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AN I N T E R D I S I C P L I N A RY P S YC H O LO GY
AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHANGES IN THE PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTM ENT OF THE HEBREW UNIVESITY FROM AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVE
(Interdisciplinary intersections (08270 Prof. Shlomit Rimon-Keinan Lior Krengel, 300915709
In order to implement our studies. since The area psychology is known for its amalgamation of interdisciplinary aspects and has been integrating which it has integrated ever since its foundations studies from different faculties. however.A. the psychology department of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem will move from Mount Scopus to Givat Ram. the classes and the courses indicate the potential split in the future: the path that I'llI will end up choosing will only include some aspects of the wide and complex area called Psychology. seem surprising. Already on the very first day. First. This shift should not be seen as big news to the Psychology studies as a discipline. In the next years. This geographic change implies a deep conceptual shift. the as psychology students.Introduction: As I am approaching the end of my second academic year in Ppsychology.A. the transition from the home of the faculties of the Social Sciences and the Humanities to the Natural Sciences. would have to choose a specialization.A in Psychology there is a little that can be done. raises an important question: will the department of psychology manage keeping succeed in striking the a balance between its different interdisciplinary characteristics/traits/orientations? It this paper. This geographical change. the head of the department informed us that with a B. I will examine the extent to which the department successfully integrates its interdisciplinary aspects. or spending countless hours in a lab? It seems like that these questions are an integrative part of the B. degree? Which path should I take: clinical or research? What is my aim? Is it an encounter with patients. degree in Psychology. the questions appear/surface like 'mushrooms after a rain': what should I do once I finish my B. we. During the last couple of years. I will present some of these .
abovementioned statement. I will observe analyze whether the department of Psychology in at the Hebrew University truly fulfills the interdisciplinary potential of the area. The fact that the student may specialize later on in more specific areas is essential but insufficient in order to consider that Ppsychology as an interdisciplinary program. Then. also provides students with supervised practical experience in the fields of research and treatment/therapy. The B. the undergraduate student will gain the opportunity to "taste" from different fields in Psychology. I will utilize the examine this question in light of the B. afford them with basic knowledge and terms in the different fields of psychology. I will demonstrate that the Ppsychology studies cannot be clearly associated to any one of the three other faculties.A.A studies' syllabus in order to examine this question. so that/in the hope that in at the end of his studies he is would be able to choose from the diverse experiences and based on gained from the different courses. Finally. it is clearly noted that the B. The department's statement as quoted above demonstrates the understanding that the area of psychology is a combination of theories. [to] teach the scientific tools and [to] uncover the various applications of psychology.aspects.A program is not designed to provide a specialization in any of the various fields of psychology. I .A. Ppsychology studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is to "present the students with the fundamental questions of the discipline. The declared goal of the B.". tools and hypotheses from different study fields. According to the mentioned above. as well as draw on my personal experience as a student.
the behavioral component [is a representative of] stands for the social part and the definition of psychology as a science is an provides evidence for of/attests to its scientific features. Its definition as the science of behavior and mental processes implies the complexity of the field: the mental processes represent the philosophical aspect. Thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle have dealt with questions regarding the nature of the human Mmind. Maimonides (Rambam) also dealt/grappled with the essence of the soul and focused mainly on the relation between our actions and soul. whether the student [really gains] is actually granted such an opportunity. Descartes suggested a dualistic perspective. Plato suggested that the study of philosophy can lead to an inner balance. but that the body can also influence the . to be distinguished by their different operations. In order to identify interdisciplinarity as a characteristic [trait] of the psychology field in general psychology at large and not just merely as it is studied in at the Hebrew University. that the mind controls the body. The interdisciplinary foundations of Psychology: Psychology exists has existed from the very beginning of humanity. " on the soul" On the Soul (De Anima).will now examine. one should examine the known foundations of the Psychology field. It is arguable that the beginning origins of psychology goes/date back to the ancient Greece. conscience and behavior. Aristotle's first book. deals with the kinds of souls possessed by different kinds of living things.
Hobbes and John Lock were also concerned with questions regarding the innate contents of the mind that a human being is born with: are we born as "tabula rasa. The simultaneous development of two different methods could be seen/ regarded as one of the sources/a possible source to the methodical conflict that the psychology as a discipline endures grapples with todaynowadays. together with the questions discussed in philosophy. At about the same years. The expected changes in the Psychology department in at the Hebrew University are also a consequence of this conflict.otherwise rational mind. physiologist. Many of the terms that Freud defined are still considered to be the basis of the psychoanalysis today. and or doctor. that is as distinguished from the roles that of the philosopher. Psychology studies at the Hebrew University: . created the role of the psychologist. or with knowledge and conscience? Finally. Later on. The pPsychoanalysis was defined as a method based on the theory of neurosis along with a theory of a healthy mind.". which were mainly borrowed from physiology and psychophysics. The aim of the experimental labs that were opening at that time was to implement new scientific methods. The first psychology lab was founded by Wilhelm Wundt in Germany in 1879 and is traditionally considered the starting point of modern psychology. Freud began to develop his psychoanalytical theory. philosophical questions were an integral part of the philosophical studies of the mind in universities in America since the 17th /seventeenth century. The empirical methods of the physiology.
