a being naturally endowed with time- binding capacity binder — — that men. made individual. so to speak.

or cow. and unless we are very careful our children will have the same attitude toward us. and thus influences every step we are free to take within the structure of our social system. The opposite is A farmer must know the natural laws that govern he will not his wheat. or corn. folly. as otherwise have satisfactory crops. including the laws of human nature. or the quality and abundance of milk he desires. Nature's law. otherwise humans will not create the conditions and .A New follow them looks upon Concept of Life less blindly. For two hundred or more generations of our historical past this attitude has been repeated two hundred or more times. Humanity must know the natural laws for humans. It is the counsel of wisdom to discover the laws of nature. There can be no doubt that humanity belongs which to a large extent to its a class of life determines own destinies. establishes its own rules of education and conduct. and thereby to gain the desired results. and then to live in accordance with them. whereas the knowledge of these laws enables him to produce the most favorable conditions for his plants and animals. But the power of human beings to determine their own destinies is limited by natural law. 5 more or Every generation its own creeds as true and permanent and has a mingled smile of pity and contempt for the prejudices of the past.

he can not compute the resistance of his materials. Every human achievement. a statue. it possible for them to have the most favorable circumstances for the fullest which means the human development in release of the maximum natuin mental. and when anything is to be attempted that involves any number of individuals methods of coordination have to be considered proven to be the best suited for such are engineering the — — methods which have undertakings methods— engineering an the of idea toward to a complete realization. in . else he can not calculate the forces at his disposal. as discovered by observation and experiment and formulated by mathematics and mechanics. material and spiritual and of in the other great fields human work all activities. be it a scientific dis- covery. a bridge. resulting in happiness in life — collectively and individually —because activities.6 Manhood of Humanity human activities the customs that regulate which will make life. a picture. has to be conceived in the home first or a plan thought out —before mind — the it can be made a reality. ral-creative energy and expression all moral. and the conditions of the earning of a livelihood influence and shape quality our mental processes and the and the form of human inter-relationship. he can not determine the capacity and requirements of his power plant. a temple. know the materials with which he has to Every engineer has work and the natural laws of these materials.

For engineering. is the coor- of human knowledge gathered its through the ages. our globe too small to support the it. namely. it depends upon the discovery and the apof plication natural It is. not a task for old fashioned philosophical speculation nor for barren metaphysical reasoning in vacuo. psychological. it is a scientific task and involves the coordination and cooperation of all the sciences. is human population now upon Humanity must produce or perish. which was a gigantic industrial process. including the laws of human nature. dinated sum-total rightly understood. the is human which is not material but mental. with mathematics as strument chief inwill and guide. laws. another factor manifested itself and proved to be of the utmost importance: factor. moral. Lately in all and particularly itself during the late World War. roughly determined by the analysis of human nature. It has been found that maximum when production may is be attained when and only the production carried on in conformity with certain psychological laws. Human Engineering embody the theory and practice — the science and .A New Concept short. therefore. This is why it is an engineering task. is Production essentially essentially a task for engineers. Except for productive human labor. he can not of Life 7 make the most profitable use of his industries resources.

commit the sin of preferring the worse to the better. sharp and rigorous is thinking essential. mathematical philosophy little. space and time are sufficient to start with. but as Here beautifully defined by Professor Cassius J. wherein mathematical in- In the meantime. in his ing book The Human Worth of Rigorous Think(Columbia University Press. they are . to do with mere calculait tions or with is numbers as such or with formulas. supreme law of intellectual Here of I have to make it clear that for the purpose Human Engineering the old concepts of matter. they deliberately violate the rectitude.8 Manhood of Humanity all —of aim — art engineering branches united by a common the understanding and welfare of mankind. completeness of definitions." and one of is distinctive characteristics "precision. matheis matics the science of "Exact thought or rigorous its thinking. I want to make it very clear that mathematics is not what many people think it is." is This quality alone generally do not like why people mathematics and why even some sufficient to explain scientists bluntly refuse to have anything to do with reasoning is problems volved. Keyser. sharpness. Those who deliberately refuse to think "rigorously" — that is mathematically is — in connections where such thinking possible. a philosophy wherein precise. 191 6). if has very anything. it is not a system of mere formulas and theorems.

A New Concept sufficient in of Life o much the same way as they have been sufficient in the old science of mechanics. Figura- tively speaking Human Engineering it is a higher order of bridge engineering — aims at the spanning of a gap in practical life as well as in knowledge. They failed because their vene- rated its method of "speculation" can not produce. but with engineering in exist- more active and far reaching. space and time were good enough to prevent the collapse of a bridge. and perhaps will ultimately lead to an under- standing of their absolute meanings. Human throw a new light on many old conceptions and will help the study and understanding of matter. a The to old mechanics lead directly to such intrinsic knowledge of the as laws governing the uni- verse suggest the Engineering will new mechanics. space and time in their relative meanings. the understanding of space and time as used will protect society in this book from periodical and humanity collapses. They were no more able to underlife stand the "production" of the universe and they are than now able to understand or grapple with exist- "production" as a means to provide a happier ence for humanity. the old lost their verbalistic philosophy and metaphysics have reason to exist. Philosophy ence and daily in its old form could exist only in the absence of engineering. and must be taken by mathematical think- place . The same old meanings of matter.

for as long as we presuppose the situation . ulators" will Only a few parasites and "specthe disappearance of their old mourn — companion "speculation." the will The world of producers predominating majority of human beings a welcome philosophy of ordered thought and of them. but they do not fully use their education they do not try to broaden their sense of responsibility toward up in a all selves mankind instead of closing themnarrow specialization where they find Neither engineers nor other right to prefer their scientific their pleasure. Manhood of Humanity Mathematical reasoning is displacing is meta- physical reasoning. their place and their duty are in the front line of struggling ity. it may is be proved that undue pessimism is as dangerous a "religion" any other blind creed. The scientists." and modern intolerance toward new ideas. men have any own personal peace to the happiness of mankind.— io ing. all doubt. Indeed there very little difference in kind between the medieval fanaticism of the "holy inquisition. who keep themselves aloof from If they are indifferent. All kinds of intellect must get together. human- not in the unperturbed ranks of those life. or discouraged because they feel or think that they know as that the situation is hopeless. istic Engineering driving verbal- philosophy out of existence and humanity gains decidedly thereby. have their duties no if production.

those who do not know will act. If the scientists the engineers have had no common such that base upon which to unite. there must is be the desire to act. The task of engineering science is not only to know but to know how. no system or class would care to disregard Their knowllife edge is the very force which makes the and of hu- manity pulsate. a common base must be provided. The spirit of Human Engineering does not know the word "hopeless". we have been made . for engineers know that wrong methods are alone responsible for disastrous results. the situation will indeed be hopeless. Most of the scientists and engineers do not yet realize that their united judgment would be invincible. who know why and how neglect to act. In paying the price of this war. it. One aim of this book to fur- nish the required stimulus by showing that Human Engineering of will rescue us from the tangle of private all opinions and enable us to deal with life the problems and human society upon a scientific basis. The whole history of mankind If those and especially the present plight of the world show only too sadly how dangerous and expensive it is to have the world governed by those who do not know. is To-day the preswith- sure of life we cannot go forward But first out their coordinating guidance.A New Concept of Life ir to be hopeless. and the world will continue to flounder. and that every situation can be successfully handled by the use of proper means.

but the general public to cooperate in establishing the practice all of Human and Engi- neering in the affairs of human society life. in life is The method used phenomena as physics is in this book analysing life essentially an engineering method. signifies that a all very great deal of very simple pointing in the direction of a greater work. not engineers and scientific men only. and put into better form. This work. He must acquire the habit of taking his share of public responsibility. The reading of it should be done with a view to seeing be found in it of what is how much can new and good that may be This elaborated further. and to mathe- and mechanics always suggest maticians that new fields for analysis. it is not improbable Human Engineering will give mathematicians new and interesting fields for research. new enterprise is too difficult unaided labor of one man — and too vast for the too short. The humEngineering blest role of mathematicians in Human . must be done in the way of educating. new thoughts The reader who stops to criticize words or expressions because of more or less happy or unhappy use will miss the whole point of the work.12 Manhood of Humanity to realize that even the private individual can not afford to live wrapped up in his own life and not take his part in public affairs. In writing this book I have had to wrestle with expressing tremendous difficulties in and their in indicating new methods.

" By "philosophy" he means mathematical philosophy is — him rigorously scientific. the this hope of demoncan see. Elsewhere Mr. scientific thinking. that by mathematical philosophy. In relation to mathematics Bertrand Russell has said: "Logic is is the youth of mathematics. not vaguely am entirely unable to agree with that such a philosophy can ethics. Russell says: "The hope of tion to our satisfac- more human desires. so far as osophy can do anything whatever philosophy that speculative. I to satisfy.a A New may put in Concept of Lite 13 be likened to that of "Public accountants" who order the affairs of business. mathe- matics the manhood is of logic. is world has or that ethical charI not one which. to seek for one serves merely to betray one's ignorance of mathematical philosophy. I contend. phil- strating that the acteristic. the least is is useless to try to find a dividing line between logic and mathematics. by rigorously true conception of what a we can human being arrive at the really is and that in thus discovering the characteristic nature of man we come nature of to the secret and source of ethics. I make no contribution to On the contrary." This brilliant is mot no it of the eminent philosopher of mathematics doubt just and can teach us profoundly that it significant. and in this book hope to show. Ethics as a science will investigate and explain the essential man and the obligations which the essential . for no such line exists.

there are a few simple mathematical considerations which . for no thought. rules for ethical conduct — —the more only possible 5«/>^rnatural are no is and no more man-made than tion. Jive in to accordance with the laws of it human is it nature. for It is the law of gravita- example. be seen that to live righteously. far from being are artificial fictions. or any other natural law. be non-mathe- can be trusted. matical in spirit. and the of of rigorous thinking. then will be seen that the laws of human nature . man's Man is a natural results mind facts is a natural agency. to live ethically. the spirit of mathematics is always right and always sound. natural — natural revelations natural law. and. although mathe- maticians sometimes make mistakes. no cause for wonder that mathematical think- ing should lead to such a result.14 Manhood man or Humanity It will is nature of imposes upon human beings. for being. I hope I have not given the impression. which must be the guiding if Human Engineering. a part of nature literally. Whilst I do not intend to trouble the reader with any highly technical mathematical arguments. and when is clearly seen that man a natural being. is have merely wished to indicate that the spirit of it conceived and undertaken in the mathematical spirit. by re- peated allusion to mathematical science. that this book task is to be in I any technical sense a mathematical treatise.

another one progression. it is fact. in all the affairs affecting the welfare of mankind. in the in jurisprudence. is therefore a fact of the utmost importance that progress in each of the cardinal matters must keep abreast of progress in the other cardinal matters in order to keep a just equilibrium. and to which. Because we are human beings we are all of us progress in law. and so to a maintain the integrity and continued prosperity of the whole complex body of our social life. in distribution of wealth. a proper balance. is . but will be seen that they throw a flood of light upon many human concerns. therefore.A New anyone of Concept of Life 15 fair education can understand. in the the production and fine arts. It is a fact that all these great it matters are interdependent and interlocking. that of a geometrical Neither of them involves anything than the most ordinary arithmetic of it more difficult the secondary school or the counting house. in ethics. a fact of observation. natural sciences. which are of exceedingly great importance for our purpose. interested in what we call progress of the most important — in government. I ask the reader's best attenis One of the ideas that of an arithmetical is progression. in phil- osophy. that in some of the great matters progress proceeds in accordance with one law and one rate of advancement and in others in it accordance with a very different law and rate. in economics. tion. in the practical arts.

16. does indeed establish a kind of new equilibrium.. 64. that owing to the widely and rates of progress in the great essential ity. . geometrical is progression a simple arith: denoted by (GP) metical progresson —denoted by 32. The one is a simple . 20 ? etc. To this end side beg the reader to consider very carefully and series of by side the two following first numbers. 6. 4. a and made evident by readiffering laws son. etc. concerns of humanis the balance and equilibrium among the parts in disturbed. the second one {AP) GP : 2. 12. a fact of observation fact attested by all history and sad experience. 128. 10. 14. 18. 4. the as social it is conflicts. 1024. Taken in combination. the facts just stated are so extremely important that they deserve to be stated with the utmost emphasis and I clarity. the strain gradually increases until a violent break ensues insurrections. and destined to be again disturbed periodically with- out end. a fact that the readjustment that follows. 8. 512.16 Manhood of Humanity a fact. after an earth- quake. AP : 2. 256. unless by some science and art of Human Engineering progress tial to in all the great matters essento proceed in accordits human weal can be made ance with one and the same law having in the nature of validity man. 16. but it is it is an equilibrium born of violence. 8. form of revolutions and war.

difference and for the sake of simplicity that I have taken for this number number Other choices would Because be logically just as good. I it is called the common again for the convenience of comparison that have chosen the same number for both common the easy ratio and common 2. One of them that the magni- tude of the terms of any geometric progression whose ratio (no matter how small) is 2 or more will over- take and surpass the magnitude of the corresponding terms of any arithmetical progression. large the common a difference of the latter is may more The ratio other fact to be noted of its that the greater the the geometric progression. so that the . Do not fail to in this connection the folis lowing two facts. Why have I introduced these two series? they serve to illustrate perfectly two widely different laws of process —two laws observe representing vastly dif- ferent rates of growth. no matter how be. rapidly do successive terms increase. increase.A New Concept of Life I 17 For convenience of comparison taken 2 for this initial is let them begin I with the same number and for simplicity have in term. or advancement. got from its predecessor by adding 2 is in the first series the multiplier 2 in the called the common ratio is and second series the repeatedly added 2 difference. observe that the (GP) each term is got from the preceding term by multiplying by 2 and that in the {AP) each term .

the rical six we go. the sum of 8 terms is 510 for the (GP) and 72 for the {AP) the difference between these sums (of only the difference between the . sum for in- sum of is the first six terms of the geometof the is progression 126. no matter so one geometric progression how fast. Consider tance for etc.8 \ 1 Manhood of Humanity may increase a terms of one geometric progression thousand or a million or a billion times faster than the corresponding terms of another geometric progression. and that the difference be- tween their corresponding terms becomes increasingly larger and larger the farther stance. terms each) being 438. now any two matters of human weal jurisprudence science It is as plain as and natural sun that. etc. may be far swifter than another one of the same type. example. already much larger than before. whereas the first terms of the arithmetical progression only 42. outruns every arithmetic progression. if now we take the sums of the first 10 terms. — —or any other two major con- cerns of humanity. As any geometric progression (of ratio equal to 2 or more). 8 they will be 2046 and no having a difference of great imporfor 1936.. if the noon-day progress in one of the matters advances according to the law of a geometric progression and . To every one it will be obvious that the two pro- gressions differ in pace. two sums being 84. no matter how slow.

like that of analytical geometry or the infinitesimal calculus. a little observation little Some technological invention is made. kind and especially the present condition of the world force. progress of no less importance has advanced only at the rate of an arithmetical progression or at best at the rate of some geometric progression of relatively slow growth. social equilibrium at length destroyed. or some discovery of scientific method. It unite in ical. for example. so that. like that of a steam engine or a printing press. My contention is that while progress in some of the great matters of in human concern has been long proceeding in the accordance with the law of a rapidly increasing other matters geometric progression. progress in the former matter will very quickly and ever more and more rapidly if outstrip interests progress in the latter. there follows a period of readjustment by means of violence and must not be fancied that the case supposed The whole history of manis merely hypothetical. the two involved be interdependent (as they always are). To see it and to understand it we have and a to pay the small price of meditation. showing that far from being merely hypothet- the case supposed has always been actual and is actual to-day on a vaster scale than ever before. or .A New Concept of Life 19 the other in accordance with a law of an arithmetical progression. a strain is gradually produced in is human affairs.

20 Manhood of Humanity like that of falling some discovery of natural law. in biology. and manifold peoples of divers tongues and tions tradi- and customs and institutions are now con- . time and space and matter have been already conquered to such an extent that our globe. What What is the effect upon the progress of knowledge and invention? Each invention covery to new leads to The effect is stimulation. in physics. invention breeds inven- tion. in chemistry. in in applications of astronomy and them. science begets science. has virtually shrunken to the dimensions of an ancient province. And now what must we ences — the pseudo sciences —of say of the so-called ethics sci- and jurispruand dence and economics and politics and government? For the answer we have only behold the world. new inventions and each disof knowledge families. once so seemingly vast. in larger and larger process goes on from decade to decade. happens? bodies or the Newtonian law of gravitation. the discoveries. the children produce their kind tion to generation. in mathematics. from genera- and the spectacle we behold scientific is that of advancement in logical knowledge and technolaw and rate of a power according to the rapidly increasing geometric progression or logarithmic function. to open our eyes By virtue of the advancement that has long been going on with ever accelerated logarithmic rapidity in invention.

partly hampered by the traditions because they have been and the habits of a bygone world hind. because of their lagging that the world has come the needed to be in so great distress. a new economical wisdom. they have lagged bedepended upon the philosophy barren methods of verbalistic — they . a new political wisdom. the so-called sciences of ethics. —have lagged behind? to understand.— A New There is Concept or Life 21 strained to live together as in a single community. tion men who know the explanation? not what to Why? is edy at The quesdouble: Why the disease? And why no remhand? The answer is the same for both. and it is because of their lagging that they have not now wisdom to effect a cure. And is What the answer is that the so-called sciences of ethics and jurisprudence and economics and politics and gov- ernment have not kept pace with the rapid progress made in the other great affairs of man. The answer is not far to seek nor difficult They have lagged behind. a new wisdom in the affairs of government. For the new visions our anguished times thus cry aloud but the only answers are reverberated echoes of the wailing cry mingled with the chattering voices of excited public do. partly because they have — they have looked backward instead of forward. demanded a new ethical wisdom. it is Do you ask why that the "social" sciences etc. they have it is lagged behind. a new legal wisdom.

revolutions and wars. equilibrium of in those human affairs as to result periodically social cataclysms which we call insurrec tions. despite their being by their very nature most immediately concerned with the affairs of mankind. of their lagging behind is found in the aston- ishing fact that." as we may them — — such such violent read- .22 Manhood of Humanity scientific. partly because they have been often dominated by the lusts of cunning "politicians" instead of being led by the wisdom of enlightened statesmen. however." upon which they have in the main depended for support. the fundamental cause. At rapid present I it am is chiefly concerned to drive home the fact that the great disparity between the the progress of natural and technological sciences on the one hand and the slow progress of that sooner or later so disturbs the the metaphysical. so-called social "sciences" on the other hand. they have lagged behind. partly because they have been predominantly concerned to protect "vested interests. With tial these two monstrous conceptions of the essen- nature of man I shall deal at a later stage of this writing. they have not discovered what really is Man but have from time immemorial falsely reelse as garded human beings either as animals or combinations of animals and something supernatural. have been metaphysical instead of they have lagged behind. such The reader should note carefully that cataclysmic call changes "jumps.

represent the geometrical law of progression in the natural and technological lagging sciences (peaceful evolution) A'2." accelerated by "jumps. — Peaceful progress. . 248 Arithmetical 16 32 evolution violent of the so-called social "sciences." —Non-peaceful Peaceful social progress. AB. CD. because the disparity which produces them increases as we pass to generation from generation of our progressions — — from term fact to term the "jumps" in question occur not only with increasing violence but with increasing frequency. 24 Peaceful 6 \ / 8\ Peaceful \ / / Jump Revolution or War. when equal a'2. Progress Jump Revolution or War. 2a. be. represent the arithmetical law of progression in the so-called social sciences (peaceful evolution) Both of these during the same periods of time. Jump Revolution or War. I And would have him see clearly that. A New justments in Concept of Life affairs 23 — human and human relationships are recorded throughout the history of mankind. EF. ab. 2d. This highly significant may be graphically illustrated in the following figure: Geometric evolution of the natural and technological sciences. cd..

as the cubes of the same base grow faster than the squares. its absorbing capacity has become four times larger. but the slower than the occur at shorter intervals as time goes on and thus more facts. increase in size as cubes increase. more and more is the mentioned disparity of progress in peaceful times the hatching seed of future violence. ab. 3 2 = 9. 3 3 = 27. that they have to absorb their food through surfaces which as growth goes on increase only as squares. represent the aftermath of revolution of ideas — the "jump" violent readjustment of ideas to facts events. the food is spent to build the mass of the volume of the body and is spent proportionally to the cube. FG.— 24 Manhood of Humanity revolutions or wars. take the same amount second progression being much one. 23 = 8. It is obvious that at some point. the "jumps" or revolutions first of time. In case of 3 times. DE. Suppose our organism has grown to a size twice as large. CD. cd. all the absorbed food will be used to maintain life and none will be left for growth. the larger part goes for growth. be. EF. that in the infancy of an organism only a part of the food goes to maintain life. 22 it is =4. This is another example which explains how the theory of dimensions is vitally important in life and shows why it is absolutely essential to take account of dimensions in the study of life problems. it may be interesting to add. the absorbing surfaces growing proportionally to the square. digress a bit. that popula- and the need of people increase in a geometrical progresand also that the growth of individuals is limited by the fact. obvious.* *To tion sion. the difference will be 9 and 27. . its volume eight times larger. when the organism becomes larger. while the bodies to be fed. being volumes. —forced by and AB. and this last process will stop. with BC. and so on. frequently force us to coordinate our ideas to Periods of peace or seeming peace alternate frequently with periods of violence.

" "truth" exists as matter of fact. without bringing attention to these very simple mathematical ideas than in the past. law. the to effect has been multiply warring schools of philosophy — secta- rians and partisans. ethics and psychology would cease to be "private theories" or verbalism and they would advance to the rank and dignity of sciences. From the .A New As a Concept of Life 25 matter of fact these few mathematical concan siderations hardly be philosophy. phil- osophy." "bad. If only these three words could be scientifically defined. or even the understanding of them. for instance. no one has reached any result universally acceptable. such words as "good" or "bad" or "truth". we should not be able to proceed any further Our life problems have always been played with vague words and "solved" by verbalists and rhetorical metaphysicians who cleverly who always ignored the supremely important matter of dimensions because they were ignorant of it. Let us take. in his book. called mathematics or mathematical nevertheless. There was no possible way to arrive at an agreement on the significance of words. In the meantime something corresponding to each of the terms "good. but what that some- thing is still awaits scientific determination. volumes upon volumes have been written about them. Here friend I may quote a characteristic of life as ex- pressed by one of the "heroes" of my esteemed Harvey O'Higgins.

"Warren never theory of life philosophized.26 Life. The problems it To follow the reasoning of this book. is not any reason whatsoever why we should despair. freedom from blinding prejudice. natural and all civilization subject in their larger aspects to natural laws tradict morality to and outrage lesser justice —and —which con- the statesman has move with " those laws and direct his people in accordance with them. politics and sociology could not solve the problems of humanity. practical psychology. N. the only qualifications required are candor. no morality. understand that to talk of adding three quarts of milk to three-quarters of a mile is . an open mind. Y. But the fact that the old philosophy. in nature or in natural laws. thoughtfulness.). law.' by-laws of morality and jus- If such are the creeds of "distinguished people" anywhere. real desire for truth. is not necessary to be a highly trained specialist. what better can we expect than that which we see in the history of humanity? ethics. his would probably have been something like this: there is 'There society. a and enough common sense to to talk nonsenr e. life. is no justice. can be solved. but he had philosophized. if he handled facts as an artisan handles his tools. Manhood of Humanity Imaginary Portraits of Some Distinguished Americans (Harper. despite the tice. justice and morality are laws only of human are But society.

but happily we by are near to the end of this it. but none of them has been 27 able to give the world a . as any childhood.CHAPTER II CHILDHOOD OF HUMANITY HP HE conclusion of the World War is the closing of the period of the childhood of humanity. shaken war. have to keep our oath to make the future woidry of their sweat and blood. the "red wine of youth. enter its is coming to its senses and must soon manhood. can be characterized as devoid of any real understanding of values. Early ideas are not necessarily true ideas. real sense of values The sacred dead will not have died for naught." the wanton waste of and we will life. This childhood. has shown us the price of life. a period of great achievements and rewards in the new and dawning upon us. for humanity. This childhood has been unduly long. There are different kinds of interpretations of history and different schools of philosophy. All of them have contributed something to human progress. as is that of a child who uses a priceless chronometer to crack nuts.

the nations to orin ganize for producing greater power order to con- . it was obliged and not of to supplement the old systems with special boards for food. shipping. The world had to create new economic conditions. The World War It in has a taught something to everybody. coal. and of philosophy. labor. of ethics. it was found that the old political and economic systems were not adequate to the task put upon them. great reality. reality it was indeed accustomed us to think in those terms of phantom speculation. Some unmistakable truths were revealed. be it that of an individual or that of the race. approximately in coordi- What we call progress consists nating ideas with realities. and their interpretations or misinterpre- tations have from the earliest times formed systems of law.28 Manhood or Humanity basic philosophy embracing the whole progress of science and establishing the life is life of man upon the abiding foundation of Fact. The evident laws of nature were the inspiration of genuine science in its cradle. railroads. forms conclusions which have to be often revised before they correspond to facts. Our bound to develop according to evident or else concealed laws of nature. be produced to destroy hostile power. Human intellect. The World War emergency compelled quer power already great. etc. Facts and Power had to force were the things that counted.

rejecting mere "opinions" as cheap and unworthy.. for experiments which yield great and tangible benefits to humanity. when and we have the facts necessary. the ability "to do things. thousands of rabbits and guinea pigs are used and killed. "opinions" are tolerated only all when facts are lacking. This war butchered millions of people lives of tens of millions. but the elucidation facts. in scientific laboratories. . truth scientific. except for the poetry and the manuring of the battle fields. Such as understand know how to act for the benefit of all. the fact that the most important asset a nation or is an individual can have. they blow and they are strong and red. that the "poppies blow" stronger is and better fed? gained as Or the death of ten men on the battle field to be of as is much worth sacrifice in knowledge analysing? if the life of one rabbit killed for experithe ment? Is great worth yes. and right use of Normally. There can be only one answer be desired. the analysis must be In science. . In this case. and ruined the health and Is this climax of the pre-war civilization to be passed unnoticed." . We have only to collect them this lesson will and analyse them.Childhood of Humanity If there is is 29 it anything which this war has proved. — But. this writing is But the purpose of not the celebra- tion of poetry. "In Flanders Fields the poppies blow is ." that too true.

look. and listen" crossings listen. did not have science. look.30 Manhood of Humanity At present the future of mankind is dark. but all their primitive notions about facts — such as the structure of the . even more easily destroyed are the more ad- vanced and complicated social organizations. in its cradle. "Stop. can move about after being deprived of the appliances by which the life force is accumulated and transferred. but it was without any sufficient basis of facts. In the early days there was much speculative thinking. Humanity. Theology and philosophy flourished. their speculations were often very clever. or even by the injury of minor parts of them. the prudent caution at railroad be amended to read "stop. The creeds first question will is: what are to be the scientific methods that eliminate diverse opinions and from an analysis of facts and ensure correct deductions based upon them? A short survey of facts concerning civilization will help to point the way. but higher organisms are instantly killed by the removal of such appliances. but for the preservation of the life of humanity. —must — . of the lower and simpler types. it had only the faculties of observation and speculation. a and think" not for the saving of few lives in railroad accidents. in which the differentiation and for a considerable time the integration of the vital organs have not been carried far. Living organisms.

and for convenience they will simply be marked by his J. H. This little volume gives condensed statements. opinions. . J. 1919. as in a nutshell. History it is an ex- pansion of memory. our methods of learning and of applying for information we owe. mechanical principles. history? What What is its significance humanity? Dr. Robinson gives us a precise answer: "Man's abject dependence on the past gives rise to the continuity of history. James Harvey Robinson. R. of the historical developments of the human mind and contains a long list of the most substantial modern books on historical questions. initials f (J. H. Our convictions. with slight exceptions. and like takable value. intellectual tastes. All the further historical quotations will be taken from this exceptionally valuable little * An book. to the past — often to the remote past. but they did not have a conProgress ception of the possibility of indefinite progress — . Outline of the History of the Western European Mind. prejudices. H. meteorological or physiological phenomena —were for almost all is of them wrong. New York. . the form of the earth. The Greeks speculated on the origin of things. our knowl- edge. Excessive conservatism of primitive peoples.Childhood of Humanity 31 heavens. . by The New School for Social Research. and phenomenon or caused by some personal striking from remotest antiquity the mode of thinking has changed only as fast as the relations among phenomena have been established." * memory lies its alone can explain the present and in this most unmis- The savage regards every group of phenomena as agent.) "Late appearance of a definite theory of progress. R.

Undreamed of achievements possible if only the the distrust of right method of research be followed Galileo's chief discoveries . Defects of the university education. . . 'De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium. were in physics and mechanics. Copernicus.' and studying the world about us. . .32 Manhood of Humanity Human of nature was always asking "why"? and not being able to answer why. however brilliant and ingenious they might be. There was no steady accumulation of knowledge to offset the growing emotional distrust of reason. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) proved that the laws of falling bodies apply to the heavens. . business to think out and set forth in Latin and Italian the implications of the discovery of Copernicus. . . Little history of Natural science. underlay what appeared to be a most logically elaborated and definitive system of thought. . Still believed in fixed Starry his debt to ancient philosophers. Bruno burned Keppler (1571-1630) and by the Inquisition at Rome. . His attitude toward the Copernican theory. His discovery had little immediate effect on prevailSphere. . sity of escaping from the scholastic methods of 'tumbling up and down in our reasons and conceits. .' Libri Copernicus' own introduction acknowledges VI. . which was condemned by Roman Inquisition 1616. Galileo His telescope speedily improved so as to magnify (1 564-1642). . appreciation of the existing obstacles to scientific advance. . It was an imposing collection of speculation. . . and failed to recognize the fundamental necessity of painful scientific research. . taught in the universities. . . . the Necesidols of the tribe. Unfulfilled promise of Hellenistic science. . . combined with those of the Christian Fathers. Lord Bacon (1561-1626). and theatre. and guesses. . the 'Buccinator' His lively of experimental and applied modern science. aided by apparatus. • . Influence of slavery in checking the development of science. . . 32 diameters. they found their answer man from the earliest time till the opening of the 17th century almost altogether unconscious. Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) made it his chief ing notions. cave. . This made a deep impression and finally the newer conceptions of the universe began to be popularized. market-place. Fundamental weakness of Hellenic learning. . . The deficiencies of Medieval culture. . . in our sense of the word. . . opinions. . were based on a very slight body of exact knowledge. . which. . . his discovery of the elliptical orbits of the planets. . All the weaknesses of the Hellenic reasoning. 1543.

. magic. His fundamental interest in mathematics. religion has always had for its primary object the attainment of a satisfactory adjustment to. 'Religious/ a vague and comprehensive term applied to: (1) certain classes of emotions (awe. 'good works') or the observance of what in primitive conditions are recognized as 'taboos'. Prevalence of symbolism.. Spontaneous generation of superstitions. . . . . H. . self-distrust. . totemism. . His claim to originality and his rejection of all authority. Descartes (i 596-1650). . . (2) Conduct. the sacred. "Association of religion with the supernatural. prayers." . . animism. the theological faculties. law. But with the progress of "why" became more and more evident. mana. . — . dependence.Childhood of Humanity through another factor "who.. (4) about supernatural beings and man's relations to them: the latter may take the form of revelation and be reduced to creeds and become the subject of elaborate theological speculations. . sacrifices. or ecclesiastical organizations. etc.). clean and unclean. he proposed to reach the truth through analysis and clear ideas. Beliefs (3) Priestly. ethics. long and hazardous process of accumulation. . .* ancient authority. the censorship of the press exercised by both church . their were the monopolies of one power. . the superThe cultural mind viewed as the product of a natural. class and the source of . the universities still dominated by Aristotle. dogmatic theology. and science in its infancy." From the early science the days of humanity. . Obstacles to scientific advance. the taboo (cf. and the question came to be "how. The 16th book of the Theodosian Code contains edicts relating to the Church issued by the Roman Emperors during the 4th and 5th centuries. they provide harsh penalties for heretical ." called. or a successful control over. R. . . aspirations. . our modern idea of 'principle'). 33 The unknown was Gods or God. fetishism. which may take the form of distinctive religious acts (ceremonies.) "Phases of religious complex. . on the assumption that God will not deceive. They make it a crime to disagree with the Church. 'dream logic' spontaneous rationalizing or 'jumping at conclusions'. (J. and * state.

Fear.. . Great prevalence of witchcraft during the 16th and 17th centuries in Protestant and Catholic countries. .. . . . . Flourishing of the miraculous. . Protestants shared with Roman Catholics the horror of 'rationalists' and 'freethinkers. . The witches' mark. . Witchcraft in its modern form emerges clearly in the 15th century. . . alike. . licensing of ecclesiastical and civil authorities. . Doubt and error regarded as sinful. Tens of thousands of innocent persons perished. Tortures to force confession. Trial of those suspected of sorcery. . strangling. They progressed realities too rapidly to be bound and limited by obscure old writings and prejudices. . . . . Protestants of 16th century accept the theory of intolerance. Allegory put an end to all literary criticism. . hanging. . the comfortable nature of the traditional and the habitual. The painful appropriation of new ideas. . . Beginnings of censorship of the press after the invention of printing. .34 Manhood of Humanity The first to break this power were the exact sciences. vested interests. Psychological power and attraction in the elaborate symbolism and ritual of the church. . Christianity becomes a monopoly defended by the state. . . Those who tried to discredit witchcraft denounced as 'Sadducees' and atheists. . and grant privileges to the orthodox clergy (exemptions from regular taxes and benefit of the clergy)." . Ethics is too fundamentally important a factor in civilization to depend upon a theological or a legal excuse. . . The intolerance of the Catholic Church: a natural result of its statelike organization and claims. . . burning alive. . any unusual or startling occurrence attributed to the intervention of either God or the Devil. . Science brushed aside all sophistry and became a reality. Our legal expression 'act of God' confined to unforseeable natural disasters. The psychology of intolerance. Penalties. Its doctrine of exclusive salvation and its conception of heresy both sanctioned by the state. . teaching and writing. . . . . . How with a growing appreciation for natural law and a chastened taste in wonders. . . . life and were their domain. Older conceptions of disease as caused by the Devil. . miracles have tended to become a source of intellectual distress and bewilderment.' The leaders of both parties agreed in hampering and denouncing scientific discoveries. . . .

punishment of the offenders against Dogmatic theology is." . .* by their "The Socio-psychological foundations of conserv*(J. H. Law was always made by the few and old in general for the purpose of preserving the "existing order. date from the beginning of Legal speculation was wonderfully deparallel lines veloped in with theology and phil- osophy before the natural and exact sciences came into existence.) atism: Primitive natural reverence for the familiar and habitual Natural conservatism greatly reenforced by religion and law. Law was and is to protect the past and present status of society and." or for the reestablishment of the order and the it. . . of all professions. its very must be very conservative. Futility of the appeal of the conservative to human nature as an obstacle to progress. by essence. Culture can not be transmitted hereditarily but can be accumulated through education and modified indefi. by its very nature.Childhood of Humanity ethics 35 must conform ideas. if not reactionary. . helplessly accept the situation as inevitable. unchangeable. legal civilization. The same can be said in regard to the spirit of the law. to the natural laws of human nature. to discredit conservatism completely as a working principle in view of the past achievements of mankind in the recent past and the possibilities which opened before us. Laws. . static Theology and law are both of them nature. Those who suffer most from existing institutions commonly. R. nitely. he urges the impossibility of altering 'human nature' and warns against the disasters of revoluConservatism in the light of history: History would seem tion. Position of the conservative.

be adjudged responsible circumstances which in a large measure for the made the World War Under ings the flash of explosives of those antiquated ideas some of the workwere exposed or The World War has profoundly changed economic conditions and made it necessary to erect new standards of values. and so medieval methods and judgments are constantly applied the conditions and problems of to modern is life. must inevitable. which do not understand each other. gresses faster than our ideas. fall and so we witness a tremendous downLife proideas. they must be made vital enough to keep pace with the progress of science. reactionary. because static. This discrepancy between facts and ideas sible for the dividing of greatly respon- modern society into differ- ent warring classes. We are forced to realize crushed. controlled by theology and law. revolutionary progress of technic and the steadily changing conditions of life.— 36 Manhood of Humanity Philosophy. and thus becoming more and more unable the mighty social burden of the to support modern world. that evolution by transformation is a cosmic process . which are could not duly influence the dynamic. law and ethics. Medieval legalism and medieval morals the basis of the old social structure —being by their nature conservative. to be effective in a dynamic world must be dynamic. of morals in politics and business. opposed to change. life and In recent civilization ethics.

" . as defined by Fichte. There is all not one fact tending to prove special or separate is creation. (1820-1903). Weakening of the special creation theory by other evidence such as archeology and biblical criticism. including the newer social sciences. . DeVries and others. dynamic. of sciences. Organic evolution and social evolution. gradual development of the evolutionary theory. lative. when exact sciences were in their infancy. Its is the "science aim was to solve the all problems of In the past.' Revolutionary effects of the new point of view. Does away with conception of fixed species (Platonic ideas) that had previously dominated speculation. Weisman. which overwhelming. Herbert Spencer Haeckel (1834-1919) and others clarify. Subsequent development of the evolutionary doctrine by Mendel.'evolution. . of it on the other is side." the world. with little But if * "Formulation and establishment of the evolu(J. The in hypothesis of special creation a mere fossil is of the past. not Philosophy. The genetic method adopted in all the organic sciences. all branches of science. Evolution facts is the only theory which harmony with life is and with static. may retard can not The is idea that organic species are results of special creation has no scientific standard whatever. . Problem of adjusting history to the discoveries of the past 50 years. though entirely stop it. R.* it 37 it. H. philosophy had to be purely specuor no regard to realities. the evidence. Bearing of evolution on the theory of progress. Popular confusion of 'Darwinism' with . Character of the opposition to the evolutionary theory. . . Discovery of the great age of the earth.) tionary hypothesis. . .Childhood of Humanity and that reaction. defend and popularize the new doctrine. . . Darwin's 'Origin of the Species/ 1859. The significance of the doctrine for intellectual history.

irrespective of the cackling of metaphysics. the modern social sciences in our capitalistic order meet much the same resistance from the 'vested interests' that theological radicalism encountered in the Middle Ages and social science has in no way approached the objectivity and . lective The world has no Life is col- or organized higher ideals and aims.38 Manhood or Humanity we regard philosophy as a Mother science. H. and for want of coordi- nation the great world-problems suffer. the growth of criticism and liberalism has made the analysis of social institutions somewhat less dangerous. R.* * "The Deists and philosophers destroy the older (J. she unable to follow her growing hatchlings. the general growth of knowledge has reacted in a stimulating way upon the sciences of society.) theological anthropology and reassert the dignity of man. This failure scien- of philosophy to tific fulfill is her boasted mission of coordination responsible for the chaos in the world of general thought. we find that those branches have grown so large and various. the great increase in the number. scientific Through endless. fulfill Philosophy does not her initial aim to bring the results of experi- mental and exact sciences together and to solve world problems. that the Mother science looks like a hen with her in a little ducklings paddling is pond. the progress of life and science goes on. However. an accidental game of private or collective ambitions and greeds. scientific specialization branches multiply. divided into many branches. far beyond her reach. The Darwinian hypothesis has rendered preposterous any conception of a wholly static social system. nor even fixed general purposes. In the meantime. complexity and intensity of social problems has proved a strong incentive to social science.

fertile ( 1 ) knowledge number of (2) a large body of natural laws. . which must precede any effective social reform. . there must be facts. Excellent aims and small achievements of sociology in practical results. . not even do facts and laws alone. Influence of modern commercialism in the traditions. effects of vested rights in . theories and laws before the subject science. Psychological disadvantages of our conventional examination system. . hypotheses. . As yet our education has not been brought into close relation with prevailing conditions of our ever increasing knowledge.. {Because of absolute lack of any scientific base.Childhood of Humanity 39 Systematic study of chemical and physical phe- nomena has been and these two of an enormous carried on for many : generations sciences now many include facts. inordinate development of organization and regimentation in of present . our present educational system. . (3) working hypothhelpful theories eses respecting the causes and (4) regularities of natural phenomena. . . and hypotheses giving finally many held subject to correction by further testing of the rise to them. . is understood to include Facts alone do a pile of the above mentioned parts. which relates. not constitute a science any more than of stones constitutes a house. Author. day natural science." .) General nature of the problem of social reform: psychological problems involved in social reform movements: violent resistance of the group to that criticism of the existing institutions. it When a subject is spoken of as a all science.. . Grave hampering experiments and readjustObstacles to readjustment presented by consecrated ments. is entitled to the rank of a The primal function of a science is to enable us it to anticipate the future in the field to progressiveness .

just To be we must admit that philosophy has been but it is little aided financially because unnecessary.40 Manhood or Humanity philosophy nor its Judged by kindred this standard. we looked upon it World War as a per- sonal creation of a "war-lord. The future was not past been very effective. no official warning of the coming of the World War the greatest of catastrophies. and better opportunities for develop- so they have had ment. neither — the so-called social sciences —have in the There was. selves. — anticipated because political philosophers did not possess the necessary basis of knowledge. for example. Knowledge of facts would have told us that the war lords were only the representatives of the ruling classes. We neglected to use our comits mon sense and look deeper into origins. A system of social ." because those interested in told us so. Ethics in the stifling grip of is myth and legalism influ- not convincing enough to exercise controlling ence. Such is the situation in which still we find ourlike Being in our childhood and thinking the savages. commonly regarded as The technical branches of science have been strongly backed and generally supported by those to whom they have brought direct profit. to perpolitical form for ourselves the duty which losophy did not perform for us phi- — the duty of think- ing in terms of facts and not in terms of metaphysical speculations.

colored our mental procdestinies. realism to idealism. socialism." on greed." nature of life." it not peculiar to any one country. or exist by means of war. "survival of the and ruthless compe- must cease to exist. common sense and knowledge. It is the same in the realm of religions . ruling classes and so war was the consequence. private opinions and theories have shaped our esses beliefs. built exclusively fittest. . is which is "grab what you can. capitalism to endlessly.Childhood of Humanity and economic order tition. The carried the whole system under which its they lived to logical conclusion and natural This motto issue. pessimism opposed to optimism. 41 selfishness. we find that in all "sciences. is the motto of our whole civilization and is the inevitable outcome of our stupid philosophy regarding the characteristic man and the proper potentialities of human Where are we to find the true doctrines? Where the true philosophy? If we go back over the history of civilization. The representatives of this system determined to con- tinue to exist. and so on tatious systems has a large Each of the dispunumber of followers and All of each faction looks upon the others as deprived of truth. except the exact ones. them play with the words "natural law" which they ignorantly presume to have as the basis their and content of there are own particular doctrine. materialism to spiritualism. and controlled our we see. for ex- ample.

by 34. human mind rewhich impart their own prop- from which rays are emitted and den are those of each individual. 261 million Catholics. 137 million Buddhists. idols of the 42. but the idols and medieval fetishes which he so masterfully describes are equally venerated to-day. to speak only of — most important religions. Francis Bacon. It is. for man's sense falsely asserted to be the standard of things. and the sembles these uneven mirrors erties to different objects. 40. tants. {Novum Organum. "The information of notions and axioms on the foundation of true induction is the only fitting remedy by which we can ward off and expel these idols. the second Idols of the third Idols of the that of the confutation of sophisms does to 41.) "Four species of idols beset the (for distinction's sake) first we human mind. 209 million Hindus. believes faith to be infallible theory or its and all the others to be false. human nature is and the very tribe or race of man. however. all the perceptions both of the senses and the to mind bear reference man and not to the Universe. distort and disfigure them. and they its are rather large groups. "The for everybody (in addition to the errors common to the race . for the doctrine of idols bears the same relation to the interpretation of nature as Idols of the Tribe. "The idols of the tribe are inherent in common logic. on the contrary. Bacon seems a bit remote. Each group.42 Manhood or Humanity Roman Moham- approximately 291 million Confucianists. to which have assigned names. calling the Den. of great service to point them out. 177 million Protes- 115 million Orthodox Christians the 157 million Animists. or Taoists. the fourth Idols of the Theatre. the Market. 211 million medans.

is variable. or from his education and intercourse with others. creating and theatrical worlds. or from the different impressions produced on the mind. "Lastly. throw everything into confusion. for men converse by means of language. and also from the perverted rules of demonstration. and lead mankind into vain and innumerable controversies and fallacies. but words are formed at the will of the generality. and there arises from a bad and unapt formation of words a wonderful obstruction to the mind. and Heraclitus said well that or men search for knowledge in lesser worlds. or equable and tranquil. "There are also idols formed by the reciprocal intercourse and society of man with man. or of the philosophy and sects of the ancients. and. which we call idols of the market. as it happens to be preoccupied and predisposed. and the like. from the commerce and association of men with each other. and not in the greater common 43. world. Nor can the definitions and explanations with which learned men are wont to guard and protect themselves in some instances afford a complete remedy words still manifestly force the understanding. so plays brought out and performed. confused. Nor. either from his own peculiar and singular disposition. so that the spirit of man (according man) cepts to its several dispositions). or from his reading. which interand corrupts the light of nature. since . — and these all we denominate idols of the theatre: for we regard the systems of philosophy hitherto received or imagined.Childhood of Humanity of 43 has his own individual den or cavern. and the authority acquired by those whom he reverences and admires. Nor do we speak only of the present systems. 44. there are idols which have crept into men's minds from the various dogmas of peculiar systems of philosophy. the causes of the most opposite errors being generally the same. actuated by chance. as it were. as fictitious many numerous other plays of a similar nature can be still composed and made to agree with each other.

and the whole range of the relations of mankind. R. but also to elements and axioms of sciences which have become inveterate by tradition. our well nigh perfect means of rapid human inter-communication. the modern city and finally. do Manhood of Humanity we allude merely to general systems." . extent of investments. machinery has in turn begotten the modern factory with its vast organized labor.44 again. Problems of capital and labor. The period of humanity's a scientific period — manhood scientific will. the concentration and localization of industry. — tion and isolation. ignorance. expansion of commerce. The tremendous increase in the production of wealth and the growing interdependence of nations has opened up a vast range of speculation in regard to the betterment of mankind to the abolition or reduction of povMan advances from a . private "truths. the separation of capital and labor and the growth of impersonal economic relationship. be a period that will witness the gradual extension of method to all the in- " During the past two centuries the application * (J. and neglect." and private sectarian opinions. and steam essential to the development of machinery on a large scale. iron. Industrial processes become dynamic and everchanging a complete reversal of the old stability. labor organizations.) of the scientific discoveries to daily life has revolutionized our methods of supplying our economic needs. and sectarian querulous. The impulse of invention. disease. The rise of the tool-using to a machine-controlling animal. erty. confused and blind —such is characteristic of the childhood of humanity. repeti. unemployment and the labor of women and Increased productivity and the children. H. factory system. selfish political philosophies. sectarian "truths" doctrines. implicit credence. and war. increased division of labor and specialization of industrial procThe great increase in the volume of capital and in the esses. I doubt not. its swarming progprivate doctrines." * many Metaphysical speculation and eny of blind and opinions. coal. our social and intellectual life. .

at the science and art directing human energies and human in capacities to the advancement of human weal human nature accordance with the laws of . man and of establish.Childhood of Humanity terests of 45 mankind — a period in which man will dis- cover the essential nature of length.

" or to put has no practical value. even so-called "scientific" language often too vague for the purpose and requires further Some may say necessary to lay so much refining. but they are exceedingly impor- To classify phenomena correctly. is ill As a matter of fact our common is daily speech adapted for the precise expression of thought. is for they say that "business" language good enough "something over" — the other fellow. problems to be dealt with in this chapter are not easy. In some cases the words will it indeed have a technical meaning and will be neces- sary to exercise great care against the danger of giving false impressions. sake of clearness and. avoiding as I will For the use the simplest illustrations as possible the difficulties of much technical terms. precision is But a little explanation will show that often of the greatest importance. that to "talk business. will use language easily to be under- stood by every one. they must be correctly analysed and clearly defined.CHAPTER III CLASSES OF LIFE ^f^HE tant. for clear ideas are essential to sound thinking. 46 . that it is useless and un- stress it on correct thinking and precise expression.

practical life is a peculiar class of life which. . moreover. when in lightning struck a house. casual.Classes of Life 47 Humanity degree. in its some in determines own destinies." What first has been the result these "non-important" definitions in practical life? In the case of the definition. the sinner would be an impious be punished by death. For instance. many millions of human beings have defined a stroke of lightning as being the "punishment of God" of evil men. would be guilty of "resisting the supreme law" and would deserve to Now in the second instance. the people save what they can and try to extinguish the fire. therefore words and ideas become facts — facts. yet other millions have defined as an of spark. the population naturally made no it. if caught in the open by a storm they take refuge under a tree of safety involving — a means maximum danger but the people do not know it. which bring about important practical consequences. In both instances." phenomenon to be a "punishment for any attempt to prevent or check the destruction act. a stricken building is treated just as any tree overturned by storm. periodical pheit nomenon" "electric . attempt to save the house or anything to because do so would be against the "definition" which prothe claims evil. the behavior of the popuis lace the same in one respect. other millions have defined it as a "natural.

48 Manhood of Humanity Now tion in the third instance. but is another example of it sufficient vital impor- tance to be given here. at least put in jail for life. but when the storm is directly over their heads. flat on the ground there until the Such examples could be given without end. as has to do with our con- ception of the social and economic system." to imperfect and often the time steadily and subject in change all and dynamically obedience to some all known or un- known law. in which the popula- have a scientifically correct definition of light- ning. and if they are caught by a storm in the open they neither run nor hide under a tree. If our institutions given" — are considered static "Godre- sacred and therefore — every But now. former or advocate of change should be treated a criminal or "a danger to the existing order" as and if hanged or foolish. then of course reactionaries would of defi- be a "danger to the natural order" and they should be treated the same way. our institutions are "man made. and the state. they provide their houses with lightning rods. The importance nitions can be seen in all other fields of practical life. To know the world in which we live. definitions create conditions. they put them- selves in a position of minimum exposure by lying storm has passed. such facts as we have we know in to analyse facts by help of facts daily practice and such as are established in scientific laboratories where men .

sometimes by men of creaexample. and true propositions. a few and a few true propositions. slow. is very imdefi- am not now speaking of nominal which for convenience merely give names to known objects. a few just concepts. but these have been extended and multiplied. — tive genius. Nominal definitions are mere conveniences and are neither true nor false. and it is The probselect. Newton and Leibnitz a few correct definitions. correct definitions. Some of the greatest and most far-reaching just concepts scientific discoveries have been Such. for nothing else than a few correct definitions. I am speaking of such definitions of phenomena as result from correct analysis of the phenomena. I I have said. progressive. and necessary to Fortunately the solution of a few leads automatically to the solution of many others. a few true propositions. The lems are infinitely many. but analytic definitions are definitive propositions and are true . The aim process is of the analysis is to give us just concep- tions. 49 it In some places will be necessary to make statements that will have to at a later stage of the dis- full justification cussion. of merely good sense and fair talent. and often almost automatically by men of definition. This will be necessary to indicate the trend of the analysis. endless. The matter portant. was the work of Euclid. nitions.Classes of Life do not jump await to conclusions.

. a kind of energy which flows. . the third under the present conditions of our knowledge. . or else Let us dwell upon the matter a little more. . was the "true one" and it brought the sug- maximum tive benefit. of degrees of truth and degrees of falsehood. Then of course definition would immediately make obvious it. and gives us an absolute or final truth. through a glass this tube filled with charcoal. the secfirst ond was less incorrect and the practical results less bad. that lightning is so and so . This lightning that illustration gests the important idea of relative truth and rela- falsehood — the idea. but of two definitions of the same thing.. valid in infinity {A k ) say a final definition. the and its was the most mistaken application brought the most harm. . we call 2 ( the first . be truer or falser than the other. An .5<d Manhood or Humanity false. one of them may If. A definition may- be neither absolutely true nor absolutely false. is. . 3. there were three. for illustration's sake. let us say. we may appears who has the faculty to surpass relative truths alpha 2 ) the third suppose that a genius all the other A\ t A A 2. . the second one A one A3 (alpha 3). " truth " A\ ( alpha i ) . In the illustration of the definitions of lightning. what use could be made of unlimited flow of available We could erect glass towers filled with charcoal free and so secure an energy and our .

a " scientific If this last definition be " valid in infinity " or not nevertheless. truth " in but it is. for in countless years of observation less a series of less true "ideas" about the we have formed false. an uneducated person would say "that is the color of blood" (A 7). we do not know. A reactionarywould call it a "Bolshevik" (A\)\ a Bolshevik would say " My color " (A 2) a color-blind person would say "such a thing does not exist" (As). But to take another example: there is such a a phenomenon called the " color " red. Imagine how it might be defined. This is final but unknown "truth valid in infinity" somehow perceived and or felt by us as an ideal.Classes of Life whole life 51 would be affected in an untold degree. more and more nearly phenomenon. a Daltonist would say "that is green" (A 4)'. This example explains the importance of correct definitions. the reflections may be distorted. the modern scientist would say " it is the light of such and thing as . The "ideas" are reflections of the phenomenon. the present condition of our knowledge. such wave length" (An). reflected in our midst as as in a in a mirror. but they suggest . convex or concave mirror. an historian would say "that is the color of the ink with which human history has been written" (Aq). a metaphysician would say " that is the soul of whiskey" (A 5).

Let us suppose that the man is has beautiful features but because the drawing very poor. so. explain briefly by an example. it is only by words that we are enabled to give to other human beings an exact or nearly exact impression which we have had of It the phenomenon. For correct to have analysis cardinal classes of life in and true definitions of the our world it is necessary some just ideas about dimensions or dimen- sionality. the drawing of his likeness would have practically no resemblance original features. Measurable entities of different kinds can not be compared directly. he will draw the likeness badly. Let us suppose that a man makes an from a mirror. may be helpful to illustrate this process by an example. concave or convex. The Britannica gives us some help in I will this connection. Each one must be measured in . poor designer were to look into and work from to his a concave or convex mirror. an ideal reflection valid It is of the utmost importance to realize that the words which are used to express the ideas and the ideals are the representations of the ideas and ideal. into a plane mirror. he will see his true likeness. it will not convey the impression that the If this features of the original were beautiful. If he looks experiment of doing his own portrait which even may be plane. if he be a poor designer.52 Manhood of Humanity in infinity.

its cube will have neither 5 nor 25 for measure. said to have three dimen- If cube —we we take. It is as plain as a pike staff that. thickness and sions. a volume — say a see that the cube has surfaces and lines and points. volume is not a surface nor a line nor Just these dimensional differences have an in practical life. if we confused dimensions when computing lengths and areas and volumes. and the 25 will not be 25 linear units but 25 square or surface units. will units have 125. the 5. it measure of will square (surface) will not be be 25. and at the same time show ourselves stupider than block-heads. we would wreck all the architectural and engineering structures of the world.— Classes of Life terms of a unit 53 of its own is kind. and this number will not be so many of length nor of surface but so many solid or cubic units. To analyse the classes of life different we have name to consider : two very chemistry kinds of phenomena embraced under the collective — — Inorganic name the one the other under the collective . volume has length. width and therefore. for example. but a a point. is. this it If upon this square we build a cube. as five units enormous unrealized importance in the case of taking a line of it of length this and building upon a square. A line can have : only length and therefore face has length of one dimension is a sur- and width and a therefore said to have two dimensions.

we have to take them as Here more than ever. organic compounds being unlimited in number possibilities and with their unique characteristics. is essential The in reactions inorganic chemistry always involve the phenomenon of heat. and will help enorin mathematical thinking mously. or the chemistry of hydro-carbons. As far nature reveals them to us. Hydrogen. sometimes light. . Until now. we knew of more than 79 elements of which the whole number of rethree elements the number of different actions amounted to only a few hundreds. as energies are concerned. but in organic chemistry — in the chemistry of these compounds is practically unlimited. and some instances an unusual energy is produced called electricity. the reactions were unlimited in number and possibilities this fact must have very far reaching consequences. known Hydrogen to be prac. — possess The number reactions in inorganic chemistry are relatively few. Up to 1910. These class. divisions are made because of the pecu- liar properties of the elements chiefly involved in the second tributed The properties of matter among the elements that three are so dis- of them an enof Oxygen.— Manhood of Humanity 54 Organic chemistry. the radio- active elements represent a group too insufficiently known The and for an enlargement here upon this subject. but among the remaining three elements and Oxygen tically — —Carbon. and Carbon semble of unique characteristics.

chemical they include the basic chemical ical phenomena involved in all chem- reactions. a different class of phenomena. but being unique in many other re- spects. at the same time. difference of dimensions makes the whole difference between the geometry of volumes and the geometry of surfaces. phenomenon stincts" and of the "mind" phenomenon of the "inThese enerIt is getic phenomena are unique for the unique chemistry obvious that this is of the three unique elements. they also have an infinitely vast field of unique characteristics. besides the few mentioned above there are new and unique energetic phenomena occurring in this dimension. Of the these phenomena." the in general. mention may be made of "life.Classes of Life 55 represent of course. energies The higher of the chemistries higher dimensionality are very difficult to define. but being. my descriptions are no better than the description of . Among the energetic phenomena of organic chemistry. "uniqueness" the reason why these phenomena in- must be classified as belonging to or having a higher dimensionality than belongs to the phenomena of organic chemistry just as the uniqueness of the properties of a erties volume as compared with surface propJust as this depends upon the fact that a volume has a higher dimensionality than a surface. the difference between the tries two chemisof the involves a difference of dimensionality.

life is In the theory of crystals the term rhetorical: science. 1881. Autonomous assimilation. quote him. The words "Au- tonomous >at activities" are important because they hint the dimensional differences of these energies. in his Der Kampf ter. and those it found organic We see is a mistake to speak about in "life" in a crystal. Autonomous growth. Leipzig. But a better sional word should be found between the chemistry to define the dimenactivities differences found in in inorganic chemistry. Autonomous multiplication. Autonomous ingestion. In want of He defines a living being as a natu- ral object acteristic which possesses the following nine charactivities : Autonomous Autonomous change. tonomous transmission of hereditary characteristics and Autonomous development.— 56 life Manhood of Humanity given by Professor Wilhelm Roux. purely use there is very injurious to sound These old ideas of "life" in crystals are profoundly unscientific and serve as one of the best . Autonomous movement. I der Telle im Organismus. a bet- which are equally unsatisfactory. the not autonomous of crystals —another word than its (or anautonomous) activities life should be found. in the same sense which we use the word life to name the curious autonomous phenomenon of organic chemistry. Auautonomous excretion. which is of another dimension than the activities in inorganic For the so-called life in the crystals chemistry.

solu- composing them and not the substances themselves must be available to the cells. Just the reverse is true for living organisms. However. It is true that a crystal can grow. but it will do so only in a supersaturated solution of its own In substance. growth leads in living organisms to cell division as soon as the mass of the cell reaches a certain limit. and can regenor injured. A correct appreciation of these facts will give us an insight into the specific difference between non-living ter. . they must be dilute. these solutions must not be supersaturated. and third. nucleins. form in such a solution when broken even possible to prevent or retard the formation of a supersaturated solution by preventing crystals in in the air 'germs' from getting into the solution. ways of thinking. an observation which was later utilized by Schroeder and Pasteur in their experiments on spontaneous generation." then volumes are surfaces. fats. and living matcells. This process of cell division tions of the split products of the substances can not be claimed even metaphorically to exist in a crystal. second.Classes of Life 57 examples of the frequent confusion or intermixing of dimensions logically — a confusion due to unmathematical. ." "Crystals can erate their it is grow in a proper solution. The split formation of living matter consists in the synthesis of the proteins. . and 125 cubic units=25 square units absurdities belonging to the incorrect — "childhood of humanity. If crystals "live. the analogies between a living organism and a crystal are merely superficial and it is by pointing out the fundamental differences between the behavior of crystals and that of living organisms that we can best understand the specific difference between nonliving and living matter. on the contrary. and carbohydrates of the from products. . cells of order to make bacteria or the our body grow.

Jacques Loeb. activities. and so I define the plants as the chem- istry-binding class of life. They it are a class of which appropriates one kind of energy. by saturated solution. we analyse the classes of life. The the animals use the highly dynamic products of class chemistry-binding — the plants — as food. ." they are not The known life it function — plants have a very definite and well the transformation of solar energy into organic chemical energy." (The Organism as a Whole. while in its the crystal simply adds the molecules found super- This synthetic power of transforming small 'building stones' into the complicated compounds specific for each organism is the 'secret of life' or rather one of the secrets of life. A short analysis will disclose to us that. in that sense they are a kind of storage battery for the solar energy. is "autonomous." this one of the energies characteristic of class of phenomena. we readily find that there are three cardinal classes which are radically distinct in function.58 Manhood of Humanity essential "The difference between living and non-living cell matter consists then in this: the living synthesizes its own complicated specific material from indifferent or non- specific simple compounds of the surrounding medium. converts into another kind and stores up. though minerals have various "living." its is "selfproIf pelling" and true to dimensionality.) It will be explained later that one of the energetic of phenomena which is organic chemistry — the "mind.

human is beings possess a most remarkable capacity which entirely peculiar to them — I mean the capacity to summarise. I mean I the capacity of human beings to conduct their lives in the ever increasing light of inherited the capacity in virtue of which wisdom. trial and success. over and above that. is mean man is at once the heritor of the by-gone ages and the trustee of posterity. say of of human beings? Like the ani- Man? human beings do indeed possess the space- binding capacity but. and so animals as the space-binding class of the plants do not possess to — And now what shall we What is to be our definition mals. into yet higher forms and the animals are correlife.Classes of Life and those products tion 59 —undergo — the results of plant-transforma- in animals a further transformation . I mean the move about in space. And because humanity just this magnifi- . their spondingly a more dynamic class of is energy kinetic. I the fruits of past labors tual mean the capacity to use as intellecin and experiences or spiritual capital for developments the present. digest and appropriate the labors and experiences of the past. I mean the capacity to employ as instru- ments of increasing power the accumulated achievements of the all-precious 6pent in trial lives of the past generations and error. they have a remarkable freedom and power which I define freedom and faculty LIFE.

as For example. of Man will give us a starting point for discovering the natural laws of class of life. the definition and most especially the definition of Man. tongue of mathematics and mechanics. an error of the same type and it grossness as to treat a cube as a surface because has surface properties. life. it definitions of the cardinal classes of life will be noted. human nature — of the human The definitions of the classes of life represent the different classes as distinct in respect to dimensionality. without making grave mistakes. and this is extremely important for no measure or rule of one class can be applied to the other. they are so simple and so important that I can- not over-emphasize the necessity of grasping them For these simple definitions and especially that of Humanity will profoundly transform the whole conception of human life in every field of interest and activity. obtained from direct observa- tion. what is more important than all.60 Manhood of Humanity cent natural agency by which the past lives in the present and the present for the in the universal future. to treat a a mere space-binder — is human being an animal — as because humans have certain animal propensities. to be the time-binding class of These are. I define humanity. and. It is absolutely essential to grasp that fact of if we are ever to have a science human nature. .

The reader should upon the simple idea of dimen- . to be active time. to line The plants. with their in- organic activities would be the Zero (o) dimension of "life" — that is the lifeless class —here represented by the point M. The animals. The minerals. "autonomous" growth.Classes of Life 61 life in We can represent the different classes of three life coordinates. by the "autonomous" capacity to space and to be active in region three dimensional MAPH* H (Humans) -P (Plants) (Animals) Such diagrammatic illustrations must not be taken too literally. they are like figures of speech if understood —harmful reflect — helpful if not understood. with their "autonomous" capacity grow and to be active in space by the TWO dimen- sional plane PAM. their in The humans. with their be represented by the one dimensional to MP. with grow.

A line has one dimension. a plane has two. but lutely essential as a abso- dinal classes of life ceiving each class it means of discriminating the carfrom one another and of conto be what it is instead of mixing It confusedly with something radically different. —but it properties give —and has other propit is these that its and make So what have it is — own character. or propensities of higher dimensionality. other prop- sense. for example. or type that —and it is these propensities and powers make human beings human and not animal.— 62 Manhood of Humanity is sions until he sees clearly that the idea not merely is a thing of interest or of convenience. Just so. a plane and not a animals some plant properties grow. properties it of higher dimensionality or type that —and is plants. line. logical sense. example. for example. will greatly help the reader if he will retire to the quiet of his cloister and there meditate about as follows. mal properties erties or physical appetites or propensities — autonomous —but humans have — ethical make animals animals and not human beings have certain animobility. progressiveness erties —proplevel. for example erties — autonomous these —but —they animals have other propfor mobility. When and only when this fact is clearly seen and . it a plane contains lines and so has line properties it ott^-dimensional properties erties —Jwo-dimensional are peculiar to it it. inventiveness.

This mathematical discrimination between classes.* * It may be contended by some that animals have been making "progress" or some may say that animals also "bind-time. To adjust the Darwin theory to dimensionality is a somewhat more difficult problem. creators and improvers of in good.Classes of Life keenly realized. these things are self evident. types. which is doubtful because they are an — . as and we may look forward to an ethics. dimensions is of the utmost importance in the natural sciences. because of the transmutation of species. a governance a science and art of human life and so- mere binders of space." they should invent a suitable word for it to save them from the blunder of confusing types or mixing dimensions. If animals really progress. if any persons wish ferent dimension from that of animals. to talk of animal "progress" or animal "time-binding. in which there is no intermixing of dimensions. it involves the concept of the "continuum". human time-binding capacity lies in an entirely difSo. but with the modern theory of de Vries. ciety —based upon — the laws of human nature because based upon the just conception of humanity as the time-binding class of life. with the potencies of accord Human Nature. The peculiar faculty belonging exclusively to humans which I designate as "time-binding" I have clearly defined as an exponential function of time in the following chapter. a mere mere speculation having nothing to do talking about words with facts or with correct thinking. a jurisprudence and economics. there will begin the science of - 63 — the science and art of human nature — man for then and only then we shall begin to escape from the agere- long untold immeasurable evils that come from garding and treating human beings as animals. If people are pleased to talk about the "progress" of animals. destined to endless advancement." This use of words would again become mere verbalism. they can hardly fail to see clearly that it differs both in function and in type or dimension from what is rightly meant by human progress.

in our conception life of human and its phenomena is involved in the forelife. in the which are so brief scheme of the universe. in mathematical terms. going definitions of the classes of they will re- place basic errors with scientific truths of fundamenolder form of life than humans and they have not shown any noticeable progress to the knowledge of man. to be negligible as an infinitesimal of higher order. there conception of so-called "truth.64 Manhood of Humanity Humanity is still in its childhood. but without sults in the economy of humanity. this changed our whole world conception. . the event of the Even in Newtonian laws being proved to be not quite correct. they have served a great purpose in enabling us to understand natural phenomena in approximate way to make it possible to modern technology and to develop our physical science to the point where it was necessary and possible to make a correction of the Newtonian a sufficiently build up laws. their progress is so small in comparison with man's that it may be said. A similar organic change. historical fact lies or trend of civilization. The fact that a apple hit Newton. fully stimulated the power- development of all the branches of natural and technological knowledge. led to the discovery of the it theory of gravitation. our sciences and our activities. we have At "bound" so little time in the course of the centuries." some doctrine or Apples had fallen any important re- from fallen trees for ages. the bottom of every human activity.

they will form the basis for a development of the past permanent civilization in place of the periodically convulsive so-called civilizations of and present. To know the cause of evil and error is to find the cure.Classes of Lite tal 65 scientific importance. .

will not recount the reasons. is The facts are that man not supernatural but is literally a part of nature 66 . many and important book is reasons for As the subject of this not a theo- academic study of man. (2) man has always been regarded either as an animal or as a supernatural phenomenon. that It has never been realized man is a being of a dimension or type different . which is that of pointing are way to the science and art of Human EngineerThe two facts which have to be dealt with first. retical. the two which have most retarded human proga just conception of his role in the curious ress: (i) there has never been a true definition of man nor drama of the world. matters of the task the ing. of which too I many have already been written. in consequence of which there has never been a proper principle or starting point for a science of humanity. but will confine myself to the in more pressing hand.from that of animals and the characteristic nature of man has not been understood. are A There this fact.CHAPTER WHAT "\ IS IV MAN? TAN has ever been the greatest puzzle to man.

: their chemistry and their original Let us imagine that the aboriginal — human specimen was one and B. by the power to make the past pacity to bind time present and the present for the future. they were of two brother apes. We have seen live in the human beings are characterized by their creative power. by their ca- —human basic beings are time-binders. change sion. To know anything that is to-day of fundamental interest about man. the remains was produced. his activities activities in space. seen that the their We have animals are truly characterized by pacity that —animals autonomous mobility — their space-binding ca- are space-binders. the fact that he was somewhere. they are does not matter at time-binder. but something strange hap- pened to B. all how the first man. namely. over and above . at mathematically. this "something" made the it is him that lifted him to a higher dimenenough that in some-wise. and especially his in time. he became the first time-binder. arrived mathematically correct. A alike in every respect.What is Man? 67 and that human beings are not animals. whereas in the study of animals we have to consider only two factors activities in space. both were animal space-binders. his chemistry. No in matter how. These concepts are It first and impersonal. somehow produced. we have to analyse man in three coordinates — in three capacities . a human.

a spark of some thing jw/>^rnatural.68 his Manhood of Humanity animal capacity for binding space. AM AN animal. first therefore. he did not realize it. artificial. nor was he true to the "animal" which he scorned. and formulated the impasse. as something apart from nature. increased more has been the chief source of and more. . he is an animal. he observed "A a is my brother. / clusion. and estab- lished speculative. with the days and each generation. "If I am an animal there also in me something higher. but he to could explain. in the course until of centuries different man said felt himself increas- ingly somehow not from the animal." With this conclusion he estranged himself. The timebinding capacity. by neglecting a human woe for half a million years and it still survives." he really true to any law and con- a life of hypocrisy. he belonged to new dimension. there was superadded the marvelous new capacity for bindingtime. He had thus a new faculty. Having put himself outside the "natural was not demned himself to laws. of course." This fatal con- reached by false analogy. unnatural laws. which put him life. first manifest in B. but. fact. in a cul-de-sac of a double He was neither true to the "supernatural" which he could not know and therefore. could not emulate. and because he had this new capacity he was able to analyze his brother "A". but he is my brother. is He himself.

cit. It can not be built on the conit ception of man as a kind of animal.) And this monstrous conception look upon current to-day: millions still man as a mixture of animal and something supernatural. partly because of venience. The built science of Human Engineering can not be of upon false conceptions human nature. is to his whole philosophy and art and learnits still maintained. man. and yet no the human mind. And this age-long habit and life point of view. which has fashioned his trolled his thought. wont to regard himself as a being quite apart from and not as part of the cosmos round about him. There society is is no doubt that the engineering of human a difficult and complicated problem of for it tre- mendous cession ethical responsibility. at least. Keyser. and lost the sense that he is of it. has long been From this he has detached himself in thought. no doubt. can not be . Prob- ably no other single hypothesis has less to recom- mend it. and partly by force of in inertia and sheer conservatism. involves the welfare of mankind throughout an unending sucof generations. lending its and con- characteristic mark con- and color ing.What is Man? make 69 us! "How blind our familiar assumptions Among the animals. he has estranged and objectified the world." other so completely dominates (Cassius J. is loc. the very teeth of the strongest probabilities of biological science.

the of the natural laws. time-binding class of binding —when comprehended. to be brought into the education of time-binders. and the world. it is Everything which is really in the human dimension. must be obvious to any one that time-binding This mighty term will be the only natural criterion and standard for the life. "time-binding" fore. is there- will represent every quality that implied while classi- in such words as is good. It must be conception of man as being at upon the once natural and built It higher in dimensionality than the animals. beautiful. conception of mankind as by their time-binding capacity alters and This conception radically life. the natural natural philosophy. . the natural governance. just.70 built Manhood of Humanity on the conception of man as a mixture of nat- ural and supernatural. everything that fied as merely space-binding will be "animal" and be thus assessed at its proper value. Those ignorant "masters of our as destinies" who regard humans throned by scientific animals or as monstrous hybrids of natural and supernatural must be deeducation. without periodical collapses and violent readjustments. the natural economics. not before. will commence. right. our whole view of human It is human society. scientific must be built upon the characterized function. whole — time- found to em- brace the ethics. the natural sociology. then really peaceful and progressive civilization.

then they will spontaneously . On when human beings are edu- cated to a lively realization that they are by nature time-binding creatures. that. affect the activities. the subject obeys the hypnotic sugthey are. under hypnotic influence. gestions. physico-chemical base of Humans are thus is "human nature. and to prevent it from ex- pressing itself naturally and freely. he will murder or commit arson or theft. the personal morale of the individual has only a small influence upon his conduct. they are poisoning the time-binding capacity of their fellow men and women. ideas and false when they teach false doctrines. animal ness and animal greediness are their essential character. thought of putting poison into tea or but seem unable to realize that." Hypnotism a made known It has been proved that a in man can be so hypnotized that a certain time which has been suggested to him. and the spell has operated to suppress their real human nature the other hand.What Humans and at the is Man? 71 can be literally poisoned by false ideas false teachings. no matter how immoral human The conception of man as a mixture of animal and superselfish- natural has for ages kept beings under the deadly spell of the suggestion that. One has to stop and think ! There is nothing mystical about the fact that ideas and words are energies which powerfully our time-binding untrue to fact. Many people have a just horror coffee.

the one which here concerns us ture that a crea- must live before can act. . I which. Man. dealt with. is the source and support of for being self- the highest ideals. . which THE MATERIALIZATION OF THEIR TIMEtherefore. Ethics has to recognize the truth that egoism comes before altruism. his being. must act first." die out This is true for animals. by the very intrinsic character of BINDING CAPACITY. as have said.72 live in Manhood of Humanity accordance with their time-binding nature. in order to be able to live (through which is the action of parents —or society) not the case with animals. The misunder- . not? Because humans through their timefirst binding capacity are is of all creators and so their not controlled by the supply of unaided only by but is men's artificial productivity. true for the human dimension. What ish is achieved if in blaming a man and greedy he acts under the influence of a social environment and education which teach him is that he an animal and that selfishness and greedi- ness are of the essence of his nature? Even Spencer so eminent a philosopher tells and psychologist so as us : "Of it self-evident truths is . But IS not Why number nature. because animals their natural supply from lack of food when insufficient of it is because they have not the it CAPACITY TO PRODUCE ARTIFICIALLY.

Human excellence in time-binding. and . still others. if humanity were to live in complete accord with the animal con- ception of man. production because binders shelter — —time-binding cent is of just — — human not that beings are not animals but are timefinders but creators of mere food and such vast they are able to live in numbers. and this effect becomes in turn the cause of other effects which produce so on in an endless chain. If human ethics are to be human. As a matter of fact. artificial production would cease and ninety per It mankind would perish by starvation. Here even the blind must see the effect of higher dimensionality. BECAUSE WE ARE ACTING all IN TIME ARE NOT MERELY ACTING IN SPACE is NOT A kind of animal. FOR HUMANITY IN ORDER TO LIVE MUST ACT FIRST the laws of ethics natural laws their — —laws is the laws of right living of human nature —laws — are having whole source and sanction excellence in the time-binding capacity and time-binding activity peculiar to man. we apply a little sound logic in our thinking about human nature and human affairs. It is only BECAUSE MAN if so simple. the postulates of ethics must be changed. are to be in the human dimension. What is Man? is 73 standing of this simple truth largely accountable for the evil of our ethical and economic systems or lack of systems. and We live because we AND PRODUCE..

74 Manhood of Humanity must be measured and rewarded by time-binding standards of worth. they must be made to progress and to function in the proper dimension — the human dimension and not that of animals: they must be made time-binding sciences. Humanity. human life factor can. to improve and bring it to the level of maximum productivity. in order to live. Can this be done? I have no doubt that it For what is human life after all? To a general in the battlefield. politics. discovering how best to conserve it. To an engineer human life is an equivalent to energy. the of view. is a which. or a capacity to cular. can destroy the enemy. Human beings are very complicated energy-produc- ing batteries differing widely in quality and magni- tude of productive power. Experience has shown . must produce crea- and therefore must be guided by applied by technology. mental or musis and the moment something first found to be a source of energy and to have the capacity of doing work. sociology. and govern- ment must be emancipated from medieval metaphysics. economics. jurisprudence. thing to do. chology. if properly used. from the engineer's point is to analyse the generator with a view to it. do work. and this means that the sopsy- called social sciences of ethics. they must be technologized. they must be made scientific. tively science.

These functions are familiar the knowledge From and to the of other physical. The mechanical parts of the structure are built in con- formity to the rules of mechanics and are automatically furnished with lubrication and with chemical supplies for automatically renewing worn-out parts. mechanical chemical phenomena of nature. 75 first chemical batIf these bat- producing a mysterious energy. finally. teries is Man? of all. and nerves human batteries have the remarkto everybody. divided into branches it This chemical generator each of which has a very different role which must perform in harmony with all the others. that this fect we must come is it human battery the most per- example of a complex engine. What that these batteries are. make all the chemical parts func- we find also a mysterious apparatus with a com- plex of wires which and. conclusion. has all the .. In the examination of the struc- ture of these batteries is we find that the chemical base all is very much accentuated through the structure. glands. teries are not supplied periodically less constant quantity of with a more or some chemical elements called food tion —they and air. able capacity of reproduction. these we call brain. The chemical processes not only deposit particles of mass for the structure of the generator but produce some very powerful unknown kinds of energies or vibrations which tion. the batteries will cease to func- will die.

delicate The controlling factors are very is and so the engine very capricious. The reader may wish sences is of the time-binding power of metaphysical — What is the essence Man? Talk of esscientific. has mental or spiritual capacities. a generator of a peculiar energy called it above it all. The in parts and functions of this marvelous engine have been the subject of a vast amount of research science. to elec- and This human engine-battery of unusual strength. It also presents certain sexual and spiritual phenomena phenomena. various special branches of is A very noteworthy fact the mental that both the this physical work and work of of its human engine are always accompanied by both physical and chemical changes in the structure machinery corresponding to the wear and tear of non-living engines. Very special training its and understanding are necessary for to ask: control. if not properly used. it is not Let me is: elec- explain by an example. phenomena. tricity is that have a striking likeness to certain especially wireless to radium.76 Manhood of Humanity peculiarities of a chemical battery combined with life. is thus equipped with both mental and mechanical means for producing work. and it is yet very liable to damage and even wreckage. What tricity is is electricity? The scientific answer that which exhibits such and such phe- . durability and perfection.

For that use There — the appropriateness of the term time-binding reflection. animal and human. group of phenomena called electricity We is are study- when we it are studying those phe- nomena. is no mystery about the word time-binding. and in so the natural productivity of the soil becomes increasingly inadequate. electric What not development of of electrical knowledge phenomena art of — appliances meta- physical talk about the electrical essence.What nomena. becomes more and more manifest upon What Is there are the conditions of life upon this earth? war or peace in daily life? All living beings require food. Some descriptive term was necessary to indicate that human capacity which discriminates human beings from animals and marks man as man. The tendency true of all to increase geometrical ratio is life — vegetable. ing Electricity is Man? a 77 certain means nothing but electric. Thus So. but the tendency is checked by artifi- various counteracting influences. Human Engineering —we has is shall not talk of the essence of time-binding but only of the led to phenomena and the the laws thereof. natural and cial. will lead to the science And what Engineer- and Human ing is knowledge of time-binding phenomena —not vain babble about an essence of time-binding power. is in physics in — there no talk of too. A short time ago these checks had so operated . they multiply in a geometrical ratio. essences.

human not be The lesson of the World War should . a war carried on by the time-binding power of men its pitted against natural obstacles. therefore. in several centuries before. must carry on a perpetual that. excessive moisture. life It evident. that it human It in must especially struggle for existence. if seems obvious life. binding capacity of man technological invention —by — only by the time- scientific progress and that the checks have been overcome.78 to annul the Manhood or Humanity law of increase as almost to stop the It is growth of human population. is and many other factors are hostile to life. there is perpetual war every-day war methods must be applied. The war is of every-day life against hostile for the elements war subjugation of physical It is nature and not for the conquest of people. contest for self preservation. Impoverished exces- sive heat or cold. and progressive in triumph means progressive advancement weal. the lack of rainfall. tion of And so in the last century the populait Europe increased more than had increased soil. We have just passed through a tremendous worldwide military war and we developed special ways of producing power to overcome the enemy. thus driven to discover We were some of the hidden sources power and all of our old habits and ideas were bent toward military methods and military techof nology.

we consult a physician or a surgeon. I law and What want to emphasize in this little book. What am advocating is that we is must learn to ask those who know how to produce things. involves the use of methods of technology and. 79 missed through failure to analyse nations. the disorganization has become acute. As a matter of fact our civilization has been for a long time disorganized to the point of disease. war for the conquest of nature. But peaceful war. is what even more important. toil and the slow- gathered fruits of measureless are destroyed.What war with sources to is Man? it. If we are ill. and the revision must be made by engineering minds in order that our ideas may be made to match facts. due to the great release of power in the new-born giant technology. when there is power of the world. diplomats. an expert on power. the When nations normal daily war of millions to subjugate natural re- and millions of individuals human uses is interrupted. . Politicians. we have to consult an engineer. We must learn trouble with the producing that. ethics. Lately through the whirl of changing conditions. technological philosophy. not a charlatan. instead of asking those whose profession to fight for the division of things produced by nature or by other human beings. and lawyers do not understand I the problem. is the need of a thoroughgoing revision of our ideas.

But raw in the conditions in little which nature benefit produces them. But to have the maximum production. or class hatred. The ( 1 ) three requirements may soil be briefly character- ized and appraised as follows: Raw material and are products of na- ture. (2) instruments for production tools and machines. will for the building of the future temple of tory — human vic- the temple of human civilization. No mere preaching of brotherly produce one single brick love. but producis wealth. Ordered production demands analysis of basic This era duce is essentially an industrial era. to have: (i) we have — and (3) the application of power. because (if impossible to call a prayer of thanksgiving any) addressed to a "creator" as payment to gods or men. is the cure source. and raw material such as . not only with effects but also with the causes. facts. this we have to go to the and can be done only by men familiar. are of very to immediate humanity. to be enduring. so ordered production the main of object for humanity. because unfilled soil produces very little food for humans. it is necessary to have production put on a sound basis. material and soil. Money tion is is not the wealth of a nation. To pro- raw material or soil.80 Manhood sick of Humanity If The seldom know the cure for themselves. humanity simply took them and had the use it is of them for nothing.

and (b) raw material reproduced by man's mental and muscular activities. minerals. necessary to cut a tree for the is making of timber. we may well conclude that two very distinct classes: "raw material" must be divided (a) raw material as produced by nature its — nature's free gift —which in form and place has practically no usevalue. mental and muscular. So. indeed they ence of humanity possible. 8i are completely is iron.. are mostly of no value and unavailable for use. it make them available obvious that even raw materials in the form in which nature has produced them. Raw materials of the second class have an enormous use-value. and even it necessary to excavate the then.What wood. coal. useless to humanity It is until after human work ap- plied to them. copper." Therefore. oil. unless reproduced through the process of "human into creative production. Different sources of natural energy and power are known. make for the exist- As (2) '"tools to the second requirement production. And. by his "time-binding" original capacities. (3) finally: The application of power. is Man? etc. only by applying further to is human work is it possible for any human use. it is obvious that and machines" are made of raw material by human work. namely: Tools and machines. The most .

Nitric acid acts through oxidation. besides being the characteristic ingredient in the white of an egg. Albuminoids play the most vital role in plant life and are an extensive class of organic bodies found in plants and animals. took and takes different known and unknown forms. with different transformations of energy. generally of complex composition and capable of producing marked effects upon animals. Albumen is an are mostly of some nitrogenous compound. as they are found to form the chief constituents of blood. A strange fact is to be noticed about nitrogen. first of all. abounds in the serum of the blood and forms an important part of the muscles and brain. and of power bound up in coal. Nitrogen I 5 _I 9%> Oxygen 20-24%. Nitrite of amyl acts upon our organs in a most violent and spasmodic way. laughing gas.9-7. as well as in the first period of primitive organic life. organic compound of great importance in life. of the chemistry.5%. Alkaloids are compounds of a vegetable origin.3-2. almost all of these combinations are a very powerful source of energy. Sulphur 0. Hydrogen 6. Nitrous oxide is the so-called is and exchanges. in a combination called nitrates. but once it is a component part of a substance. growth and transforming agency of plants.0%. with its tendency to combinations Different elements act in different ways. All albuminoids found in animals are produced by the processes fulfilled in plants. This solar heat the origin of water power. and all of them have a very strong effect upon organic life. which to-day. of the wind power. From the soil the nitrates pass into the plant. Venous blood . the substances are burned up by the oxygen given off from the acid. a dynamic conglomeration of matter and energy. The history of the earth and its life is simply the history of different chemical periods. nerves.82 Manhood of Humanity important available source of energy for is the sun — this globe is the heat of the sun. Nitric acid occurs in nature. One of these forms of energy the chemical energy. Explosives which are a chemical means of storing tremendous amounts of energy. They all contain nitrogen. Nitrogen chemically has an exceptional inertness toward most other substances.* * It must be remembered here that our world is. which. analysis shows that they contain approximately: Carbon 50-55%. Their exact constitution is not known.

"Nitrogenous compounds . — . . these changes which constitute the development of the cell. We see that substances classed and we see that are all nitrogenous as ferments. 62. . and the seed differs extensive from the rest of the plant in its ability to initiate the changes constituting germination. This part initiates .. When we ask what this fulminating powder is composed of. in technology. but we employ for the purpose compounds of the same general class. . communicates the consequent molecular disturbances to the less easily decomposed gunpowder.6.3. their decomposition often involving a sudden and great evolution of force. Carbonic Acid. we not only utilize the same principle of initiating extensive changes among comparatively stable compounds by the help of compounds much less stable. are extremely prone to decomposition. . already. and which on decomposing. in every living vegetal cell there is a certain part that contains nitrogen. . so constituted that small incidental actions are capable of initiating great reaction and liberating large quantities of power.3. The seed of a plant contains nitrogenous substances in a far higher ratio than the rest of the plant. 23." Spencer. is building up of life. — . 71.. . 14. Simivital changes larly in the bodies of animals . which is decomposed or exploded with extreme facility. 15.What is Man? 83 All foods which the animals as well as the humans use are. . no other sources of power are avail- contains in 100 volumes: Nitrogen. in general. 13. the result of the solar energy trans- formed It is into Transformation of energies what may be called chemical energy. to be clearly seen that the only source of energy which can be directly appropriated and used by man or animal is vegetable food found in the wilderness. . Carbonic Acid. even in organisms and parts of organisms where the activities are least.5. . . . Our modern method of firing a gun is to place in close proximity with the gunpowder which we choose to decompose or explode.2. Oxygen. Oxygen. Arterial blood: Nitrogen. . a small portion of fulminating powder. such changes as do take place are initiated by a subWe see that organic matter is stance containing nitrogen. we find that it is a nitrogenous salt. It is a curious and significant fact that. . . .

(because (2) The activity of the human human muscles are always directed by the brain) which gives value to the otherwise useless raw materials and energies. brings us to the conclusion that problems of pro- come ultimately to the analysis of i ) Natural resources of raw material and nat- ural energy.84 Manhood of Humanity first able for direct use. the creation of a water. needs. humanity able to surto ex- Hence. to understand the processes of production. it is essential to realize that is vive only by virtue of the capacity of ploit natural resources — humans to convert the products of nature into forms available for human like. or a bushel of wheat. or a steam engine. these are not available except by the use of the human "time-binding" power. If humanity had only the capacity of apes. or the art of using a team of horses. depending exclusively on wild fruits and the they would be confined to those comparatively small regions of the globe where the climate and the fertility of the are specially favorable. they have to be mastered is and directed by human brain. . The same true in regard to the getting of animal food. known all to everybody. which. soil But in the case supposed. This short survey of duction ( facts. as we have seen. in the little form as produced by nature brain alone. freely supplied by nature. have very or no value for humanity.or windmill.

in the world facts which we live. there are natural laws of inorganic as well as organic is. therefore. man has the capacity and he . in facts which must be kept conis One of them that. But here the problem becomes more complicated. the natural laws of plants .What is Man? 85 humans would not be humans. A stone obeys the natural laws of stones. that the human class of life has the peculiar capacity of establishing the social laws and customs which regulate and influence its destinies. Not so with man. there must be fundathis class mental laws which are natural for of life. There are other stantly in mind. to the natural laws of animals. phenomena. they would not be mere spacetime-binders they would be animals — — binders. for the stone. an animal. the plant and the animal do not possess the intellectual power to create and initiate and so must blindly obey the laws that are natural for them. Another of the as before said. lost sight of in this connection that is must not be and the human class of life that. it follows inevitably that there must be natural laws for humans. a part and a product of nature. to conforms to the natural law of liquids. which help or hinder the processes of production upon which the lives and happiness of mankind essentially It and fundamentally depend. a liquid a plant. they are not free to determine their own destinies.

— For to to solve this problem is to open the way to everything which can be of importance to humanity — human welfare and happiness. in every instance. Just therein lies the secret and the source of human chaos and woe a fact of such tremendous importance that it cannot be overemphasized and it seems impossible to evade it longer.— 86 can. what human ural laws of the tions" The problem is human class of to discover the natlife. for has been evident to thinkers that upon the right solution of the problem must forever de- pend the welfare of mankind. they agree in one respect Many "solutions" have been offered. a radical misconception of is. All the "solu- offered in the course of history and those which are current to-day are of two and only two kinds zoological and mythological. marks the summit of human enterprises. or misinterpret. To discover the nature of Man and the laws of that nature. deviate from. The great problem has been felt as a powerful impulse throughout the ages of in all times it human striving. the natural laws for the human class of life. widely. though they have differed common fate — — they have had a the fate of being false. and. The zoologifalse cal solutions are those which grow out of the conception according to which human beings are ani- . Manhood of Humanity through ignorance or neglect or mal-intent. What a has been the trouble? being really The trouble has been.

like scientific enterprises. What the remedy? all How other are the laws of It is human nature to be discovered? evident that the enterprise. human wisdom about human mythological "solutions" animal wisdom about animals. they are mythological ab- surdities —muddle-headed and deadly irresponsible metaphysics —well-meaning chattering of crude and no doubt. and so the social "sciences" of ethics. The start are those which nature with the monstrous conception according to in which human beings have no proper place but are mixtures of natural and supernatural — unions or combinations of animality and divinity. politics and government. scientifically judged. in their effects upon the of mankind. vitiating ethics. as arts. according to this zoological philos- ophy. all-embracing reality . human nature are the laws of animal nature. economics. interests but silly. It is essential to realize that the great. dominant. they are the studies of animal life . law. Such "solutions" contain no conception of natural law. must be based upon and guided the reality by realities. if is Man? the laws of 87 humans are animals. is central. law. they are the arts of managing and conbeings is trolling animals. government become nothing but branches of zoology.What mals. politics. Such have been and phies of still are the regnant philosois human nature. as sciences. economics.

we have noted. human economy work may be (i) use fid or (2) sig- These words have no human economy. is This time-binding energy higher dimensionality it of the higher other rank —than —of natural energies which directs. for able to direct. must be firmly seized and kept steadily is Energy. the enterprise must logically clear that both and clear it in the sad light of history. In neutral or (3) harmful. and so we have defined contains the humanity cept is as the time-binding class of life. If we misconceive fail.88 of Manhood of Humanity human nature. It fundamental. to use. and trans- . nificance except in the capacity to do work. lem of discovering and applying the nature" is The prob"laws of human the problem of discovering and applying to the conduct of life the laws of time-binding time-binding activity fact — — of of time-binding energy. as being what he really is. uses. but if we conceive aright. in the chapLife. ter on "The Classes of we may confidently expect That is why. is The energy of it the is human intellect a time-binding energy. and not something And we have discovered what man is: we have dis- covered that man is characterized by the capacity or power to bind time. controls. in This mind. the enterprise to prosper. That congerm of the science and art of Human Engineering." I have laid so much stress on the absolute necessity of conceiving Man else. to transform other energies. this fundais mental matter.

it an energy that it is initiates.— What forms. of spiritual wealth. is Man? • 89 This higher energy —which is is commonly is called the mental or spiritual binding because the present is it power of man makes past achievements time- live in It and present activities in time-to-come. is an energy that loads abstract time of events —with an — the vehicle ever-increasing burden of intel- lectual achievements. destined for the civilization of posterity. and we have seen that the natural law of human progress in each and every cardinal matter is a law like that of a rapidly increasing geometric progression. the natural law of the natural law of amelioration in the fundamental law of human the basic law of the time-binding energy . What is a natural law — law a —whatever — it be a law the is law? sion. law of the increase? And what is the natural What is the natural law of great matters of human advancements concern? in all human The question is of utmost importance both theo- retically and practically. We have already noted the law of arithmeti- cal progression and the law of geometric progres- we have seen the immense difference between them. an energy that can understand the past and foretell the future it — it is both historian and prophet. for the — law of human nature of the time-binding energy of man. human progress human affairs nature — — — In other words. an energy that cre- ates.