The core courses aim to give [a little taste of] from an idea/a sample of everything that the psychology studies have to offer. the Freudian theories that had focused on the study of the mind.". The statistical Statistics studies are often considered to be the anti-thesis antithesis for of the faculty of humanities studies. These courses provide the statistical foundations that are inquired required for experiments based on a population sample.A. and yet. proves differently. An important premise in the study of biology study in this context is that there is an actual connection between the human body and mind and that in order to understand one of them. in many ways. . so that the students can wisely choose his their path later on.The required courses for the B. It is a twelvecourses list.A. the existence of these two courses. as the rest of the courses taken by the students are chosen according to their own preferences. Courses with a biological base orientation contradict. This is a junction between the psychological goals and tools that belong to a very different area. The course "Basic Principles in Biology" is intended to provide/aimed at providing a basic understanding of the structure and functioning of the human brain. The presence of the lLife sciences is are also current in part of the syllabus. The concepts that are learnt on this course will later on assist the student in the understanding of complex behaviors patterns such as perception and learning. such as "Introduction to Statistics and Methodology" and "Methods in Psychology Research. we must learn the other. which the student must complete during the three years of the B. Psychology degree are a great provide evidence for/attest to the interdisciplinary orientation within the department. These courses are seen/ regarded as the core studies of the degree. The application of statistical and mathematical tools is current in methodological courses.
The question of giving and getting help from strangers would be a good example of that. The core courses show/attest to the usage incorporation of different methods. In which situations do people help more? Is [there an influence forto] this conditioned by the number of people present in an event or to/by the time that will pass elapse until we offer help to a total stranger? Some of the research methods have been adopted from that the field of anthropology. The case studies present the individual and human aspects of the psychopathologies – combining a name and a face with a more general and categorizing medical view. etiology. At the same time. as it is typical in the psychology studies. just like in a similar mode to their anthropologists colleagues. the course "Social Processes" is also based on two areas: anthropology and sociology. . The course presents the field of the social psychology. Finally.Courses such as "Abnormal Psychology" are a product of/stem from the view of psychology as an medical sectorarea of medicine. Bbiology. and its studying material is clinical in every aspect: each psychopathological disease is described for its essential characteristics. Social psychologists also attempt to recognize universal features of the human nature. The emphasis is on the analysis of individuals' behavior in the context of social situations. In this way. the different treatments and medicines that may be taken. case studies for each disorder are provided. physiological and environmental components that may add to its appearance/emergence and finally. prevalence in population. which explores that the reasons and ways that thoughts. The course focuses on psychopathology. we can examine all kinds of social issues. taken from/which belong to various areas/disciplines: Mmedicine. emotions and behaviors are affected by the environment.
In the last couple of years there have some significant changes have taken place in the department. one thing is clear: this transition will affect the nature of the studies. For instance. These changes show a transition of the psychological focus. who masters specializes in the various aspects of the psychoanalytic theory. there were presented theoretical approaches were presented to describe and characterize the personality. to the Natural Sciences. A a student who chooses the clinical path is not exposed to the same empirical tools that are a part of the cognitive studies. What is the ambition? What are the goals? Regardless the different possible answers to that. Freud. During the course. if we look at the department as a whole. which was taught by Dr. and Kohut represented being the main representatives of the psychoanalytical approaches.". both physically and contently wise . Tzvi Carmeli. Melanie Klein. However. the mere existence of different specialization allows for the definition of the psychological project/psychology department as interdisciplinary. Thus. The specialization programs that are offered for graduate studies are of a multi-disciplinary kind. the structure of the undergraduate program reveals some interdisciplinary aspects/an interdisciplinary tendency.". for example. along with an overview of the main characters and concepts of the area. as the relation between the different programs is not integrative..Ssociology. I will now exemplify this. Watson and Skinner were chosen to demonstrate the . A case study: the course "Personality" In the year of 2009 I have participated in a required compulsory course titled "Personality. Jung. the course— "Personality. Aanthropology and Sstatistics. through the alternations that have been made in a main course of the Undergraduate program.