Even its mathematical formulation can be understood by boys and girls. . . . and its significance is mighty and everlasting. PR T PR T+ \ . — common the ratio — that is. first generation ends with PR. the gain made . adds PR3 and ends with PR + in PR 2 -\-PR 3 . and the second generation starts with PR. . and so on and on. now denote first by T the number of generations. number by which progress of one generation must be multiplied to amount of progress made by the next genthen the amount of progress made by the second generation will be third generation will be PR 3 2 . . . PR2 PR3 PR\ PR . Let us see how the formulation looks. counting the one and all that follow in endless succession. . . the 2 . the following series will show the law of Then human progress in the chosen field: 5 . It is easy to understand. and so made by the on.90 peculiar to Manhood of Humanity man — is a Logarithmic I law — a law of let logarithmic increase. Suppose PR to denote the field amount of progress by a given genera"first" made tion in —which R some important we may call the generation.PR 2 . the term bewilder beg the reader not to him but to make it his own. PR. ends with PR-]. . adds PR 2 . notice how it goes. that PR . the ratio of the where denotes the improvement give the eration.PR the third generation starts with PR-}.

If we take R the to be 2 (which a very small ratio. That sense we shall have when and only when we discover that by nature we are time-binders and that is My that will so operate the effectiveness of our time-binding capacity is not . +PR T n . which first 1024 times the progress made in the " " generation. Moreover. but in all " Operates in all fields " interest.What the is Man? the total gain 91 T th generation is is PR T \ made in T generations PR+PR2 +PK> + this total gain is . to gain a just sense of the impressiveness of this law. Total gain in T generations =-5 is K—i (PR T — P). as before all fields it pointed out. . it does not so operate now in so. nor has ever done when we once acquire sense enough to let it do so. said. the reader must reflect upon the fact that it operates. requiring progress of each generation to if be merely double that of the preceding one) and take we T to be (say) 10. as a fields I human have just now of it matter of point fact. given by the formula. and we readily compute that the total gain in 10 generations is 2046 times the progress made in the " first "generation. not merely on one field. . then we see that the progress is made by is the single 10th generation ?X2 10 .

by the equal pace of progress in all cardinal matters. time-binding is to be at once the basis. economics. insti- then and then only. the regulator and guide in the science and art of Human Whatever squares with that law of human energy. for then and only then will they advance. a logarithmic or exponential function of time as — to function in which time (T) enters an exponent. is wrong and makes for human woe. conformity to the fundamental exponential law of the time-binding nature of man. naturally qualified only progress. as in the expression PR T .92 Manhood of Humanity is. when and only when they are made genuinely spirit scientific in and method. law. so that we humans not unlike animals. with an always accelerating acceleration. but to progress more and more rapidly. . This great fact Engineering. like the natural. are. is right and makes foi human weal. the equilibrium of social tutions will remain stable and social cataclysms cease. peaceful progress so-called social "sciences" ences" of ethics. whatever contravenes it. politics. philosophy. religion. And so I repeat that the world will have uninterthe rupted. as the generations pass. — and government— in when and only when the life-regulating "sci- are technologized. only a function of time but as I have explained. mathematical and technological sciences.

are protected alike by habit and by the inborn conservatism of many minds. attack to take it is a if and destroy it even nothing be offered to destroy a rattleif its place. useful things automatically and therefore without conscious thinking. —by which — destructive and constructive is at the same time. but for the same 93 . Purely destructive criticism ful. it may be purely constructive.CHAPTER V WEALTH BEG the reader to allow me to begin this chap- The reader is aware may be that Criticism I mean Thought any one of three kinds: it may be purely destructive. sometimes highly usegenuine service to If an old idea or a system of old ideas be false it and therefore harmful. or it may be both ter with a word of warning. and thus to save our mental energy for other work. even one does not offer a substitute for the snake. habit indispensable to it enables us to do many easily. just as it is good snake lurking by a human pathway. useful destructive criticism But. however false may be. indeed is exceedingly useful the effective conduct of life — even — for Now. it is not an easy service to render. however and harmful. for old ideas.

therefore. and the great difficulty of clear making new ideas and intelligible. has to overcome both the difficulty of destructive criticism and that of constructive thought. On new to the other hand.94 reason. The reader. very hard to acquire perfectly intelligible to practise. These are of two people varieties the difficulty of showing who are content with their present stock of old ideas that the new ones are interesting or im- portant. to reflect a little if he will be good enough upon the matter. purely constructive criticism constructive thought — — purely consists in introducing ideas of a kind that do not clash. he finds that he machines. seem its with old ones. or do not clash. has : difficulties of own. can not fail to ap- . and so dif- the third kind of criticism or thought ficult the most of all. habit Manhood of Humanity is often very harmful. Is such criticism or thought It easy? Far from it. The kind of thought structive — third kind of criticism the kind that is — and the third at and constructive —has once both de- a double aim — that of destroying old ideas that are false and that of replacing them with new ideas that for it are true is . it makes us pro- tect false ideas automatically. structive critic endeavors to and so when the dedestroy such ideas by is reasoning with us. trying to reason is with automats difficulty —with Such the chief encountered by destructive criticism. is for the art of being clear and very.

when developed. its we have seen that this science and art must have nature — basis in a true conception of human is a just conception of what Man still really and of his natural place in the complex of the world. felt at This great is. diffi- every stage of this writing. but work belongs to the third kind of what is much more the errors — — aims to destroy are fundamental. candor and tial to critical attention. culty. we have seen that the ages-old and current con- ceptions of man — zoological and mythological con- ceptions. for a reason to be presently explained. for he must perceive.Wealth 95 preciate the tremendous difficulties which beset the writing of this little book. according to which human beings are either animals or else hybrids of animals and gods —are . them contribute most of effectively to the advancement human welfare. while the true ideas seeks to substitute for them are fundamental and new. which is that of pointing the way to the science and art of Human Engineering and laying the foun- we have seen Human Engineering. is to be the science and art of so directing human energies and capacities as to make dations thereof. greatly enhanced and ter. not only that the critical it thought. felt I with especial keenness in the present chap- therefore beg the reader to give very special cooperation — me is here the cooperation of openIt mindedness. world-wide and it old. essen- keep in mind the nature of our enterprise as a whole.

in par- must alter the so-called social "sciences" — the life-regulating "sciences" of ethics. the time-binding class of fore. is a perfectly natural being characterized by a certain to bind capacity or power — the capacity or is. economics. physics. for they are not more important than these. chemistry. in all our views on radically human affairs and. sociology. to be as rightly conceived and scientifically defined life. them "life-regulating. but because they are. we have seen that man. power time. there- the laws of time-binding energies and time- binding phenomena are the laws of human nature. closer. in their sciences . far from being an animal or a compound of natural and supernatural." not because they play a more important part in human affairs than do the I call genuine sciences of mathematics. politics and government and — ad- vancing them from their present estate of pseudo sciences to the level of genuine sciences tech- nologizing them for the effective service of mankind.96 Manhood of Humanity mainly responsible for the dismal things in human history. the fundamental principle and the perpetual guide and regulator of Human Engineering is bound to work a profound transfor- — mation ticular. more immediate and more obvious These life-regulating influence and effects. we have seen that this conception of man —which must be the basic concept. astronomy and biology. we have seen that. so to say. we have seen that humanity therefore.

— Wealth are. they depend mately upon the genuine sciences for much of their power and ought to go to them for light and guidance. very briefly. by its central relation to the others in the public and by prominence reason mind. enlarged and elevated they are to accord the so- with facts and laws of human nature and . 97 ulti- of course. sciences will have to be transformed to make them accord with the right conception of man and qualify them for a large their proper business will eventually require volume or indeed volumes. Which one shall it be? Now among is these life-regulating "sciences" there its one specially marked by the importance of subits ject. In this introductory work I I cannot deal fully with one of those "sciences" nor in suitable outline with each of them separately. I mean Economics For that In the principal a the "dismal science" of Political I Economy. not independent. Capital and present chapter I shall discuss three of terms to —Wealth. Money —with if view showing that the current meanings and interpre- tations of these familiar terms must be very greatly if deepened. interpenetrating and interlocking in innumerTo show in detail how the so-called able ways. its have chosen to deal with economics. with must be content here to illus- one of them by way of tration and suggestion. deal. but what I mean here by saying they are not independent is that they are dependent upon each other.

difficulty And here comes into view the very special alluded to above and which led me to request the reader's special cooperation in this chapter. be seen that the new meanings to differ so radically from the old ones this. as the make it desirable for the sake of new meanings new names. capital.98 Manhood of Humanity them is called "science" which employs to become a genuine science properly qualified to be a branch of Human Engineering. It is to be shown that the meanings currently attached by political economists and others I to the terms in question belong to what have called the period of humanity's childhood. said Leibnitz. By the secret of "philosophy" Leibnitz meant the secret of what we call science. it and is to be shown that the new meanings which to the terms must receive belong It will the period of humanity's manhood. But is clarity to give however scientifically desirable. Let us apply this wholesome maxim in . so universally. false it is not merely that of replacing them with it is true ideas that are new. money — are so deeply imbedded in the speech of the world. so uniformly with meanings that are false. as to treat familiar things unfamiliar. old terms — impracticable because the wealth. that of causing people habitually to associate meanings that are new and true with terms associated so long. is The difficulty not merely that of destroying old ideas that are . is The secret of philosophy.

People began to measure values by means of agricultural and other products." or Finally a unit called money to was adopted in which the base was the value of some weight of gold. repre- senting and expressing values of and in wealth. the familiar terms let us. for ex- The Latin word for cattle was pecus. such as cattle. is wealth? I have said that the old .— Wealth our present study. Examine "the facts" I "the phenomena" — for bending facts to theories to facts a vital danger. which came to signify money. suited to the increasing needs traffic. let us the phenomena — which the terms relate and ascertain scientifically the significance the terms must have in a genuine science of say —examine is is human economy. capital and money — as unfamiliar. and the word pecunia. while bending theories essential to science and the peaceful prog- ress of society. of growing trade. "business. or units of exchange. Human values —some beings have always had some sense of In it perception or cognition of values. Thus we see that money came mean simply But what the accepted unit for measuring. accounts for the meaning of our familiar word pecuniary. let us deal with examine openmindedly the facts to them afresh. in so 99 far as — we can. order to express or measure values. The earliest units for measuring became unample. regard wealth. was necessary to introduce units of measure.

" nitions is Of capital one of the simplest defi- this: . for example. definition Everybody seems — a definition that suits his personal love it. tells us that wealth consists of "useful or agreeable things which possess exchangeable value. of wealth or his hatred of Many definitions of wealth. the impression that there to gain a true conception is One or no real desire — a scientific conception to prefer an emotional of wealth. little All the gains Furies of private interests are involved. have said that they must be replaced by fit scientific conceptions —by con- for humanity's manhood. stupidity them — money this in order to reveal and folly. Mill. capital and ceptions that are still — the con- current throughout the world —belong ceptions to the period of humanity's childhood I — they are childish conceptions. capital. The change that must be made in our conceptions of the great It is terms is tremendous. and the childish conceptions of their falseness. capital and money are to be found in modern books of political economy all — definitions belonging to humanity's childhood. To do we must enter the field of Political Economy — a field beset with peculiar difficulties and dangers. necessary to analyse the current conceptions of wealth.— - ioo Manhood of Humanity money conceptions of wealth. of this writing they sufficiently and books For the purpose agree —they of them look alike are all — they of them childish.

heat. its ethics is zoological ethics. or to enjoy it. if have died from hunger. so as to use his hide for clothes and his meat for food. primitive forefather in the jungle would cold. ings are mainly speculative. based on the zoological conception of man as an animal. and muscles to take some stone or to of wood knock down fruit from trees. The Our sophisticated ideas about the subject of political economy. metaphysical. Economics of defines Walker (in his Money money as follows: is . to tender to others in discharge of debts or full payment for commodities." economy has many different schools of Its reasonthought and methods of classification. Trade and Industry) "Money full that which passes freely from hand final to hand throughout the community in discharge of debts and payment it. in turn. being accepted equally with- out reference to the character or credit of the person offers it who to and without the intention of the person who receives consume it. for commodities. .Wealth "Capital Industry. his brain blood poisoning he had not used a piece or the attacks of wild animals.) is ioi is that part of wealth which devoted to obtaining further wealth. to kill an animal. ethics The are elements of natural logic and natural absent. and legalPolitical istic. or apply it to any other it use than." (Alfred Marshall. or to break wood and trees for a shelter and to make some weapons for defense and hunting. bluntly do not correspond to facts.

even after his death. . He was already a time- binding being. An Essay on the Production of Wealth. in the first stick that he seizes to strike down the fruit which hangs above his reach. acquired experiences. We tions." (R. those natural laws that belong to his class of — he had ceased to be static progressiveness had —he had become dynamic got blood—he was into his above the estate of animals. effect of fire and also the good effect of broiling his food in by finding some roasted anim'als nature revealed to him one of its a Thus the its great gifts. evolution had brought him to that level. he discovered. Torrens.102 Manhood or Humanity "In the first stone which he (the savage) flings at the wild animal he pursues. we see the appropriation of one article for the purpose of aiding in the acquisition of another and thus we discover the origin of capital. also observe that primitive commodities. fire probably by chance. stored-up energy of the sun in vegetation and primitive beneficial use. Being a product of nature. he established one of the first facts in technology. the possibility of making rubbing together two pieces of by wood and by felt the striking together two pieces of stone. man produced made observa- and that some of the produced commodities had a use-value for other people and remained good for use.) Our fire primitive forefather's first acquaintance with was probably through lightning. he was reflecting life. he warm fire.

as defined in mechanics. We must notice the strange fact that. but was initiated into all of his experiences and observations. humanity. freely supplied by nature. the engineering point of view. means the doing it. (As we know. yet even in its wildest imagination it can not picture tangibly a fourth dimension. as having three dimensions. combined with some mental work which gave him the conception of how to make and to use the object.) ratio of work done to the time used in All those things are time-binding phenomena pro- duced by the time-binding capacity of man. It is obvious that all of these elements are indispensable to produce anything of any value. any use-value. nay. humanity has not learned to grasp the real meanings of things that are basic or funda- mental. all of this mental and manual work consumed an amount of time. and some work on his part which finally shaped the thing. but has not known that this man from capacity was his defining mark. is childishly undeveloped Humanity has some conceptions about dimensions and talks of the world in which we live in others.Wealth The produced commodities were composed 103 of raw material. of them are based upon matters . though very developed in some ways. All of our conceptions are relative and all comparative. power. or of His child not only directly received some of the use-values produced by him.

and thus slowly progress of humanity went on. Primitive man used natural laws without knowing to cause them or understanding them. electricity. space. not by our own labor. he his appliances found that some of were not good. in but no one has been able to define them the data of sensation. for example. the he made better ones. we have not yet grasped the obvious fact import for all — a fact of immeasurable that with little of the social sciences — exception the wealth and capital possessed by a given generation are not produced by the inherited fruit of its own toil toil but are dead men's — a free gift of the past. I will not enlarge . at first. gravity. and so on. but by the time- binding energies of past generations. We have yet to learn and apply the lesson that not only our material wealth and capital but our science and art and learning and all wisdom that goes to constitute our civilization —were produced.— 104 Manhood of Humanity which we do not yet understand. nevertheless of the greatest importance —we —and terms of a fact to use it is learn how many things which we do not fully understand and are not yet able to define. we talk of time. but he was able nature to express nature's stored itself. by finding up energy. In political economy the meagreness of our understanding is especially remarkable. way to release Through the work of his a brain and its direction in the use of his muscles.

They its it "proper" to "expropriate the creator" and legalistically appropriate the earth and treasure for themselves. legal and ethical systems had not been invented. philosophical. a its some years by Those facts had important consequences. in their unsophisticated morale. . Such simple facts are the corner stones of our whole civilization and they are the direct result of the human capacity of time- binding. even after the death of one or more successive to be nourished for baby had it parents or would have died. and that is what they did. that being called into existence they had a natural right to exist and to use freely the gifts of nature in the preservation of their life. users. Humans did not knew feel that they did not create nature. or the caves adapted for ing. fishing liv- or hunting instruments. objects made by someone for some particular use could be used by someone else. some of the objects pro- duced by him still survived. In the earliest times the religious. again the experiences acquired by one member of a family or a group of people were taught by example or precept to others of the same generation and to the next generation.Wealth upon the history of the evolution of because it is 105 civilization told in many books. After the death of a man. such as weapons. They felt. The morale at that time was a natural morale.

and because humanity. But if we take the mental value of an inch. this star may in vain. that. full of controversy about and money. and transmitted to the future. this "inch" does not represent anything besides this piece of wood or iron. capital. advances geometrically. be for years looked for gives a prophetic answer that. money: If a this unit of one of the measures of space. the contemplation of the it skies for the solving of an astronomical problem. time. Past achievements time — — the fruit of bygone thus live in the present. binds this element "time" in an ever larger and larger degree. the essential element. in a certain place there is a star. with other quantities. is found and the calculation thus . progress is made by the fact that each generaspiritual tion adds to the material it and wealth which inherits. are augmented in the present. Was it that the calculation was wrong? No. the process is goes on. the controversy becomes more is and more acute. civilization. through its peculiar time-binding power. fruit. is But there another peculiarity in wealth and wooden or iron "inch" be allowed to rot or rust quietly on some shelf. so involved its though it increases arithmetically. for after further search with telescopes of greater power. Civilization as a process the process of binding time.106 Manhood or Humanity to-day is The world wealth. and use in it. the star verified.

the capitalist who has legal posses- most of the material fruit of dead men's toil. which it phenomenon of and that is perfectly repre- sents. for then serves to measure and represent toil. dead men's generations. for. money renders invaluable service. It is exactly the rightly understood. is conis nected with time — the main function of money measure and represent the accumulated products of the labor of past generations. who has legal possession of but little In the laborer. wealth is almost entirely the product of the labor of by-gone This product.Wealth It is 107 obvious that the "unit" but is — —has no inch it value by the itself. really look for this is replaced by mechanical or animal power as soon as . the living fruit of dead men's For sion of this reason. properly understood. very precious as a unit for measuring length. the measure and the representative of toil. And so we to discover how money. involves the element of time as the chief factor. why was introduced. money. rightly understood. like Hoarded money is an iron "inch" upon a shelf — a useless lump. in the main. it is useless to argue who is the more important. for his physical we do not now muscular labor ALONE. or the laborer of it. is being the measure and representative of wealth. but when used it as a measure and representative of wealth rightly understood. we have seen. same with money if the term be Understood aright.

some good may be accomis plished. but essen- tially. his brain— labor. an after-war product. and 'foolishness' not the writer's fault. (i) the intellectuals. (2) the rich. unscientific I will is answer by saying: "I grant that unscientific. will we always need. and (3) the poor. according to their "power-value. This division would seem it to be contrary to all the rules of logic. sary to classify is because it is neces- human beings. and what his time-bind- ing power. facts. ( 1 ) The intellectuals are the men and women . but corresponds to Of course some individuals belong to all two of the classes or even to three of them." tion that this is is There but is no asser- an ideal moved to exclaim division!" — —"what and classification. they belong to the one class in proportion to the characteristic which is the most marked in their life. The population of the world if may be divided into different classes. the classes are not here enumerit ated in the customary way. but IT IS the division foolish the only By DIVISION which it CORRESPONDS is TO FACTS this in life. in the sense of social classes based on magnitude of values. as nearly as possible. that is.— 108 it Manhood of Humanity What we do need from is can be." From an engineer's point of view humanity apparently to be divided into three classes. if someone a foolish.

we saw had cessful achievement he often very large number of unsuccessful achievements. under present conditions. go back to the beginning —back We have by to the savage. In mastering and using this inheritance of knowledge. so that he was able to give to his child only a few useful objects and . and his lifetime being so limited. to of life as a whole. (2) The control of the toil rich are those who have possession and most of the material wealth produced by of bygone generations wealth that is dead — unless animated and transformed by the time-binding labor of the living. moretheir efforts.Wealth who terial 109 possess the knowledge produced by the labor of by-gone generations but do not possess the ma- wealth thus produced. (3) The poor are those who have neither the knowledge possessed by the over. We have seen what were the conditions that for each sucto wrestle with a of his work and progress. because nearly all intellectuals nor the material wealth possessed by the rich and who. are limited to the struggle for istence. mere ex- have little or no opportunity to exercise their time-binding capacity. the total of his successful achievements was very limited. they are exercising their time-binding energies and making the labor of the dead live in the present and for the future. Let us now try to ascertain the role of the time- binding class necessity.

the mathematical equivalent of adding his parent's years of life to his the Manhood of Humanity sum of his experience. so he has time to achieve He thus adds his own achievements this is to those of his father in tools and experience. T is The typical term of the PR in where PR denotes the ending made the generation with which we . they up or roll up more and more geometric progression progress rapidly. This stupendous fact is the definitive mark of humanity —the Time ever-increasing power to roll up continuously the achievements of generation after generation endlessly. where he started somewhere near where his father left off. is an exponential power or function generation flows on. each successor did not start his life at the point his father started. and something new. His mother's work and experience are of course included — the name father and son being only used representatively. but the son does not need to give fifty years to discover and create the to discover same achievements. say. fifty years two truths in nature and succeeded in making two or three simple objects. adding unto generation. augmenting in accordance with the law of a more and more rapidly increasing progression. increasing in arithmetical progression. His father gave. Generally speaking. We have seen that this time- binding power of time. but the results of human energies working in time pile do not go on arithmetically.

and so the quantity. the lowest form of the have a definite role to perform is economy of nature. in this higher class of It is an unrealized fact that . its characteristic. They is powerful sources life of some new in Animal uses these "explosives" as food and life life. All of their nitrates are highany- or low explosives. animals ration. Plants. but it animal time does not play the role plays in human If Animals are limited by death permanently. for example. make any progress from generation is to gene- it so small as to be negligible. PR T of progress made is in the Tth generation contains T as an exponent. its peculiar and definitive mark. humanity. Finally life. Their function the forming of albuminoids and other substances for higher purposes. explosives.Wealth agree to start our reckoning. is A beaver. increase. a remarkable builder of dams. but in the he does not progress ther development. correspondingly more dynamic. called an exponential function of the time. but explosives are way." number of generations The quantity. varying as time T passes. Nature in is the source of life. energy. all energy. way of inventions or furis A beaver dam always a beaver dam. hi R denotes the ratio and T after the chosen denotes the " start. the highest known its class of has time-binding capacity as discriminant.

in geometric progression. (2) N = —Work=P£ = 1 r lme = rower. we have by . lime accordance with the law of We have seen that. +PR T . achievement. (i) or work. does the work. PR T = Power. W= ^ (PRT-P) . measure of the power that the total work. _ 1 that is. done in the T generations (3) W = PRi+PR (4) 2 +PR*+ .ii2 life. PR T represents the progress made work done in the Tth generation (7" being counted from some generation taken as start. Manhood of Humanity the law of organic growth develops into the law of energy-growth — the mind — the time-binding energy — an increasing exponential function of time. being done in one generation. is this means that the number in PR T which measures the work done also the a given generation. In mechanics we have the well-known formula . —the — ing point of reckoning) this progress... that is. is W. That fact is of basic importance for the science and art of Human Engineering. (i) N Work ~— = rower. . Now.

Wealth It 113 expression for of should be noticed that by (2) this W may also be regarded as the sum T different powers PR. wealth consists of the fruits or products of this time-binding capac- man. Animals do not produce wealth. The formula makes mathematically evident the time-binding capacity characteristic of the human class of life. we divided this sum by W. namely PR T . each working during one and if only one generation. The fact remains that P. the quotient would be a power that would have to act through T generations fail to produce The reader should not to notice very carefully that the expression (4) for total progress made total wealth produced work done— the —the — the course of T generatotal in W is an expression for the tions and he should especially note how the expres- sion involves the exponential function of time (T). (In this writing it is not important to look deeper into these proposed series. PR 2 .) . it is produced by Man and only Man. etc. T.. The foregoing ity of basic formulation should lead to further similar developments throwing much light upon the process of civilization and serving to eliminate " private opinion " from the conduct of human affairs. Properly understood. as well as R. are peculiarly increasing series of a geo- metrical character — the precise form will be de- veloped in another writing.

and has not the capacity to progress. position. it is immobile if not used. The energy is of a body which due to its called potential energy. rightly under- means the fruit of the time-binding work of humanity. the other is knowledge. it may be lost or forgotten but does not wear out. The first kind perishes the commodities composing — it deteriorate and in become it is useless. shape and so forth. is called kinetic Here the material use-value has value through its position. This fact is the vital and dynamic difference between ani- mal life and human life.value. have seen that the term wealth. unlimited in I time. is the impulse . Both kinds have use-value. one discovery. because cumu- Human lative. is the kinetic use-value. the former call potential use. Analysis will justify the names. are knocking out the barriers of time. the other. dynamic. it imperishable. The energy of body which is due to its motion. one thought. Mental use-values are not static but permanently a energy.ii4 Manhood of Humanity achievements and progress. Wealth is of two kinds: one is material. — We stood. As plants gather in and store up solar energy into sheaves for the use and growth of animal and man so humans are gathering and binding the knowledge of past centuries into sheaves for the use and development of generations yet unborn. The other is per- manent character. is limited in time. The one latter.

with the creating of wealth. wealth and capital. by the product of labor. (See app." we are are told that is any useful or agreeable thing which pos- sesses exchangeable value." conceptions are childish — — such definitions — have said that such of wealth and capital they belong to the period of humanity's childish concepif childhood. That they are indeed especially if tions the reader can not fail to see he will reflect upon them and with the he will compare them according to which scientific conception wealth consists of those things understanding —whether they be material commodities or forms of knowledge and — that have been produced by the time-binding energies of humanity. and according to which nearly time is all the wealth of the world at any given the accumulated fruit of the toil of past gen- erations — the living work of the dead. before "Wealth. Here told. "is must return to the current conceptions of cited. they follow the tial 115 law of an increasing potenThis is function of time.) to the why these names correspond I two names of the two mentioned classes of energy. I do not mean that they contain no element of truth ." And we I "Capital is that part of wealth which devoted to obtaining further wealth. It seems unnecessary to warn the reader against confusing the "making" of money by hook or crook. In calling the old conceptions childish. II.Wealth to others. by trick or trade.

obvious that in the creation of use-values whether potential or kinetic. narrow in their vision. bcause they are blind. The old conceptions do indeed imply that wealth and capital involve both potential and kinetic use-values. scientifically or spiritually meagre. I especially mean that they are dumb. experimentaall imagination. but by the . wrong in their accent. not only by the economics. these transformations are wrought by human brain labor and human muscular labor directed by the human brain acting in time. I Manhood of Humanity mean that they are shallow.n6 whatever. The use-values are produced by time-taking transformations of the raw materials. deduction and invention. conIt suming the precious time of short human is lives. regarding the central matter that wealth is the natural offspring of Time and Human Toil. But how do such use-values arise? The potential use-values in wealth are created by human work operating in time upon raw material given by nature. the element of time enters as an absolutely essential factor. The kinetic use-values by human toil mainly by — labor of observation. The fundamental in the im- portance of time as a factor wealth — production of the fact that wealth and the use-values of literally wealth are the natural offspring of the spiritual union of time with toil —has been completely overlooked. of wealth are also created the intellectual tion. and in so far they are right.

ethics, the


jurisprudence and the other branches of

speculative reasoning, throughout the long period of

humanity's childhood. In the course of the ages there
has indeed been


"talk" about time, but there

has been no recognition of the basic significance of

time as essential in the conception and in the very
constitution of
It is



often said that

It is



the state-



often false; but the proposition that



always true.

always true

in the

found sense that

Time and Toil the crystallization of the time-binding human capacity. It is thus true that money is a very precious thing, the measure and symbol of work in part the work of the living but, in the main, the living work of the dead. Nature's laws are supreme; we cannot change them; we can deviate from them for a while, but the end is evil. That is the lesson we must learn from
the product of


the measure and symbol

history of Humanity's childhood.

ceptions of





False con-

of the laws of


given us unscientific economies,

scientific ethics,

unscientific law, unscientific politics,



These have made human

history the history of social cataclysms

wars, revolutions
lust as of

—sad tokens not



much of


human ignorance

of the laws of


Manhood of Humanity

art of


but one remedy, one hope

a science



Engineering based
as the time-

upon the

just conception of


binding class of

and conforming

to the laws of

nature including the laws of






'""PHE immortal work done by
and Leibnitz was
for mathematics



to discover

powerful methods

the only

language for express-

ing the laws of nature.


Engineering will be the science by which

the great social problems will be solved.

For the

time since the


day of man, humanity

really understand

own nature and


will learn to direct scientifically the living

and the

non-living forces for construction, avoiding unneces-

sary destruction and waste.

may seem

strange but

it is

true that the time-

binding exponential powers, called humans, do not

— ever—

their bodies die but their achievements live fora

permanent source of power.

All of our

precious possessions


acquired by

accumulated wealth

in all fields





and potential use-values created and
in the past,



by-gone generations; they are humanity's treasures

produced mainly

and conserved for our

by that peculiar function or power of



the binding of time.


the natural trend of life



of Humanity
this treasury

and the progress of the development of

so often checked, turned



natural course,

or set back,

due to ignorance of human nature, to

metaphysical speculation and sophistry.

Those who,

with or without intention, keep the rate of humanity's

mental advancement down to that of an arithmetic
progression are the real enemies of society; for they

keep the life-regulating "sciences" and institutions
far behind the gallop of life


periodic social violence

—wars and

The consequence

Let us carry the analysis of potential and kinetic
use-values a
left to us


All potential use-values
differ in

by the dead are temporal and





museums and have very
tical life.

limited value to-day in prac-

the other

hand some roads or water-



by the ancients have use-value to-day; and

an almost endless



potential use-values

have or


have use-values for a long time


such as buildings, improved lands, railroad tracks,
certain machines or tools; the use-value of

items of material wealth will last for

some such more than one


Kinetic use-values


their character, for,

though they

may become


quated, they yet serve as the foundation for the de-

velopments that supersede them, and so they continue
to live in that to

which they lead.
at this point to

would draw attention

one of the




most important


duced by humanity

and potential use-values prothe






this invention,

humanity has been

able to avail itself, not only of the living fruits of

dead men's

but also of the inconceivably vast
in the in

amounts of solar energy and time bound up

growth of vegetable


and conserved for use
life in

form of


and other

fuels of vegetable origin.

This invention has revolutionized our
less directions.



be brief, I will analyse only the


salient effects.


Engineering has never



most embryonic form.

remote antiquity the conception and knowledge of
natural law was wholly absent or exceedingly vague.

Before the invention of the steam engine, people

depended mainly upon human powers





the powers of living men, and the

living fruits of the labor of the dead.

Even then

there were manifold complications.

The human

invention of the steam engine released for
use a

new power of tremendous magnitude power of solar energy and ages of time. But we must not fail to note carefully that we to-day are enabled to use this immense new power of bound-up solar energy and time by a human inventhe stored-up
tion, a

product of the dead.
full significance


of the last statement requires


The now dead

inventor of the steam



of Humanity

engine could not have produced his ingenious invention except by using the living


powers of other dead

except by using the material and spiritual or

mental wealth created by those who had gone before.
In the inventor's intellectual equipment there was
actively present the kinetic use-value of "bound-up-

time," enabling him to discover the laws of heat,

water, and steam; and he employed both the potential


kinetic use-values of mechanical instruments,

methods of work, and scientific knowledge of his time and generation use-values of wealth created

by the genius and


of by-gone generations.


ago, because civilization

was not produced, let us say 6000 years was not then sufficiently adall

vanced: mathematically considered, the production
of this great use-value had to await
lated the accumu-


of six thousand years of



and human labor.


choose, the steam engine


be considered a kinetic use-value in which the

factor of time

equal to something like 6000 years,

us say roughly 200 generations.

It is

obvious that, in one

life time,

even a genius

of the highest order, could not, in aboriginal condibuilt a steam engine, when was unknown. Of course if the same inventor could have had a life of several thousands of years and could have consecutively followed up all the processes, unhampered by the prejutions,

have invented and

everything, even iron,

dices of those days,



and been able to make all of these inventions by himself, he would represent in

the progress of civilization.


this illustration

of the words


see the

profound meaning

the living powers of the dead;



the grave importance in



of the factor

TIME; we behold the significance of the time-binding
capacity of man.

The steam The



to be seen

anew, as in the main the accumulated production of

dead-men's work.

of one generation


and were


not for our


capacity to

inherit the material

spiritual fruit of

dead men's

augment it a little in the brief span of our own lives, and to transmit it to posterity, the process

of civilization would not be possible and our present

would be that of aboriginal man.


a creature,



the time-binding


of man.

Animals have

not, because they

to a lower type or dimension of life.

Sophistry avails nothing here; a child, left in the

woods, would be and remain a savage, matching
wits with gorillas.




a civilized



by the accumulation

and acquaintance with dead

men's work; for then and only then can he start



peculiar to




men; the

fact can not be re-

peated too often.
It is

untrue to say that


started his life aided



of Humanity

exclusively by the achievements of (say) his father,








achievements of

immediate predecessors; and so
the life of humanity.




way back through



of supreme ethical importance, applies to

of us; none of us


speak or act as



material or spiritual wealth

we have were produced

by us


for, if

we be
is in

not stupid,

we must

see that




our wealth, our




use or enjoy,

main the product of the labor of men now dead, some of them slaves, some of them
"owners" of

The metal spoon
a product of the

or the knife

which we use daily







metal and the use of

and the


of the spoon.


here arises a most important question: Since

the wealth of the world

of the past

in the

main the free


the fruit of the labor of the dead



of right belong?
Is the existing


question can

monopoly of the great inherited treasures produced by dead men's toil a normal and natural evolution? Or is it an artificial status imposed by the few upon the many? Such is the crux of the modern
not be evaded.



that the invention of the

steam engine and other combustion engines which

lease sun-power for mechanical use, has revolution-

representing the work of the dead. called the capitalistic era. the bound-up power of dead men's labor. that wealth or capital and also. toil way is to obtain the benefit in the by using the product of the of the dead. to set pro- ducing the engines. in the future. so that the only release of sun-power. It is further obvious that only the men or organizations that are able to concentrate the largest amounts of money. up machines used in to build factories. Thus the monopoly of the stored-up energies of the sun arises from monopolizing the accumulated fruits of dead men's toil. We all have found that the major part of the engine and factors connected with its production are the com- bined power of dead men's labor. These problems will. all this requires the use of is That But why this era is it is necessary to stop in the here and analyse the factors of value to be engine made and in the money used for the purpose of making use of the stored-up energies of the sun. and vast amounts of money. can have the fullest use of the stored-up energies of time and the ancient sun. are main. Human Engi* Let us glance briefly at the problems from another .Capitalistic Era 125 ized the economic system. it is necessary to connumber of living men in one place. money. be the concern of the science and art of neering. for the building of engines in the scale of centrate a great modern needs. in the its We have found symbol.

Hence 300 pounds of coal will represent the labor of a year. zation.000. Let us take have beings (all .000. Taking. to the work of our whole living population.- 000.000 sun man-powers.580. a still broader view of resources 1.000 tons (1906).000 foot pounds are made available.000 man-powers that are producers but not consumers. available between 1902 and 1906) a wealth of approximately $357. not theoretically equal to 1. this will give us approximately the number as 1.000 living approximately censuses we human .000.000.600. This is about the amount of physical power exerted by a man of ordinary strength during a day's work.000 living men. $35. 10.000 utili- But by our imperfect methods of more than 1. is man for a The current production of coal in the world If about 500.126 angle.000. annum will for each one of the world's pop- we have: (1) (2) 1.600. for simplicity's sake. or equal to 1. Manhood of Humanity The power developed is in the combustion of 1 one pound of coal foot pounds.000.600. and sun-power equal.- 000 in {Social Progress.000 living man-powers of the dead. work. we suppose that only half of this coal goes for mechanical use. . 1906.000.500.70 as the average living ex- penses per ulation. page 221) which in our is analysis dead men's work.600.000.

1 PR T P is the in the human progression PR ' PR'. with an ever increasing number of terms.000 living living man-powers of the dead. precisely the . has been produced mainly by the work of generations. that additional producing but not consuming population.Capitalistic (3) Era 127 1. The essential elements of a progression are the first term P and the ratio R and the number of the terms T. is day by three different populations. is in this stage of civilization.000.000. they are able to direct some degree this type and use basic really populated toall powers.600.000.600. we were generation. . of them dynamic and active: men. better perhaps than any other simple mathematical means. the first all if our past It is said "mainly" because. two use-values — the in potential and the All living men have of power. to show roughly how human progress goes on. 10. .* the geometric progression does not represent law of human progression.600. Of .000.000 sun man-powers. Thus it is obvious beyond any argument. we would be just aboriginal sav- ages having nothing and progressing very slowly. PR\ course. this 1. The reason why we progress very rapidly. classification needs a reflection: Such sically man is intrin- an increasing exponential power and always produces kinetic.000. . explained very clearly by the mathematical law of a geometrical progression. the magnitude of the terms increasing * more rapidly all the time. So we see that this world to wit. it is here employed because it is familiar and serves.000 1.000 sun man-powers.

T is time.000. and the rest must become dynamic. It is obvious that the T is entirely dependent on the magnitudes of Pi?. With or progression at all. we have all To serve 1. recurring a with ever increasing frequency. they will be forced by violent readjustments.000. The existence of R and T is independent of humans. The existence of R and Z" is entirely beyond human control.600. continue to lag so far jurisprudence. WOMAN AND seven serCHILD TUDE starting status of the first generation. the starting status or R of the initial generation. men. PR R P =0 NO PROGRESS P =0 THERE WOULD MAGNI- . in many directions. magnitude. or number of generations. being a law of nature. T a gift of nature. It is not necessary to use much imagination to see that if humanity had always been rightly educated. so far advanced that social insti- tutions can not much longer ethics. each term in the case BE of human progression is mainly dependent upon the time and the work done by the dead. Here comes the tremendous responsibility of education. Here we have living problem of very high importance and enormous magnitude.600. and T. science would have long ago discovered the natural forces and laws essential to human welfare. . Humans can control only the of those elements by education. R is the peculiar capacity of humans to bind time and is a free gift and law of nature.000 11. they do not continue to progress peacefully in accord- ance with the law of the progress of science. which it would be folly not to recognize and accept as such. static if behind. and human misery would to-day be relatively small. Static static economics.— 128 Manhood of Humanity is This fact artificial the reason why the old unscientific and social system requires and must undergo profound transformation. is Human progress.000 dead man- powers and the sun man-powers vants TO EACH LIVING MAN.

Nature made man an increasing exponential function of time. forces in all their and indirect expression. living powers of dead men. ." "time." * There is a chasm between "Capital" and "Labor. It if would be so way. the energies of living men. We * labor" and we pretend that human work "manual we need the laborer for See Appendix III. "space. Nature knows only matter. for this will establish the right understanding of values and will show age world problems tific how to man- scientifically. our delusions are agreeable call and profitable. energy. a basic powers. those fac- we but used all this power in a constructive all eliminating waste and controversy and tors which hamper production and progress. It looks like the millennium. The present economic system does not realize even the beginning of the magnitude of this truth and the tremendous results which are to be achieved through the adjustment of it." so-called "scientific shop potential direct and kinetic use-values. a time-binder.— Capitalistic Era 129 included. it will give a scien- foundation to Political Economy and transform management" into genuine ^'scientific world management. The problem will be solved by Human Engineering. power able to transform and direct Sometimes we hypocritically like to if delude ourselves. and the bound-up powers of Time and the ancient Sun." but nature does not know "Capital" or "Labor" at all.

no matter be how clever their sophis- they are adjudged criminal. sun the man-power. . as the bridge engineer held to-day. Enginethe power. we are thoughtless. time-binders are the intelligent forces. The engineers of human society is must be held respon- sible. or insincere. Edison and the simplest laborer. in the ical What we look for worker is is his control of his muscles. mechan- work or can be replaced almost entirely by machinery.130 his Manhood of Humanity muscular service. They deal only with fact if and try. are the same in kind. work of ductive dead — —mainly are inanimate. all This may seem optimistic but engineers are optimists. else There is none known to us. their bridges break down. but when we thus speak. and. and from the engineer's point of view. Smith or Jones. Like severity must all made the rule and practice toward those control the institutions and great affairs of society. Then only are In nature's economy the the results proportional to the ever growing magni- tude of exponential power. then. are basically the same. their powers or capacities are exponential. they become pro- only energies of living when quickened by the time-binding men and women. though differing in degree. because man belongs and capital of a dimension above machinery. If they make mistakes. stupid. who human Periodical break-downs must be prevented. truth. What we is will never be able to replace to the by machinery level a Man.

eternal law of action and We are living in a world of wealth. Nature has only one "reasoning" in fying functions. below the life. the clash is only an expression of the reaction. Socialism exists as an ism because Capitalism exists as an ism. Capitalism neither sees nor keenly Neither . such conten- tions of lust against lust are 5«£-human such ethics is zoological ethics — — animalistic. the fire does not burn well. human dimensions humanity. an engineer will remove the natural causes of obstruction of the natural process. laws. simple.Capitalistic Era 13 r Things are often simpler than they appear first at the in glance. Our falsi- of nature's laws makes the controversy. There may be fire and plenty of coal a stove. It seems simple enough. if The truth is often clear and only it be not obscured and complicated by sophistry. there is little to choose. yet no heat. be- tween the lust of the one to keep and the lust of others to get. a world en- riched by many generations of dead men's toil. even such a simple thing as the removal of ashes may solve the problem. of the utterly unworthy of the creative energy capacity time-binding feels keenly —of it — Socialism affairs are and sees dimly that in human feels not conducted conformity with natural it. "Capitalistic" reasoning ing —Nature does not know such all its and "Socialistic" reasonthings. the righteousness of tooth and claw.

They speak of "justice.132 Manhood of Humanity the one nor the other stops to investigate natural laws — nature's laws —laws of human nature — scien- tifically. — Among the socialists the orthodox socialists —who itself seek The former do not perceive that is the product of the labor of the dead if dead not quickened by the energies of living men. humanity it as the fields turn green in the in spring. there are those to disperse it. in their arguments. and that remedy consists in applying scientific method to the study of the subject. Sound reasoning. will overrun a wrong understanding of values. They both speak about the truth. socialists The orthodox do not perceive the tremendous . there always a speculative answer. There are socialists and capitalists. and there can be speculative no Against one old-fashioned. is argument. contro- will eliminate it the waste of energy forces versies. tion will attract all toward construc- and the exploitation of nature for the common capitalists socialists. but their methods can not find the truth nor their language express it." "right" and so forth. They both of them use the same specula- tive methods issue. not knowing that their conceptions of those terms are based on There is one and but one remedy. there are and Among the capitalists there the fruit of dead are those who want wealth men's toil — —mainly for themselves. weal. once introduced.

lust for the When we what is have acquired the just conception of is a human being we shall get Roman conception according to away from the which a human being instrumentum vocale. Whether we be capitalists or socialists or neither. for initiation. we must learn that to prey upon the treasury left by the dead is to live. ma- chines belong to a dimension far lower than that of man. —they autonomy of have not man's time-binding capacity for self-direction. instrumentum semivocale: and a tool. and self-improve- In their own nature. tools. instruments. The right understanding of dimensions tical life. . instrumentum mutum. Talk of dimensions or dimensionality is by no means theoretical rubbish.Capitalistic benefits that accrue to Era 133 mankind from the accumula- tion of wealth. Legalistic c title ownership —does same. regard human beings as tools the use of other — is as instruments — To for human beings not only unscientific but are it is repugnant. an animal. is of life-and-death importance in pracintermixing of dimensions leads to The wrong conclusions in our thought and wrong conclu- sions lead to disasters. if rightly used. — documentary Neither does not alter the act. but have not the Tools their made by man maker ment. not the life of a human being. but that of a ghoul. stupid and short sighted.

Who sions is can now assert that the problem of dimeneven a quesbut one only of theory? limitation It is not it tion of of mind.000.000.000 100 10.000.000 1.000 1. and so when humans but 25 units accordance with the standards of the (that of animals). and the third dimension.000 1 . becomes a question of limitation of eyesight.000 This explains why the intermixing of dimensions is the source of tremendous evil. That is an illustration of what a part dimen- sions play in practical life. then essentially to the human production belongs or as of I call 5. second dimension humanity is deprived of the benefit of 100 units of produced wealth. time being the supreme The 1st 5 following table gives the visual shock: 2nd Dimension 25 Dimension 10 100 1. expressed and applied in the human "time-binding" dimension. The reflective reader may analyse for himself what effect these same rules if would have.000. not to be able to see the overwhelming differences between the laws of development of the first. it human the third dimension.134 Manhood of Humanity life as Consider the classes of dimensions (as explained representing three in an earlier chapter). With the base (say) we produce in in the third dimension a are paid result of 125 units.000 3rd Dimension 125 1. second. test. .

of bound-up time.000 sun man-powers: that is indeed a tre- mendous power to produce wealth for all. produced mainly by the dead. and practically divided is all the natural resources. which is measured and symbolized by money. but to-day it is ignorantly and . "made.— Capitalistic Dollars.000.600." a The problem of dimensions therefore.000. The space-binding animal standard of misciviliza- tion has brought us to an impasse — a blind alley is for the simple physical reason that there no more space to "bind.000 living men. of work done. key which unlocks the secrets of the power of capi- talism and opens the door to a new civilization where the understanding of dimensions will establish order out of the chaos. it is obvious that money is a measure and seen that kinetic We have symbol of power." Practically all the habitable lands.000. and potential use-values. if wisely directed. Era or other units 135 of or pounds sterling. and 1. is in just this difference dimensions — is in the difference between what given and what is taken.600. are already among private legalistic owners. is in the difference between what earned and what is. are bound up in wealth. This being true. money follow found the same rules: the strength and in fact the source of power of modern in is capitalism.000 living man-powers of the dead.000. What hope there for the ever increasing population? But we have these 1. 10.

in want. Dewey. dead. Sklodowska-Curie. all to be gained in exploiting nature the time. Einstein. Whitehead. Franklin. Edison. Steinmetz. Russell. —men like Gutenberg. with a full mobilization of our living. erations that have gone. Poincare. William Benjamin Smith.136 Manhood of Humanity human beings are not shamefully misdirected." but survival of the strongest in ruthlessness tition ! and guile — in space-binding compe- Wealth is produced by those who work with hand or brain and by no others. Watts. and many others —consume no more bread than the simplest Indeed such men are often a genius has perished inarticu- of their fellow mortals. The great mass of the wealth of the world has been thus produced by gen- We know that the greatest . Loeb. How many late because unable to stand the strain of social con- ditions where animal standards prevail and "survival fittest" of the means. Leibnitz. leieff. because treated in accordance with their nature as the time- binding class of life. all and sun-powers. MendePasteur. than by exploiting man the time and nature occasionally. Gibbs. Keyser. Coper- Newton. Selfishness and ignorance — is it these that prevent full mobilization of the producing powers of the world? Such as contribute most to human progress and human enlightenment nicus. is Much more aimfully. not survival of the "fittest in time-binding capacity.

news is throughout the world. If an invention. is Against this proposition no sophistry can One of the Press. bitter words of Voltaire seem to be too true: "Since God created man in his own image. product in the made a means for the Indeed the deception and exploitation of the living. who in their wickedness and folly fancy themselves divine. colored and distorted by selfish interests as to be falsehood in the guise of truth." and so what is is frequently so limited.Capitalistic wealth producers been Era the greatest 137 — immeasurably men. in — have in- and are scientific discoverers and ventors. must become public property. it the course of a few years after is made. the greatest powers of it modern times commands It the resources of space and time. To . how often has man endeavored to render similar service to God. Honest." Those who want to use such "God-like" powers to rule the world are modern Neros. itself the is Thus the press. avail. Unfortunately the press presented as news often controlled by exploiters of the "living powers of the dead. it affects in a thousand subtle ways the form controls the exchange of of our thoughts. which is main of dead men's toil. independent papers are frequently starved by selfish conspirators and forced to close down. then the wealth produced by the use of the invention should also become public property it in the course of a like period of years after is thus produced.

remedy? greedy. remedy nature. to exploit. knowledge of educaof man— scientific The only the science Human Engineering. but of mad men. ignorant and blind. tion. and art of science applied to all the affairs —knowledge. is enlightenment knowledge of human nature. Manhood of Humanity and through deception. What also is the Revolution? Revolution is mad. . is the work.138 deceive. I will not say of men. and to do it prostituting the living powers created by the dead. rob and by subjugate living men and women.

runs our railroads. produced aimfully. because and direct basic powers. all by ideas moulded by personal ambitions. Periodically we the have had the evils of the lack of a common aim and scientific guidance. revolutions and wars. "God-given" or the seldom has the power been given to the "fittest" in the sense of the most capable "to do. This rule. Hitherto we have been guided by those bottomless sciences having only mythological ideas of power or downright ignorance.— CHAPTER VII SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST TTUMANITY is a dynamic affair. enormous power produced by humanity in a constructive must be used aimfully. personal interests. just so the produced in down in an often disastrous manner. there must be an issue for it is able to transform is Where power it. being natural only in the life 139 of plants and animals ." as in the Darwinian theory of animals." Those who speak of the "survival of the fittest. nay. the skies comes Electricity. produced Power must perforce Electricity express itself in some form. Power has been held by "cleverest". the most dynamic known. way or it will burst into insurrections. bark an animal language.

except with profound change of mean- ing. and government a dynamic. he will be of the greatest value to the new world built by Human Engineers. where human capacities. the The immediate object of this writing is to show way to directing the time-binding powers of manall." there must be victims." Very well. law. they talk peace and not in any it make war. The modern vate purposes. as an . vast accumulation of wealth for prijustifies itself by using the argument of the "survival of the there is fittest. will operate naturally. believe that semi-sciences. be applied to the time-binding class of life. politics and government are honest Simply the right if in their beliefs and speculations. ethics. kind for the benefit of Human technology.140 Manhood of Humanity lower forms of physical with- and appropriate only life. law. ponential functions of time. exlieves in the wrong thing. The world most of the masters of as has been accustomed to Personally speculative I for a very long while. politics static. to the cannot. where Is this a "survival. not There is world of dif- ference between these two words. man be- shown the right way out of the mess he will cease to hamper progress. will be ethics. what the users of of doing things is this argument mean? Kaiser. This method way new. there has been fighting. where economy. such economics. where Like the there are victims. out disaster.

does not yet exist. The necessity of increasing portance of a manifest.SURVTVAL OF THE FITTEST art I4I and science. power was manifest. sudden changes could not be made without endangering the welfare and society. In the World War humanity passed through trial a tremendous and for those years was under the strain of an extensive mobilization campaign. Especially was make it certain and clear that "space-binders" the members of the animal world are "outside of the human law" outside the natural laws for the human class of life. although many of our social problems are very badly managed. changes must be because the world can not proceed made much longer under be blindly pre-war conditions . which were given "Urbi et orbi" in thou* . standard. life of all classes of In the meantime. the imcommon base or aim became equally In this case the base. truth. and thus human — — — Present civilization is a very complicated affair. base the states to add up individual powers collective and build maximum power. the in was found enabled all "war patriotism. not only as a social truth." efficiency is common This common into a aim. but as a known mathematical Those high ideals. some basic prinas a it ciples were required foundation for such a necessary to establish a science. they have been too well exposed itself to by facts for humanity to allow led again. This expression used.

and fancy we are safe." to hide our It dangerous heads in the sand. ister effect upon humanity . As matter of ages-long apaffairs plication of this animal principle to has degraded the whole human human morale in an inconsel- ceivably far-reaching way. like an ostrich. had a much greater educational importance and influence than most people are aware People have been awakened and have acquired the taste for those higher purposes which in the past were available only for the few.142 Manhood or Humanity in sands of speeches and papers. the Calm often it. II) We see the prin- ciple at work all about us a in criminal exploitation fact. but what is going to take their place? We witness an unrest which will not be eliminated until something essential is done to adjust betokens a coming storm. We shrug our shoulders in acquiescence and proclaim greed and selfishness to be the very core of human ." but the inevitable is consequence of a "bad system. ideas and ideals have fallen. the and profiteering. fishness are brazenly Personal greed and owned as principles of conduct. Many old worn-out idols. sin- and degrading (see App. fittest" in "Survival of the the commonly used ani- mal sense is not a theory or principle for a "time- binding" being. The coming storm is not it is work of any "bad man. millions of propaganda of. This theory its is only for the physical is bodies of animals.

but belies the char- acteristic nature of man. Adam Smith. of their toils. is the expression of the time- binding element which we . Human it nature. in his famous Wealth of Nations. arrives at the laws of wealth. but from the phenomena of selfishness its — a fact which shows how far-reaching all in dire influence upon humanity is the theory that human is beings are "animals. certain qualities constituting a distinctive dimension or type of life life. all for granted. but all it has. over and above animal propensities. this time- binding power." Of it course the effect chapters have false. inherently possess. it it is not of extraneous origin. and let in it We have gone so far our degradation that the prophet of capitalistic principles. take it 143 pass at that. Not only our whole collective ideals. but proves a love for higher even our dead give us the rich heritage. not from the phenomena of wealth nor from statistical statements. indeis pendently of our "will" it an inborn capacity — .a Survival of the Fittest nature. all material and spiritual. not only has the peculiar capacity for perpetual progress. This capacity for higher ideals does not originate in some "jwpmiatural" outside factor. call There a class is nothing mystical about naturally selfish it. is it not only because of unhappy effects. very disastrous. is to SUCH a class not only nonsensical but monstrous. The preceding is shown that the theory its false.

stupendous. consider The moment we in time — Man in his proper dimension — active these things become simple. There indeed a fine sense in which we can. pacity to survive in our deeds. in the course of time. as the latest term. tending to confine the tides of conscious- ness within their accustomed channels —but is it can be made and. as occupying the highest rank perhaps in the ever-ascending hierarchy of being. in and so there and we survive in the deeds of our is brought about the "survival time" of higher and higher ideals. as emerged and still emerging natura naturata from some propensive source within. the whole and by the whole — like walls of rock. literally. tion to use it Having the peculiar cawe have an inclina- creation. . but. consciously. beheld by eyes that are not its own. In the whole universe of events. of an advancing sequence of developments. it may be. while . and beautiful. really. by assiduous effort. apply the expression survival of the fittest — to the activity of the time- binding energies of man. the whole regains. "Note effected. if choose. none more wonderful curious than the birth of wonder. none more than the nascence of curiosity nothing to compare with the dawning of consciousness in the ancient dark and the gradual . . Conception of embrace us as part. I grant that the change in point of view is hard to make old habits. itself. We we simply are is made this way and not in any other. the radical character of the transformation to be The world shall no longer be beheld as an alien shall thing. at all events. By that reunion. the part retains.— 144 Manhood of Humanity gift of nature. the consciousness the latter purloined. maintained. Suppose it done.

sufficient for which is neither life nor science. J. unconscious existence. —they fly. Keyser." (C. through the birth of sense and of continuity. An eternity of blindly act- ing." Indeed neither sences" —they nor science bothers about "es"essences" to It is leave metaphysics. by analysing the functions of the an peculiar capacity or function." nevertheless. does not matter whether we understand the very "essence" of the phenomenon or not. As we have seen. any more than we understand the "essence" of electricity or any other "essence. the abiding without loss or break form of fleeting time. every class of life has impulse to exercise its Nitrogen resists found in it such combinations can. having the capacity to procreate we use it without bothering about life "essence. Conception a its com"es- incomprehensible phenomenon its in sence. compound combinations and if it breaks away as quickly as ever —they binding— he have feet that Birds have wings run. intellect. different classes of life. transforming. the impulse simply time-binding impulse.) must be emphasized that the development of is higher ideals due to the natural capacity of huis manity." Life shows man is has time-binding capacity as a natural gift it. . loc. and naturally impelled to use is One of the best is examples pletely procreation. It cit.Survival of the Fittest extension of psychic life 145 cos- and illumination throughout a mos that before had only been. assuming at length. Animals Man It has the capacity of time- binds time.

logical. kinds. ideals are themselves the very flint of reality. I have said. beautiful no doubt and precious. is very im- portant and very precious. For each type there is an ideal a dream of perfection an unattainable limit of an endless sequence of potential ameliorations within the type and on its level. zation consists in the conception or the intuition of ideals and And ideals. are of two Let us make the distinction clearer.146 Manhood of Humanity is our purpose that idealization process of time-binding in fact a natural human energy. or painting profiles admits of a peculiar type of excellence. it is is to be human. such merits as our ethics has had witness to the natural presence of "idealization" in time-binding "It is human life. thus evident that ideals are not things to gush over . And how- ever imperfect ethics has been owing to the prevalence of animal standards. . not to feel to be it But this common kind of idealization. or to sigh and sentimentalize about they are not what would hard in reality were taken away. Every sort of human activity shoeing horses. Idealibe left if that which is . The dreams of such unattainable perfecin the pursuit of them. — — — — tions are as countless as the types of excellence to respectively belong which they and they together constitute the familiar ideals. cold. austere. though however sub-human. does not produce the great events in the life of mankind. abdominal surgery. intellectual. No sort of activity can escape from its own type but within its type it admits of indefinite improvement. world of our human lowly To share in it — to feel the lure of perfection in one or — more types of excellence. limit-begotten generalization —a kind . without which there would be neither dignity nor hope nor light but their aspect is not sentimental and soft it is hard. idealization that corresponds to These are produced by the kind of what we have called in the mathematical prototype.

struggle for excellence. measuring weight. in education. mals — The "survival of the fittest" for ani- for space-hinders fighting — is survival in space. Mathematical Philosophy j by Cassius J. in ethics. raise we cannot we add an entirely new function to the former. we can only improve their lower status. for time-binders — is survival in time. we can degrade human standards a As matter or one class to a higher class. creates new types thereof in science. Animal standards belong capacity is to a class of life whose Time. in art. which means intellectual or spiritual competition.) "Survival of the fittest" has a different form for different classes of life. in letters.Survival of the Fittest of idealization that is 147 peculiar to creative genius and that. Applying animal standards is to time-binding beings like applying inches to fact. of the fittest" for human beings as such — that is. in this not an exponential function of There fact." (Quoted from the manuscript of the forthcoming book. "survival on the other hand. which means and other brutal forms of struggle. fatal to apply the "survival of the fittest" theory in the same sense to two radically different classes of life. in social order. for making the . but if we apply the reverse method. Keyser. unless to animal standards. in phil- osophy. not content to pursue ideals within established types of excellences. It is is nothing theological or sentimental a purely it is mathematical truth. in all the fields and forms of the spiritual life of man.

base for natural ethics. This call a is the truth great we instinctively recognize when we man "immortal. through the present for the future human beings the means of attaining a precious kind of immortality. and side-stepping. Manhood of Humanity The-fittest-in-time the best survive — — those who make are those all ducing values for This ethics is the scientific who do the most in promankind including posterity." We mean that he has . in justice: a competition and struggle for life. "Animal" logic leads to "animal" ethics and a "animal" economics. Therefore time-binders can not use "animal" logic without degrading themselves status as from their proper human beings — their status as established by nature. a perpetual bless- ing to endless generations of the children of men. industrial it leads in inevitably to brutalized to system of which fruit cunning of the contrives rob the living the dead. which manifests itself in drawing from the past. it enables them to fulfill the law of their own class of life and to survive evergives lastingly in the fruits of their toil. in art. logic points to it human ethics and human will lead to a humanized industrial sys- tem in which competition will be competition in sci- ence. the attainment of excellence in human The time- binding capacity. or from which there can be no escape.148 best survive. Human economics.

Human nature —not animal nature — human is to be the basis and guide of based and guided. the term "horse-power. Everything we have is evidently therefore a timepurely a binding product. For all work we need and treat in the use it ing power. in 149 time for the perpetual Human ral logic for man — —mathematical thus logic." we are incorthe rect in this expression." All science. Thus Human Engineering will eliminate and "politicians. Let us analyse mechanical appliances have been produced by alone. purely What perfect nonsense to call a the equivalent of so human achievement much . the logic natu- will show us that "good" and significance "just" and "right" are to have their defined and understood entirely in terms of nature." It "wild-cat schemers. insur- rections. will put Human Engineering. "man" and man work. yet of human brain. strikes. as such. war and revolutions. in reality? all How this does this "horse" look "horse. life is largely built The present system of social upon misconceptions or misrepresentations. the human time-bindwe continue to call it "hand-labor" Even in mechanical science. Everything we possess is the production of either dead men's or living men's The enslavement of the solar man-power is human invention in theory and practice.Survival of the Fittest done deeds that survive weal of mankind." gamblers an end to industrial violence.

) Human scientific it Engineering will not interfere with any it research. The human value in work would be thus emphasized again and again. The educational effect would be whole- some and tremendous. is a very vicious implication in using the to denote a purely name of an animal human product. said is This is an example of the degrading influence of I wrong conceptions and wrong language. should be correctly named after him. if any. will stop the nonsense of intermixing dimensions. or human beings which we chastise children. affected "educational" because even our subconscious mind by this. (See App. This "horse-power" unit part in it causes us to forget the human and it de- grades human work to the level of a commodity. will promote for in many ways.150 Manhood ! of Humanity "horse-power" ematically Of course it does not matter mathwhat name we give to a unit of power. on the contrary. it we may call a Zeus or a Zebra but there . Grown-ups. it is to be hoped. and respect for human work would be taught. bedif- tween these phenomena or the overlapping of . II. It is the same kind of blundering as when we intermix phenomena measuring "God" by human standards. Everything it in our civilization was produced by man. — by animal standards. The relationship. from the beginning in the schools. seems only the direct reasonable that this unit of power which is product of Man's work.

so. for example. if we are studying the it relations between surfaces and . is fatal to mix the classes. human life. In the reality of life. is fatal to mistake solids for surfaces just confuse humans with animals." In the dark ages. "who" of things. the "why" of things was explained by the tion culminated. "Divine" stand- ards to "God. The inter- mixing of units gives us a wrong conception of the values of each phenomenon. solids. with the complete innocence or misunderstanding of science. this sapiens = animal X spark of supernatufinal monstrous formula was accepted as a truth — as an answer to the question: What is Man? This type of answer became in the hands of church .Survival of the Fittest ferent classes. the results of our calculations are wrong and the outcome is a misconfact once ception of the process of realized. but it studying such relationships of classes. is 151 in interesting and important. units human standards and standards are to be applied to to man. if we stupidly we are interested only in the values of the function of the selves and to arrive at right phenomena by themconclusions we have to use units appropriate to the phenomena. even theology habit. therein investigaas man was regarded homo sapiens and homo ral. The we will cease applying animal measures to man. will abandon the monstrous Animal animals. too.

its with correlate of . The habit of not thinking for one's self the result of thousands of years of subjection. reason why many humans appear to is The most be.152 Manhood of Humanity state and a powerful instrument for keeping the others think for people in subjection. of multiplicity the production. still The dis- covery. "Discrimination. in authority. "stupid. vital and are often called. Those used their ingenuity to keep the people from thinking. I in- whole theory is harmony the natural feelings of man. thus there arose the proverb that It is speech was made to conceal the truth. better best of all the creation. no wonis der that they appear "stupid. and is in My with. The conceptions troduce are based on guage — human nature. in general. simplest example of multiplicity. The them is is tendency of the masses to let not really a natural characteristic — quite the opposite. as the proverb rightly teaches. psychic act the is The first psychic product of that initial is numerical: to discriminate possible to produce two." the wonder they are not more "stupid." will that The truth is that they be found to be far less stupid when addressed fact. Natural lan- so different speculation — will from the speech of metaphysical lead to mutual understanding and the disappearance of warring factions. is the be- ginning of mind. or better the invention." that they have been spoken to in a language of speculation which they instinctively dislike and distrust. in the natural language of ascertainable based upon.

is. this "coefficient of ignorance" some people and some classes of people that no effort was spared to keep the world so useful to ignorance. but there remains much win in the way of freedom. . burn and hang people for expressing an opinion which the ruling classes did not tion like. they wanted to power there is in have it and to keep the the advantage of the masses it for themselves." (C. the ifestation of mind. The elimina- from church. It gave a legalistic excuse to imprison." proclaimed as As time went became in on. trust the arithmetic instinct as shall not fail. from school. became the unwritten law of the it leged classes". . Keyser. was forced upon. the mind of the masses by church and state and was humbly and dumbly accepted by the Ignorance was a bliss. from universities. rightly understood. of any teacher. . the aim of Human . Loc. fundamental and. 153 therefore. for instruments of thought that once to the domain of number. any professor or any minister to who dared It is less exemplify or encourage fearless investigation and freedom of speech became very common. rubbed into. most primitive achievement or manLet us. common to in our generation. then. repair at J. "lower orders" as their "destiny. Cit. subconscious alike.) The thinking few knew "thinking".Survival of the Fittest number. is Freedom. witness the late introBelief in the inferiority of "privi- duction of public schools.

is means of the art a natural law for brutes. for best in science ani- mals. is fittest. an animal is free when it is not prevented from living according to the natural laws of animal life. the time-binding class of . Survival of the fittest. means Survival where and wisdom. in freedom. and protected by such ignorance. fittest and a natural life. licentiousness. nature — A plant when it is not prevented from living and growing according to the natural laws of plant life. sists in Human freedom con- exercising the time-binding energies of man in accordance with the natural laws of such natural energies. law for mankind.— Manhood of Humanity But freedom is 154 Engineering. therefore." for human beings will live naturally and. in living in not license. human beings are free when and only when they in are not prevented from living accord with the natural human life. maintained. it is not Freedom consists in lawful living accord with the laws of in is accord with the natural laws of free human Man. where fittest ing strongest. Human freedom is thus the aim of Human to be Engineering because the science of Human Engineering is human nature and the art of conducthuman affairs in accordance with the laws of human nature. I say "when not prevented. for the class of mere space-hinders. when they are not prevented from thus living by ignorance of what human nature is and by laws of artificial social systems established.

and very harmful belief that ated solely by a "war-lord. set by our whole modern system of lords were the a real one war was — "Deus ex machina" — The show for the a tragedy. of and scientific methods. Why did Germany more power than any in the other single nation? Because establishment of her "ethics. begins. the stage was civilization." ment doubtless originates war was creEvery idea or movewith somebody but back of such "originations" or initiations there are favoring conditions. Restraining our emotions as as possible. It is a very common. the actor enters and the show In the instance in question. The stage is set by life and the ages. very erroneous. in larger measscientific ure than any other nation. The true origin of this iS5 war must be looked . and her economic achievements Germany availed herself." her structure. political system. let us endeavor to analyse that display much power with mathematical dispassionateness. forces and impulsions.CHAPTER VIII ELEMENTS OF POWER TN the World War Germany displayed tremen- dous power.

Germany was on the verge of Only a victorious war could avoid a national catastrophe. but seems to him that the "General Staff" point of view has as much it claim to consideration as different interpretations It is any other among the many of history —perhaps has more. philosotherefore impossible It is working of the economic forces based. and lost despite her gigantic power. states The leading European a were not able This writing to is overpower her for long time. she played her last card. much less to praise her or her war German purposes were nationally narrow and nationally selfish to the root. impossible. without understanding the foundation upon which this system of forces is is A short list of works on the subject given at the end of this book. not the pri- . lords.156 in the Manhood economic field. It is Human Engineering is possibly a fault of the writer's military trainit ing. to a policy of indefinite artificial This expansion had reached its limits. bankruptcy. the greatest ever displayed by any nation. A plain statement here will be enough. Germany was committed industrial expansion. and without the understanding of power. not intended as an apology for Germany. to understand the our creeds. of Humanity Our economic system all is the very complicated result of phies and social customs. her methods were inhuman but Germany displayed power.

point of or nothing to do with the romance or poetry of war. the more Prior to the deadly will be the blow. It is is — these only a last highly important to bear that in mind. The conduct logical affair — its power to the limit of its of war to-day is a technomethods have to be engineering is methods. must be clearly understood that the modern genview has very little happens to coincide with the military point of view. or military. It eral staff. has to mobilize all nation and generate capacity. which. Soldiers and engineers do not argue —they act. there need of a hammer. World War a scale technology had not been mobilized on so vast nor confronted with a task so gigantic. brutal fighting resort. giant it To crush an obstacle. knowledge of facts are the chief weapons. Mobilized technology has revealed and demonstrated the fact . War all to-day It is a grim business — but "business" before the resources of a else. Strategy." It seems only reasonable and intelligent to analyse the history of the war from the engineer's point of view. and the more mass that can be given and the greater the force put behind it.Elements of Power mary aim of from better it. in this case. 157 the general staff to "fight. intelligence. Ger- many of affords the first its example of a philosophy or a society having for main purpose the generating power to "do things." very far is Their primary aim "victory" and all the if victory be possible without a fight. brain-work.

and all other practices and traditions it were bent I to his ideas. using the results . ethics. law geometrical progres- and I have stressed the danger of inattention to any phenomena. force or movement that conforms to such a law. twice for the third. We a have only to recollect the story of the simple but very greedy farmer to who was laborer first very a happy make contract with a for month's work.158 that it is Manhood of Humanity possible to generate almost unlimited power and has shown the it way to do it. the general became necessary "to do things. by some "semi-science" because it is a deals primarily with the application of science to practical issues." an staff had to view. neering and our utter helplessness without nology called is comparatively a new science. have already repeatedly pointed out that the a progress of technology proceeds according to like that of a rapidly increasing sion. Behold! The bill into millions of dollars is and the month ran farmer was ruined. much the second. Such sion. for the the deadly secret of the geometrical progres- Violent readjustments await any society whose jurisprudence and the like do not keep pace with the developments of engineering. and so on to the end. But when adopt his engineer had to be called. paying him only one cent the twice as day. Engineers are the wizards who. at the same time Techit has demonstrated the measureless potency of engiit.

I much as they could be in their time. can subjugate or release the concealed powers of nature. strange. The German philosophy. cause it said "strange. but Hegel was greatly under the influence of the work of and Fichte in in turn under that of a Spinoza. — the use of the mind — The supreme factor is the exponential function of time the time-binding energy of man. up the is German power. because mathematical and mechanical methods are the only ones by which power can be understood and built. as a whole." be- is significant that the mathematical part of their philosophy was just the part if which into built it. All of them were. has its defi- nite place in the history of philosophy. greatly affected the — strange as it may seem. and the first thing to consider are those philosophic writers directly who and indirectly have contributed to the build- ing up of building German power. It influenced not only Ger- .Elements of Power of scientific 159 research. way. It would be hard to find a better combi- nation for a philosophy of power. Hegel up of the German mind Fichte. to take From is that we have our start because that the source of human power. pure mathematics and natural law. It But we look it not had to be so. That is precisely what this philosophy was. Hegel in 1805 lectured on history of philosophy. mathemaas ticians in their methods and philosophy.

and through these channels consciousness. they must. we take X to be their common . be reduced to a common base. ethics. so to speak. and so on. If they are to be united so as to constitute a whole. . they must be given a common aim." The German understanding of the great Professor Oswald. brilliant representatives of this One of the movement is who in his Monist Sermons gave the famous advice: "Do not waste energy but give it value. differ in degree and in respect of individuality.160 Manhood of Humanity philosophy but even it man German theology. . politics. though the same in kind. These powers. value of technology directly applied that principle to their philosophy. sank deep into the national every phase of arose. law. them and compute the whole by adding the exponents. but if we give them a comnot unite we can mon base —a common aim or purpose—then we can if readily represent the magnitudes of the whole constituted by them. It affected An immense most cult of disciples Each one added something to that philosophy of power. There are the many theories about the state. With increase of population. if they be respectively m Y n Z p and X . the problem of the State becomes more and more pressing. life. so on. For the purpose of moment it is important to realize that a state is the governing center of an accumulation of human beings —of time-binding powers —increasing expo- nential functions of time.

. is . The mechanical horse-powers are the same in kind. . but the foregoing gives a clue to the powers of living Germany united it. One living horse work than one mechanical horse-power. . and so on. The German mathematical philosophy of the state did not express itself in just this way. and each one a variable. . = Xm -a n -X n -b p -X p .Elements or Power aim or base. men and women and children: . but the not. . Z=bX. shall have: if 161 Y = aX. . = (a n -b p last expression. is they are not equal.)X m+n+p . the reason is very obvious. then. or theory we say. purpose or aim. equal. they as do not pull together. where the parenthetical all coeffi- the product of individualities. but living horses differ in character. we Xm -Y The cient n -Z p . . and energy is lost. serves to in represent the united powers of t^rms of X. One mechanical "horse-power" less than the power of can do more one living horse. and constant. the living horses of a team interfere with each other. Hence mechanical horse-powers can be added or multiplied arithmetically. at the Let us look matter is in another way. the common base. but in using more than one living horse at one time we get less work than by using the same number of mechanical horse-powers. except powers of living horses can very roughly. .

theology. the national aim was equivalent to the state aim. Such was the aim of German philosophy. But collective aims may differ profoundly in kind. they worked." Of course such philosophy . all some way uniting and including personal aims. such as: (1) Family aims. this aim can not be private or personal. (4) national or race aims. I shall call it simply a collective aim. German philosophy "good" and equivinflu- made the "state" equivalent to the alent to "power. club aims. lived and died for the State the State was : their idol. The establishment of one aim for was the decisive factor. it gave them a "social" mon solidated in service of that which is called the State. they studied and taught for the State. and finally (5) human aims — the natural aims for the time-binding class of life. In the case of Germany. congregation. they all became con. law and science. impersonal. must be in a higher aim. It want to inspire 60 Millions of all is obvious that if we It individuals with one aim. King and God. (3) class or professional aims. increasing in generality.— 1 62 Manhood of Humanity common base it gave them one commood and aim. (2) association. general. The fatal error of German political philosophy was an error of aim her aim was too low —too narrow— the welfare of a state instead of the welfare of Humanity. out of personal or egoistic aims there grows a series of collective aims. collective.

by the the case power of with Germany. we will readily understand this "world peach. Staff as The German General its an institution had. which under the army." life leadership in and industry. and this soon evolved into a plan for the conquest of the world. nation. par excellence. Here we have to face the fact that geometrically progressing industry can not live without new markets.Elements of Power enced the whole national sequence life in 163 in con- every detail. as took the aim all and and first object." There is is no need to go into further all details. the impersonal fact That which that what was of interest the strength . with less justice. If present in- conditions have been largely acquired." Those who have tasted it know something of its sweetness. her being a completely "industrialized If we add to that her nationally selfish and narrow national aim. "power. for war cannot be waged without strong industries. Militarism and industrialism are almost synonymous from the mechanical branches of point of view. first Germany proclaimed herself the nation of the world." "concentration of power" It "efficiency. directly or directly. for and this has been for we curse Germany no being a "military nation" curse we can. they are both of them power. They both have to use the same in the scientific methods and present conditions of the world they are de- pendent upon each other. Special is books give us the data.

being a product of all his ideals German and philosophy. Bismarck spirit was considered close rela- almost the leading of paternal state socialism. effect is upon Marx. not to the welfare of Humanity. believe that the state should in society. public life all that phase of corruption which private in ownership of railroads brings any country. It as the name assume the most important functions is obvious that in monarchical countries where "godstate. were those of a strong He was a proclaimed advocate of state social- ism. He was a believer and promoter of the tion of the state and the railways. but to that of a relatively small group of people.164 Manhood of Humanity is and power of Germany tion the best possible illustra- we have had of what science and a sort of math- ematical philosophy are able to accomplish. Since 1879 at least. given" rulers represent the such a theory is not unwelcome. . One of the branches of the so-called state socialism. The astute Bismarck can culture not be suspected of being a progressionist in the modern state. State socialindicates. The above-cited political philosophies had a very pro- nounced socialism ists. the railroad being the very life of any country." which serves to strengthen their power. sense but. as it gives the rulers an opportunity to show a sort of "advanced liberalism. even when directed. keeping always in view a thorough nationalization which he finally This fact eliminated from German accomplished.

For this she desperately needed new markets. all Her except plans progressed according to the program. the victory in the battle fields. to acquire them. political and industrial forces for long years before the war. her tary strength was built on industrial power. She to build applied technological methods in every part of her civil life. The direct effect of this system of continuous mobilization was over-production. and because of this broader aim. We have to arouse ourselves this from our inertia and go to the bottom of it prob- lem and analyse ruthlessly. by letting the world drift into an even worse catastrophe. it dispassionately and learn the lesson of if we do not want to be moral accomplices of this great modern crime. And Germany adopted a collective aim instead of a personal individualistic aim. Her mili- industrial life followed the military way. if The cheapest and quickest way they were not to be grabbed other- wise. This war was a calamity of unprecedented magnitude for the world and it is our duty to study it. she understood the elements of "power. no matter whether the ." for they were disclosed to her by her science and her philosophy. was to conquer them by a victorious war. she was able to mobilize and to keep mobilized all her moral. so the vicious circle.Elements of Power 165 scientific To sum methods up : Germany applied the most up her national power. and thus built her gigantic power.

1 66

Manhood of Humanity

analysis be pleasant or not.


must value every-

one of our "ten sacred dead" at least as much as


value one rabbit killed in

scientific laboratories,

and take the lesson
repetition of

to heart or be prepared for a




Engineering had been established long

ago our

social system


would have been different, our would have been much higher, this war

would have been avoided.

We do not need to delude
the result of badly

The World War was

balanced social and economic forces.

The world

needs other "balances of power" than such as are
devised by lawyers and politicians, by single-selfish

or group-selfish interests.

Humanity is reaching out for a science and art of human guidance based upon a right understanding of human nature.





a previous chapter I

have said that the World

marks the end of one vast period in the humankind and marks the beginning of another. It marks the end of Humanity's Childhood and the beginning of Humanity's Manhood.


Our human Past




fact of

our world.



are unstable, impermanent,

and evan-


are here to-day, and to-morrow they
so with the great fact of our

are gone.



past abides.


can be counted on.



eternal as the race of



of that past


have come.

of all



are constantly returning.



the utmost importance to our lives.

It contains the roots



and of



have of wisdom, of science, of

philosophy, of art, of jurisprudence, of customs and institutions.

contains the record or ruins of

the experi-

ments that man has made during a quarter or a half million
years in the art of living in this world."




of Rigorous Thinking.)

In our relation to the past there are three wide-

open ways


which one


be a fool.





of ignoring the past

One of the the way of

1 68

Manhood of Humanity

remaining blankly ignorant of the human past as the
animals are blankly ignorant of their past and so of
drifting through life as animals do, without refer-

ence to the experience of bygone generations. of this type



be called drifting fools or Drifters.

Another way

to be a fool

a very alluring

that of falsifying the past by idealizing





pidly disregarding


vices, misery, ignorance, slothvir-



and stupidly magnifying
of the self-complacent

happiness, knowledge, achievements and wisit is






of those who, being comfortably situated and prosv
perous, are opposed to change; the past, they say,

was wise for is good let


produced the present and the present
Fools of
this type

us alone.



called idolatrous fools, worshiping the Past; or static
fools, contented

with the Present; or cowardly fools,


to change, fearful of the Future.


to be a fool



also alluring



the op-

posite of the foregoing;
falsify the past

it is



of those


by stupidly and contemptuously
its its





great achievements, and

wisdom, and by

pidly or dishonestly magnifying

vices, its misery,



great slothfulness, and


apt to be the


of the woeful, the unpros-

perous, the desperate
find escape

especially the


of such as
the excite-

from the bore of routine

life in

of Humanity

ments of unrest, turbulence, and change; the past,
they say, was

wrong, for


produced the present

and the present


thoroughly bad


us destroy


root and branch.

Fools of this type


be called

scorning fools, Scorners of the Past; or destroying

Destroyers of the Present; or dynamic fools,
in the


excitements of Change.


Such are the children of folly: (1) Drifting fools
ignorers of the past

— —complacent change — —

disregarders of race expe-

thoughtless floaters on the shifting currents


(2) Static fools

idealizers of the


lovers of the present

fearful of the future;

scorners of the past


haters of the present

stroyers of the

works of the dead

—most modest

—enemies of Dynamic —



each of them saying
I will

"What ought

to be begins



genius must be free;
ing 'order'




make the world a paradise; but my now it is hampered by the existthe bungling work of the past; I will will start with chaos; we need light

the Sun casts shadows
the Sun; then the
light of

I will

begin by blotting out





of glory




In striking contrast with that three-fold division of Folly, the counsel of







one with the sober counsel of




that counsel?



the united counsel of wis-

dom and common

sense respecting the past?


Manhood of Humanity


easy and easy to understand.





not ignore the past but study




diligently as being the mightiest factor


great factors of our

human world; endeavor


the past justly, to contemplate
to see




to see


in true perspective

was and is, mag-

nifying neither

its its

good nor




knowledge nor

ignorance, neither


slothfulness, neither

achievements nor

failures; as the salient facts are ascertained,


to account for them, to find their causes, their favor-

ing conditions, to explain the facts to understand

them, applying always the question
of centuries of cruel superstition





of centuries of almost complete ignorance of natural














Measureless creations, wastings and destructions of


Endless rolling cycles of enterprise,


and decay


Interminable altera-

tions of peace


and war, enslavements and emancipa-


after age of world-wide worship



savage, enthroned by


and magic, celebrated and supported by poetry and

wayward speculations of ignorant "sages" Why? Age upon age of world-wide slow developthe

ments of useful inventions, craftsmanship, commerce,

and art


Ages of dark impulsive groping

Manhood of Humanity

before the slow discovery of reason, followed by centuries of belief in the sufficiency of ratiocination un-

aided by systematic observation and experiment

Why? At
science, the

length the




method and

urable expansion of the universe in

growth of natural knowledge, immeasTime and in

Space, belief in the lawfulness of Nature, rapidly
increasing subjugation of natural forces to



faith in the limitless progressibility

human knowledge and in the limitless perfectibility of human welfare Why? The widely diverse

peoples of the world constrained by
ress to live together as in



one community upon a

greatly shrunken and rapidly shrinking planet, the

unpreparedness of existing

ethics, law,


and government


meet the

exigencies thus arising




I take to be the counsel of wisdom the simwisdom of sober common sense. To ascertain salient facts of our immense human past and then

to explain



terms of their causes and condiIt is

not an easy task.

an exceedingly


one, requiring the labor of

many men,



generations; but

must be performed; for
learn to

it is

proportion as



the great facts

of our


past and their causes that



enabled to understand our


present, for the
it is

the child of the past; and

only in pro-


Manhood of Humanity
thus learn to understand the present

portion as

we can

face the future with confidence and com-


Past, Present, Future

understood singly and separately
together indissolubly as one.

can not be — —they are welded

—300,000 human —
the rocks


period of humanity's childhood has been long

relics, ruins

500,000 years, according to the witness and records of the caves and
our imagi-

a stretch of time too vast for

nations to grasp.

Of that immense succession of

ages, except a minute fraction of

including our


have, properly speaking,
a rude, dim,

own no history; we

have only



whom we

"the father of history" proper, lived

than 2500 years ago.



2500 years com-

pared with the whole backward stretch of human


have to say that the father of human

history lived but yesterday

a virtual


of those



Our humankind groped upon
had even begun. If kind of racial memory, what

globe for probably 400,000 years before the

writing of what



we regard history as a must we say of our race's memory?
of a

like that


of 20 years whose recollection extends
like that of a


than 3 months or


of 60

years whose recollection
of the



reach any event
to the

59 years of

his life.



of geologists, paleontologists, ethnologists and their


or Humanity


co-workers, the history of prehistoric
just as



we know


more about



of man-


in the

time of Herodotus than Herodotus him-


Meanwhile we must

try to


the best

use of such historical knowledge of


we now



the story of humanity's childhood were


the libraries of the world,



not be possible

in this brief

writing to recount the

story in even the most


Except the

tale of recent years, the story
said, only in outline, rude,

is known as I have dim and broken, but for

the present purpose this will suffice.
titudes of details are lost



—most But we need our childhood— outstanding —

Countless mul-

of them doubtless

not despair.


really great

the massive, domi-


are sufficiently clear for our


in the

present enterprise.

And what do we




that the period of our

hood has been inconceivably long; we know
the far distant time, the

that in

specimens of humanthe time-binding race

the initial

members of



absolutely without

human knowledge

of the hostile world in which they found themselves;

we know

that they

themselves were;

we know

had no conception of what they that they had neither

speech nor art nor philosophy nor religion nor

the third. other words. but live in only began to the the level of therein. We know that in that far- animals. earliest What else do we know of the part of humanity's childhood? distant age. accumulating racial experience. our ancestors human creatures human dimension animals first —not of life —but continued we know. it just because the originate — power of initiation — the power to is a time-binding power.— 174 Manhood of Humanity ence nor tools nor tion. to we know birds gress that their progress was natural them is as natural as — — swimming is to fishes or as flying to for both the impulse and the ability to proto make improvement — to by help of things already done — do greater things are of the very nature of the time-binding capacity which makes humans human. it. We know ity for that time-binding capacity —the capacit. that they made advancement. though we to-day can hardly imagine that their sole equipment for initiating the career human race was that peculiar faculty which made them human the capacity of man for binding time we know that they actually did that work of initiation. enlarging . but the second. without any guidance or example. and we know that they were able to do of the — . human history nor human tradiwe know. that they were progressive creatures. maxim or precedent. and so on in- definitely. in — not — forever above being. taking not only the step.

the definitive nature. of man. of the time-binding toil of the dead. the defining mark. accordingly single amount of progress a generation can thus make is what mathematithat the we know cians call an increasing function of time. that is. knowledge breeding knowledge. but naturally propagate their kind —ideas begetting ideas. but also and this is of the utmost importance upon the total progress made by preceding generations upon the inherited — — — fruit. that the know of amount of progress which a single generation can make. we know that the mental power. natural for this capacity. the characteristic energy. insights. depends. if not in degree. not only upon its native capacity for binding time. to produce ideas. the time-binding capacity.Manhood and transmitting it of Humanity future 175 for expansion — is the peculiar power. nothing but progress in the production and right use of material and spiritual wealth. has been possible and actual simply and tend to solely because the products of time-binding work not only survive. inventions leading to other inventions. inventions. and not . we therefore. if it have an adequate supply raw material and be unhampered by hostile circumstances. of our pre-historic ancestors. knowledge and other forms of wealth: that progress in we know which is what we call civilization. doctrines. as our was the same in kind own. the we know that it is highest known agency of Nature.

but will thus a swiftness grow towards infinity grow with itself which is not constant but which grows towards is infinity with a swiftness which. and so on indefinitely. again. without limit. if we will . it is it I say. for is means that the time-binding power of man it that. is a marvelous and such for us a fact of immeasurable significance. laws of the time-binding energies man are very remarkable functions not only do — — they increase with time but their rates of increase are also exponential functions of time and so the rates of increase themselves increase at rates which are. exponential functions. laws of of human nature. and so on and on fact. again. progress which we know.176 Manhood of Humanity only an increasing function but an increasing exponential function of time — a function like too. if be allowed to operate naturally. PR T . as already explained. that the total T successive generations can thus make is: R-i which time. that. civilization — the production spiritual wealth — and right use of material and will not only (as mathematicians say). We thus see. is (PRT-P) also an increasing exponential function of we know from the differential calculus that these functions —which represent natural laws. not constant but increases according to the same faw.

— the hostile circumstances —have been and We know that in the beginning of humanity's . they zation-producing energies of man — — far from being always permitted to operate according to the laws of their nature. comis pared with no-civilization. that. We know that the total progress made in the it long abso- course of humanity's childhood. For we know that those peculiar energies the civilicircumstances. we thus see of that in distinctively as human in the life man man. however. So it has been since the beginning of man. is literally of the core and substance of civilization. And. 177 that only retire to our cloisters and contemplate the proper life of man as is man life. though lutely great. we know. savage. but life-in-time. we may know well enough what the enemies are. the time-binding energies of humanity had been always permitted to operate unhampered by hostile would long ere now have produced a state of civilization compared with which our present estate would seem mean. we know that. bound-up time. our present vast and rich in if civilization many ways. the past is present and the dead survive destined to greet and to bless the unborn generations: time. meagre. is not life-in-space like that of animals. have never been permitted so to operate. is is relatively small. if reflect.Manhood of Humanity it. but have always been hampered and are we hampered to-day by hostile circumstances.

because we have inherited so much bound-up time and because our imaginations have been so little disciplined to understand realities. do we realize that present civilization has hardly begun to be that of enlightened men.— 178 Manhood of Humanity childhood — in its babyhood. whose all very location. not only destroying both natural resources and the slowly accumulated products of by-gone generations but often extinguishing the people themselves with the centers and abodes of struggling civilization. by age-long seasons of flood and frost and heat and drought. we can still scarcely picture to ourselves the actual condi- tions of that far-off time of humanity's less babyhood. no capital whatever to no material wealth no existing time —no start with in the spiritual wealth form of knowledge of the world or the nature of fruit of dead men's toil —nothing —no man bound-up to be but wild and raw material. We know. so to speak — there was. of all the causes which throughout the long period of humanity's childhood have operated to keep civilization and . both sudden and secular. properties and potencies had discovered. that the time-binding energies of our remote ancestors were hampered and baulked. moreover. unforeseen and irresistible by earth- — quake and storm. as already said. even now. Of all the hostile circumstances. by im- mense geologic and climatic changes. in a measure too vast for our imaginations.

Manhood of Humanity in full 179 accord with human welfare from progressing the natural laws of the time-binding energies of man." neous. both of them are erro- them have done infinite harm in thousand ways. I mean human ignorance of Human Nature I mean man's ignorance of what Man is I mean rance I — false conceptions of the rightful place of man in the scheme of life and the order of the world. the most potent cause and most disastrous. beings have no place in Nature but are hybrids of natural and 5z</>£rnatural. animals combined with something "divine. . I What out. the false conceptions are have already pointed One of them is the conception according to which human beings are animals. remains to be men- tioned. The other one is the conception according to which human They are two. and both of a Both of them are characteristic of humanity's childhood. and so he It is had to grope. Man started with no but his phys- strength and the natural stirring within of the capacity for binding time. I do not mean ignorance of physical facts and the laws of physical nature for this latter ignorance the effect of the cause I is in large measure igno- have in mind. it is Whose is the fault? In a deep sense. mean human ignorance. It not strange that he was puzzled by himself. a cause still everywhere I in operation. The — mean is far more fundamental and far more potent. capital ical —on knowledge—with nothing the fault of none.

hand. origin a is it is very pathetic and very in- sad. created a real puzzle to be explained: and women and children animal-hunted human beings men. it and so I say it is not strange is indeed very sad and very pathetic — but it is not to be wondered at that human beings have falsely So. in a it —animal-hunting — certainly On the one re- sembled animals physically hundred unmistak- able ways. too. slept. it capacity. ran. organ but an invisible function. so very evident to physical sense had legs and hair. visible was was spiritual. at once brutal and divine. The belief monstrous. ate. his time-binding subtle. once evil vented. which the physical — senses do not perceive. but its easy to understand. for he has animal propensities as a cube has surfaces.180 is Manhood of Humanity not strange that he thought himself an animal. on the other hand. died animals — —he was — it born. of the believed themselves to be animals. became more and animal-resembling more evident that the same . all just like while his distinctive mark. intellect it was not a was the energy called or mind. rival belief — is the belief that humans are neither nat- ural nor supernatural but are both at once. it became powerful instrument for it men. hybrid offspring of beast and god. grew. For the obvious was only an erroneous result of an honest effort to facts understand and to explain. but was not invented by them. and his animal propensities were so obtrusive. it for impostors.

how honestly arrived I are erroneous. human all beings have given to the most important of questions — the question: What at. Here was a puzzle. false said. a Time-binding curiosity demanded an ex- What was it to be? Natural science had not yet arisen. It is — — conception that in the state was of answer had to be was —humans — easy to understand what the childish and mythical . than all other hindering causes. critical conception avoids the mixing of dimensions feeble infancy. and so it are neither animals nor gods. them have done more throughout the by-gone centuries.Manhood of Humanity human beings could do 181 many things which animals never did and could not do. is Man? I have no said that the answers. a mixture. are the two rival answers which. it is our high and solemn duty. in the long dark. have that the misconceptions involved in and I repeat. to the great duty is examine them. neither natural nor supernatural. matter to fact. To perform not an The misconceptions in question have come ." Such. a mysterious union of animal with something "divine. no matter how sincere. easy task. groping course of humanity's childhood. and are doing more to-day. to hamper and thwart the natural activity of the time-binding energies of man and thus to retard the It is natural progress of civilization. and monstrous. mystery. they are both at once. not merely our privilege. then. planation.

) 1 82 Manhood of Humanity to us down from remote singly. examining them we have forth. are their nakedness ( women. to disengage are in fact. we have next to bring ourselves to realize vividly and keenly that the conceptions. Here they beings Human animals —men. traditional opinions constitute the vulgar "philosophy" —of our — and creeds that the mental fog If we are to perform the duty of first of all to draw them them from our inherited tangle of beliefs and frame them in suitable words. at the very heart of the social philosophy of the world. antiquity. and children : — i are (and so they are natural) (2) human beings are neither natural nor 5«/)^rnatural. they have not clean-cut. neither wholly animal nor wholly "divine. I have already results in : repeatedly performed. we have clearly in the third place to detect the fundamental character of the blunder involved in them — to see and coldly wherein they are wrong and why we can. if we conceptions from the tangled skein of inherited beliefs and framing them in words." but are both . thus disentangled and framed. finally. whether they be true or false. clear and com- well-defined. Let us keep the in mind. their deadly effects both in the course of human history and in the present status of our human world. have. to trace. they have come entangled in the mesh of time. The task of disengaging the two monstrous misthey are ruinous. come down plicated separately.

knows that the third in question is the task of detecting and exposing the funda- mental error of the misconceptions a task of the It is. he will not be a "reader" of this book. therefore. therefore. I We have. task not. The second part of our task which is the reader's task as much as mine is not so easy. It is this The false creeds in question — : — the fatal misconceptions they involve familiar to us — — are so they have been so long and so deeply imbedded life in our thought and speech and ways of we have been so thoroughly bred in them by home and school and church and state that we — — habitually and unconsciously take them for granted to be virtually stung into and have an awareness of the fact that we do actually hold them and that they do actually reign to-day throughout the world and have so reigned from time immemorial. selves into a realization of the truth. to shake ourselves awake. that error? I have an error alike in errors are not —they But logical are of It is many kinds. and interested If he is in the welfare of mankind. all What logic.— Manhood of Humanity 183 natural and supernatural at once — a sort of mysteri- ous hybrid compound of brute and gods. What is the "kind" of this one? the kind that consists in what mathematicians call "confusion of . mean. — He. said. rational. and the reason is evident. — is utmost importance. to prick our- assume that the reader I is at once hard-headed.

us have the mathematical for else not be heart. two dimensions. we should be fools fools type-confusing is —dimension-mixing fools. as it ought to be. little for. That evident. say a so plane surface. logical types.— 184 Manhood of Humanity The answer its is types." or "mixing of dimensions. it It has length and breadth —and has. say that a a surface? — the class That the cube is a member of of surfaces? If we did. solid is Do we. say a cube. we say. or dimensions. Here is a surface. we spirit. for portance the criticism of all our thinking great beyond measure. proceed confidently and at once to our simple example. three dimensions. —one a is so simple that a It is mathematical ex- ample. for the whole question of mathematical one." can im- not be made in too clear nor too emphatic. Now we notice that the cube has surfaces and so has certain surface properties. will again employ the simplest of them child can understand it. then. or run away from. next consider a solid. breadth and thickness and so has. It has length. human Let — we should we are all of us mathematicians at us. all the mere word mathematical. Or suppose we notice that solids have certain surface properties and certain properties that surfaces do not have. therefore. I a beg the reader not to shy at. and suppose we say . we it say. that help to There are millions of examples I make the matter clear. although most of of us have but mathematical knowledge.

animals belong to a higher order. Plants are living things. soil and though in large they take them in forms already prepared by the plants themselves. What in. transform and appropriate air. mixtures. the autonomous power to move about life we may say that plants constitute the lowest order or class or type or dimension of — the dimension one.Manhood of Humanity 185 the surface properties of solids are natural but the other properties are so mysterious that they must be "5z//>£rnatural" or somehow "divine". compounds or hybrids of surfaces and something divine or supernatural . and us look squarely and candidly at the facts. they take. or higher therefore we may . energies of sun. is it not evident that. plants. animals in it possess the autonomous space is — power to move about swim or class. too. but they have not in space. Let let now consider animals and human beings. part animals. or higher dimension of life. To get a start. soil. think for a moment and of plants. if we did that. but. we should be again blundering like fools? Type-confusing fools? Dimension-mixing fools? That such would be the us case any one can see. take transform and appropriate the air. compared with plants. fly to creep or crawl or run or — thus evident that. we see are binders of the basic energies of the world. of animals? Like the plants. unlike the plants. and sup- pose we then say that solids are unions. or higher type. the energies of sun.

animals are not. of civilization.— 1 86 Manhood of Humanity life is say that the type of animal a type of two dimensions — a two-dimensional type. are such as to show us chasm separating human nature from animal nature is even wider and deeper than the chasm between animal life and the life of plants. by their autonomous power to move about abandon one place and occupy another appropriate the natural fruits of and so to many localities. we will attend to their mighty significance. And now what shall we say of Man? Like the animals. proves. animals do not. . the life of animals is thus a life-in-space in a sense evidently not applicable to plants. men. animals are not. man thus a binder of time. human beings have indeed the power of mobility the autonomous power to move the capacity for — binding space. children women and would indeed be animals. For man imtools. and it is obvious that. if they pos- sessed no capacity of higher order. if we will but note them and upon them. only In the light of such considerations. not. animals do not. aniif it mals are not. or marked. to distinguished. live in man is a builder man makes the past the present and is the present in the future. But what are that the the facts? reflect The facts. man progresses. man is a creator of material and spiritual wealth. animals do man invents more and more complicated animals do not. I have called them space-binders because they are in space.


of Humanity


as clear as anything can be or can

become, that




the time-binder


from that of animals mere animal life is distinct from that
as the



as radically dis-






a surface, or that of a surface

from that of from that of a line. therefore, perfectly manifest that, when we renature of a solid

gard human beings

as animals or as mixtures of ani-

mal nature with something mysteriously supernatural,


are guilty of the

same kind of blunder




regarded animals as plants or as plants touched by

the same kind of blunder as that of re-

garding a solid as a surface or as a surface miraculously transfigured by

some mysterious
It is



outside the universe of space.

thus evident that

our guilt

in the



the guilt of a blunder that

a confusing of types, a

mixing of


Nothing can be more


For what are
Let the

the consequences of that kind of error?



that, if

our ancestors had

committed that kind of error regarding
of geometry; and he


surfaces and solids, there would to-day be no science

knows that, if there were no geometry, there would be no architecture in the
world, no surveying, no railroads, no astronomy, no
charting of the seas, no steamships, no engineering,

nothing whatever of the


familiar world-wide

1 88

Manhood of Humanity



by the


conquest of


say again, let the reader reflect; for


does not, he will here miss the gravity of a most




readily sees, in the case sup-

how very

appalling the consequences would

have been

throughout the period of humanity's

childhood, there had occurred a certain confusion

of types, a certain mixing of dimensions, and he


enabled to see


just because, happily, the


was not made or, if made, was not persisted in, for, if it had been made and persisted in, then the great and now familiar things of which it would have deprived the world would not be here; we should not now be able even to imagine them, and so we could not now compute even roughly the tremendous magnitude of the blunder's disastrous consequences.


the reader not deviate nor falter nor stagger here;

him shoulder the burden of the mighty argument

and bear

to the goal.


easily perceives the truly

appalling consequences that would have inevitably

followed from the error of confusing types
error of mixing dimensions



in the

matter of


and surfaces and solids, committed and persisted

if that

had been

throughout the cenconsequences





because the error was not

great things of which (had the blunder been

made and hence the made)
here, so that

would have deprived the world are


of Humanity


"Behold those splendid things



of geometry and

manifold applications

everywhere shining





them gone, imagine the world if they had never been, and you will have a measure of the consequences that
would have followed violation of the law of


the law of dimensions, in the matter of lines, surfaces

But, now, in regard to the exactly simi-

lar error respecting the nature of

man, the


reversed; for this blunder, unlike the other one,


not merely hypothetical;

we have

seen that




committed and has been actually persisted

from time immemorial; not merely for years or for
decades or for centuries but for centuries of centuries
including our




has lain athwart the course



progress; age after age

has hampered

and baulked the natural

activity of the time-binding






How are we to




Let the reader keep



that the error


a type-confusing blunder (like that supentities)

posed regarding geometric
moreover, that





not merely one of our
it is


concerns, but all of them, since
ing the center of



— regarding

an error regardthe very nature



himself; and he will know, as well as any-

thing can be known, that the consequences of the

ages-old blunder have been and are very




or Humanity

and very

Their measure

indeed beyond

our power; we cannot describe them adequately, we
cannot delineate their proportions, for
truly imagine

we cannot
it is

them; and the reason




those advancements of civilization, those augmentations

of material and spiritual wealth,


of the

glorious achievements of which the tragic blunder

has deprived the world, are none of them here; they

have not been produced; and so we cannot
the other case:

say, as in

"Look upon

these splendid treasures

of bound-up time, imagine them taken away, and

your sense of the appalling

loss will give

you the

measure required."
in the



evident that the glories of

which the misconceptions of human nature have de-

manhood must long

remain, perhaps forever,

sad realm of dreams regarding great and noble

things that might have been.

have said that the duty of examining the mis-

conceptions imposes upon us four obligations.


of these

we have performed: we have disengaged

beliefs in question

opinions in which they have

from the complicated tangle of come down to us from

remote antiquity; we have recognized the necessity

and the duty of

virtually stinging ourselves into an

awareness of the fact that

we have

actually held

them for


and that from time immemorial they
ethics, eco-

have poured their virus into the heart of

and government throughout the


of Humanity


world; we have seen not only that the beliefs are
false but that their falseness

due to a blunder of


most fundamental kind

the blunder of mixing

dimensions or confusing types.


already said, the
that of tracing,

fourth one of the mentioned tasks



can, the blunder's deadly effects both in


history and in the present status of the world.




reached the conclusion that

this task can-

not be fully performed; for there can be no doubt,

we have

seen, that, if the blunder

committed and persisted

had not been the world would now

possess a civilization so far advanced, so rich in the

of time and



be utterly

beyond our present power
But, though

to conceive or



we cannot perform the task fully, our plight is far from hopeless. The World War has goaded us into thinking as we never thought before.

has constrained us to think of realities and espeof the supreme reality

cially to think

the reality





the great Catastrophe


the close of humanity's childhood.

The period has

been long and the manner of



a sudden, flaming,

world-wide cataclysmic

ignorance of





just that tragic

demonstration, brutal as an earthquake,
fate or famine, that gives us

ground for future hope.
it is

has forced us to think of realities and



Manhood of Humanity
so I say

of reality that will heal the world.

that these days, despite their fear and gloom, are the

beginning of a new order




the order

of permanent peace and swift advancement of


For we know at length what human beings are, and the knowledge can be taught to men and women and children by home and school and church and press throughout the world; we know at length, and we can teach the world, that man is neither an
animal nor a miraculous mixture of angel and beast;

we know

at length, centuries,

and we can

teach, that, through-

these monstrous misconceptions

have made countless millions mourn and that they
are doing so to-day,

though we cannot com-

pute the good of which they have deprived mankind,

we can

trace the dark ramifications of their positive

evil in a

thousand ways


we know

at length,

and we
a rank

can teach, that man, though he

not an animal,

a natural being,


a definite place,

of his own, in the hierarchy of natural
at length,

we know

and we can teach the world, that what

which makes us human

material and spiritual wealth

— power — produce reasoned understanding—

characteristic of the



of life




to beget the light of



the unique capacity of


for binding time, unit-

ing past,

present and future in a single growing
at once with the surviving creations



of Humanity


of the dead, with the productive labor of the living,

with the rights and hopes of the yet unborn;



at length,

and we can teach, that the natural

rate of

human progress
teach, that

the rate of a swiftly in-

creasing exponential function of time;

we know, and

we can





present civiliza-




precious in

sacred and holy


the fruit of the time-binding toil struggling blindly

through the ages against the perpetual barrier of

human ignorance of human nature; we know at we can teach, and the world will understand, that in proportion as we rid our ethics and social






nature, the time-binding energies of humanity

advance civilization

accordance with their

natural law



the forward -leaping function of

Such knowledge and such teaching will inaugurate
the period of humanity's

made True civilization. All the developments must grow out of the true conception of human beings as constituting the time-binding class of life, and so the work

can be

an endless period of rapid developments

must begin with


campaign of education wide



embrace the world.

educational agencies

church, the press

— —must be


cooperation of

the home, the school, the
enlisted to

make known

the fundamental truth concerning the nature of


so that

Manhood of Humanity

become the guiding light and habit of men, women, and children everywhere. Gradual indeed but profound will be the transformations

in all

the affairs of mankind, but especially


all in

the so-called arts and sciences of


economics, politics and government.
ethics of humanity's ethics




be neither
It will


nor ".M/prniatural"



a natural ethics based


knowledge of the laws



It will

not be a branch of zoology,

the ethics of tooth and claw, the ethics of profiteering, the ethics

of space-binding beasts fighting for "a
It will

place in the sun."
ology, a branch of

be a branch of human-





be a

time-binding ethics, the ethics of the entirely natural
civilization-producing energies of humanity.

Whatnot, will

ever accords with the natural activity of those energies will be right

and good; whatever does
"Survival of the

be wrong and bad.

fittest" in


sense of the strongest

a space-binding standard,



standard of beasts;






survival of the

fittest will


survival of the best in competitions for excellence,

and excellence


time-binding excellence

excellence in the production


and right use of material

excellence in science, in art, in


in justice, in

promoting the weal and pro-

tecting the rights both of the living

and of the un-

whose purpose species of is not that of adverse criticism but is that of showing the generally accepted "sound" bases for prosperous business. (Appleton.). Ph. 195 The ethics that arose in the dark period of humanity's childhood from the conception of beings as mysterious unions of animality and human divinity traffic gave birth to two repulsive species of in traffic — men regarded in as animals." in the sale of indul- gences in one form or another and the "divine wis- dom" of ignorant priests. It is needless to say that in the natural ethics of humanity's manhood those commerce will not be found. and amazing theories. and both security and interest depend upon the permanence . and traffic the "supernatural." space-binding spirit of calculating selfishness will be and greed. S." and the "finance" of "normalcy"? There lies before me an established handbook of Corporation Finance. Mead. by Mr." "business as usual. N. I can hardly do better than to ask the reader to ponder a few extracts from that work. for then I have only to say that in the period of humanity's manhood their the moral blindness of such "principles. of "industry. showing the established. And what shall we say in particular of economics. fit to be slaves.D. since solely interested in the security and regular payment of his interest. is Behold the picture: "Since the bondholder of his principal. slavery is regarded with utter loathing as regarded to-day. E.Manhood of Humanity born. Y.

them . the high cost of dupli- cating the railroad plant. plus the organization and ability to oper(Italics indicated ate business. . . a business is not an aggregate of physical property but consists of physical property buildings. the socalled "science" of economics. portation. Railroads furnish perhaps the best basis of bond issue because of the stability of the demand . Monopolies are of various origins. . . upon (1) the possession of a monopoly. . rather than by the consumer." by the author. will become a genuine science based upon the laws of the time-binding energies of . Stability of earnings depends . . rates . manufacturing industries. (2) control of sources of patents. which produce raw materials and the necessities of life have a more stable demand. . for the transportation service . those enterprises raw material . — — trial opportunity. .196 Manhood of Humanity stable of income. franchises. .) There we perfection. other things being equal the companies with the most earnings or a market . for example. . . the "dismal science" of political economy. the furnishing of light. . water and trans. . the Monopoly is exclusive over a market. machine tools plus an indus- carried on in the factory. (3) In (4) high cost of duplicating plant. The advan- tage of monopoly the fact that the prices of services or commodities are controlled by the producers {meaning owners Author).. The more complete is more valuable lies in the monopoly. furnish the best security for bonds. to fix their on freight and passenger is traffic.. . The most familiar are ( 1 — . the right to use public property for private pur- poses. boilers. enables . . . for example.. . see the animal standards in their studied Comment would be superfluous. or dominant control this control. . The security of the creditors is here the profitableness of the business which Furthermore. In the period of humanity's manhood..

why? And what does "humanity" include? Only the living. not merely a will lized life but a civilizing life. that it is. ancestry of . neering weal. and so it will ask: To whom it does the inheritance rightly belong? Does of right belong to Smith why? Or does it of right belong to man to humanity? If so. will know and will teach that the the world at any given moment is almost wholly the inherited fruit of time and the labor of the dead. In seeking the answers. — to the of material and spiritual wealth. it guardian. — these questions but it will answer them and answer it them aright. and is it will teach that a human a time-binding life. who are relatively few? Or both the living and unborn? The Economics of humanity's manhood will not only ask and Brown? If so. know and will teach that a civilizing life is a life devoted to the production of potential and kinetic use-values creation. and guide of human civi- will discover. It consistent with the time-binding nature will discover and will teach that the time-binders of a given generation are posterity and ancestry at once — posterity of the dead. For life. will teach that will know and spiritual wealth rial — and wealth offspring of the it phenomenon marriage of Time and human is — —both matewealth in a natural Toil.Manhood of Humanity humanity. it 197 will become the light of Human Engi- —promoter. truths and will discover some obvious many old words will acquire new meanings of man.

are to be found the obligations of timeits binding ethics and the seat of will authority. it will discover and will teach that in this time-binding double relationship uniting past and future in a single living growing Reality. wealth-pro- ducing energies. of growing knowledge and understanding and skill and light. time-binding energies." if they be not wasted by ignorance and selfishness. by conflict and competition characteristic of beasts. are more than suffi- cient to produce a high order of increasing pros- . economics know and will teach that time-binding posterity —can not human posterity inherit the fruits of time and dead men's toil as animals inherit the wild fruits of the earth. the peaceful energies of inventive mind. The economics of humanity's manhood know and will teach that the characteristic energies of man as man are by nature civilizing energies. lust to it will know and will teach that "capitalistic" lust to get lust keep for self and "proletarian" for SELF are both of them space-binding level mal lust —beneath — ani- the of time-binding will life. and will teach that these energies of know existing men it will united with one billion six hundred million available "sun-man" powers united with the ten billion living "man-powers of the dead. but only as trustees for the generations to come. to fight about them and to devour them.— 198 all Manhood of Humanity the generations to come .

for the lesson of and a Germany is plain. however. know.Manhood of Humanity perity 199 in everywhere throughout the world. that scientific knowledge common aim are not alone sufficient. patriotism — will not perish — in far from — — the love of will it grow embrace the world. for your country and mine will be the world. it both necessary and will know and scientific will teach that such coop- eration demands will leadership and a common aim. cooper- not the fighting of man all is against man —but the peaceful cooperation of 'sufficient. cannot be the welfare of a family nor that of a province or a state or a race. It will be a natural organic embodiment of the civilizing energies gies — — the wealth-producing ener- characteristic of the human class of life. the of Human Man a State — — Your a "state" and mine will be Cooperative Commonwealth fact democracy and not merely in name. the basis of cooperation. it In humanity's manhood. and will teach. the weal of the world — the peaceful production of Wealth without country to the destruction of War. the unifying principle. its the period of manhood economics will discover and will teach that to ation — it produce world prosperity. the prosperity of humanity. but must be the welfare of all mankind. it will know and teach and all will understand that the common aim. Its larger affairs will be guided by the science and art .

Is it a dream? It is a dream. A first step would probably be the establishment of a new institution which might be called a Dynamic Department Department of Coordination or a Department of Cooperation the name is of little importance. promoting the progress of science. The Department of Cooperation should include — — various sections. manufactures. which might be as follows: ( The Section of Mathematical Sociology or ) i Humanology composed of at least one sociologist. period of transition natural — There must be a a period of adjustment. but it would be the nucleus of the new civilization. How is the clear. and one mathematician. Their work would be the development engineering and mathematical sociology of human or humanology. and distribution. helping and protecting the people in such cooperative enterprises as agriculture. but in general outline the process Violence is to be avoided. one mechanical engineer. it It is a scientific dream and science will make all a living reality. Its functions would be those of encouraging. but the dream will come true.200 of Manhood of Humanity Engineering Human ing "politicians" — —not by ignorant and graft- but by scientific men. finance. providing and supervising instruction in the theory . by honest men who know. : one biologist. thing to be done? No one can foresee is the details.

Their task would be to recommend legislation. would then be recomSection: mended (3) to the appropriate legislative bodies. and (3). selected as above. one mathematician. their decisions being sub- approval of the joint session of sections (1). to provide means for eliminating "Legalism" from the theory and practice of law. accountants. lawyers and other specialists in their respective lines. (4) The Cooperative Section: composed of mechanical engineers. (2). mentary schools and the public bers of the section The mem- would be selected by the appro- priate scientific societies for a term fixed by the selectors. chemical engineers. one mathematician. composed of two one mechani- or three one sociologist. (2) The Section of Mathematical Legislation: composed of (say) one lawyer. business managers. This section would be an "In- . and to bring jurisprudence into accord with the laws of time-binding human nature Their joint session and the changing needs of human legislative society. The Educational teachers. one mechanical engineer. production engineers. if ratified in a of sections (1) and (2).Manhood of Humanity 201 ele- of values and the rudiments of humanology for at large. expert bookkeepers. They would ject to the elaborate educational projects and revise school methods and books. selected as above. proposals. cal engineer.

and mathema- task being to help with expert advice new en- cooperative people's banks. etc.202 dustrial Manhood of Humanity Red Cross" (Charles Ferguson) giving exadvice when asked for by any cooperative The its pert society. financial experts. markets. special- in scientific and cooperative (8) Section: for inter-cooperative foreign relations. etc. The department in the would also study and give advice respecting the gen- eral conditions of the market and the needs various lines of production. and elaborate plans. edit a large daily paper giving supplement uncolored news with a special to relating progress in the work of Human Engineering. would be permitted by law to use them. This section would reg- ulate the duplication of production. Those plans would be published. This paper would give daily news about the whole cooperative movement. collect data. and no pri- vate person. sociologists. (10) The News Section: to true.. but only cooperative societies. (5) Cooperative Banking Section: com- posed of ticians . . (7) ists The Farming The Foreign Section: composed of agriculture. (6) gineers latest The Promoters' Section: composed of whose duty would be to study all of scientific the facts. (9) The Commercial Section.

vicious economics politics. it being suggestive. in accord with the exponential law — the natural law —of the time- binding energies of Man. and rapidly.Manhood of Humanity All 203 men selected to the places for this should be the very best men in the nation. happily and without fear. the time-binding energies. . by vicious ethics. Every selection should be a demon- stration that the person selected was a person of the aims merely is highest attainments in the field of his work. the wealth producing energies. work They full should be well paid to enable them to give their energy and time to their duties. For then and only then human human welfare. in virtue of which beings are human. principal purpose to accentuate the imperative necessity of establishing a national time-binding agency — a Dynamic Departand guarding the ment for stimulating. contin- uously. unretarded by monstrous misconceptions of human nature. Such appointments should be con- sidered the highest honor that a country can offer to its citizens. guiding civilizing energies. The at outline of this plan Its is vague. will and vicious advance peacefully. for this as All the selections work should be made mentioned above —through in the same manner proven merits not clever oratory. under the leadership of human engineering.

TN conclusion let me say very briefly. the aimlessness of life lived to labor and to die. with a new the beginning. it power — For a fundamental concepformed and expressed. that this method. British Ambassador to the U. from a is new of point of view. as I said in be only a sketch. IQ20. in a new spirit. I The have endeavored to approach it afresh. vast. and the birth of children also doomed to the weary treadmill." Sir Auckland Geddes. tion. It displays it The literature of the subject skill. a weakness is due to the absence of a true conception of beings are. Here it would be easy to miss the signs of coming changes. little book has aimed to Problem of Life is old. but A realization of I have little doubt that it will come. has a strange the power of enlisting the thought and co204 . as a matter of course. have I have no fear once — is have succeeded in that.CHAPTER X CONCLUSION "In Europe we know that an age is dying. S. great knowledge and Much Its is fitted to inform and to inspire such as really read with genuine desire to understand. That is what If I I miss in it what human and it is that I lack of fundamental and central thought that striven to supply. all else will follow quickly. has seized the minds of millions. inevitably. having achieved nothing but avoidance of starvation.

"Whether or not a question for . It is on this point. but with the truth. felt in Buckle writing his History of Civiliza- tion: I have effected anything of real value competent judges to decide. the fault consists. the shortness of a single life fore. I can only plead the immensity of the subject. But. Of . important of truths the times are ripe. and the imperfection of every single enterprise. I Whether feel as am mistaken or not. as to the plan itself. I.Conclusion operation of 205 many minds. not in the method proposed. and is have no doubt that that conception guide. in And no conception can have greater power our conception of the nature human world than a true For that most of Man. I feel certain. to be the base. with gloom. there not only hope but certitude that the old order has passed and that humanity's present day. I have no misgivings. forebodings and fear. of a new civilization. and on this alone. . there can be no rational hope — history must go on is in its dismal course. therewish this work to be estimated. that I feel the need of great indulgence. the the I source of light. in manhood dates from the That I this matter class of life — — have here presented the truth the true conception of the human I I have personally no doubt. Without the truth in this matter. Of this. at least. that whatever imperfections may be observed. the world is filled with the saddest of memories. but in the extreme difficulty of any single man putting into full operation all the parts of so vast a scheme. is defects in its execution I am not unconscious. time will decide. not according to the .

in an undertaking of such novelty and magniand I would moreover. to be ascertained. and whether the facts are certain. after a wider range of study. If these two conditions have been obeyed. The only points. the reader has met with opinions adverse to his own. . The principles which I advocate are based upon distinct arguments supported by well ascertained facts. that his views are. That why in his Mathematical Philosophy Professor Keyser has truly said: . Conclusions arrived at in this way are not to be overturned by stating that they endanger some other conclusions. way in which those parts have been fused into a complete and symmetrical whole. therefore. the principles follow by an inevitable inference." And why spirit of have I sought throughout to follow the mathematics? Because I have been dealall ing with ideas and have desired. . and to turn aside from those which will not bear the test. the same which I have abandoned. is a task so painful. own —they and clear. whether the arguments are fair. if This. of their are right or wrong independently of our will. that they who shrink from the sufferings should pause before they reproach those by whom the suffering is undergone. that tude. are. and because. I found them unsupported by solid proof. Ideas have a character. as those which I too once held. perhaps. . hopes and passions and ideas there is In the connection of is an unbreakable thread of destiny. above to be right things else. To examine the notions in which we have been educated. nor can they be even affected by allegation against their supposed tendency.206 Manhood of Humanity but according to the finish of its separate parts. I have a right to expect. and fatal to the progress of his knowledge. he should remember. add. subversive of the interest of Man.

hid from the the final cause of figures. but simply and to understand them . When turned my mind to this subject. but in the sense of the binding thread that connects thought with thought and conclusions with their premises. math- of life phenomena the only elevates our point of view above passion." No doubt mathematics truly impersonal in method. envy. such as love. contemplate their affections and passions.Conclusion "Mathematics is 207 fate in a physical the study of Fate —not sense. . too impersonal maybe ematical analysis to please the senti- mentalists before they take the time to think. . ing? loves then. anger. if mathematics. and. therefore. I determined not to laugh or to weep over the and to men. arrogance. above selfishness in any form. all hate. is our freedom? What muse is do you love? of Paint- Poetry? Music? free. pity other disturbances . his was an effort in \ the right direction and this quoted conclusion may ) well be a conclusion for ourselves in the 20th century: / "The truth might forever have remained human race. Whoso them is Logic the Thought. but to their essential nature and the properties had not I set another type of knowledge before them. which looks not to involved in it. tell it is method which can Spinoza even i us genuine truths about ourselves. in the 17th Century had well realized this fact and in although imperfect many ways. but simply to demonstrate by certain and indubitable reason. The muses is are their fates. Where. those things with practice. I did not propose to myself any novel or strange aim. . And in order that I might enquire into the matters of the science with the same free- which agree best dom of mind with which we are wont actions of to treat lines and surfaces in mathematics.

storm. and thus. else? Many topics have not even been Time-binding energy —what may and so on? In it not achieve in course of the aeons to come? What light may if it not yet throw upon such fundamental pheas Space. Infinity. are these. I shall be happy. For yet necessary. for then we confidently expect a science and art that will may know how to direct the energies of man to the advance- ment of human weal.208 Manhood of Humanity human nature. scientific man will open for . though and have certain causes through which we may come to understand them. the senses. in the of soul not as vices of taining to it same way thunder troublesome." If only this little book will initiate the scientific study of Man. by contemplating them in their truth. What broached. but as properties peras heat. nomena Time. it any. are the limits of Time-binding? are somehow involved all the higher functions of mind. What. Is Time identical with Intelligence? Is either of them the other's cause? Is Time in the Cosmos or is the latter in the former? Is the Cosmos intelligent? Many no doubt and marvelous are the study of fields which the research. cold. gain for our minds much joy as by the knowledge of things that are pleasing to pertain to the nature of the atmosphere.

both would find tremendous fields to work in. I would by necessity have to be a branch of physics. physicists and metaphysicians should read if it carefully. forgive me the form. that the problems involved are too pressing. particularly beg the mathematicians and physicists not to discard this appendix with too hasty a judgment of "Oh! metaphysics. to permit 209 me to delay . too too fundamental for humankind. because scientific psychology such a science is to exist.APPENDIX I MATHEMATICS AND TIME-BINDING T^HE purpose of this appendix is to give an expression of some new ideas which evolve directly out of the fact that humans are time-binders and which may serve as suggestions for the foundation of scientific psychology." and also the metaphysicians not to do the same with an equally hasty judgment "Oh! mathematics." I hope that if this appendix is sympathetically understood. The problem is of exceeding difficulty to give expression to in any form and therefore much more difficult to express in any exact or correct form. mathematicians and physicists will be moved to investigate the problem." My answer vital. Some in their first scientists are very pedantic and therefore intolerant pedantry and they to express himself is may say "the fellow should learn how and then ask our attention. If mathematicians and physicists would be more tolerant toward metaphysics and if metaphysicians would be moved to study mathematics. and so I beg the reader's patience in regard to the language because some of the ideas are in themselves correct and sometimes very suggestive in spite of the language used. and look into the suggestions. I am particularly interested that mathematicians.

its failure to understand the importance of dimensions." havoc would be introduced into our conceptions and in practical life.. in spite of being from exact. but rather that of a new branch of mathematics. Metaphysics used words and conceptions of multi-dimensional meanings which of necessity resulted in hopeless confusion. may be not that of some new science. or we would speculate about any or all of these things. "to pull. a . The nature. therefore. old word "metaphysics" ignorance and an unnecessary word in the an illegitimate child of scientific study of Every phenomenon of nature can be classed and is studied in physics or chemistry or mathematics. or chemistry. we would try to milk an automobile or we would try to extract gasoline from a cow. not in any but belongs rather to an or physics." and if we were not to use any other names in connection with them. What prevented metaphysics from achieving more was its use of unmathematical method. an automobile. It is etc. namely. aeons of pathetic that only after many human exist- ence the dimensionality of man has been discovered and his proper status in of "time-binder. in "a talking" about example will serve to make man. to be more explicit. way supernatural or superphysical. the problem. accomplished a great deal. this clear.210 Appendix I I for perhaps long years before shall be able to present the subject in a correct and satisfactory form. by one common characteristic. Too obviwords. in mere verbalism. and also that the to problems involved cover too vast a field for a single man work it conclusively. what would happen? If we characterized these things or beings. or look for a screw in a man. It seems best to give the new ideas to the public in a suggestive form is so that many people may be led to work on them more fully. or. or all combined. and a locomotive as "pullers. unknown or an undeveloped branch of physics. therefore. The problem. An If we were to speak of a cow." far nature has been given by the definition its The old metaphysics.

therefore. etc. it has three dimensions as any object at rest.. They imagine that dimensions are applic- three dimensional. we are thus mentally making a mistake no ing an automobile" less nonsensical than the talk of "milkare baffled by the would which is Laymen word dimension. a fourth dimension is necessary to give its see. Can this be probut a special humanized mathematics. a moving object is four-dimensional that is. but. physicists." and they may not be very much or attentively to analyse it. experimental fact has been the fact that humanity is dis- and analysed. scientific psychology will very much need mathematics. when the object position at — moving. Mathematics and Time-Binding ously nonsensical 211 —but exactly the same thing happens. with undefined terms and inco- . Once the word and concept Time enters. liberately accept and use them in the popular.. may it feel that the expression is just a "well adapted one. etc. the ground for analysis and reasoning at once becomes very slippery. ordinary sense without further analysing them. and so on. that a movany one instant. life a time- binding class of time-binding including all where the time-binding capacity or the is energy the highest function of humanity. spiritual. spiritual. fact. will. inclined to look closer into Theologians and metaphysicians probably will speculate a great deal about it vaguely. In using the words mental. able only to space. in a much more subtle way. Mathe- maticians. when we in use such words as "life in a crystal" or "memory animals". I de- the so-called mental. is We duced It ? It seems to is a well me that it can. and will powers. be. powers. As a matter of ing body has four dimensions.. but they are mistaken. known fact that experimental sciences bring us to face facts which require further theoretical elaboration in this way experimental sciences are a permanent source of inspiration to mathematicians because new facts bring about the need of In this closed new methods of book a new and It is analysis.

It is by definition that equal to the product of mass by acceleration. sit One chief difficulty their always that humans have to in own case. or may be identical. the . and only a kind of blend of the two exists in its own right. for sake of discrimination let us call it "M") when it works properly. which will not lead us toward a scientific or true solution. obliged to use them as definitions. is our own human time. that "the principles of dynamics as experimental truths but we have been . but will keep us away from the discovery of truth. in appeared force is mind. In the meantime two facts remain facts: namely." now we are confronted with the fact that "Logos" Intelligence and Time-binding are dangerously near to — — — akin to each other. mathematically. The psychological time as such." The other fact — psychological fact — is that time exists psychologically by is itself. of the pure. scientific time as such." from "Bios" to "Logos. undefined and not understood. — higher or highest energies of man (one of its branches any- way. Which one of them is the best conjudgment upon which one more nearly corresponds to the truth about cept "time"? What is time (if any) anyway? Until now we have gone from "Cosmos" to "Bios. impersonal time- . are mere shadows. One must be borne first to us. does not work psychologically but works abstractly: the higher the abstraction the less there is of the psychological element and the more there is. "self evident. mathematicians and physicists have almost all agreed with Minkowski "that space by itself and time by itself. that is. action is equal to reaction.212 Appendix I herent ideas with incoherent results. so to say." but psychological It must be noted that the time-binding energy facts. or that {The Foundation of Science." and mathematics also has its whole by Henri Poincare) foundation in a few axioms. is also our own human time. Do we in this way approach or go back to "Cosmos"? questions which arise out of this fact Such are the crucial concept of new Man.

and finally. in the highest abstraction {M). that the inestimable value of fact if mathematics. 0£2. as it were. (2) ties Scientific truth {as).Mathematics and Time-Binding binding energy binder tions. cosmos. I will try to define "truth" and for this purpose I will duce three definitions. which they are. scientific This truth represents the "bound-up-time" in our present knowledge. results thrash out true is but whether the results are I another question. new divide the concept "truth" into three types: ( 1 ) Psychological. or relative truth. then this process at once becomes impersonal and cosmic. because of the time-binding involved in it. Now if we it put psychological will axioms into the time-binding apparatus. by which truth I will mean such conceptions but different • of the truth as any one of person possesses. • • from other types OL n ). Mathematics does not it presume that its its conclusions are true. but is does assert that conclusions are correct. logos. time-binding taking Is the succession of us right back to cosmos again? the correctly. It may happen that after some rewording these definitions may become scientific. but whether truly another matter. shaping correctly the product of is activity. no matter what time is (if there is such a thing as time). (otl. or private. them is The definition of a facts a definition based on — suggests man as a timemany reflec- One of of the possibility that one of the funcits tions the time-binding energy in pure form. This becomes a very comprehensive we approach and analyse the mathematical processes as some branch (M) of the time-binding process. . To be able to talk about these problems have to intro- which are introduced only for practical purposes. works automatically —machineits like. logical truth when it is by which I will mean a psychoapproved by the time-binding facul- or apparatus in the present stage of our development. bios. 213 — (M).

—impersonal — pas- sionless. causation valid in infinity (a x ). . Again. . rays of the time-binding energy. . or f (A BC. for it probably . sn w iM it he used for scientific truths. ). . the "spiritual" capacities." "private. n f° r the "psychological..M.. and so on.. Let us suppose that the human time- binding capacities or energies in the organic chemistry cor- respond to radium in the inorganic chemistry. ocs i S2 will not discriminate.. and finally will illustrate the sug- a for the absolute truth valid in infinity. a fact that mathematics is correct fact. being of course M and of absolutely different character. M. C. .. is so. ) personal type and . as a matter of underlie it all the basic axioms which mathematics are "psychological axioms" therefore may happen that these "axioms" are not of the a type but are of the f (A B C ." I or "relative" truths. To make easier to explain. If it were possible to isolate completely from the other rays— and rays the "mental" process the "logos" the have a complete abstraction (which in the present could only be in mathematics). the A rays. . .. M. which phenomenon based upon the I will be the final definition final knowledge of primal 2. the "will" powers.. for the moment. . then the work of could be compared to the work of an impersonal machine which always gives the same correctly shaped product no matter what is the — — M M material put into It is it. that the complex timebinding energy has many different stages of development and different kinds of "rays" A. the B rays. between which. For simplicity's sake I will use the signs a\. the character of any "truth" in question will largely depend upon which of these elements prevail. Let us suppose that the so-called mental capacities are the of different dimensions It may happen. B. 214 (3) of a Appendix The absolute truth. . Psycho- logical truths will then be a function of all rays together. . I gestions by an example. . namely ABC.

The / (M) evolved from this / (A B C . ." The base of the whole of mathematics or rather the starting point of mathematics was "infinitesimals" the "psychological truths. M . we shall have to start from the beginning. and the great numbers. outline a correctly way to embrace psychology. . .)." the word "number" I will sometimes use the word "magnitude" and under the word "infinity" I will understand the meaning as "limitless.Mathematics and Time-Binding this 215 may be why mathematics is cannot account for psychological be an exact science therefore. . in the meantime. of mathematics is / (M) this is the reason for the "ghosts" in the background of mathematics." for the "finite" the words "normal numbers" and for the "transInstead of using finite" the words "very great numbers. or psychological numbers. way in which this can is : Here I must be must will endeavor to it be done. and magnitudes that were tangible for the senses. . etc. To express it more than difficult I beg the mathematical reader to tolerate the form and look for the sense or even the feelings in what I attempt to express. . The base of mathematics was / {A B C the work. . Here to is to be found the kernel of the whole trouble. the normal. . mathematics facts. if we want really to understand the world and man. from O. I will use for the words "very small numbers. then the old finites or the normal numbers would become very great numbers and the old very my mind . To make it less shocking to the ear of the pure mathematician. the very small. then take the next very small number as the first finite or "normal number"." axioms concerning normal numbers. electrons. the psychological world. It seems to me that. are not the same. the physical world. If psychology to mathematical find a in principle. and for the very great numbers. . ) or the development. But the rules which govern the small numbers. As a matter of fact. . .) base a wonderful abstract theory absolutely correct for the normal. M . is composed exclusively of very great numbers and of very small magnitudes (atoms. And.

The infinitesimals are Nature's natural mathematics the infinitesimals were an analytical —an "M"— finites. still it could be changed to a higher order in the way indicated here and sophic or psychological mathematics. the physical and therefore psychological continuum (I use the words physical continuum in the way Poincare used them) would become a mathematical continuum in this new philosophic mathematics.216 great Appendix I numbers would become the very great of the second Such transposed mathematics would become psychological and philosophic mathematics and mathematical The philosophy would become philosophic mathematics. but starting from a real. the concept of numbers. which cept and called is is an artificial conso- not as a concept an element of Nature. In . psychological mathematics would be absolutely rigorous. immediate and most vital effect would be. continuum. common base from O and next to it very small number. correct and true in addition to which. it would change or enlarge and make humanly tangible for the layman. course. nevertheless. become philoThis new science. Mathematical philosophy is the highest phiorder and so on. or from the limit "zero. space. — losophy in existence. of for ordinary purposes. which is a common tangible base for psychological as well infinitesimals) — . that the start would be made not somewhere in the middle of the magnitudes but from the beginning." from the "O" from the intrinsic "to be or not to be" and the next to it would be the very first small magnitude. maybe. Such a mathematics would be the mathematics for the time-binding psychology. This new philosophic mathematics would eliminate the concept of "infinitesimals" as such. time and so on. as analytical truths. infinity. real. would not change the ordinary mathematics It would be a special mathematics for the study of old Man dealing only with the "natural finites" (the and great numbers of different orders (including the normal numbers). This new branch of philosophic.

instead of positive. that the time-binding energy also "alive" and multiplying in for the decomposis larger and larger families. nevertheless. is also some funcgestive.Mathematics and Time-Binding time-binding 217 I — necessity. conceptions of time. too. I call it "time-linking" for the sake of diftion of time. we may see that the human capacity of "Time-binding" is a very practical one and that this time-binding faculty is a functional name and definition for . because of our starting point. ing of radium is the same — The formula is only the exponent negative indeed very curious and sugProcreation. it would build rather a new philosophic mathematics rigorously correct where analytical facts would be also psychological facts. This new mathematics would not only give Keeping in mind both correct results but also true results. great deal about Man. The most vital importance. The "ghosts" in the background will rapidly vanish and become intelligible facts for philosophic mathematics. what we broadly mean by human "intelligence" which makes it obvious that time (in any understanding of the term) is somehow very closely related to intelligence the mental and spiritual activities All we know about "time" will explain to us a of man. have found that man is an exponential function where time enters as an exponent. If we compare the formula for organic growth y=ek*} with the formula "P R T " we see that they are of the same type and the law of organic growth — We applies to the human time-binding energy. if we consider facts alone. it will give us a mathematical science from a natural base where correct formulas will be also true formulas and will correspond to psychological truths. repeat once again that this transposition of our starting point would not affect the normal mathematics for normal purposes. is that taking zero as the limit and the next to it very small magnitude for the real starting point. fact This . the organic growth. and all we know about Man will explain to us a great deal about time. the scientific time and the psychological time. is We see.

of a piston. is This supposition almost a certainty because it seems to be the only possible supposition to account for that energy. if once they start. physicists have never attempted to study this energy from that point of view. free from any speculation." but. mind — is I do not know. namely. It obvious that no amount of chemical energy in food can account for such an energy as the time-binding energy. Appendix Whether the I or of so energy of procreation for in that of "time-linking" can be accounted units chemical energy taken up in food. its namely. new energies unknown nature. is somehow time ing to is. which seems to be the only supposition. or theological methods. correct and scientific my There is no scarcity in "human radium.218 ference. by transformation or by drawwill find that this higher energy directly connected we — on other sources the of energy. — is which with "time" no matter what able to produce. There is only one supposition left. to knowledge. the transformation of organic atoms. would bring us to face striking facts. but the results for science and are already tremendous because scientific understanding and use of it. Not with the this "time-binding. that the time-binding apparatus has a source for in tremendous energy the transformation of organic atoms. but just methods. Thus solar energy transformed into coal for instance. is transformed into the energy of the drive and on. which means a direct drawing upon the cosmic energy. so or the rotary energy in a steam engine. there will be results in which all the so-called ." we analyse this energy. and what is very characteristic — — the results are /mze-binding energies. I am confident that. is Radium was discovered only a few years ago and life still very scarce. and this cosmic energy time and intelligence are somehow connected — — — if not indeed equivalent. Happily these things can be verified in scientific laboratories." higher exponential energy. We methods were applied in the did not use any zoological direct. "able If to direct basic powers. This supposition.

psychic" phenomena. Bertrand N. Professor Keyser approaches the problems from both the logical and the warmly human points of view in this is the great human and practical value of his work. It is very difficult to give in quate list of the literature such a book as this an adewhich may help to orient the the great advance science has reader in a general way made its is a pioneer book in no books dealing directly with its subject. the art the art of creative engi- In mathematical philosophy there are to four great mathematical writers distinct science. . and one American. therefore. Now they mostly wasted or only played with. but not all readers are willing . Henri Poin. Russell and Whitehead approach the problems from a purely logical point of view and therein lies the peculiar value of their work. Scientific biology. There are two branches of science and one art which are fundamental for the further development of the in the last few years. J. for if a thorough knowledge of the subject is desired the reader should read all these books. Keyser. and so there are subject. Henri Poincare was a physicist (as well as a mathematician) and. Professor C. This book own way. spiritual. will become It scientifically understood and will be conare sciously utilized. care (deceased) They are two English scientists. final secrets may happen the science of time-binding — the final — truth — in that the science of Man — as will disclose to us the inner and of nature. approaches the problems somewhat from a physicist's point of view.Mathematics and Time-Binding 219 "supernatural. Messrs. Whitehead one Frenchman. these two sciences are (i) Mathematical philosophy is and (2) neering. a circumstance giving his philosophy its particular value. my knowledge only who treat the subject as a Russell and A. . It is not for me to advise the reader what selections to make. such as are not fakes. tions These four scientists are unique in their respective elaboraand elucidations of mathematical philosophy. valid in infinity.

Y. of Philosophy. be read by every one interested in mathematical philosophy." Chicago. without doubt. 1903. Kinds of relations. Mathematics and N. N. : The purely mathematical foundation Russell. On scientific method in philosophy. Selection from contents: Definition of number. "Mysticism and Logic. Infinite cardinal numbers Infinite series and ordinals. but there is no stroke of should be read with great attention — their pen but which besides which there is a very valuable literature about their ( I ) work. The ultimate constituents of matter. Y. Selection from contents: Mathematics and the metaphysicians. The axiom of infinity and logical types.. "The (I Principles versity. On the notion of cause. Bertrand.220 Appendix I to make that effort toward clear thinking (which in the meantime will remain of the highest importance in science). as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy. The Definition of order. 1919. Limits and continuity. For many temporary reasons I was not able.) am "The Problems 1912. 1914." Macmillan." Longmans Green & Co. N. . of Mathematics." H. "Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy. Classes. Some readers will wish to select for themselves and to facilitate their selection I will lay out a feast "Menu" of this intellectual by giving in some cases the chapter heads. Y. logic.. before going list into print. "Our Knowledge of the External World. to give a fuller of the writings of those four unique men ." Cambridge Uni- this not giving any selections from the contents of book because this book should. Holt & Co.

Keyser. By A. it is an amazing revelation of how the familiar terms with which they deal plunge their roots far into the darkness beneath the surface of common sense. 1917. "Principia Mathematica. The organization of thought. N. 1913." 1911. Henri. The data of science. Selections from contents: The principles of mathematics in relation to elementary teaching.. I." Selection from contents: Cambridge. Selection from contents: Number and magnitude. time." Cambridge. Whitehead and Cambridge. The theory of objects." Bertrand Russell. . Science and hypothesis. Objects." "Human Worth (2) of Rigorous Thinking. Space. and relativity. The of extensive abstraction. To every one and especially to philosophers and men of natural science. This monumental work stands alone. Nature and thought. Y. It is a noble monument to the critical spirit of science and to the idealism of our time." The Science Press. N. The ultimate physical concepts. "An Enquiry Concerning The the Principles of Natural Knowledge. "The Organization of Thought Educational and Scientific. method "The Concept of Nature. The method of extenSpace and motion. Y. 221 "An Introduction to Mathematics." C. 1920. The anatomy of some scientific ideas. N. Henry Holt & Co. Selection from contents: traditions of science. sive abstraction. Time. J. "The Foundations of Science. 1919. Alfred N. 1910-1913. The physicist's point of view Poincare. "As a work of constructive criticism it has never been surpassed.Mathematics and Time-Binding Whitehead." London.

"Mathematical Philosophy. Significance and nonsense. view: (3) The human. Theoretical and practical doubt. The axiom of infinity: A new presupposition of thought. Selection from contents of general interest." Forthcoming Book. A diamond Distinction of logical and psychological. the Study of Fate and Freedom. The existence of the hypercosmic. The physical sciences. Mathematical philosophy in the role of critic. Columbia University Press. significance of mathematics. The mathematical sciences. and the Old Theology. The value of science. Selection from contents: The human worth of rigorous thinking. the Constitution of the United . The human The walls of the world. Mathematics as the study of fate and freedom. Other Varieties of truth and untruth. The universe and beyond. test of harmony. civilizing. scientist. Verifiers and falsifiers. III. II. The mathematical obligations of philosophy. Science and method. Distinction of doctrine and method. "Supersimian" Wisdom. or concerning the figure and the dimensions of the Universe of space. istic Human- and industrial education. Logic the muse of thought. "Science and Religion: rational. The new mechanics. point of Keyser." Essays and Addresses. Mathematical reaAstronomic science." The Rational and The Yale University Press. The prototype of rea- — — — — soned discourse often disguised as in the Declaration of Independence." the Super- "The New Infinity The Yale University Press. practical life. Space. The objective value of science. 1916.222 Appendix I Force. Autonomous truth and autonomous falsehood. Mathematical productivity in the United States. Nature. Cassius J. Science and the soning. Radiant aspects of an over-world. Lectures for Educated Laymen. A world un criticised the garden of the devil. Research in American Universities. "The Human Worth of Rigorous Thinking.

as mathematical thinker as a Man. States. Qualities essential to engineering leadership. prises of human spirit. in all thought and human Ideals the flint of reality. as philosopher.— Mathematics and Time-Binding 223 —Nature of mathematical transformation. Relation function and transformation as three aspects of one thing. The concept of a group. supreme application of it to definition of man. manity the civilizing or Time-Binding class of life. no thinking. and the science of human welfare. Meaning of dimensionality. as statesman. scientist. Science as engineering in preparation. — — ideals and idealization. The theory of logical types. The ation of science. Need of The role of infinity history of the Imperious concept. as ethics of the art. Engineering the guide of humanity. The quest of what abides in a fluctuant world as the binding thread of human The tie of comradeship among the enterhistory. The nature of invariance. Engineering Mathematics the guide of the as science in action. The The engineer as educator. the Sermon on the Mount. — — . Transformation law essentially psychological. The philosophy of the cosmic Limits and limit processes omnipresent as year. No trans- formation. The problem of time and kindred problems. Both of them in their infancy. Logical Open avenues to existence and sensuous existence. as economist. in Distinction of imagination and conception. Consequent retard- The symmetry of thought. Its study. unimaginable worlds. a mighty poem. the Origin of Species. its dynamic and static aspects. Importation of time and suppression of time as the classic devices of sciences. The notion simply exemplified in many fields. The static and the dynamic worlds. Science and engineering. the common enterprise of science. Huengineer. as psychologist. — — — A — mathematics and the mathematics of psychology. Mathematical infinity. asymmetry of imagination. The ages-old problem of permanence and change. is "Mind" a group. The psychology of aspiration.

subtle and yet most ener- phenomenon of nature — is in the main wantonly wasted.APPENDIX II BIOLOGY AND TIME-BINDING '"THE are man is short. When and facts are falsely defined. logic was supposed to be the science of correct thinking. Human getic thought — that unique. In such a case. they tend to bring us to false con- clusions. or take pains to use. as pure chance plays too large a part in it. and to very few is it given much in their lifetime. Until lately. not merely wasteful but positively harmful. but the initial discovery not only has to be produced but correctly defined before it can be used and What we do not that is the important point to be made." not by the production of one man but by a chain of men. There is no need to establish a new science to replace logic. and life and false conclusions lead us in wrong directions. we simply have to look closer 224 . we arrive at a com- plete "truth. and knowledge greatly suffer in consequence. but modern thought has progressed so far that the — so old logic is not able to handle the great accumulated volume the great complicated mass of existing ideas and facts —and we are forced to look for another instrument much more expedient and powerful. same time. Extensive achievements made almost entirely by many men taking up the work life of one to achieve done by a discoverer. suitable lanfalse definitions lead to guage . Our is progress not a well ordered pursuit after truth. consequences ideas because we do at the not use. realize is the tremendous amount of mental work that is lost by an incorrect use of words.

just language. some broadened. I life will even revolutionize mathematics itself. the analysis of these phenomena presents great technical difficulty. and cannot be altered by words. so will lead to trustworthy results. suggested tentatively how this may be accomplished. bringing about unanimity of all sciences and thus greatly increasing their effectiveness in the pursuit of truth. This not a play on words. some rectified. with us all the time. of the cases. change the quality of wine? Of course not. that mathematics and matheis —nature's is it is matical reasoning the same for universal tongue all — than the true logic of nature the one means is of expression that peoples. correct classifications. . namely. As the seemingly ultimate and highest experimentally known energy is the human time-binding energy. in any way. everybody must admit. doctrines and creeds will have to and Very probably all our be revised some rejected. but why confuse our minds by being afraid of. even in most. This application of mathematics to In App. after investigation. All the "qualities" will remain because they are facts.Biology and Time-Binding into the sciences at 225 which was hand and nothing else realize the fact. or being a slave of words? If instead of calling wine wine. The application of rigorous thinking to life will even revolutionize scientific methods by the introduction of right definitions. This problem can be solved only by scientific experiments with the time-h'\nd\ng In many. energy. Everybody who wants to think logically must think mathethere matically or give up any pretense of correct thinking is no escape and all who refuse to investigate the justice of — this statement put themselves outside the pale of logically thinking people. would this. space and time. in much the same way as the disit is covery of radium has affected them. we called it by its chemical formula. this new concept may lead to a change in our present concepts of matter. A most pathetic picture of the havoc and chaos which . a fact which.

transfinite numbers.. The experiments in scientific biology have proved this to be true in living organisms and just this is the tremendous importance of the discoveries in scientific biology. a galvanic or chemical battery produces the same kind of electricity as the mechanical process of friction in the dynamo. mechanical or cosmic as in the dynamo. etc. effects The energy are absolutely the same — More than that. may suggest this "missing link" life. in that their transforma- produced by the same type of no matter what its origin. life Hitherto. continuum. that energy results in a chemical process chemical process results in electricity motion results in electricity the dynamo. I The thoughts expressed in App. the the galvanic battery. no matter what is the origin of each. rela- also of space and time. the transformations are reversible. living complex organisms have been produced which grew to maturity through a chemiare reversible. The marvel of an electric lamp is the same marvel. dimensions. Mathematics has been able to make its most stupendous achievements because of its method of wrong words brings into in all fields of exact analysis of the tions. . For example. Light and other energies react on organisms in the same way as the chemical reactions and these phenomena possible. and all classes. when our systems are suitis. — — —an — We the accumulator. functions. ably adjusted. electricity results know all energies in motion the electric motor. not of these conceptions in their sharply defined form have had direct application to our daily or to our world conception. are tion somehow is related to each other.226 Appendix use of II life and science is exhibited thought by the endless and bitter fighting over words not well defined. or the interaction of cosmic laws as In some instances. etc. whether the origin of the electricity be chemical. —connecting mathe- matics more intimately with Modern science knows that all energies can be somehow transformed from one kind to another and that all of them represent one type of energetic phenomena.

TVie scientific understanding ot these phenomena will not "degrade" these phenomena." this statement should be equally sense we do human mind and we when and only when we acquire If we persist in it as natural. but by no means . can a beefsteak be taken for either of them. I have attempted. as they lead us to a much higher and more em- bracing ethics than society has ever had. — — . not fully understand the nature of the shall learn to understand it enough to recognize saying and believing that the "spiritual evidences cannot be explained on a material base. time-binding energies are not a pound of beefsteak. The human mind it is is at least an energy which can ing to call direct other energies. for these If this statement is false phenomena. it is equally false for the mind or the so-called spiritual and will powers. because that cannot be done. I trust. by Jacques Loeb. it incorrect and mislead- supernatural.— Biology and Time-Binding cal or 227 accomplished in the infancy of mechanical treatment of the egg. The base is not the phenomenon sulphuric acid and zinc are not electricity. and this has been (See The scientific biology! Organisms as a Whole. to solve these the results are astonishing. no matter what its origin human time-binding energies (embracing all faculties) are the highest of the known energies equally magnificent and astonishing no matter what the base and the scientific understanding of them will only add to our respect for them and for ourselves. with some measure of success problems in science and life. Facts remain facts and no scientific explanation of a phenomenon can lower or degrade that which is a fact.) All phenomena in nature are natural and should be ap- proached as such. it will unmistakably help us to develop them indefinitely by mathematical analysis. Electricity is electricity and nothing else. It is of course true that applicable to electricity or radium. By this analysis . although a pound of beefsteak may help to save life and be therefore instrumental in the production of a poem or of a sonata.

THAT HE IS OUTSIDE THE LAW FOR HUMANS. spiritual phenomena. and feel perfectly satisfied as long as one escaped the — — — jail. in other words. Whereas. with an artificially formulated morale it was easy enough to break away by a simple mental speculation. their work is not to befog the air with cloudy expressions or sophistry. simply because we do not understand them? It seems evident that . it was simple can no more evade a law of enough to avoid the issues of life. With the supernatural attitude. as supernatural. It is known that in remote antiquity. their clever field is not one of argument but one of proved facts. WILL KNOW BY HIMSELF. in some temples electrical phenomena were known and were used to keep Shall we follow the ignorant masses in awe and obedience. their method is scientific and their tool is mathematics. etc. The recog- are natural and as phenomena of the human mind such conform to natural law has the fur- ther advantage over the "supernatural" attitude in that we human nature than the law of gravity. human ethics will have the validity of natural law. with a morale made clear that it is a natural law for and speculation is removed and everyone who breaks away from the NATURAL LAWS FOR HUMANS.. the class of life. but are exclusively the fulfilment of the natural laws for the nition of the fact that the human class of life. but to create.228 I Appendix II prove that the understanding of this most stupendous but of natural phenomenon tifical human life brings us to the scien- source of ethics and I prove that the so-called "highest ideals of humanity" have nothing of "sentimentalism" or of the "sz/^rniatural" in them. by a simple statement "I do not believe" and that was enough to break all bonds and be free from the "supernatural morale" but to get away from the "natural morale" and remain human is impossible. the methods used by those magicians or shall we squarely face facts? Shall we look upon life. the curtain of sophistry human Engineers are not metaphysicians. and the usually so-called mental.

The high dimensionality of the human mind. no matter it how simple or complicated a phenomenon a completely natural law. are facts and must be accepted about time to establish an exact science to deal with them. The unprejudiced analysis of the so-called "supernatural" does not alter any part of the strange and high functions of it. of The mind which admits the supernatural blinds and frustrates any analysis or any attempt at analysis. we have first but know them. Facts may not be denied or falsified if analysis is to arrive at correct conclusions. It is will powers. therefore are we see that the "social struc- ture" of the animals on a farm never breaks down as they managed on a scientific base with an understanding of their proper standards. from two chemical substances a third a salt is made in addition to which we have a peculiar energy produced called electricity. The phenomena of the human time-binding energy are and will remain the most precious. the so-called spiritual and as such. sulphuric acid and zinc and make what we call a galvanic battery. Animals to-day live more happily than man." which is far too destructive. Who does not know the marvelous properties of this — — we see that phenomenon? . for example." or "competition. In modern science facts are not wanting. Our present social system imposes these disastrous methods upon man "Homo to alone.Biology and Time-Binding everything which exists in nature. be attitude above or beyond our present understanding. If we take. is 229 natural. no matter what the origin. and on no occa- sion can the so-called 'Supernatural" be anything else than it may. and the result is that the hideous proverb homini lupus" has become true. though is. life were approached without prejuno supernatural "spark" was bothering us in our analysis an animal was an animal and nothing else we did not problems of animal — intermix dimensions. subtle and highest of known functions. We don't allow animals to practice the "survival of the fittest. at the moment. The — dice.

this question (that all life chemical terms phenomena can be unequivocally explained in physicoAuthor) can be answered in the affirmative. naturally active as such in time. gies. The problem less of "life" and of other eneris hitherto considered "supernatural. and that this con- Man is rigorously scientific and accounts for the highest functions of man — the highest of the mental . namely. have to know these facts mathematicians have to establish correct dimensions in the study of all the sciences and people will have to study . number of scientists all over the world are working at this problem and the scientific facts which they have established. law and ethics. of course. and proves to be none the astonishing though entirely natural. an objection which for some is a serious one indeed. There is no escape from that.230 Scientific Appendix biology has II progress lately. But here one objection may be raised. only then can the process of integration in any phase of thought be made without mistakes. if human life is nothing else than a physico-chemical process? To quote Doctor Jacques Loeb from his Mechanistic Conception of Life: "If on the basis of a serious survey. Not only is the mechanistic conception of life compatible with ethics. it seems the only conception of life which can lead to an understanding of our social the source of ethics. belong to-day to the realm of practical life. A mathematical philosophy." I hope to have proved in this book that scientific ethics is it is based on natural laws for the human class of life. made tremendous engineers cannot afford to ignore the facts established in labo- ratory researches. Engineers." well in hand. and which cannot now be denied. that based on the experimentally proved fact that cept or definition of Man is a Time- binder. if truth is what we really want. — and ethical life will have to be put on a scientific basis and our rules of conduct must be brought into harmony with the results of scientific biology. what will take the place of the old philosophy.

Biology and Time-Binding and spiritual 231 perfections —without the need of any "superthat life and all of natural" hypothesis. for the consequences it will bring about later on. as I pro- pose to call biolyte the substances produced. chemical changes that new compounds electricity is which possess a reversible capacity. This name is important chemical base the protoplasm. the process involved I own propose to call biolysis. therefore. These processes are known to be reversible. an electric current in passed through a special battery are formed called an accumulator or reversible battery. generated. At is the same time a known fact that organic chemistry of infinitely more complicated and variable than inorganic chemistry. These phenom- ena have a parallel analogy in inorganic chemistry tricity — — in elec- the difference being only in the scale or dimension. air. is which Ears is (no matter what time unique to man. it it is). One of these energies of organic chemistry which lately has come into the scope of scientific is analysis is called life — its physico- which result I call the "time-linking" capacity or energy. Scientific biology proves the fact its phenomena are the results of some special physico-chemical processes. of which the human mind is the highest known form. The energy produced by the reactions some organic chemical groups are. namely. This process of formso ing chemical substances by the passing of an electrical current is called electrolysis and the product it is produced is called electrolyte. in reproducing the former materials — that is. The time- binding capacity or energy of is — if . in that some of these peculiar energies cause physico-chemical changes in their base. is When occur. is a most subtle comhas man plex the highest known energy and probably sensitive to many the subdivisions. which manifest themselves in some peculiar energies. are the vibration of Eyes are sensitive to the more subtle vibrations of . of a more complicated character and of another dimension.

or C 2 produces T 2 which again in turn affects the base and produces a physico-chemical effect E 2 . A diagram will better explain the continuity.232 light. I. Here again we see the same continuity of phenomena. radio-active substances after passing different stages. Note that the transformation of the atom or the transformation of mously" and this time-binding energy . and it apparently has the capacity to register the energies of the universe. to elec- thought 7\ on the base C1 (corresponding for the same reason to electrolysis and electrolyte in electricity). The turn produces a physico-chemical effect E x .. evolution and of this time-binding energy. for illustration's sake only. to call the "men- spiritual and will powers. the protoplasm as a complex organic physico-chemical unit which has the peculiarity to "live. is not complete but probably ends tion in lead. C 1 and E 1 combined. . in a similar sitive to the Appendix II way. the energy T3 and so on in produced by a galvanic battery). ." to grow and multiply "autono- same autonomous peculiarity applies to the it grows and multiplies "autonomously" in its own dimension. besides which it has the capacity to register not only all of our sensations but also the time-binding energies of other people.. A pp. man which it is customary etc. ivhereas the transforma- which occurs is in the probably complete or nearly complete and (See production of the time-binding energy is that which I call the time-binding energy. . The time-binding energy is a complex radiating energy somewhat like the emanations of radium and it probably also has many different subdivisions. this new combination produces theoretically without limits. process tricity T 1 is the thought produced by a physico-chemical (corresponding. . mechanism C 1 is the physico-chemical base (for simplicity I represent of the the whole complex as one base) human time-binding energy.) All the higher characteristics of tal. the time-binding apparatus is senmost subtle energies." exact definition of energy — are embraced in this in the capacity of time-binding.

Biology and Time-Binding 233 <f .

The animals are not time-binding. they have not autonomous progress. The we are animals and essentially brutal and selfish can. it by affecting in a wrong This energy is so peculiar I may use the old expression. have had no scientific explanation whatever. of course. the highest ideals (when the time-binding energy is unobstructed and is allowed to work normally). This theory which I call the represents a suggestive "spiral theory" working mechanism with the of latest all of the time-binding energy scientific and is in accord discoveries. the biolyte must be very diffrom the biolyte of true ideas in the human dimension. and practice animal standards and in the same breath contradict themselves in any talking about "immortality" and "salvation". it will be obvious that if we teach humans false ideas. preach who . We cannot make animals moral or immoral because they have not this time- binding capacity. if seriously. they have not the capacity of the "spiral". and also the most criminal ideas (when the time-binding energy is obstructed by false teachings and in consequence works abnormally). way that the physico-chemical base. It will be a shock to those teach. and it also explains other phenomena which. At the same time. degrade human nature not only down animal level but lower still. in other words. we affect their time-binding ca- pacities and energies very embraces. until now.234 as Appendix II special long as there is any source of energy upon which this energy can draw. therefore. Nature or nature's laws happily cannot be completely deviated from or violated the time-binding energy cannot be of false teachings in the animal dimension ferent — completely suppressed in the time-binding class of false teachings that life. Whereas human progress can be very seriously affected by false ideas. Happily now science can explain and prove how fundamentally fiendish in effect are to the these teachings in the life and progress of human beings. It explains the processes the mental and so-called spiritual energies which have been such a puzzle to humanity.

. who for the first time realizes heart. . synthesis should ever as come is to a standstill of its own accord long as enough food available ." but unhappily we cannot help them. The time-binding energies as well as "life" follow the same type of exponential function. . The idea that the body cells are naturally immortal and die only if exposed to extreme injuries such as prolonged lack of oxygen or too high a temperature helps to make one problem more intelligible. . seems indeed uncanny that so delicate a mechanism should function so regularly for so this many years. and the proper outside . the doing It its duty incessantly for the seventy years or so allotted to man. is amazed at the precariousness of our existence." ligible. that life depends upon that one organ. . the way is to entering scientifically upon the problem of immortality. greedy. stant synthesis then of specific material "The con- from simple compounds of a non-specific character is the chief feature by This which living matter differs from non-living matter. problem of synthesis leads to the assumption of immortality of the living cell.Biology and Time-Binding a little thought 235 makes it perfectly clear that "animal stand- ards" and "salvation" or "immortality" simply exclude each other. {The Organism as a Whole. The mysticism connected and other phenomena of adaptation would disappear if we would be certain that all cells are really immortal and that the fact which demands an explanation is not the with continued activity but the cessation of activity in death. The medical student. "space-binding animal standards" is not very promising as disclosed by the "spiral. since there is no a priori reason why this . physical conditions are guaranteed. . Thus cell if we it see that the idea of the immortality of the body can be generalized may be destined to become one of the main supports for a complete physico-chemical analysis of life phenomena since it makes the durability of organisms intel. With open the natural law of time-binding realized. by Jacques Loeb.) The outlook for those who live and profess selfish.

My friend Dr. a great many facts which were not become very clear now." founded by Dr. the correctness of my theory. I wrote this book on a farm without any books at hand and I had been out of touch with the progress of science for the five years spent in the war service and war duties. Jacques I found there a treasury of laboratory facts which Loeb. but because they intermix dimensions and use words not sufficiently defined which always results in confusion and the If they differ in a checking of the progress of science. the "tropism theory of animal conduct." For the mathematician and the engineer. Most of the problems touched upon in this appendix from a mathematical point of view are based upon laboratory facts. themselves above animals and their The results obtained in scientific biological researches are in their growing very rapidly and every advance proves this theory to be true. drew my attention particularly to the books of Dr. Grove-Korski.236 only time-binding Appendix II the benefit raise humans —can —only fulfilling full natural of laws for give them the their natural capacities by which they will be able to fate. because this is a theory which analyses the functions and reactions of an organism as a whole and . clear before nothing better could. J. formerly at Berkeley University. Loeb. is of the greatest interest. found with deep satisfaction that the new "scientific biology" is scientific because it has used mathematical methods with notable regard to dimensionality they do not "milk an autoillustrate as I — mobile. Since we have discovered the fact that Man is a time-binder (no matter what time is) and have introduced the sense of dimensionality into We the study of life phenomena in general. have only to collect them and there is little need of imagination to see their general bearing. knowledge few instances it is not because the principles of this theory are wrong.

and it is.Biology and Time-Binding therefore there is 237 no chance for confusion of ideas or the intermixing of dimensions. a "mathe- the survey of a life long study of "troto express "forced name given They give the the movements" quintessence of laboratory ex- periments as to what are the effects of different energies such as light (heliotropism)." which in organisms. matical biology" pisms. gravity (geotropism). — I will quote here only a very few passages. able to construct the reactions of the organism as a whole from the individual reflexes. on account of the mutual inhibitions which the different parts of the organism produce upon each other when in organic connection. is — They are. impossible to express the conduct of a whole animal as the algebraic sum of the reflexes of its isolated segments. while reflexes are reactions Reflexes and tropisms agree.. but these books are of such importance that every mathematician and engineer should read them. the so-called reflexes. It would. since tropisms are reactions of the organism as a whole. therefore. however.. their studies of the phenomena must be in "systems" as a complex whole. etc.. therefore. namely: that. By Jacques Loeb. since the reactions produced in an isolated element cannot be counted upon to occur when the same element is part of the whole. and influence upon the These experi- ments are conclusive and the conclusions arrived at cannot be overlooked or evaded. (i) the scientists must think mathematically. and they must not intermix dimensions. The tremendous practical results of such scientific methods are based upon two principles. electricity (galvanotropism)." Forced Movements Tropism and Animal Conduct. in their reaction movements and actions of living organisms. "Physiologists have long been in the habit of studying not the reactions of the whole organism but the reactions of isolated While it may seem justifisegments. such an attempt is in reality doomed to failure. one respect. . be a misconception to speak of tropism as of reflexes. (2) . if I may say so. inasmuch as both are obviously of a purely physicochemical character. in of isolated segments.

The following quota* different prove biologically that dimension — man is of a totally a totally different being than an animal. This has been done for hemoglobins of the blood by Reichert and Brown. The different species of a genus have all the same genus proteins. or verbalism. but must use clear and rigorous thinking to eliminate the prejudices in science the poison of metaphysical speculating with words. . I will indicate the quotations by using only his name. . Brown seem to indicate that this may be true for the crystals of hemoglobin. ' . . These books give ample proofs of how misleading and obscuring are the words used and how basically wrong are the conclusions arrived at by such scientists as still persist in using the anthropomorphic or teleological methods of analysis. But upon comparing the corresponding substances hemoglobins in different species of a genus it is generally found that they differ the one from the other to a greater or less degree. Conklin quote only from his Heredity and Environa repetition of the title of ment and italics are to save the book.) "It would be of the greatest importance to show directly that the homologous proteins of different species are different. The hemoglobins of any species are different substances for that species. . If a sceptical or doubtful reader is interested to see an ample proof of how deadly is the effect which an incorrect or unmathematical manner of thinking brings into science and life he — — also tions may be referred to these books. but the proteins of each species of the same genus are apparently different again in chemical constitution . . . tion of the proteins would therefore be responsible for the genus heredity. I From Dr.238 Appendix II they must see the danger and not be afraid of old words with wrong meanings. who have shown by crystallographic measurements that the hemoglobins of any species are definite substances for The following sentences by Reichert and that species. (All indicated by A. K. the differences being such that when complete crystallographic data are available the different species can be distinguished by these differences in their hemoglobins' The facts thus far reported imply the suggestion that heredity of the genus is determined by the proteins of a definite constituThis constitution differing from the proteins of other genera.

and the organization of the germ determines all the possibilities of development of the mind no less than of the body. It is a curious fact that many people who are seriously disturbed by scientific teaching as to the evolution or gradual development of the human race accept with equanimity the universal observation as to the development of the human mind as well as body. no fact in human experience is fraught with greater practical and philo- no — . all of the million known species of animals and plants differ from one another because of inherited peculiarities. cattle. species. nor that the soul generates souls." "All pecularities which are characteristic of a race. otherwise there would be no constant characteristics of these groups and The chief characters possibility of classifying organisms. . worms. horses. genus. "The entire organism consisting of structures and functions. the race is surely no more disturbing to philosophical or religious beliefs than the germinal origin of the individual. because they have come from different kinds of germ cells. reptiles." Conklin. there can be no reasonable doubt that the two develop together from the germ. insects. micro-organisms. and yet the latter is a fact of universal observation which cannot be relegated to the domain of hypothesis or theory. . and which can not be Now we know that the child comes successfully denied. . from the germ cells which are not made by the bodies of the parents but have arisen by the division of the antecedent germ Every cell comes from a pre-existing cell by a process of cell. — . . division. by Jacques Loeb. birds. ity reactions. develops out of the germ. Men. mollusks.Biology and Time-Binding 239 and hence they may give rise to the specific biological or immunThe Organism as a Whole. fishes. whatever the ultimate relation of the mind and body may be. though the actual realization of any possibility is dependent also upon environmental stimuli." Conklin. sponges. that the body generates germ cells. of every living thing are unalterably fixed by heredity. " No fact in human experience is more certain than that the mind develops by gradual and natural processes from a simple condition which can scarcely be called mind at all. class and phylum are of course inherited. polyps. "The development of the mind parallels that of the body. Men do not gather grapes of thorns nor figs of thistles. . order. The animal ancestry of individual. The only possible scientific position is that the mind or soul as well as the body develops from the germ. Consequently it is not possible to hold. Every living thing produces off-spring after its own kind. and every germ cell comes from a pre-existing germ cell. body and mind.

disregarded. the person develops and dies in each generation. It is an interesting fact that in man." "Doubtless the elements of which consciousness develops are present in the germ cells. Individual traits are not transmitted from the hen to the egg." "The germ This . The person nourishes and protects the germ. . the germ-plasm is the continuous stream of living substance which connects all generations. due to interactions with one another and with the environment. period of infancy and of immaturity in the human race greatly increases the importance of environment and training as factors Conklin. is . and these identical cells persist throughout the remainder of life.. and in several other animals which may be assumed to have a sense of identity. tion to generation. .. . The children of lower races of man develop more rapidly than those of higher races but in such cases they The prolongation of the also cease to develop at an earlier age. sidelight given also on the "Spiral theory. Another methods. in a manner quite Other animals develop impossible in other organisms. much more rapidly than man but that development sooner comes to an end.. give rise to the fully developed condition. cease dividing at an early age. which by long series of combinations and transformations. immortal substance. . of development. . not as a miniature of the adult condition. the nerve cells. especially those of the brain. but they develop out of germinal factors which are carried along from cell to cell. the person is the developed organism which arises from the germ under the influence of environmental conditions. in the same sense that the elements of the other psychic processes or of the organs of the body are there present." (Author.. but lather in the form of elements or factors. but the egg produces the hen and also other eggs." "The hen does not produce the egg.240 Appendix II sopnical significance than this.) "Through intelligence and social cooperation he is able to control environment for particular ends.) "In education Any are strangely blind to proper aims and education is bad which leads to the formation we ." ." (Author. and yet no fact is more generally Conklin." the undeveloped organism which forms the bond between successive generations. and in this sense the person is merely the carrier of the germ-plasm. is what I call "time-linking. and from genera. the mortal trustee of an Conklin.

Our anatomical. Man can not change a single law of nature but he can -put himself into such relations to natural laws that he -. physiological. in living things no less than in lifeless ones. Every human being comes into existence by a process of development. . time-binding impulses conscious. every step of which is determined by antecedent causes. . If evolution has progressed from the amoeba to man without human interference. the universality of natural processes." pendence. failure. "All that man now is he has come to be without conscious human guidance. the question may well be asked Is it possible to improve on the natural method of evolution? It may not be possible to improve on the method of evolution and yet by intelligent action it may be possible to facilitate that method." Conklin. in their This shows the importance of keeping the study of humans own dimensionality. and also the importance of find- . open-mindedness and inde. : This proves the great importance of knowing the natand making natural ural laws for the human class of life. Here it is immaterial how the first "time-binder" was produced. Any religious or social institution is bad which leads to habits of pious make-believe. for then only will the spiral give a logarithmical accumulation of the right kind. thoroughness and success." Conklin. from the immensity of the universe to the minuteness of the electron. "From sands to stars. . instead of habits of industry. and all that he is and does is limited and prescribed by laws of nature. the reign of natural law. . slavish regard for authority and disregard for evidence. insincerity.Biology and Time-Blnding 241 of habits of idleness. other- wise the biolyte will be "animal" in substance as well as in effect. a part of the great mechanism of the universe. science recognizes everywhere the inevitable sequence of cause and effect. . instead of habits of sincerity. psychological possibilities were predetermined in the germ cells from which we came. .an profit by them. carelessness. the fact that he is of another dimension is of the greatest importance. . . Man also is a part of Nature. if the great progress from ape-like men to the most highly civilized races has taken place without conscious human control.

reflection and inhibition man is much freer than any other animal. . This understanding will enable man to discover new "time-binding" laws for their conduct. To a large extent our habits... .. our aspirations. the more they learn the freer they become." Conklin. Animals which learn little from experience have little freedom and Conklin. religion are the results of the environment and education of our early years. and their actual appearance depends upon many complicated reactions of the germinal units with one another and with the environment. then and only then natural laws but will be in human progress will have a chance to develop peacefully. It is rather "The . our actual personalities are not predetermined in the germ cells." "Owing to this vastly greater power of memory. The influence of environment upon the minds and morals of men is especially great. In short. but our possible personalities are. and how truly we are the masters of our destinies. . their business relations. accord with them. thoughts." view analysis of instinct from a purely physiological point of ultimately furnishes the data for a scientific ethics. "Adult characteristics are potential and not actual in the germ... ." . .. our responsibility. words. morality.. "Because we can find no place in our philosophy and logic for self determination shall we cease to be scientists and close our eyes to the evidence? The first duty of science is to appeal to fact and to settle later with logic and philosophy. satisfactions. ideals.242 Appendix the II for the mg life. .. Human happiness is based upon the possibility of a natural and harmonious satisfaction of the instincts. There the will be no difficulty in the settlement of facts with new philosophy of "Human Engineering. their state. which will not ideals are be a contradiction of the real. It may be added here that the "spiral theory" explains how our reactions can be accelerated and elaborated by ourselves. impersonal natural laws it human class of Now can be realized that all the so-called human none else than the ever growing fulfillment of the natural "time-binding" laws.

This instinct can be again reversed by raising the temperature or by lowering the concenI have found repeatedly that by the tration of the sea water. whose instincts were inhibited or warped through the combined effects of an enervating climate. that of workmanship included. Robert Mayer has pointed out that any successful display or setting free of energy is a source of pleasure to us. This is an erroneous view. This common base is the physical and chemical character of the mixture of substances which we call protoplasm. . frequently imagine that only want makes man work. despotism and miserable economic conditions is intelligible. that of workmanship. indicates that there is a common basis for both classes of life phenomena. same conditions by which phenomena of growth and organizaThis tion can be controlled the instincts are controlled also. can be maintained at a But while it is certain that the indicertain optimal intensity.g. .. This is the reason why the satisfaction of the instinct of workmanship is of such importance in the economy of life. compelled by want to sacrifice a number of instincts especially the most valuable among them. A number of marine animals . . for the play and learning of the child. in order . . criminologists and philosophers some extent. We are instinctively forced to be active in . We can vary at will the instincts of animals.. it is at the same time true that the economic and social conditions can ruin or diminish the value of life for a great number of individuals.Biology and Time-Binding 243 remarkable that we should still be under the influence of an ethics which considers the human instincts in themselves low and their gratification vicious. . and it is perhaps due to a continuation of the unsatisfactory economic conditions that this ethics still prevails to Lawyers. That such an ethics must have had a comforting effect upon the orientals. go away from the light. .. can be forced to go to light in two ways. The instinct of workmanship would be the greatest source of happiness if it were not for the fact that our present social and economic organization allows only a few to satisfy this instinct. dissipation. e. vidual can ruin or diminish the value of its life by a onesided development of its instincts. whereby the cells of the animals lose water. It is no doubt true that in our present social and economic conditions more than ninety per cent of human beings lead an existThey are ence whose value is far below what it should be. . as well as for the scientists or commercial work of the man. the same way as ants or bees. first by lowering the temperature and second by increasing the concentration of the sea water. . The greatest happiness in life can be obtained only if all instincts.

by Jacques Loeb. The idea of specific energy has always been regarded as the terminus for the investigation of the sense organs. . . we must remember that the colloidal substances are the machines which produce the life phenomena. .. Here it may be added that the "Instinct of Workmanship" in the animal class. If we are anxious to develop a dynamic of the various life-phenomena. ." Comparative Physiology of the Brain. We . the only true satisfaction a multimillionaire can possibly get from increasing his fortunes. and the same should be Although we recognize no metatrue for the business man. we do not deny personal responsibility. Mach expressed the opinion that chemical conditions lie at the foundation of sensation in general. As a matter of fact.. .. But for an increase of happiness only that amount of money is of service which can be used for the harmonious development and satisfaction of inherited instincts. physical free-will. . It seems to me that we can no more expect to unravel the mechanism of associative memory by histological or morphological methods than we can expect to unravel the dynamics of electrical phenomena by microscopic study of cross-sections through a telegraph wire or by counting and locating the telephone connections in a big city. that of eating. Cruelty in the penal code and the tendency to exaggerate punishment are sure signs of a low civilization and of an imperfect educational system. can fill the memory of the young generation with such associations as will prevent wrong doing or dissipation. scientific management is or . In the present social and economic system very few have a possibility to satisfy this instinct. but the physics of these Physiology gives substances is still a science of the future. . The scientist gets this satisfaction without diminishing the value of life of his fellow being. The rest is of no more use to a man than the surplus of oxygen in the atmosphere. and is nothing else than the expression of the natural impulse of the "Time-binding" energy. If those who amass immense fortunes could possibly intensify their lives with their abundance.. becomes in the time-binding class of life the instinct of creation. . us no answer to the latter question. For this. is the satisfaction of the instinct of workmanship or the pleasure that is connected with a successful display of energy. . .244 Appendix II to save the lowest and most imperative. it might perhaps be rational to let many suffer in order to have a few cases of true happiness. comparatively little is necessary.

c is commonly posi- £=2. . bacteria as uniform from year to year. with unlimited food supplied. . . growing under ideal conditions In in a culture. function S=P(i-\-i) n in other fields "Compound is interest function. the quantity in question decreases.). Thus the growth of timber of a large forest tract may be expressed as a function of this kind. "The values of the function of xt ce kx} increase according to the terms of a geometrical progression as the variable creases in arithmetical progression.D. of fundamental importance than in finance. The constant k is the proportionality constant and is negative facts involved. and k are constants determined by the physical and e is a constant of nature analogous to tt. the assumption being that in a large tract the rate of growth may be taken the case of i. but is not satisfactory to the instinct of creation. Ph. Any function in which the rate of change or rate of growth at any instant t is directly proportional to t the value of the function at the instant of organic growth.7182.e.Biology and Time-Binding may it 245 be satisfying the animal instinct of workmanship. by —The Louis C.. Karpinski. its last "Time- binding" in analysis is creation and only such a social and economic system impulse — as will satisfy this will satisfy Humans — want — this natural the "Time-binders" — and will bring about their fullest "Laws of Growth" growth in work and happiness. the increase is in the number of bacteria per second proportional to the number of bacteria present at the beginning of that second.. (from Unified Mathematics. . y=ce kt wherein c . x in- "The most immediate application of a function in which the . when tive .' obeys what has been termed the 'law and may be expressed by the equation.

and formulas expressing the law of organic growth.' and this index. the surface-area of a wound. by washing and flushing continually with antiseptic solutions. measured from the time when the wound of "The Curve — = = . the expected decrease in area.92^ This 26200 is known as Halley's law. In inches as units of length of the mercury column. the rate of decrease of the amplitude follows this law similarly in the case of a noise dying down and in certain electrical phenomena. follow approximately the law of organic growth. expression P=j6o e~ iwio gives the numerical value in of the pressure in millimeters of mercury for h measured The negative exponent indicates that the pressure decreases as h increases. two observations at an interval commonly of four days give the 'index of the individual. . Healing of a Wound. enable the physician-scientist to determine the normal progress of the wound-surface. . Closely allied to the e kt. The decrease in the pressure of the air at the distance h above the earth's surface is proportional to h.246 growth is Appendix II itself is to proportional to the function the air. Radium in decomposing follows the same law. r = 29. . again between quite restricted limits. "The growth of bean plants within limited intervals and the growth of children. and the two measurements of area of the wound-surface. like a pendulum. function at the instant. In the case of vibrating bodies. with time expressed in days. y the law of 'organic decay. "The meters.' y e~ tt is a recently discovered law which connects algebraically by an equation and graphically by a curve. the rate of decrease is proportional at any instant to the value of the . the rate of decrease at any instant being proportional to the quantity. for this wound- . is aseptic or sterile. When this aseptic condition is reached. h in feet.

"When is the observed area is found markedly greater than is that determined by the ideal curve. s=s ie -» which S. . the healed. which measures "The areas of the wound are plotted as ordinates with the measured in days as abscissas. — In nature there are somewhat closely connected two types mathemat- . 247 is The area of the wound traced carefully on transparent paper. . A rather surprising and unexplained situation occurs frequently surface heals more rapidly than the cate. . 191 8. Alexis Carrel of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research. He it noted that the larger the wound-surface.Biology and Time-Binding surface of this individual.. "The data given are taken from the Journal of Experimental Medicine. reprints kindly furnished by Major George A. "Wave Motion. The diagrams are reproduced from the issue of Feb. . . Desmarres. General. of recurrent motion. . 171 and 172. This proportionality constant not the same for all values of the surface or we would have an equation of the form. computed by using planimeter. pp. Paris. pital 75. in this event secondary ulcers woundwould indidevelop which bring the the ideal curve when curve back to normal to "This application of mathematics to medicine is largely due Dr.. is the area at the time that the wound is rendered and observations to be plotted really begin. T. article by Dr. and that the rate of healing seemed more rapidly is to be proportional to the area. Stewart of the Rockefeller Institute. and then a mathematical machine. Tuffier and R. the indication still that there infection in the wound. 1. called a areas. Auxiliary Hosin sterile . After each observation and computation of area the point so respective times of observation obtained is plotted to the same axes as the graph which gives the ideal or prophetic curve of healing.

M8 Appendix II O H « > e"3 <D (J ~ tBJg ' O J= ° .SPS (-1 o o C « O <U .

electrical vibrations or waves. . "One type of this motion. fork vibrations recorded on smoked paper. . 249 in- in which repetition of motion occurs at regular tervals. y= sin x. the respiration. "Sound Waves. to each = X . vibrating. By attaching a fine point end of the bar and moving under this bar at a uniform rate. the tides. The waves Sound waves. — . "Corresponding is movement of the vibrating rod there a movement of the air. its axis. The tuning fork in motion moves through the same space again and again string. beats. as it vibrates. and radiant energy vibrations are transmitted by a process similar to that by which the waves of the sea are carried. To we the fundamental and basic function involved. repeats the motion in one place. "Both of these types of motion are representable mathe- matically by equations involving a sequence of trigonometric functions. vibrations in vibrating 50 times in 1 second. a similar movement is the motion of a vibrating Of this stationary type may be mentioned the heart- the pulse. . and in a sense stationary. As the bar moves to the right . back-and- to the one second. . and the rotation of a wheel about "The second type of recurrent motion transmits or carries of the sea are of this character. a smoke-blackened paper.Biology and Time-Blnding ically. Tuning The curve y sin (50 2nt). Our curve is traced by a bar forth. a sinusoidal curve is traced on the paper. . to will direct our attention in the next section and to simple applications in other sections of this chapter. If a tuning fork for note lower C is set the free bar makes 129 complete. in cycles as is we may say. the vibratory impulse over an extent of space as well as time.

as the bar ^ sound wave. frequency 50 per second." drawing may help to visualize the fact in what expressions and untrue teachings hamper the Every word has its energy and true progress of humanity..250 it Appendix II right and that compresair to the compresses the layer of air to is its sion immediately communicated to the layer of moves back and to the left. and the time of one vibration. this disturbance is transmitted The wave length for this sound = / "The wave is length is commonly designated by X. gives the vibration frequencies. in 'relay'. If we teach ideas which are untrue.' 'r' 'a' as in 'ate'. of 1 second you have the air adjacent to the rod comIn pressed. the pressure on the adjacent air is released and a rarefaction takes place. X= Vt. 'father. and 'a' in fork record.. "Vibration records produced by the voice: 'ou' as in 'about'. The tuning . during this time the neighboring air is affected and the compression is communicated a distance which is the wave length of this given right. back to normal. produces some physico-chemical effects in the time-binding apparatus in accord with the idea which we associate with the sound of the word. 'e' in 'be'. If V the velocity. and rarefied. wave then is ^%^22 feet. In I second 1 100 feet at 44 Fahrenheit. This last manner wrong .

The Prevention of Parthenogenesis)." 1906. Facts and Principles of Physiological Morphology." word." in General Physiology. VII. The Significance of Tropisms for Psychology. MONOGRAPHS ON EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY Loeb. : "Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Com"Studies Contents 1 II. Loeb. our minds with the physico- chemical effects of wrong ideas." Chicago. because we have "poisoned. New York. There is every reason why the standards that is. Loeb. IV. 1905. the Death of the Act of Fertilization. J. III.— Biology and Time-Binding 251 then the physico-chemical effects produced are not proper in other words the human mind does not does not work properly. This correct natural approach to the "Time-binding" energies will make it obvious how unmeasured is the importance of the manner in which we handle this subtle mechanism." Chicago. Pattern Adaptation of Fishes and the Mechanism of Vision. it in in a literal sense of the our civilization are so low.: "The Mechanistic Conception of Life. On the Nature of the Process of FertiIi7ation. Loeb. Egg through the . Some Fundamental Facts and Conceptions concerning the Comparative Physiology of the Central Nervous System. 1912. as the poisoning with wrong ideas or with careless or incorrect words does not in any way differ in consequences from poisoning with any other stupor-producing or wrongly stimulating poison. J. On Some VIII. The Mechanistic Conception of Life.: J. VI.: "The Dynamics of Living Matter. parative Psychology. J. 1900. On the Nature of Formative Stipulation (Artificial V. work naturally or normally or true to the human dimension. New York.

J. Loeb. Mendelian Heredity and its Mechanism. Secondary Sexual Characters and Sexual Instincts: 1. Specificity in Fertilization. Regeneration. The 2. XIV. New York. Galvanotropism. XIII. The Role of Salts in the Preservation of Life. Incompatibility of Species not Closely Related. Loeb. The Symmetry Relations of the Animal Body as the Starting Point for the Theory of Animal Conduct. 191 6. XII. VII. II. Determination of Sex. VIII. The Influence of Environment. G. 2. The Influence of One Source of Light. VI." J. Adaptation to Environment. IX. Forced Movements. Evolution. Heliotropism. XI. Death and Dissolution of the Organism. V. Putnam's Sons. and Animal Conduct. Introductory Remarks. Contents I. 1918. The Chemical basis of Genus and Species and of Species Specificity. : The Organism as a Whole. III. P. X. B. Experimental Study of the Influence of Environment on Animais. Animal Instincts and Tropisms. Contents I. The Physiological Basis of Sex Determination. II. V.: "Forced Movements. Tropisms. X. The Cytological Basis of Sex Determination. Specific Difference between Living and Dead Matter and the Question of the Origin of Life. J. The III. Artificial Parthenogenesis. Philadelphia. Lippincott. IV.252 Appendix II IX. . Determinism in the Formation of an Organism from an Egg. The Chemical Basis of Genus and Species: 1. IV. Introduction.

XIX. B. 253 VI. Two Sources of Light of Different Intensity. XI. The Relative Heliotropic Efficiency of Light of Different Wave Lengths. The Mechanism of Development. Thermotropism. A list of 5J4 books on this subject. Phenomena of Inheritance. Heliotropism of Sessile Animals. C. D. XIV. XVII. Phenomena of Development. Instincts. Observations on Inheritance. IX. XVI.Biology and Time-Binding 1. Factors of Development. VIII. XII. Edwin Grant: "Heredity and Environment in the Development of Men. Statistical Study of Inheritance. 2. Experimental Study of Inheritance. Introductory. The Effect of Rapid Changes in Intensity of Light." Princeton University Press. Cellular Basis of Heredity and Development. Geotropism. The Validity of the Bunsen-Roscoe Law for the Heliotropic Reactions of Animals and Plants. III. General Facts. B. II. C. Forced Movements Caused by Moving Images: Rheotropism: Anemotropism. Direct Proof of the Muscle Tension Theory of Heliotropism in Motile Animals. X. DIS- CONTENTS Facts and Factors of Development. Asymmetrical Animals. . Introduction. 3. Heliotropism of Unicellular Organisms. A. B. Chemotropism. XIII. Conklin. Change in the Sense of Heliotropism. in which any reader interested will find a vast storehouse of exact knowledge in this line. I. Stereotropism. The Germ Cells. VII. Retina XV. 4. Author. Memory Images and Tropisms. A. The Mechanism of Heredity. XVIII. A. An Artificial Heliotropic Machine.

D. H. E." F.. East.. Glossary of books on this subject. Experimental Modifications of Development. and Jones. Inheritance or Non-inheritance of Acquired Characters.. Applications to Human Development: Euthenics. A. Genetics and Ethics. Control of Heredity: Eugenics. "The Elementary Nervous System." Parker. Morgan. E. Relative Importance of Heredity and Environ- ment. A.. VI. G." Harvey. "Physical Basis of Heredity. Domesticated Animals and Cultivated Plants.. "Inbreeding and Outbreeding. for those who desire to be more fully acquainted with the subjects of heredity and development. B. Influence of Environment. M. N. B. "The Nature of Animal Light. H. C. Control of Human Heredity. V.254 Appendix II IV. Author. E." . D. T. Functional Activity as a Factor of Development. etc.

are derived the work activity of dead only the present but the future. metallurgists and chemists. mathematicians and builders. by their very nature. and should the bridge collapse. all The simple steel structure of a bridge. When a opened and tested. which seldom happens for no one is entrusted with the work unless he has bound up in his knowledge the accumulated experience sible the riveted steel — of the past. is familiar to us in every day a clear reminder to us and the bound-up knowledge of countless generations of smiths and mechanics. Rarely are the selfish affairs of engineering done with the entirely motive of merely acquiring immediate selfish gain. These structures do not collapse unless the natural laws for their construction are transgressed. and the pride and the sense of responsibility of the designer and builder of the bridge first to demand enter it that he.APPENDIX III ENGINEERING AND TIME-BINDING THE Arts from other sions of Engineering. yet the transgressors of these natural laws are punished with bridge is all the severity of the common law. be the and the last to leave it . he has to take the immediate consequences of his neglect of the time-binding laws. human than any from the errors of intermixing dimen- men and destined to They are freer serve not and from the fallacy of belief in individualistic accom- plishment and pride. 255 . the written laws in some countries and the unwritten in others. life. teachers and engiof the arts of Hephasstus neers who toiled for many thousands of years to make pos- beams which are the elements of modern structure. the creator of the bridge.

Industrial Counselor..256 for even Appendix when this III could be traced — to this unworthy thought disappears in the halo of the glory of the accomplishment. of see- ing their marvelous collective achievements chained to space- binding aims. no matter how marvelous.E. ulties manifested in the In an attempt to trace and evaluate the time-binding facArts of Engineering. self-supporting structures and thereby serving future ity. Again. electricity. at the confusion and contradicmass of evidence. Chairman of Committee on Service and Information. . no student of the Arts of Engineering could ever forget himself to the point of claiming his accomplishments. is rightly the accomplishment of any one man. Fuels Section. in silent consent. His tower stands to-day as a mechanical proof of mathematical formulas proving the possibility of erecting tall. Doctor of Engineering. L.M. tions unrealized in the sciously submit to the degradation. for the origin of the discovery can be traced at least as far back as the days of that barefooted shepherd boy Magnus. Eiffel did not erect his tower haunt Paris with the sight of a steel skeleton towering over the city of daring thoughts. who first observed the phenomena of magnetism. Mr. Gantt being no more with us. one is at once and bewildered. The late H.S. Upon the completion of this book I was astonished that there are such a small number of engineers who have the intuitive feeling of the greatness of the assets at their com- mand and of the gravity of their liabilities concerning affairs I was eager to have my book read and analysed by a few leading engineers. A. Polakov. I then turned to Walter N. and how pathetic and deplorable is the sight of hundreds of thousands of workers in the field of engineering toil and creation who unconastonished. of humanity. The No wondrous discovery of modern not even the talking from one hemisphere to another. human- Time-binding capacity of humans creates and formulates new values for the service of mankind. all to himself.

Gantt and Charles P. I found. Wolf. few volumes and writings for the New Library of the Manhood of Humanity.M. fore. late H. for without familiarity with these sciences the mastery of power production is a futile attempt. Engineering Magazine. that was inevitable. The task of engineers was to conknowledge brain work "bound-up time" into daily — — — bread by means of conserving time and is naught else but the working out of It This concept the imperfect formueffort. but I could not avoid trespassing in the adjoining fields of psychology and economics. have done a most remarkable work It will not be . it was rather my care to avoid the treatment of any technical subject which could be found elsewhere in engineering literature. Polakov.E. 1921. together with the work of the Steinmetz. L.S.— Engineering and Time-B ending and Robert B. to the full. for they are based on .an exaggeration to say that their work. engineering alone has first the distinction of being the into the to have the correct insight vert human problem. a 257 In them very sympathetic understanding and my esteem grew as I the character of their became more intimately acquainted with work and their accomplishments. lation of the time-binding principle. Vice-President of A. How straight and how far this sense of dimensionality has led some of them in their practical work may be seen from the work of Walter N. in his Mastering Power Production. marking the parting of the way of engineering thought from the past and form the first subjection to speculative fetishes. there- some engineers had already beaten the path in the right direction. first may be considered as the — corner-stones of the science and art of to my Human knowledge Engineering. " I do not hold that the principles upon which the method is laid out are subject to choice or opinions. These books and pamphlets are based on facts analysed scientifically. N. "It was not my intention to compile a text book on power engineering.. in their respective lines. Of all the pure and applied sciences. Both. Y.

I shall feel that my own and my readers* time have not been altogether lost. for it deals with living and constantly reshaping relations and applies to things in process of development. biology. Wolf to engineering was made in his study of physiology. scientific in the meantime practical analysis of all human problems. . psychology and philosophy as applied to engineering. the forthcoming book of Mr. "If this work and its underlying idea will facilitate the solving of some of the problems now in the course of rapid evolution in our industrial relations. where a most valuable statistical picture of facts in modern America is given and the astonishing conclusions which are to be drawn therefrom. Appendix III Yet work of this character cannot be complete. It is a deep and practical treatise — — on all great questions concerning modern is industrialism and so-called economic problems and philosophy. It is obvious that a scientific knowledge of facts. or be illy chosen. is of the greatest importance for anyone who cares to approach any problem in a serious way. If more such books had been written and read by the public. many crises and catastrophes would have been avoided. This book gives an engineering. I had the privilege of reading the manuscript of Quo Vadis America. I can only regret that in Europe we have not such a knowledge written down concerning European conditions. a foundation for a new scientific industrial Another very clear outline of the Principles of Industrial Philosophy Polakov in his paper presented at the was given by Mr. December 7-10. Anyone who has anything to do with industrial or 1920. Polakov. The outstanding contribution of Mr. Statistics which are up-to-date are therefore of primary importance.258 facts. economic problems cannot afford to overlook the important and fundamental work in this book." examples may Indeed the readers' time will not be lost. Robert B. annual meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

" The five important facts. That its capacity for progress depends upon the maintenance of the unity resulting from this creative evolution and upon a conscious recognition of this unity. mensely profitable and of practical value. Doctor Charles P. that have to do with the subject in hand are: " 1st. That the human body is such a wonderful organization because it is the product of the forces of creation. he will find himself at once plunged into the realm of psychology and mental I can heartily recommend such a course as imphilosophy. not only the a friend and admirer. Although this book was written in 191 6. before the end of the World War. viduality in Industry. Wolf. That the conscious intelligent progress made by mankind could not have reached its present level until in the process of evolution a mechanism had been built up in the nervous system itself capable of recording the various impressions which the senses are constantly receiving. what I want to point out is that inasmuch as man's progress depends upon the perfect co-ordination of his forces to produce unity of action. " Now. "My homage of tribute to the memory of Gantt will be. " $th. we have no right to expect an industrial organization to make progress which it must do as a unit without the establishment of a conscious co-ordinating mechanism similar to the nervous system in the human body. however.Engineering and Time-Binding 259 "If anyone wishes to inquire into the forces which have led up to the individual development of mankind. " 2nd. That the recording of past events. " \th. That this unity would not have been possible without the development of the nervous system. but the proof that his philos- . that is." IndiBy Robert B. " 3d. it will be of permanent value. Steinmetz has given in his America and New Epoch a most correct engineering picture of the political situation in the world. acting through millions of years of evolution. with a fine characterization the of the psychological peculiarities of the different races. with the power of consciously recalling them for the solution of problems immediately confronting it. because of its deep psychological analysis of the peoples and their institutions which ultimately shape the development of any nation and which do not change with victory or defeat. is absolutely essential to its development.

'we preach give.' animals are 'Space-binding. If one of them is true and natural law for humans. then our deeds are not true. The method we use in studying phenomena is analysis. which is identical to such an absurdity as x square inches equal y linear inches plus or multiplied by z cubic inches. but our faulty integration did not restore the original dimensions. I found the solution. differentiation. in a specific way. as in mathematics it makes a correct solution impossible. " 3 This basically wrong formula on which our civilization rests. wars and revolu- HUMAN ANIMAL tions. " These definitions have the peculiarity that they make it obvious.' The problem which interested me. which would not permit of any blunders in dimensions. plus or multiplied by SPARK OF DIVINITY equal is basically and elementarily wrong. so these . by defining the phenomena of life.' Gantt took 'rendering service' as an axiom. and is mathematical nonsense. dimensional characteristics: plants are 'Chemistry-binding.260 ophy Appendix III is scientifically true. with its exact concept of dimensions. produce tragic consequences. if our words are true. or process of integration made by the use of metaphysics was faulty. " I defined the classes of life by emphasizing their incontestable. or if our deeds are true then the words are camouflage. the methods of differentiation are mostly correct. the meaning of which can be completely reversed by the verb. The differentiation correctly lowered the dimensions. The investigation had to be made from the beginning. be it 'give' or 'take. and that the intermixing of dimensions. we practice take. that: I The classes of life have different dimensions. and human 'time-binding' impulses were. shared with many others. gave me the method. because the word 'service' belongs to that category of words. so in life. was how to find a way out of this contradiction that would be irrefutable. " 2 The old formula on which our civilization is built. is the cause of all the periodical collapses. the results of such elementary mistakes. then the other is not. in rebellion. is that our civilization had quite another axiom. A rigorous proof is necessary. Mathematics. all the time. " 5 As the theory of gravitation and the calculus made engineers and mathematicians masters of inanimate nature. but our synthesis.' Humans are 'Time-binding' classes of life. by applying mathematically rigorous thinking. my observation. that or speaking mathematically. I soon found. "4 The old system was Duilt on animal 'space-binding' standards.

the responsibility is ours to correct the mistakes of our ancestors and to establish a scientific philosophy. and a scientific sociology. is bound to collapse again and again in the future. not an animal. and. it is obvious then that in this dimension. which will LAWS for correspond to the natural impulses and mankind. We . " are the masters of our own destinies. 'time-binding' is the natural law. wherein pending revolutions and wars could be turned into evolution. "7 The duty of mathematically thinking people is to throw such light on this problem as will stop the stupid. and in helping to maintain the faulty structure which. "6 All of those who are blinded by traditions and refuse to investigate. discord into accord of a common aim. to be summed up. a science which I propose to call 'Human Engineering. or to know these mathematical truths. or the survival of the strongest. if understood and analysed. scientifically true laws. which is the 'survival of the fittest in space. it is the highest human aim. and just this realization will bring about the readjustment of values in life to a human dimension. must be replaced by 'time-binding' standards. scientifically true ethics.' Gantt's methods would be the first practical application toward this end. are a danger to humanity in directly helping to obscure issues. which class of life.Engineering and Time-Binding 261 tangible and incontestable definitions give them a positive base will enable them to approach and solve human living problems. "12 The minds of mathematicians and engineers are by education the first to see the far reaching importance of the facts disclosed by these definitions. " 10 All known facts must be brought to the light. and correlated by mathematicians and engineers with the strictest attention to dimensionality. as in the past. the animal 'spacebinding' standards must be rejected as dangerous and destructive. "8 For the 'time-binding' NATURAL LAW NATURAL humans. or willfully destructive. which will form one unified science of man and his function in the universe. destruction into construction. must be in the human dimension which obviously would be the 'Survival of the fittest in TIME/ resulting in the survival of the best. by establishing the mathematical fact that man is man. "11 All of our ideas have to be revised. and show whether they are working for or against. whereas such a law to be a FOR HUMANS. "9 Such 'natural laws' as 'survival of the fittest' for animals.' result in fight.

Selection from Contents: The Descent of the Principle of Production for Use. "Quo Vadis America?" . December. C. Democracy Management. H. . N._ Selection from Contents: The Engineer as the Industrial Leader. The Position of an Engineer. 1921. Y. 192 1. of M.: "Mastering Power Production. Association Press. . Brace & Howe. Mastering Labor Problems. "The Religion of Democracy. Walter N. Energy as a Commodity." Harcourt. "Principles of Industrial Philosophy.' Discussion by Alfred Korzybski of Mr.. Association N. E. The Social Aspect. December 7-10." Presented at the Annual Meeting of the A. Right to be Lazy and the Right to a Job. in Democracy in the Shop. In preparation. W. and Profits. Press. UNIVERSAL LABOR {Corresponding exactly to Time-binding Author)." The Engineering Magazine N. Y. New York. Profit Sharing. Qualification of Men. C. A. "Organizing for Work. 1916. Co." Y. 1920. S. The Basis of Wages. — N. N. Two-rate wages. Premium Places. pensation. The Working Day." Yale University Press. "Industrial Leadership. ComThe Economic Aspect. A. Fatigue.: " 262 Appendix III " Gantt's concept of rendering service is scientifically true because it is 'time-binding/ and therefore true for the human This is why Gantt's class of life and in human dimension. Y. L. Aims of Labor. Democracy in Production. 1920.. N. (Conditions) Autonomous Co-operation. Wages. "Work.Y. Mastering Labor Problems. "Organization and Management. . The Power Industry as an Economic Factor. Polakov's paper "Principles of Industrial Philosophy" presented at the Annual Meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1913. concepts have counted for so much and will survive 'IN TIME." Y." The Engineering Magazine Co." Polakov. LITERATURE Gantt. Rewarding Individual Efforts. Incentive Payments. M. Y. 1919. 192 1. "Equipment and Machinery. M. Economics and Democracy.

Selection from Contents: The Individualistic Era: From Competition to Co-operation. Robert Pamphlets. "Credit of the Nations." Hodder & Stoughton. of M.: "America and the New Epoch. Charles P." American Economic Association. 4. Evolution: Industrial Government. Wolf. "Non-Financial Incentives. Y. How Thomas Farrow and Walter Crotch: "The Coming Trade War. I. Y. Henry: "Germany's Commercial Grip on the World. Louis: Other People's Money and Use it. N. 1914. August." the Bankers E." Harper & Brothers." E. Hauser. M. N. Y." Y. The Other European Nations in the Individualistic Era. B. Association Press.: 1912. 1921. N. 1919. Hueffer. 1918. 1918. Stokes. 1916. Y. "Creative Spirit in Industry.: "Individuality in MISCELLANEOUS LIST OF BOOKS Von Bernhardi. Y. "Germany and the Next War. America in the Individualistic Era. "Securing the Initiative of the Workman. 191 5. England in the Individualistic Era. Association Press. A. Y. A. N. Her Business Methods Explained. W. Shaw & Co." Chapman & Hall. Germany in the Individualistic Era. M.Engineering and Time-Bending 263 Steinmetz. N. N. Y. London. 1917. 1919. N. N. No.: 1918. "Incentive and Initiative. L. Nash Co. J." A. Y. 1921. E." F." Scribner's Sons ( . London. N. Ford Maddox: "When Blood is Their Argument." Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. Arnold. "Modern Industry and the Individual. N. 1915. Y. "The Creative Workman. Vol. General F. Y. C.. December. Brandeis." Bulletin of the Society to promote the Science of Management. C. London. A. Laughlin." Y. 1916. Industry." Presented at the Annual Meeting of the A. S.

French Opinion. Liberty and Function Light of War. Neilson." Geo. "J'Accuse!" Hodder & ." W. 1915. Opinion). 1915. Huebsch. Allen and Unwin. By a German (German Stoughton.264 Appendix III in the Maetzu. "The Inevitable War. London. Ramiro de: "Authority. Maynard & B. Boston. Francis: Small." Co. Delaisi. "How Diplomats Make War.. 1916. Francis: English Opinion.

V. Published 1943 by the Institute of General Semantics. which was then passing through acute managerial difficulties to confusion of function and control. Conn. of Graicunas' work given at the end of this supplement. was a personal in 1934 from Walter N. Mr.A. in a practically unchanged form. It encounters unprecedented difficulties in expressing new relations in terms of vanished fancies.V.APPENDIX EFFICIENCY FOR IV SOME NON-ARISTOTELIAN DATA ON HUMAN ADJUSTMENT* by ALFRED KORZYBSKI The summary communication States. without a language having correspondence to reality. are not difficulties peculiar to this project. project. . writing about the T.A. In my work with students I have utilized Mr. Lakeville. They are signs of our time a sort of dangerous epidemic. The night fear of ghosts remains. 1941.V.A. as well * Reprinted from Papers From the Second American Congress on General Semantics. springing out of our slow adjustment to a pro. the out- standing engineer and industrial diagnostician in the United It was due originally written for the Tennessee Valley Authority. The difficulties in building the T. Polakov. — foundly changed environment. inherited the language and metaphysics of a bygone age. . 265 . Polakov's summary with his diagram adapted from the original data concerning the 'span of attention' or 'span of control'. Polakov. evaluated the situation thus: The youthful T.

The question bells. The different collections which can be formed from things without regard to the order in which they are placed are called their combinations. 15-26. 354. Art . pp. xxxm. 1 I have found empirically that these are invariably useful for the elimination of the individual's inability to handle personal life situations adequately. Penn. pp. 1941). 217 f.. Chap. I must stress that the principles apply also to our personal life difficulties. etc. as name. etc.e. in what psychiatrists call 'family attachment' (infan- clinging to 'papa' or 'mama'). and geometrical progression. U2 ff. amen.10. may 7 at 'How many changes can a time?' The answer is be rung with 10 taking 604. 193 ff. For example. 264. mean. and even combinations of higher order which also follow an exponential law. 255 ff. . Dutton and Co. 2.32. 126 ff.. 161. a.m.. The different orders in which things can be arranged are called their permutations.800. 176 ff. Urwick. 167 ff.. P.8. where complications dealing with human reactions grow in a geometrical ratio. 1921). 63. 232 ff.. The work of Graicunas. arise.. for We must mention here permutations and combinations. and Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Systems and General Semantics (Second edition. : Science Press Printing Co. in the notorious interfertri- ence of mothers-in-law.8.. quite a respectable number for a problem so seemingly simple on the surface.. The disregard of the above considerations has led to many same tile military and managerial disasters.6.... or in the tragedies of marital 1 See in particular my Manhood of Humanity: The Science and of Human Engineering (New York: E. is based on empirical data from military and managerial experiences. growth between arithmetical pro- which grows by addition. which grows by multiplicaexample. 2. for example. lies At the root of the problem the significant fundamental difference in the rate of gression. but they occur in the English language in several permutations. tion.. mane. etc. 245 ff.n can form but one combination. Science and Sanity will be referred to as S Sf S. 90-92.. 134 ff. as related Appendix IV foundations formulated in my own writings. Lancaster. For instance.16. the four letters.

etc. it is Human Adjustment 267 not a question of just an 'added' factor. interests. xxiii a S &S.. Similarly. more glass of whiskey' are certainly not learned The followers of sick Schicklgruber-Hitler may have by now that the 'addition' of one more country in- troduces non-additive complexities not included in a naive fool's paradise gained by brute force. the complexities often grow beyond the capacity of one human brain to manage them adequately. Organismal difficulties responses to 'one additive. and human neurosis or psychosis. 3 *S & S. but spread all through life in some geometrical ratio. ff. 605 ff. out of many. disorganizations. . 2 hear remarks by some scientists that 'It is impossible to express the conduct of a whole animal as the algebraic sum We of the reflexes of its isolated segments. a childless couple 'adds' a baby to the family. are given to show how even with those scientists who realize the fallacy of additivity. tragedies. follow. etc. very often culminating in maladjustment and even Many times a single painful event in childhood or even later in life distorts the attitudes and colors the whole life. Thus. 'to be exact the ego consists of the engrams of all our experiences plus the actual psychism. facts. life in And so it goes all through the more fundamental relationships. p. some 'plus' creeps in. the 'addition' of a single factor results in unnecessary complexities which are certainly not additive. 'Thus a clock-work is as little the mere sum of its little wheels as a human being is the sum of his cells and molecules' and later on.' These two examples. and the complications grow following some exponential law. but the accumulate in some geometrical ratio. p. demonstrating that ingrained additive tendency in- herent in the aristotelian prescientific orientation. 'The individual represents heredity plus environment. which is obviously false to .Efficiency for angles. If in personal life we undertake or have to carry too many responsibilities..' Another writes.' Yet later we find that same author saying. involvements.

read. 'Brief Psychotherapy. XXVII (Jan. many of my is who are physicians. £f S. anxieties. xx-xxii. In my stu- personal experience and the experience of dents. H. "Constitution times Environment times Stress". x 2 environx n ) indicates special .' Mental Hygiene 1943). not only for psychiatry. of an enormous ties number of artificial complexi- which made life adjustment difficult or impossible. (2) the formula.' 4 Although Dr. Kraines has correct representation . functional. but for prevention of misevaluations in life by everyone. three fundamental concepts must be thoroughly understood ( I ) the nature and characteristics of neurotic symptoms. and the etc. and (3) the role that "attitudes" play in : the creation of symptoms. . 1} x 2 x Sy x n ). pp. X3. neurosis. fears. ment. aristotelian to a general non-aristotelian attitude. 70-79. . all of which are interSuch psychotherapeutic observations indicate why rn a 'therapy of attitudes' it is so important to change from an functional factors in a given case.. ( x x constitution.. They become con- S. defi- nitely a non-additive attitude. . educators. Kraines. as the patients or students realize that with the old titudes they are 4 up against impossibilities. factors were responsible for the introduction. These a matter of fact. . would be N = f(x stress. because of ex- ponential laws. 5 most psychotherapy depends on efforts through reinterpretation in treatment. etc. related. therefore: 'Before therapy can be discussed or put into practice. it is found that the very at- explanation of the above non-aristotelian principles useful. and do not plant a falsifying 'plus'. / represents function of. a latest scientific On few modern psychiatrists familiar with the We developments by necessity realize those additive aberrations. and other disorganizations. The . some of those original factors which produced worries. *S . As of the physician to eliminate. where 2V represents . . his 'times' does not represent the situation correctly.268 Appendix IV the other hand.

better research workers. and the results have new characteristics absent in the original elements. to make Mathematicians. One of the most striking consequences of additivity is the predictability from the characteristics of the elements to those of the results. In other words. who may 'life imbeciles'. one atom of mercury 'minus' one electron becomes one atom of gold. The mathematical formulation of additivity (linearity) is f{x-\-y) =zf(x) -f-/(v). it means to be detached from living The problem of additivity in life as well as in mathematics. 269 mechanisms of the a solution possible.Efficiency for scious of the Human Adjustment difficulties. they would become better teachers. and the synthesis must be different.I =^= 2. or responsibility has to be laid frankly whether the on the mathematicians. lons of liquid because profound inter-molecular issues enter which are not additive. And so the results are not predictable by the principle of S &£j Chap. 6 If our in the result. Mathematicians quite glibly speak about their students being 'mathematical imbeciles'. but one gallon of water 'added' to one gallon of alcohol results in less than two galin the most fundamental to be false to facts. . one pound plus one pound in weight results in two pounds. If before they begin to teach they would study in a 'mental' hospital and analyze the 'treatises' of the patients. It attitudes are limited to the additive principle alone the results issues of science and life are bound For example. as they would understand what life. is of great antiquity because it was the simplest. Similarly. no characteristic absent in the elements appears is obvious that when we combine elements. in their often deliberate detachment from unfortunately have not forewarned us of these kinds of methodological traps. Often be I wonder whether this is true. and in fact often repulse their students by the lifelessness of their teachings. where it is called 'linearity'. and so I -f. -xxxni. the new problems are structurally no more of an additive character. which is the only way life.

My based on the life implications of this neglect to differentiate between the laws of growth of arithmetical and of geometrical progressions. and particularly since 1921. It is sad to say that combinations of higher order are usually omitted in the textbooks and regarded as mathematical 1 8 S & S. . the founder of a non-newtonian system. American Journal of Psychiatry. and the simple formulations of permutation and combination. which automatically involve permutations and combinations. their work is based on the same principles. precursors of symbolic reactions. and conditional reactions. The interested reader is urged to consult his elementary algebra about the arithmetical and geometrical rates of growth. This point must be stressed to the utmost. Horsley Gantt. in which Dr. etc. And so it goes. Unfortunately extremely few of us. 7 But the structure of our ordinary subject-predicate language and corresponding attitudes aristotelian. the 'addition' of a sixth asby a supervisor may add 20 percent to his human resources. Gantt shows that unconditional reflex reactions may be expressed by a linear (additive) equation. Even the epoch-making work of Einstein. realize that fundamental gap between additive and nonadditive relations and attitudes. but adds approximately 100 percent to the complexity and difficulty of his task of co-ordination. 8 whole life work. have discovered by modern science that the world and life are not additive in their fundamental aspects. only by an exponential (nonadditive) equation. 612 ff. has been in the and therefore main additive. Such neglect was partially responsible for most historical spasms of civilization such as wars and revolutions. Urwick. See 'Measures of Susceptibility to Nervous Breakdown' by W. Appendix IV As Graicunas shows. depends on the transformation of linear sistant We (additive) equations into non-linear (non-additive) more is still complicated equations. and accounts for many disasters in private lives. Because Graicunas.270 additivity. even among my readers and students. May 1943. p. deal with human relations without disregarding mathematical issues..

XXVII. ix. of Psychiatry XCVIII (Sept. For further details the reader Jevons' and is referred to my own work. Stanley Jevons. the supervised and the supervisor. ultimately on the electronic and electro-colloidal levels. 340. Unfortunately and complications.. importance.. It is generally not realized that with the advance of science the old aristotelian methodology. the co-ordinated and the co-ordinator. Psychotherapy and Prevention. pp. . is thoroughly obsolete and unworkable today. & 10 Alfred Korzybski. 8-10. 'General Semantics. 1940). This nonbased frankly on physico-mathematical Mac- W. The Principles of Science (London: millan and Co. disregarded by mathematicians. functional orientation.' Amer. 58 and Chap. See particularly the unabridged paper (Institute of General Semantics. p.. also S & S. and so we are both the managed and the manager of our personal lives. 10 In such a brief paper it is impossible to go into details short of writing a book. and even harmful for the best of human adjustment. 1941). to This 'epilogue' was written emphasize and partially exaristotelian orientation plain the necessity of passing from the to a non-aristotelian. 205-207. what extent the issues is aristotelian system 9 and to stress to have application in daily life. Plenty of books on modern science are available. are of primary order. however. 1920). in principle follow these combinations of higher computations as such are of little or no practical the methodological implications for life orientation. S S. as Carrel says. Psychiatry. 9 In human life one of our difficulties is that we are 'both the marble and the sculptor'.Efficiency for curiosities Human Adjustment life facts 271 without application. Jour. Chap. but they have only very limited applications because the issues had not been formulated methodologically. Ltd. p. Perhaps one of the main sources of a great many maladjustments is exactly that self-reflexiveness and circularity which we do not know how to manage simply because we don't know that there are non-aristotelian methods to do so. The value. by which the majority of us still live.

. because the non-aristotelian system I have produced system. or satisfy the author himself. the interrelation between science and sanity becomes obvious. nor mathematics for mathematics' sake. but a system is not the among many other possible ones. Surveying the chain of historical world tragedies as they accumulate with accelerating acceleration and intensity. no matter whether the theoretical issues are formulated satisfactorily for everyone. When formulated methodologically. I emphasize that the title of my book 'Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Systems and General Semantics. as plication. The reader should future of notice that I utilize 'non-aristotelian systems' in the plural. In the present unprecedented world crisis we are not facing we are witnessing the death-bed agonies of the inevitable dying of the old aristotelian system which has been applied to its deadly limit. which. and so ultimately on physico-mathematical methods. nor science for science's sake. but we consider all those activities as products of the human nervous system. This problem may be analyzed in many different ways. and the new child-like methods can be applied for more efficient management of our private as . have general human ap- even on the level of nursery education. which seems only natural. This paper is based on experience of how this non-aristotelian system works in practice. the mankind will depend on some new non-aristotelian systems which would be frankly based on scientific extensional principles. to be applied for its optimum efficiency. but here in this first non-aristotelian system we take frankly and explicitly an engineering point of view. and the dead are buried. one naturally looks for the factors which are responsible for such cataclysms. Appendix IV this volume shows. 272 methods.' indicates that science and sanity are interrelated. These are not problems for speculation or verbal arguments or debates the issues are empirical and have to be tested by application. I personally have no doubt that after this world crisis is over. in which there is no 'philosophy' for 'philosophy's' sake. a 'new order'.

etc. In dents who knit unit because they get a general all method which applies to their professions. we must squarely put the responsibility on 'philosophers'. 'philosophers' are largely responsible for the sterility and For example. even on the nursery of education.e. are not united by a general method. preventing them from taking a general extensional attitude. their 'superiority'. on the primary or the university for the naive 'isolationists' in science. and/or in life. perhaps a new point of view. 'Philosophers' should have dismethods. mathematical physics. 'philosophers' somehow feel 'above' experimental methods they will argue endlessly on the verbal but they will not experiment with the I new extensional must repeat that the new methods are not a problem for arguments or debates.Efficiency for Human Adjustment 273 well as public lives. where many have nothing in common.. As ex- . be it level. the effectiveness of scientists as often does not even Under such conditions human beings is lowered and command the respect of the layman. and in a few days they become a more and more closely general method. From this. and in particular for prevention of maladjustments. education. and in our case ultimately physico-mathematical method. because of their innocence of science. linguistics. law. i. The . social work. misevaluations in life. it is pathetic to watch university faculty members at meetings. as environment.\c environ- ment level. The present day isolationism paralyzes the isolationists themselves. aloofness from nonaristotelian issues. covered long ago that maximum teachability is found in method. but simply for empirical investigation of how they work. We must become and remain conscious that scientific work as well as our private reactions in life are the end product of the electrocolloidal processes going on in our nervous system. and so their inability to take into serious consideration our w^wro-semantic and neuro-\ing\nsX. as well as daily life. Through their errors of omission. because they level. who does not realize the handicaps of specialization without a my experience with classes we have stubelong to widely separated fields such as medicine.

like any scientific theory is.. I believe. the situation seems hopeless because of their ignorance. aristotelian. A great many 'philosophers' will be shocked and consider sacrilegious a mere suggestion that 'philosophy' should become experimental. infinite-valued. This correspondence and close interrelationship be- tween neurological processes and the method used is the key problem in passing from one system to another. and laymen a foundation for mutual co-operation. which is a matter of historical record. rulers. 'Philosophers' of course will try to talk their way is out of this dilemma. in this case from an aristotelian to a non-aristotelian system.274 Appendix IV perience shows. I will not go many hundreds of volumes have been written exhibiting the utter stupidity and incompetence of those are supposed to guide our destinies. because the failure of 'philosophers'. depending on whether we use intensional or extensional methods. and so have not given educators. The empirical demonstration of the above facts through actual application of the extensional method is. and the only gate. and therefore it is impossible to 'think' about ourselves in electro-colloidal neurological terms. With the old. but this will not help because this work has not to investi- been done by them. two-valued orientation it is humanly impossible to have the modern. etc. lack of preparation for human responsibilities. This reflection is rather heavy in consequences. scientists. these processes are deeply affected. and is in fact refusal to accept professional guidance into details. As their to politicians. entirely new. diplomats. etc. with the result that who we are . Is the blame to be put entirely on the shoulders of scientists or laymen? The answer is 'no'. who have neglected this most important w^uro-methodological field. experiment. way for them and find out.. So once again the responsibility is the 'philosophers' '. non-aristotelian process orientation. has actually prevented the co-ordina- tion of diverse efforts for optimum human adjustment. as when help offered them. in different ways. and amounts to a 'therapy of attitudes'.

I can not see how anyone who has to deal with of a family. etc. a human all to be he the responsible member him teacher.. are bound to follow. Otherwise disasters. 1933. which may even end in maladjustment. edited by Luther Gulick and L. Columbia University. including the summary by Polakov taken from abroad in 1933. I suggest that all my readers study this book. under the title Papers on the Science of Administration. which follows. Urwick. POLAKOV Vol. So far it has been done by men like Graicunas. SUMMARY OF SPAN OF ATTENTION BY WALTER For a No. the work of Graicunas and Urwick. full exposition of Bulletin of International Mr. can be competent at deal with the problems confronting if he is entirely innocent of the problems raised in this paper.. Graicunas' Management Institute. also must have some method for optimum human efficiency based on the understanding of human nature and the limitations of what one human brain can stand. Original sources were published In 1937 the Institute of Public AdministraNew York. reprinted the two fundamental papers referred to. tion.Efficiency for Human Adjustment 275 bled white in blood as well as in taxes. or a politician. with some new material. Their work dealt parwith industrial and military fields. In the history of science and civilization living emergencies forced us to find we discover that to some solutions make adjustment to life more efficient. A. human nervous system can or psychosis. in spite of 'philosophers'. VII. which we call the 'family'. theory. where lack of efficiency brings obvious disasters. In my own work I felt that mathematical methods should have broader applications. Polakov. as even the smallest managerial unit. I admit that affairs. and apply to daily life. who based their work on the application of mathematical methods ticularly to empirical data about the limitations of what the stand. N. 3. see March. Urwick. a physician. neurosis. V. article entitled: 'Relationship in Or- . etc. becoming more and more disorganized for years to come. in different degrees.

.B. 350.374 11 21.A. Leicester. Graicunas of Paris has recently shown why this is so. six other individuals whose work is interrelated.— : 276 Appendix IV . A..' Reference to this theory is also made in a paper read to the Department of Industrial Cooperation of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.C. O.] An individual who is coordinating the work of others whose duties interconnect must take into account in his decisions.&ra&m'as. IOC ? 50 * — 12— I_ I ' No. Mr. V.5 •$ S u3 of 2 3 M 6 of . in no human brain should attempt to supervise directly more than five. Pa is) / jf Numler of'relationships an rina IV/'fk '/>' an e/ect/f/re — 400 — z 3 «9 assistants (funcfiorroi) ) l/o. or at the most. M.' Quoting from the last reference : Students of administration have long recognized that. not only the reactions of each person concerned as an individual.1 3. [His work is the second of the contributions of importance to the technique of organization since 1930.110 11.080 8 9 10 II O \ .703 200c£ note sharp rise in ear ire ieyond four.E. entitled 'Organization as a Technical Problem. . September 7.'SPAN c/> UJ 06 => ^CONTROLV/W^ for 450 {Afteryj. Urwick. by Major L. 1933.376 5. V 4.. assistants reiar ions 4 s It 6 7 2 1 =»/ a/ */ Co/ 300>s g S = O 490 1. of assistant! orfuittitm 3 4 5 6 - ganization. M.500 Zfc. assistants denotes rapid increase in eompiexiry of relationships : 150 Q £5 "J 1- 7 *4 K. but also his reactions as a practice.

The psychological conception of 'the span of attention' places strict limits on the number of separate factors which the human mind can grasp simultaneously. It has its administrative counterpart in what may be described as 'the span of control'. . Efficiency for member Human Adjustment 277 of any possible grouping of persons which may arise during the course of the work.. A . Neglect of the limitations imposed by 'the span of control' creates insoluble problems in coordination. c z=z number of direct group relationships. computed on the minimum . But he adds approximately 100 percent to the complexity and difficulty of his task of co-ordination. who adds a sixth. . supervisor with five subordinates reporting directly to him. The number of relationships which he must consider increases not by arithmetical but by geometrical progression. . . increases his available human resources by 20 percent. The proposed formula for the number of direct group is: re- lationships R = where n (— + n - i) =a b represents total direct and cross relan = number of persons supervised a = number of direct single relationships b = number of cross relationships R -f-f.c tionships . basis direct the maximum Thus computed on and cross relationships arising for is: the given number of subordinates of Number assistants or functions I er of relationships or problems arising > Numb I (1)* (4) (10) (21) (41) (78) (148) 2 3 6 18 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ii 44 100 222 490 1080 2376 5210 "374 24708 12 * Figures in parentheses are (283) (547) (1068) (2102) (4161) basis.

In my judgment the material presented was necessary for them. but not as necessary for beginning students. Janssen spent six * The International Non-aristotelian pany. all I wrote Science and Sanity for scientists. undertook the difficult task of making these selections. Library Publishing Com- 278 . One such teacher. Connecticut.APPENDIX V SELECTIONS from SCIENCE AND SANITY* by ALFRED KORZYBSKI author's note These to selections Non-aristotelian Systems from Science and Sanity : An Introduction and General Semantics were produced on the request of a number of teachers of General Semantics and study group leaders. They found that for some students the full text was too bulky or too expensive. teachand other leaders in our civilization. Lakeville. Janssen. Following graduation from the University of Illinois in 1938 Mr. Guthrie E. Personally I would be biased in making any 'selections' from Science and Sanity and so had to rely on some teacher experienced with college and university students. 1948. yet they needed some fundamental textbook preserving the physico-mathematical approach. Originally ers.

Kendig. Janssen was war correspondent and broadcaster for the National Broadcasting Company. what is said in the glossary about the use of the term 'semantic' in my 'General Semantics'. and to the Institute staff and others for their valuable suggestions and help in production. 'General Semantics' appears under the term Semantics. 4 of ETC. and seeing results of the atomic bomb as one of the first ten Americans to enter Hiroshima. For instance. Tokyo. Mr. in a new theory of values. No. and even my 'extensional devices' are called 'semantic devices'. M. is entirely misleading. particularly the American University at Cairo where he used Science and Sanity as a textbook with university students on the third year level. all of them fully explained in Science and Sanity. The two disciplines are confused. and gave valuable aid in bringing about its realization.. London.. In Vol. It would not 1 . i. I wish to express my particular appreciation to . etc. there appears a five-page glossary of terms used in General Semantics. For teachers and students who will use this book I wish to include a forewarning concerning the fundamental confusion existing today about what the terms 'semantics' and General Semantics represent. Athens. and from an airplane over Nagasaki. Ill. After travelling in some twenty-seven countries and broadcasting into the NBC network from Cairo. Shanghai. 1 For example in the Dictionary of World Literature. Straus) for a year's study at the Institute of General Semantics. Manila. I personally am most grateful to Guthrie Janssen for his considerable painstaking work.e. Practically every 'definition' misses the main point and trend of my work. the Educational Director of the Institute she urged for many years that such selections should be published.. Such initial errors lead automatically to further more aggravated misinterpretations. He produced these Selections as part of his working fellowship during 1 946-1 947. wheras such a thing does not exist. Janssen returned to this country and was granted a fellowship (donated by Robert K. The following two years Mr.Author's Note 279 years as instructor of English and history in American schools in Egypt. attached for a period to the United States Strategic Air Forces (B-29's).

'If in . etc.' In says. which was translated into English in 1900 under the title. As to the relationship between those disciplines. 'semiosis'.. Lady Welby somehow of 'Signifies'. It is not even mentioned that 'semantics' is a branch of philology. Semantics: Studies in the Science of Meaning. 'semiotic'. . an Encyclopaedia Britannica publication.. science des significations. Semantique deals with a branch of philology and the historical change of sigliterature by Breal in 1897 The nificance ('meaning'). Lady Welby wrote in the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. psycho-logicians. practical point his Introduction be an overstatement to say that definitions of 'semantics' and 'General Semantics' and other terms printed in this glossary must be considered as seriously misinforming the public. to Semantics (p.280 Appendix original V French semantique was introduced into the i n ms Essai de semantique . 'Semantics Movement may . nor is there any clarifying discrimination made between the noun 'semantics' and the adjective 'semantic'. under the leadership of mathematicians such as Brouwer (the founder of the Intuitional School in Mathematics) and logicians. felt that dif- ference in implication and formulated a more organismal Signifies Interna- theory under the tional name in the The Netherlands is still carrying on this work. and thus caused a confusion among the English-speaking people about the use of the term 'semantic' and 'semantics' which persists up to today. be described as the applica- tion of Signifies within strictly philological limits. . Both disciplines labelled by those terms were not non-elementalistic enough. . 9) Rudolf Carnap an investigation explicit reference is made to the user of a language [from a businesslike. epistemologists. Unfortunately the terms are not exactly equivalent in the different languages. it has many misstatements and even falsifications of my work and the work of others. and so different researchers attempted further elaborations and amplifications under various old or new terms such as 'semasiology'. The most recent example is an article on 'Semantics. and some statements make no sense. which considerably increased the confusion. General Semantics' in Ten Eventful Years. etc. Moreover.

tics..Author's Note of view] then 281 we assign it to the field of pragmatics [from the Greek pragmatikos. the silent (non-verbal) levels. 'semantics'. finally. Further dangers are still ahead. Language and Behavior. The whole science of language. And if. disregards the inner reactions of the individual person. representative of the Viennese school. biological in orientation 'The work of A. which is the main aim of General Seman'pragmatics'. pp. deed. Carnap was eventually entitled to use the term 'semantics'. we are in (logical) syntax. However.e. . 'Studies in Semantics'. on . and so eliminates the possibility of evaluation as a living issue with a living individual. Korzybski and his followers is psychoaiming to protect the individual against exploitation by others and by himself. He seems acquainted with my Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Systems and General Semantics.' 2 Obviously such a 'whole science of language' consisting of and 'logic'. act. . and so adds to the linguistic chaos.' {Signs. If we abstract from the user of the language [i. "theory of value". is called semiotic. which was published in 1933. 80 and 353).' Charles Morris says explicitly that 'Semiotic is not then a Of 'Semantics' he writes. 'That branch of semiotic which studies the signification of signs. Carnap is an important constructive worker in the field of 'logic'.' (p. business. as he may be considered to deal with the philology of logical and mathematical languages. consisting of the three parts abstract mentioned. in other words. etc. where this misuse of language and terms may be propagated. Of my work he says. we from the designata also and analyze only the relations between the expressions. even he adds to the confusion between 'semantics' and 'General Semantics'. 2 .. disregard the [referents?] person] and analyze only the expressions and their designata we are in the field of semantics. 283). as Carnap announces on page ix a series of books. dealing with the inner life of the individual. Yet in his book published in 1942 he uses the term 'General Semantics' when he actually wants to say 'generalized semantics'. which is called 'semiotic'. The term 'General Semantics' was introduced in 1933 as a technical term in an empirical natural science of evaluation which deals with living human reactions and has nothing to do with 'logic' or mathematics as such..] .

.. Lady Welby. I cal in Toronto in 1924. although I know and respect the works of the corresponding investigators in those fields. were unusable. From a time-binding point of view. and before the Washington Psychopathic Society in 1926 outlined practically my whole system before I became familiar with the works of Breal. The Science and Art of Human Engineering in 192 1 that term has become so abused that I had to abandon it. with their stated limitations. etc. the term 'human engineering'. The word 'semantic' does not appear in those papers at all. 'Semantics'. but my system would have remained fundamentally unaltered. etc. a theory of values. and actually had to hunt for another term. such as 'semantic aphasia'. had not known of the work done in Semantique. I selected the term 'General Semantics' for an empirical natural science of non-ele- mentalistic evaluation. as they did not even touch my field. which remains as im- Congress for Society portant as ever today. General'. Even tics' in the index of Science and Sanity the word 'semanI does not appear except as 'Semantics. as mathematicians are able to discriminate and 'General Semanbetween the cartesian system and the vector. 'semantic reactions'.282 Appendix here it is V my work in Gen- From what was said obvious that eral Semantics has nothing to do with the above-mentioned disciplines. etc. before the Washington Nervous and Mental Diseases in 1925. I also coined. the General Theory'. calculuses as . but since the publication of my Manhood of Humanity . 'semantic blockage'. Sigwould have labelled my work by another name. I coined the term 'General Semantics'. 'signifies'. I believe originally. use 'semantic' there only as an adjective with other words. tensor. in the sense of 'evaluational'.. etc. Thus. on the assumption that intelligent laymen will be able to discriminate between 'semantics' tics'. and my work is called 'Time-binding. my papers before the International MathematiIf I nifies. et al. and in fairness to the efforts of others.

as they do not take into consideration undefined terms. into account the individual. 1942. leads inevitably to insidious identifications (miseval- uations) of these different levels. no matter whether their relations to the verbal levels were solved by my predecessors and contemporaries or not. etc. 'to signify'. no matter what. we take him from his reac- nor from his /z^uro-linguistic and /ze«/-o-semantic en- him in a plenum of some values. not divorcing tions. 4 See Alfred Korzybski and M. un-sanity. infantilism. 'Foreword' of Meaning Analyzed. as the problems on the non-verbal levels outside or inside our skins are present with us and real. due to lack of consciousness of abPrimitivism.Author's Note . stracting. without exception. formalism. to A Theory Monographs. and a plenum of language. 283 3 different disciplines. deceiving the individual himself and/or others. That's what I I learned from the theory of time- binding and what siderations. I selected it also for historical continuity. which may be vironments. tried to convey to others through Gennon-aristotelian Semantics and psycho-biological con- I showed several years ago that theories of 'meaning' are humanly impossible. the individual has to cope to be human eral at all. A theory of evaluation seemed to follow naturally in an evolutionary sense from 1) if 'meaning' to 2) 'signification' to 3) evaluation. in the process of mathematical evolution. must then follow. General Semantics Institute of General Semantics. and other types of pathological reactions. academic stupidites. Ill. allocate Thus we used to inform. With such problems. 3 Historically it is interesting to note that the original manuscript of Science and Sanity did not contain the word 'semantics' or 'semantic'. The term 'General Semantics' seemed most appropriate to me because of the derivation from the Greek semainein. 'to mean'. Kendig. 4 Confusion between non-verbal silent and verbal levels. . which label only the silent levels of non- verbal experiences. No. or misinform by commission and/or omission. levels.

the lated. business. national. also use these words.284 Appendix 'semantic' V The words and 'semantics' are today commonly and physi- used even in newspapers and magazines mostly in the sense of 'meaning'. Finally it many branches of science were necessary. The more my researches advanced. This ological synthesis synthesis turned out to be (although it was not planned as such) a non-aristotelian system. education on all levels. of Many if them know something about General Semantics. be they family. Important scientists. no results can be expected. they say explicitly that they use the term 'semantic' in an entirely different sense than I use the term 'General Semantics'. In the summer of 1946 the Institute moved it Today mantics and this Non-aristotelian System. and they mention my work at all. and they are exactly correct. the results are usually beneficial. Connecticut. etc.. The rapid spread of interest in our work. but experience shows that General Semantics gives no when the methods of General Semantics are applied. or international. whether in law. If the methods are not applied. I had to investigate further hidden silent assump- became clear that nothing short of a methodof mathematics and modern empirical sciences would suffice for a general theory of values. I must stress that panaceas. where its original program is being carried on. or personal interrelationships. first so far to be formu- becomes impossible to separate General SeOne follows from the other. has indicated the need for the now new methods set forth here. mathematicians cists included. Perhaps the most telling applications were those on the battlefields of World War II. General Semantics being the modus operandi and foundation of the system. as reported by members of the armed . and vice versa. the more it became ob- vious that deeper studies in tions. community. the Institute of General Semantics was incorporated in Chicago in 1938. but merely talked about. mostly in that sense. by on all continents. medicine. As the center for training in these non-aristotelian methods. to Lakeville.

the complexities and difficulties in the world increase following an exponential function of ing accelerations. Author of 22 Cells in Nuremberg. as a modern scientific method. Greenberg. Douglas M. these basic principles were employed as methods of group psychotherapy and as methods of psychiatric prevention. Let us cannot be solved at also remember that the methods of exact sciences disregard national boundaries. human progress. New York. Training of Officers for the Naval Service: Hearings Before the Committee on Naval Affairs. In my experience with over seven thousand cases in the European Theater of Operations. 4. These principles were applied (as individual therapies and as group therapies) at every treatment level from the forward area to the rearmost echelon. ETC.Author's Note forces. I with indefinitely accelerat- am deeply convinced that these problems all unless we boldly search for and revise our antiquated notions about the 'nature of man' and apply modern extensional methods toward their solution. in exhaustion centers and in general hospitals. offers techniques which are of extreme value both in the prevention and cure of such [pathological] reactive patterns. 55—57. 1946. USN (Ret. June 12 and 13. "Korzybski. Memorandum. Kelley. also Chief Psychiatrist in charge of the prisoners at Nuremberg.: A Review of General Semantics.C.). U. A. and so the extensional methods and devices of 5 General Semantics can be applied to all existing Chief Consultant in Clinical Psychology and Assistant Consultant in Psychiatry to the European Theater of Operations.. 1947. Vol. and especially by Dr. United States Senate. Ill. and consequently hundreds of battalion-aid surgeons were trained in principles of general semantics. in front-line aid stations. A Veteran's Re-Adjustment and Extensional Methods. Captain James. D.S.' 6 daily It is not generally realized that with 'time'. It is obvious that the earlier the case is treated the better the prognosis. Government Printing Office. pp. See also Saunders. Washington. . including psychiatrists 285 on all fronts. 5 who reports in part as follows: 'General semantics. 1946. No. formerly Lieutenant Colonel in the Medical Corps. That they were employed with success is demonstrated by the fact that psychiatric evacuations from the European Theater were held to a minimum.

" printed in Science and Sanity.) Thus the background of Korzybski's usage is found in the Polish logicians. 748. or semantic reaction at all. Connecticut AK February. Mr." AJL ." ('A Non-aristotelian System and its Necessity for Rigour in Mathematics and Physics.) He announced that he was using the term "general semantics" for his own study {Ibid. he did not make use of semantics. In 1928. historical statement of how I came to introduce the term 'General Semantics'."). came to my attention.. and that his researches had resulted "in the discovery of a general semantic mechanism underlying human behaviour. and popular writers on "the glamour of word study.. In 193 1. p. 750. to be published soon. terse. Thus the world can gain tion. 749. and he was particularly impressed with their work upon attending the "Congres des mathematiciens des pays Slaves" in Warsaw in 1929.. the general theory.286 Appendix V languages. p. he presented material on "the restricted semantic school represented by Chwistek and his pupils. Louisiana. Before this he has called his work "Time-binding. 747-761 quotation. general semantics. 1948 additional note As this was going to press a new paper by Allen Walker Read of New York. p. culminating in a [Non-aristotelian] -system. Read's kind permission to reproduce it here : 'The great popular vogue of the word semantics can be traced to the ferment caused by the works of Alfred Korzybski. pp. in a paper given before the American Mathematical Society at New Orleans. But . and received. he was keeping in touch with the developments among Polish mathematicians. though some of his followers have erroneously associated it with the antiquarianism of Breal. and eventual agreement. One paragraph in particular represents such an excellent. that I asked for. in the first draft of his Science and Sanity.. an international common denominator for inter-communicamutual understanding. many new interrelations and formulations. with deep psycho-logical effects on tne users and through them on their countrymen. Ernest Weekley. which is characterized mostly by the semantic approach." {Ibid. Lakeville.

Keyser. New York. . by Scripta Mathematica.CASSIUS JACKSON KEYSER LECTURE XX from MATHEMATICAL PHILOSOPHY* 1922 KORZYBSKFS CONCEPT OF MAN ^Mathematical Philosophy in the Collected is to be republished Works of Cassius J.


9. NOT THE SPACE- BINDING ETHICS OF ANIMALS. its we had not thought deeply genesis nor seriously sought upon the principle of growth. we had not been we who were enjoying it had neither produced it nor earned its goods. so omnipresent. —land and is we take for granted sea. 289 . A few years vironment.LECTURE XX Korzybski's Concept of Man 1 WHAT TIME-BINDING MEANS— DIMENSIONALITY AND THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF LOGICAL TYPES— THE NATURAL LAW OF CIVILIZATION AS AN INCREASING EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION OF TIME— HUMAN ETHICS AS TIME-BINDING ETHICS. so interwoven with our whole en- we did not reflect upon it but habit- for granted as the great gifts of Nature. Sept. We were hardly aware of literally a the fact that Civilization product of human labor and time. 1921. 1921) and some of it in an article by me in The Pacific Review. Dec. we had not been educated to perceive that we have it almost to discover the laws of its schooled to reflect that 1 Part of this lecture is found in my Phi Beta Kappa address on The Nature of Man (Science. that ually took it all ago our lives were lapt round with in a civilization so rich and comfortable manifold ways. light and sky and the common air.

Is true that our thinking has been too radical? question would have made Plato smile —Plato who How the had seen his venerated teacher condemned to death . They have is learned. red. The quesresults. of all which we humans have to deal. too. — —and we to doctrines are it wont them radical. not to say as "maggots in a cheese. for they are questions of ethics. of industrial methods. revolutionary. The awakening was rude but it was effectual. of education. Everywhere men and women are now thinking as never before. We had been born in the midst of a great civilization. The [First] World War awoke us. in accord with our breeding. tions have led to some curious to call that alarm. and they are thinking about realities for they know that there is no other way to the realities with cope with the great problems of a troubled world. to proposals that startle. and. of politics and government. that.290 solely as a Lecture XX toil bounty from the time and of by-gone generations. we had not been disciplined to feel the mighty obligation which the great inheritance imposes upon us as at once the posterity of the dead and the ancestry of the yet unborn. of philosophy. and so the questions that are everywhere asking are questions regarding men and women Man." Since then a change has come. we lived in it and upon it like butterflies in a garden of flowers. of social institutions. the supreme reality Man. of economics.

and the character of our human and in depend both upon what man is equal or greater measure upon what we huinstitutions mans think man is. daring but deep. have we not asked the question? The is it reason doubtless consciously taken that we have when we consciously or Un- for granted that are answer. Our questionings have been eager and wide-ranging but our thought has been shallow. it It has been passionate and it has been has not been deep. as we have : ask ourselves the fundamental question in virtue of is which human beings are human? What is that What in the the distinctive place of our human kind is hierarchy of the world's life? I What Man? have called the question "fundamental" fundamental sovereign — — — all it is is the importance of a right answer it is for obvious. in the proper sense of that much abused term.Lecture for radical criticism. to we could not have failed. For why enquire we knew the sure we know? But have we known ? edge in this case just? Is our assumption of knowl- Have we really known. if it had been failed. really are? Here it is es- . For. then. do we know now. that the character of human history. what is in fact the idiosyncrasy of the human class of life ? Do we know critically what we. the char- acter of human conduct. once the fact is pointed out. Why. our thought has not been radical enough. as representatives of man. the trouble is that. XX 291 No.

immediate inner knowledge — do not doubt that. the kind of knowledge we mean when we know how to move our arms or that knows how to swim or that a bird knows how I — knowledge that is instinctive. as such opinions are usually . : you see. —of what a just — nor. is. a bird We are speaking of concepts. what birds other kind of knowledge. in this sense of knowing. knowledge by concepts. it is has of what fishes are or are. are speaking of knowledge. we to say that a fish fly. — —conceptual knowledge of scientific But there is an- objective the kind of knowledge we say is that we know or do not we mean when know what a plant not suppose fish. any conception. knowledge of objects objects. fish or what a number is.— 292 Lecture we XX sential to distinguish. had it originated in our time. we do to have this sort of knowledge of we do not suppose a bird can have a just conception. So I say that. it. Now. and our question. there is a kind of instinctive knowledge. would have made itself heard of as a grave discovery. by instinct. reasonable to suppose that inherited for so important a thing. — by analyzing them. properly speaking. it we have a must have come down to us if entangled in the mesh of our inherited opinions and must have been taken in. just concept of man. is this Have we humans it is Concept of Man? we If we have. the kind we do know what human of knowledge that a that a bird has of fish beings are. it is knowledge.

the fact should not greatly astonish us. as given by him. 8 E. In his } mitted an answer that is worthy of the serious attention of every serious student. In saying that in the thought of our time the great question has not been asked. It is the aim of this lecture to present the it by help of the Theory of Logical Types. Professor Ritter once more defines man as a kind of animal but the distinctive marks of the kind. by a kind of "cerebral a just con- suction. the is difficulty that of a ing then to knower having to objectify itself and havform a just concept of what the object is. XX 293 from the common air. P." Let me say 2 at the outset that one who would read Since writing the foregoing I have observed a learned discussion of the question by Professor E.Lecture taken in. Ritter in an article. Aug. whatever his field of study. is to be both the knower and the object known. only one. Science and Organized Civilization. you see. Wm. Dutton & Company. I have now to make one en- important exception and. and the auanswer and to examine thor's closely allied notion of "Dimensions. for the difficulty is unique. the Theory of Classes. 19 1 7." If we discover that we have never had cept of man. so far as I refer to I know. in the Scientific Monthly. . are so grave as to make one wonder why he did not altogether drop the "animal" element from the definition. 2 Count Alfred Korzybski. the Polish momentous book (The Manhood of Humanity : The Science and Art of Human Engineering*) he has both propounded the question and subgineer. man..

a concept role whose that among the other ideas in the work is like of the sun in the solar system. (III) The class of those who firmly seize the cen- and who by meditating upon it see more and more clearly the tremendous reach of its implications. —they —but are simply because they are not qualified for conceptual thinking save that of the (II) central commonest type. that readers of the book. or of any other book built about a central concept.: 294 the Lecture XX to it book understandingly must come prepared to grapple with a central concept. clusive classes fall into three mutually ex- (I) — have known —not through any cept (I The class of those who miss the central con- a learned historian to miss it) fault of their own. after further study. If it were not for this class. often indeed well meaning and amiable people. It happens. therefore. who seem to grasp the concept and then straightway show by their The class of those manner of talk that they have not really grasped its it but have at most got hold of some of words. permitted. But the other two classes are not aware of the fact tral concept . In- tellectually such readers are like the familiar type of undergraduate aminations but who "flunks" his mathematical may possibly "pull through" in a is exsec- ond attempt and so to try again. there would be no science in the world nor genuine philosophy.

—no —no material . which is indeed momentous. the time and toil from of by-gone generations. not even tradition." In respect of such folk. that is. Long kind. they were inheritance. It is Man? I wish to present it a concept defining man terms of Time.— Lecture XX is 295 for they are merely "verbalists." says the author. for they had no knowledge of natural law. they knew nothing of the past. no philosophy." What do the words mean? What is meant by time-binding or the binding of time? The meaning. they did not know what they were nor where they were. they had no capital. "Humanity. "is the time-binding class of life. science. Of knowledge. no religion." What I that central concept? What in is Korzybski's as clearly as Concept of can. will be clearer to us if we prepare for it by a little preliminary reflection. in the sense in they had none —no which we humans now use the term. no art. for they had no history. the "Behaviorist" school of psychology right for in the psychology of classes (I) and (II) there is no need for a chapter on "Thought Processes" it is sufficient to is have one on "The Language Habit. they could not foretell the future. ages ago there appeared upon this planet no matter how — the first specimens of our human some to What was their condition? It requires meditation and some realize keenly exercise of imagination what it must have been. or spiritual wealth.

. having in- vented. criticizes. and better thus advancing. animal-hunted ancestors of — ours were a new kind of creature in the world new kind because endowed with a strange new gift a strange new a strange new capacity or power — — energy. let us call it. the energy excellence that. it is. then invents again and better. as we understand yet. institutions and doc- moreover. —they things that initiated. And it it is in the world today. criticizes. I mean. for they contrived to do the most wonderful of have happened on our globe the creative ants call Civilization. the secret? is Have you The secret that those rude animal-resem- animal-hunting. was almost absolute. without any light of human experience. it as representatives of Man. their ignorance. It is the energy that invents — that produces instruments. And compared with all the beasts. by creative from . the term. effects What is it? its We know partly by its and in partly by stirring within us for as human beings. movement which is their remote descendever tried to Why? What find it? bling. invents again activity. without precedents. Be good enough to reflect and to reflect again upon the significance of those simple words: advancing in invents. they were miracles of genius.a 296 Lecture XX without tools. without guiding maxims. trines. having invented. we all of us have some measure. thus from creation to creation endlessly. ideas. without speech.




stage to stage of excellence without end. Their sound

familiar; but

what of

their ultimate sense?


ought indeed to pause here, withdraw to the solitude
of some cloister and there in the silence meditate upon their meaning; for they do not describe the life of beasts; they characterize



are speaking of a peculiar kind of energy

the energy that civilizes

that strange familiar en-

ergy that makes possible and makes actual the great

movement which we call human Progress, of which we talk much and think but little. Let us scrutinize it more closely; let us, if we can, lay bare its characteristic relation to Time for its relation to Time is the relation of Time to the distinctive life of Man. Compare some representative of the animal world,
a bee, let us say, or a beaver, with a correspondingly

representative man. Consider their achievements and

a bridge or

ways thereof. The beaver makes a dam; the man, some discovery, analytical geometry,

for example, or the art of printing, or the Keplerian

laws of planetary motion, or the atomic constitution


The two


beaver and that of the man,


of the

are each of

product of three factors: time,

them a and raw ma-

where the

last signifies, in the case of purely


achievement, the data of sense, in which

science has its roots.

Both achievements endure,





may be for a short while only, as in the case of the dam or the bridge, or one of them may endure

as in that of a scientific discovery.



in the

next generation?

The new beaver


where its predecessor began and ends where it it makes a dam but the dam is like the old

Yet the old dam


there for the

new beaver


behold, to contemplate, and to improve upon. But

dam wakes in the beaver's "mind" no inventive impulse, no creative stirring, and so there is no improvement, no progress. Why not? The answer is obvious: the beaver "mind" is such that its power to achieve is not reinforced by
the presence of the old

the presence of past achievement.

The new




indeed overlapped, in part or wholly, by the

time of

predecessor for the latter time

oldit is

as an essential factor of the old

dam, but that

time factor, though present, produces nothing



bearing no interest. Such


tion of the beaver



the rela-

the animal mind,

to time.

Now, what

of the

new man? What does he do?


he does depends, of course, upon his predecesa bridge, he
if it

sor's achievement; if this

better bridge or invents a ship

makes a was the discovery

of analytical geometry, he enlarges
vents the calculus; if

scope or



the art of printing, he

invents a printing press;

if it

was the discovery of




the laws of planetary motion, he finds the law of

was the discovery of the atomic

constitution of matter, he discovers the electronic constitution of atoms. Such

the familiar record

improvement of old things, invention of new ones Progress. Why? Again the answer is obvious: the mind of man, unlike animal "mind," is such that its power to achieve is reinforced by past achievement. As in the case of the beaver, so in that of man, the successor's time is overlapped by the predecessor's
time for the latter time continues

presence as an

essential factor in the old achievement,

dures but,


this is the point,

which encase, un-



like the beaver's, the old-time factor is

not merely






it is not as dead capital, bearing and ultimately perishing it is living

capital bearing interest not only but interest perpet-



at an ever-increasing rate.

the interest

ual wealth,

—not merely

growing wealth,

—material and



physical conveniences but

instruments of power, understanding, intelligence,

knowledge and

beautiful arts, science, philoso-

phy, wisdom, freedom

That great process, involving some subtle alchemy that we do not understand, by which the /7?w<?-factor, embodied in things accomplished, perpetually reinforces more and more the achieving

— —

in a

word, Civilization.

potency of the

human mind,

the process by which




thus continually and increasingly

augments the


energy of the world,

process by which the evolution of civilization
volves the storing up or involution of time,

— —



that mighty process which Korzybski happily desig-

nates by the term, Time-binding.

The term

will recur

frequently in our discussion, and so I



you dwell upon



as given until

you have

firmly. It is because time-binding



not only peculiar to




among man's


marks, beyond


comparison the most

it is

because of that two-fold considera-

tion that the author defines


to be


time-binding class of life."

Korzybski's answer to the most

important of




Man? Do


lose sight of the fact that

we have here

a concept

and that





terms of a certain relation,

indeed but undoubtedly characteristic, that


has to time. By saying that the relation

acteristic" of

man I mean that, among known classes man and only man has it. Animals have it not
it, if

or, if

they have

they have time-binding capacity,

they have

in a degree so small that



neglected as mathematicians neglect infinitesimals of

higher order.

The answer

in question is

not one to which the

world has been or


accustomed. If you apply




for an answer to the thought of the bygone centuries

or to the regnant philosophies of our time, what



you get?

It will

two kinds:
maine; or

will be a zoological

an animal, a kind or species of animal, the bete huit

will be a

—man mythological answer — man

be one or the other of


a mysterious

compound or union of animal

(a natural

thing) with something "supernatural." Such are the
rival conceptions now current throughout the world. They have come to us as a part of our philosophical inheritance. Some of us hold one of them; some of and no doubt many of us hold both us, the other

of them for, though they are mutually incompatible,

mere incompatibility of two ideas does not necessarily prevent them from finding firm lodgment in the
same brain.

That Korzybski's concept of man


entirely just

is just and imand immeasurably important,

have no reason to doubt after having meditated

much upon

But the author does not content him-

with presenting that concept; he goes much

further; he denies outright the zoological conception

and similarly denies the ages-old
ical conception,

rival, the


denouncing both of them as being at

once false to fact and vicious in




Let us deal

with the zoological or biological

conception. Natural


are to be conceived

and defined


the author

accord with facts revealed by observa-



The phenomena


cerned with are the great life-classes of the world:
plants, animals,
significant facts

and humans. What, he

asks, are the

about them, their patent cardinal

relations, their distinctive
tive ?

marks, positive and nega:



answer runs as follows


plants the






"bind" the basic energies of the world



to take in,

transform and appropriate the energies of sun,

water and


but they lack autonomous power to

move about

in space,

and that lack


a highly signifi-

cant negative

mark of


plants are said

to constitute the "chemistry-binding" or basic-energy-

binding class of



suggests only the

mark but

essential to note that the

is effected by the positive and marks conjoined. What of the animals? These, like the plants, take in, transform and appropriate the basic energies of sun, soil, water and air, taking them in large part as already transformed by the plants; but this power of animals to bind the positive one of the two defining basic energies,

definition of the class

the negative

marks of


— —


not a defining


of animals;

the positive defining mark of animals is their autonomous power to move 4 about in space, to crawl or Do sessile animals really constitute an exception? It can be




think, that such animals are space-binders in


ski's sense.

run or


abandon one
harvest the

or swim,

—enabling them
seen, a negative

place and occupy another and so

natural fruits of


localities; this positive


you observe,
they have,
to time


a relation of animals to space; but

— animals

we have

mark, a relation

lack capacity for binding time. Be-

cause of the positive mark, animals are said to constitute the "space-binding" class of life,


it is


be carefully noted that the definition


guished from the name) of the class
the positive




mark conjoined with the negative one. what of humans? We have already seen the

answer and the ground thereof
time-binding class of

humanity is the For the sake of clarity let
definitions, as fol-

summarize the conceptions, or


a plant


a living creature having the capacity

to bind basic energies
ability to

and lacking the autonomous


in space

an animal


a living creature

having the autonomous


move about


space and lacking the capacity for binding time; a man, or a human, is a living creature having timebinding power.
It is to

be noted that, as thus conceived, the great

life-classes of the

world constitute a hierarchy arranged according to a principle which Korzybski calls

life-dimensions or dimensionality, as follows


plants, or basic-energy-binders, belong to the

lowest level or type of

and constitute the






and constitute the


animals, or space-binders, belong to the next

higher level or type of




beings, or time-binders, belong to a


higher level or type of

and constitute the


dimension 7/7.

Whether there be a yet higher class of life we do know and that is why in the conception of man no negative mark is present. Now, it is, of course, perfectly clear that, according to the foregoing conceptions or definitions, the

old zoological conception of


as a species of ani-



false, as the

author contends. But

may we


say that he

here merely playing with words? Is

not entirely a matter of arbitrary definition?



merely to please

his fancy,

quite willfully de-

fined the

term "animal"

such a

humans from

the class so defined?

way as to exclude The answer is
mere word

undoubtedly, No.




Of we



goes without saying

chose, define the

"animal" or any other noun so as to make


for the "class" of plants, elephants, humans, jabber-

wocks and newspapers. But we do not so choose.


not? Because we desire our definitions to be

expedient, to be helpful, to serve the purpose of ra-

want them, in other words, to correspond to facts. Let us, then, forget the word for a little while and look at the facts. It is a fact
tional thinking.


that there is a fact another class of creatures having both it is kinds of capacity. tween the two. — —namely. therefore. a fact that not only the interests of ethics. it is. a fact that the difference be- the capacity for binding all is not only beyond comparison the most significant of the the most significant marks peculiar to man. demand that the two classes. but is indeed and precious thing in the world. but to say that. humans are animals cisely the is pre- same kind of logical blunder as we should plants commit if we said that animals or humans are because they have certain organs. and animal propensities. sound but the interests of science. it is. and the blunder is a kind that fundamental — of it is the kind which . constantly. It is indeed true that humans have certain animal organs. time. animal functions. — — powerfully tends to produce both intellectual and moral obfuscation. it is a fact that use of the classes. therefore.Lecture that there is XX it 305 a class of creatures having space-binding is capacity but not time-binding capacity. functions and properties in common is with plants. a fact that the author's condemnation of the zoological conception as false to fact is amply justified on the best of grounds. therefore. same term "animal" to denote the members of both men and beasts alike. be not intermixed in thought and discourse. subtly. thus distinct by an infinite dif- ference of kind of endowment.

306 mathematicians classes Lecture call XX calls the confusion of types or of the "mixing of be- and which Korzybski dimensions. For sense. a tangible — . . due simply to the fact that an old unquestioned. — Common Sense. uncriticized creed of that great dullard. have legs and hair. on the other hand. is — — evident to common it is obtrusively evident to sense-perception. It is. I mean. due to any of I believe. subtle as spirit. they feed and grow. it —has been unex- pectedly challenged. that humans have certain animal organs and animal experience they are begotten and born. all just like animals. and die. their time-binding faculty is not thus evident it is not." To say that humans are animals is cause they have certain animal propensities cally logi- on a par with saying that geometric solids are surfaces because they have certain surface properties or with saying that fractions are whole numbers they have certain because properties that whole numbers have. it is an intangible function. Why is it that people for the that first is are shocked on encountering time a categorical denial of their belief a species of man animal? Do is they feel that thus assailed ? their proper dignity as Is it human beings because the animal basis of their space-binding is ethics being thus attacked? Is scientific it that a well- reasoned conviction is suddenly contrais dicted? I do not think the shock these things. organ.

But in this matter. "We must accept. concepts are the means by which Reason does its work. But why are mere concepts so important? Our lives. as in so is .Lecture XX its 307 and so common sense. vitally connected with impulses. I have said that the ancient and modern rival of the zoological conception of conception according to man is the which man is mythological a mysterious compound or hybrid of natural (animal) and as it super- natural. and appetites. "the traditions of the men of old time who selves to be the offspring of the they say —and they must gods — affirm them- that is what their surely have known . the life wrong. we are told. and thought- major premise the false proposition is that whatever has animal organs and propensities an animal. guided according to lessly taking for wont by the uncriticized evidence of sense. instincts. desires. The answer Because concepts are never "mere" concepts but are. passions. This conception might well be treated today was treated yesterday by Plato (in the Timaeus. are not controlled by concepts but instincts. The proper of animals is is the distinctive life of humans life- in-time. human kind is a kind of many others. for example). passions. appetites. in humans. concludes that our old dullard lif e-in-space animal." said he. is : by impulses. leading to prosperity or disaster according as the concepts be true or false. desires.

this gentle irony. . that the mythological conception of man is both false and vicious.308 Lecture ancestors. — is not the way of is the Polish engineer. for example. or — logical blunder as the zoological is. still. that a fatal confusion of mixing of dimensions. To say that man is must be regarded as partly natural (partly animal) and partly a being so inscrutably constituted that he supernatural (partly divine) that a geometrical solid it is logically like saying is a thing so wonderful that must certainly be a surface miraculously touched by some mysterious influence from outside the universe of space. involves. the world. or Confucius. not indeed without a blithesome sense of in this The latter is humor but and he matter he tremendously in earnest. B Jowett's translation. it involves." 5 But the way of the Greek philosopher. same kind of conception types. was as thoroughly natural as an eagle or an oak. XX the own How ? can we doubt word of the children of the gods Although they give no probable as they declare that they are or certain proofs. bluntly affirms. we must conform to custom and believe them. Among is the life-classes of . our humankind the time-binding class and Korzybski stresses again and again the importance of recognizing that time-binding energy and all the phenomena thereof are perfectly natural — that New- ton. — speaking of what took place in their own family. he says. it As the to its validity or invalidity. boldly and confidently.

we say. land. and so on. — moving pageant of the birth. growth. change of seasons. one of them is — "If something S has the property P and whatever has P has the property P' t then S has P'. You are aware that the terms "nature" of them so vague as to be and "natural" are currently employed in a large variety of senses —most men. they are known facts. such facts are of two kinds : of this and memory. water. night. I believe. death. —and He has not told that omission doubtless a defect which ought to be remedied in a future edition of the book. Everyone knows that the things encountered by a normal human in the course of his experience differ widely in respect of vagueness and certitude some of them are facts so . not for the serious use of scientific What ought we to mean by the term "natural" such a discussion as we are now en- gaged in? The question admits. so indubitable that they guide in all the affairs of practical life. in fit only for the use of "literary" men. regular.Lecture XX ? 309 What does he mean by us. of a brief answer that is fairly satisfactory. and to disregard them would be facts of sense-perception. day. all such facts are compatible — . or to perish like unprotected idiots or imbeciles." Now. so well ascertained. not explicitly. and facts of pure thought. the former are familiar in the world sky. facts of pure thought are not so obtrusively obvious but there are such facts. is "natural" — at all events.

If tion of biological data. however. elaborated an abstract theory of the idea. too. defer to the it is opinion of biologists. If that be what Korzybski means by "natural. all what we ought to mean by natural is. he has not. XX with all as we say. like his objection to the zoological conception. and that his strenuous objection to the mythological conception of man is. a question of the logical significance of such data. — — for will probably admit entitled that engineers to be heard. this: Nature {or the natural) consists of as are compatible and only such things [con- sistent) with the best-ascertained facts of sense and of thought. they. that time-binding energy is a natural kind of energy. and mere mathematicians are In this connection I desire to say that. it were a quesmere mathematicians would. such an . a question it is of biological data. these are not in dispute. the calls importance of avoiding what Korzybski overstressed. I that therefore. for straight and significant thinking. of course. the others. as he uses it is "mixing dimensions" cannot be of the term "dimensions" The meaning unmistakable." it and I think very probably is. well taken. —then I fully agree with him that humans are thoroughly natural beings. and respecting a question of logic. are sensible folk. like other sensible folk.— 310 each of them take it Lecture fits in. even biologists. however. not.

Life. very be not essentially identical with.Lecture elaboration would.) wherein the eminent physiologist maintains that mechanism. and Personality (E. be- be a great advantage to science and to phiexists. P. if it moreover. and personality belong to different categories constituting a genuine hierarchy such that the higher that life. to an understanding of the higher categories. an order of ideas similar to that of Korzybski's thesis that humans can be no more explained in terms of animals than animals in terms of plants or plants in terms of minerals. you observe. terms of life. Professor J. cannot be understood fully in in terms of mechanism. closely allied to. life. for example. Dutton and Co. It lieve. nor dynamics to geometry. . Mathematica of Whitehead and Russell. Haldane's doctrine of "categories" as set forth in his very stimulating and suggestive book Mechanism. briefly dealt with in a previous ture and fully outlined in the Principia it is. And it is to me at an all is fortified by the analogous con- sideration that geometry cannot be reduced to arithmetic. XX 311 reducible or nearly reducible to that of the show that the idea is Theory lec- of Logical Types. a hierarchy of categories and to recognize that. S. losophy to recognize that there whether we will or no. nor personality It is. I believe. nor psychology to physics. is not reducible to the lower. because it itself. I dynamics. order of ideas that recommends events. nor physics to will.

though necessary. human kind be will in fact a thoroughly natural is we continue to think that such not the case. respecting the convictions are as follows : my i ) if humanity be not a thoroughly natural class of life. under the hypothesis. it the term "natural" having the sense above defined. indeed. the result ethics will continue to be much the same —our . the authority. and this means that. a highly which the phenomena of a higher category throw as much light upon those of a lower as the latter can deny that. Is there not. have already spoken. is perfectly evident that there never has been and never can be a system of human ethics having the understandability. : man there are. we have in two counts he denies that the conceptions are true. there never has been and never can be an ethi- cal system "compatible with the best-ascertained facts (2) if.312 Lecture XX important sense in the lower ones. for throw upon the former? example. Who dynamics illuminates geometry quite as much as geometry illuminates dynamics? In Korzybski's indictment of the zoological and mythological conceptions of seen. and he denounces them as vicious their effects. although our class. are not sufficient. of sense and of thought". and the sanction of natural law. Of ( former count latter one. contending that they are mainly responsible for the dismal things of is human history and for what the woeful in the I present plight of the world.

all. penetrates them Ethics is a kind of social ether which. combat. has been measure. of brutal competition. per- vades life. I hardly need remind you that civi- only yesterday the most precious institutions of lization were in great danger of destruction by a powerful state impelled. philosophy.Lecture XX (3) 313 carry the confusion and darkness due to the presence in it of mythological elements. and be vitiated by fundathe virus mentally false conceptions of is human nature. — an animal —what it always ethics. true or false. space- binding ethics. on the other hand. private and public. — the whole conduct and life of a tribe or a state or a nation or a world. science. not an interest that it merely coordinate with other interests. industrial method. in so. so long as we continue to regard species of animal. sound or unsound. guided and controlled by animalistic ethics. the space-binding ethics of beasts. government. This is indeed an unforgettable illustration of the . and war. and our in large ethics will remain. if ethics all its dimensions and forms. not localized but spreads throughout the body affecting the character of all activities politic. the social life of the its man as a in all world aspects will continue to reflect the tragic miscon- ception. institutions. economics. an ethics of might. whether it be good or bad. — and education. of violence. politics. art. Why so much stress it is upon ethics? Because ethics is is not a thing apart.

but just. upon what we humans think man is. tions depends. as implications? And what are its not take them in at a glance but. you will its find that the body of implications looms larger and larger and that the range of clearer bearings grows ever it and wider. history. the present status of the all the philosophy thereof. of them The kind is central concept or thesis is that our it is. in .314 mighty of fact. for not only a noble conception. you will meditate upon the concept. it is In view of such considerations a great pleasit is ure to turn to Korzybski's concept of man. Lecture XX institu- before pointed out. if —meditation its bearings? is You can- essential. even decisively. the future welfare of mankind. it fail to per- we have seen. human other the time-binding class of life." Let us upon it a little. Indeed we may say of all what re- Carlyle said of Wilhelm Meister: "It significantly tends towards infinity in flect directions. If a man or a state habitually regards humanity as a species of animal. We shall see that human history. world. What are its is also. that the character human is. not merely tively human conduct and human upon what man distinc- but also in large measure. then that man or state may be expected to act betimes like a beast and to seek justification in a zoological philosophy of human nature. are involved. as none can ceive. undoubtedly Nothing can be more important.

is whether material or spiritual wealth. both material and spiritual. not a product of wealth. of humanity. It is that. also fun: damental. its organ — sole instrument or agency. for birds for plants to live after the manner of it plants. it is is the energy that civilizes. it is not civilized energy. and to discover their laws and teach them to the . this time-binding faculty. — human nature are the laws. we to it is as natural for humans bind time as to fly. its — — the charac- is not an effect of civilization it but is cause. a species of animal. It is as natural for man to make things achieved the is means to greater achievements as natural for animals not to do so. is XX and that man is 315 in our world a peculiar kind of its its time-binding energy. — the phenomena of civilization. of our human kind.Lecture words. Another one. I come now to a most grave consideration. that there energy. Inasmuch as time-binding capacity is the characterizing mark. to study time-bind- ing phenomena. of these energies. What are implicates and bearings? One of them we have already though we humans are not are natural beings : noted. the idiosyncrasy. but the crea- tor of wealth. That teristic fact is is fundamental. it is natural for fishes to swim. the laws of man is to study and understand the nature of man's time-binding natural laws. it fol- — — lows that to study and understand energies.

man invents. new and higher kinds toil in en- we know that this time-binding process. by which past time embodied as cofactor of during achievements thus survives the dead and works as living capital for is augmentation and trans- mission to posterity. I pre- mean. We have observed that each ended. we know that inventions lead to inventions. discoveries to tions to new creations. We know new that. It the natural law of progress in time-binding — in civilization-building. no time-binding a beaver dam a a is beaver dam — — — a honey comb a honey comb. it merits our best attention. for evident that upon the natural laws of time- binding must be based the future science and art of human One cisely. well. its is life and human welfare. that generation of (say) beavers or bees begins where the preceding one began and ends where is is it law for animals. discovers.316 world. creawe know that. new discoveries. it is Lecture is XX the supreme obligation of scientific men. creates. the secret and process of pro- gressive civilization-building. in sharp contrast therewith. fairly —but of the laws general type. we know — —not indeed roughly. the children of knowledge and art and wisdom not only produce their kind in larger and larger families but engender endlessly. for mere space-binders there no advancement. —and we know now. is the Law thereof — The question is : What gen- the natural law? What its . by such pro- gressive breeding.

provement. it is evident that R. This is an amazing function. how large we do . the ratio of improve- . then the progress made generation is second PR. is made in the single serve that not know. conveniently if called the "first. the involution of time life of man. however. — Yet such is approximately the law. off- for the advancement of Civilization. a rapidly increasing geometric progression — of if P be the progress made in a given generation. — the natural law. — that the time so the expression T enters PR T ~ is 1 as an excalled an exponential function of Time. errs it does not. to a similar law. the function not only increases but itself increases does so at a rate which according and the rate of increase of the rate of increase again increases in like manner. upon a little observation and re- flection. as every student of the Calculus knows. for. ponent — and —and R a that in the third is PR and that ~ Tth generation will be PR T X Oblarge number." and R denote the ratio of imin the 2 . err by excess. I have said "approximately.Lecture eral type is XX it is 317 like that you apprehend at once. immortal spring of the spiritual marriage of Time and human it Toil. in the even to the physical eye. as it is it T increases." for does not represent adequately the natural law for the progress of civilization. thus sweeping on towards infinity in a way that baffles all imagination and all descriptive speech. which always doing. and it makes evident. and so on endlessly. it by defect.

that what man has done and does has depended and . to speak of the above-mentioned law. or of civilization-making.000 years. so that the function Pi? only because the exponent increases with the flux of time. and we shall not be thus erring on the side of excess. —namely. What has been the trouble? as What you have been the Korzybski's hindering causes? Here. as above contemplated. concept of history see. though it is. It will be convenient. there supervenes : a operation long —300.000 to 500. our world lization so rich law throughout that vast would doubtless now own a civiand great that we cannot imagine it it today nor conceive nor even conjecture it in dreams. most important question Has civilization always advanced in accord with the mentioned law? And. why not? The time-binding energies of mankind have been in Hereupon. Had progress conformed to the stated period. according to guess to the estimates of those most competent anthropologists and paleontologists. but a variable that grows larger and larger increases. A fundamental principle of the new interpretation must be — man must to a the fact which I have already twice stated. but because R itself is an increasing function of time. however. it is not a constant.— 3 18 Lecture is XX as time r_1 increases not ment. as the natural law for the progress of time-binding. inadequate. if not. lead to a new interpretation of new philosophy of history.

in XX distinctively is 319 and man very great measure.— Lecture depends both upon what also. The glorious achievements of which they have deprived the world we cannot now know and may never know. maintains that the chief causes which have kept civilization from advancing its in accord with natural law of increase are man's misconceptions is of man. upon what the members of the race have thought and think here two determining factors —what man man is. in spite by what man is — of them. fac- which has hardly ever been noticed and has never its been given due weight. Korzybski. We have and what is we humans think man is. All that precious in present civilization has been achieved. in answer to our question. These are cave-man conceptions. by the first factor the peculiar organ of the civilizing is energies of the world. from which we have not yet emerged. It is their joint product which the sociologist or the philosophic historian must examine and explain. the time-binding energies have been ham- pered by the false belief that man is a species of animal and hampered by the false belief that man is a miraculous mixture of natural and supernatural. but subtle ramifications of their positive evils the can be traced in a thousand ways. And it is not only the duty it is of professional historians to trace them. It the second factor that has given trouble. In view of the second tor. your . Throughout the long period of our race's childhood.

Lecture XX the duty will be Whoever performs appalled. govart. educa- economics. political science. he believes. guided. This second to be initiated." of zoological "righteousness" ing in volume and culmination in the momentum did but World War. there will be many changes and many figurations. — — for centuries grow- leap to a thus to be viewed as only a bloody demonstration of human ignorance of human some of the We major implicates and bearings of the new concept of man. life — ethics. . is manhood. philosophy. Korzybski believes that the great war marks the end of the long period of humanity's childhood and the beginning of humanity's period. science. In the I can do no more than hints.320 duty and mine. religion. The task demands a large volume dealing with are here engaged in considering the relations of time-binding to each of the cardinal concerns of individual and social tion. industry. law. Time is will tell. ernment." of space-binding "ethics. and charI acterized by a right understanding of the distinctive nature of Man. If he not. Is he over-enthusiastic? do not trans- know. I hope he is not mistaken. which is nature. medicine. Perhaps you closing will write such a add to words of this lecture what I have said a few general questions and work or works. for he will discover that those evils evils of — the "magic and myth.

world. that be animalistic ethics. crowding. ethics will not having for its golden rule the law of brutes survival of the fittest in the sense of the strongest. energies of live in — natural laws. it will be. be a lawless ethics cunningly contrived for traffic in magic and myth. space-binding ethics. it be a "capi- keep for nor "prolebe an tarian" ethics lusting to get for self. is. It will be a natural ethics because based upon the distinctive nature of — mankind civilization-producing. talistic" ethics lusting to it will not self. and the sanction of natural law. coloring. What It will is to be the ethics of humanity's hood? not be an ethics based upon the zoo- logical conception of man. Neither will it be an ethics based upon a mythological it conception of man. will not." the ethics of might. human freedom life will be freedom to accord with those laws and righteousness will that does not contravene be the quality of a them. —of the time-binding man. class of life. good or bad. will for it be the embodiment. it will not. for ethics. the ethics of beasts fighting for "a place in the sun. the authority. of the laws. and combat. the living expression. controlling all the moods and ways and institutions of our human manis.Lecture I XX most powerful of 321 have spoken of ethics and must do so again. that a scientific ethics having the understanda- bility. pervading. The ethics of humanity's manhood will thus be . fashioning. is the influ- ences. — as the time-binding. that is.

" . —and — it will be it will grow in solidarity. an ethics compatible with the bestascertained facts of sense and of thought time-binding ethics clarity. and sway in proportion as science discovers the laws of time-binding. that is. being essentially involved in the 6 In a recent bulletin of the Cora L. will have for its supreme obli- — — gation. education. be- what time-binding is. In humanity's in school. in manhood. in home. And so I am brought to say a word respecting edu- cation.322 Lecture XX natural ethics. to teach the young the distinctive nature of man and what they. so that everywhere throughout the world men and women will habitually understand. church. —and — the laws. involving the loss human It is birthright by descent to the level of is often said that ethics a thing is which it impossible to teach. essentially are. lization-growth. binding ethics of their beasts. for the teaching of is subtly carried on in all our teaching. whether con- sciously or not. Williams Institute for Creative Education. of civi- teaches them to the world. with fine insight. that humans is the dignity of timetheir proper dignity as binding life. and will keep the obligation. as members and representatives of the race of man. and that for humans to practice spacecause bred to understand. is 6 is a monstrous thing. that "time-binding should be made the basis of all instruction and The Manhood of Humanity a textbook in every college throughout the world. Just the opposite true — it is it impossible not to teach ethics. Miss Williams has said.

or school in which that philosophy zoological consciously or unconsciously. a nursery of ani- malistic ethics. who can set a limit to the good that may be expected from the conscious. organized. human nature time consciously or unconsciously. From immemo- such teaching of ethics." is 323 "philosophy of human Every home is. — — pretty obvious indicating roughly the course which. a nursery of a law- less ethics rial. every home or school in which there prevails a mythological philosophy of is. civilizing energy of the world? I cannot here pursue the matter further. but like to in closing I should ask a few general questions questions lieve. . deliberate. deliberate. a whole people can be so imbued with both the space-binding animal ethics of might and the mythical ethics of Gott mtt uns that their State will leap upon its neighbors like an infuriated beast. unremitting joint effort of home and school and press to teach an ception of ethics based upon the true con- man as the agent and organ of the time- binding. of myth and magic. And we have seen that when such teaching becomes conscious. and organized. I be- further enquiry should take.Lecture teacher's XX nature. the the great truly war has so painfully taught regarding the gigantic power of education? If the accumu- lated civilization of many centuries can be imperiled by ethical teaching based upon a false philosophy of human nature. Why should we not learn the lesson which conscious. for the most part un- whole world has had.

for Space-binders and Government of Time-binders. by Time-binders. what are likely to be the principal ences between Government of Space-binders. for Time-binders? Which slaves? of the two kinds of government best befits the social regime of autocrats. and government? sciences economics. and And which best befits the dream of political equality and democratic freedom? Which quisitive of them most favors the prosperity of "Ac- Cunning"? of them is And which the prosperity of Productive Skill? Which Which others? the most friendly to the makers of wealth? And which of them to the takers thereof? of them most favors "boss" repression of the best provision for in- And which makes telligent self-expression ? . by Space-binders. or plutocrats.324 Lecture XX new concept of of What are the bearings of the man upon the social so-called politics. Can the new concept transform into those ages-old qualified pseudo-sciences genuine sciences to guide and guard scientific human welfare because based upon understanding of human nature? dis- In view of the radical difference between the tinctive nature of animals and the distinctive nature differ- of man.

case. has animal organs and animal functions. the and if. be natural energy. is the wealth existing at a given moment be almost toil wholly a product of the time and generations. both material and spiritual wealth. by honest men who know? If man's time-binding energy. or a newfound lake or land? If not. mal diseases or are some of them human . for example. to of the by-gone some of the whom does living? To all it it of right belong? To of the living? Or to all of the living and the yet unborn? Is the world's herit- age of wealth. natural energy and of time (which natural) there- fore a "natural resource" like sunshine. Are all the diseases of human beings anidiseases. is why not? What the difference in principle? Are the "right of conquest" and the "right of squatter sovereignty" time-binding rights? Or are they space-binding "rights" having their sanction in animalistic "ethics. since is a natural is product of a .Lecture XX 325 Which of them depends most upon might and war? And which upon right and peace? Which of them is government by "politics. which has all produced as the wealth of the world. though not an animal." in a zoological philosophy of human nature? What are the bearings of the new concept of man upon the theory and practice of medicine? Man." by politicians? And which of them by science.

when men and women are everywhere bred to understand the distinctive nature of our of human kind. there The of assumption appears to be the only scientific basis hope for the world. it would seem. great Nature the world will continue to flounder. A final reflection lies : an assumption — under the doctrine outlined there it is that. has the seat of its authority in that time-binding double relationship in virtue of which the living are at once posterity of the dead and ancestry of the unborn. is at fault and can be only one test —experimentation. If the assumption be not true. swiftly and endlessly. all Of its truth. that is. in accord with its natural law. — from the time and in the latter capacity toil of by-gone gen- holding the inherit- ance in trust for enlargement and transmission to future man. Lecture affecting XX humans in their distinctive character as time-binders? Can Psycho-analysis or Psychiatry throw any light upon the question? And what of the power that makes for righteousness? Religion. in a warless world.326 disorders. Must not tion be tried? right-thinking this men and women desire ardently that noble assump- I . trial. civilization — in the former capacity inheriting as living capital the wealth of erations. the time-binding energies man will be freed from their old bondage and civilization will advance.



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