were presented by psychologists such as Bandura and Kelly. behaviorists and cognitive theories. The main teaching method was a direct reading of texts written by the [earlier described] abovementioned personas. emotion . which were taught with in depth on in the previous version of the course. there was an emphasis on the therapeutic practices derived from each method. are were now solely merely mentioned through secondary sources. were studied as well. Maya Tamir. The course's name of the course remained the same. The cognitive methods. The premise was that every scientific research has a theory as a its base. its description in the syllabus was quite different. conflicts and completions complementariness. The final exam of the course was of in an open. there is now a debate on the interpersonal differences in motivation. Instead. bringing back the human mind back as a necessary component of human understanding. and examined the student's ability to implement the various theories on therapeutic cases.questions format combined with closed questions.behaviorist era – the idea that a person is perceived as a continuum of different patterns of behaviors rather than as an entity with an inherent world. Also. the course's professor was replaced by Dr. In the year 2010. Finally. The aim of the new-structured course was to examine the concept of "personality" from a scientific perspective. the contradictions. The Ppsychoanalytic. modern social theories. The emphasis was on laying/establishing the clinical base basis of the profession. and each lesson was an active discussion about possible links between the different methods. and therefore we shall learn first the personality theories and derive from them the experiments and scientific hypotheses. however. such as "Tthe Ttheory of Ccharacter" that aims to understand the person through its/his/her characters. along with the study of theoretical principles. who specializes in emotion and emotional regulation.
the source of human motivation and others. the prevailing learning theories. such as the relationship between body and soul. In this way. the classic therapeutic approach. idea or research that was studied presented in the textbook. one cannot perceive the alterations I mentioned. according to which every practice should be established scientifically. inviting the students to share their thoughts and opinions. and it examines the student's knowledge and proficiency in the course textbook. The main teaching method is based on a textbook. where each chapter focuses on a different aspect of the personality.". the question of what is happiness. Thus. was replaced by a research analytical approach. The questions are limited and generally focused on one specific characteristic of a theory. the students were encouraged to look critically at analyze the texts and. nor was its number of credit points. The course was and remains a required compulsory one. .g. at the same time. The nature of the classes given by Dr. Carmeli was literary. But when considering the essence of the course and its content.and self-regulation. Many Much researches are is cited and different researchers and . the title was not changed/ altered. Under the new format.. is a more selective and fixed method of studying. The difference in the teaching methods also indicates the changes in the course. At a macro level. the additional details are indicative of the changes' nature of the changes. achieve a deeper understanding of them.e. The professor would also discuss ideas that are implied "between the lines. The reading and discussion of primary sources are teaching methods I am familiar with from courses in literature and philosophy in the "Amirim" program. In contrast. which focuses on the relationship between a patient and the therapist. the learning from a textbook written and edited by various scholars. the final exam is conducted in the form of closed questions. who collected what seemed to them as appropriate resources.
one can no longer deny: nNot only that are the psychoanalytic aspects of psychology are being emphasiszed. it is required to examine where the psychoanalytical ideas contradict the empiric and investigational aspects that are been being emphasized lately. Open questions allow the students to express their own ideas to relatively a greater extent. The scoring procedure for multiple-choice questions can be done by a computer. but they are practically being but omitted from it. Klein and Winnicott. the change in the final exam's format of the exam is also indicative too. Against this fact. Instead. and of the psychology department in particular. IsDo the place of new approaches must necessarily come at the expense of ideas and previous research? Conclusion: Can psychoanalysis exist along with the scientific methods? What is the interest of the university. while the process is fully objectingve. The global significance of the changes in the course's characters of the course is that students at the Department of Psychology may finish their undergraduate studies without encountering names such as Lacan. . These changes imply a shift to scientific trend. The student is not given an opportunity to meet "directly" with the theory and the relevant thinkers. the learning resolution process/mode is more distant. The scoring process is very different too. some of the most important thinkers in psychoanalysis. Revealing. Open questions require experts in the field and the scoring is subjective. Multiple-choice questions leave no place for self-expression. with a quantitative emphasis. Lastly. based on valuing evaluating judgments.scholars are mentioned throughout the book. in canceling the mandatory psychoanalysis course? In order to answer this question.
The scientific arguments against the study of psychoanalysis focus on the research methods and the declarative goals. the transition to the Natural Sciences is the result of both political interest and global influence. The existence of such therapy puts the psychoanalysis in an even a more problematic position. are a proof that it is possible to effectively combine the therapeutic approach and research. case study summaries and self-reports. it is easier to assess its their success rate. Since the psychoanalytical therapy sometimes does not focus on a specific problem. the therapy therapeutic method itself varies from one therapist to another. In addition. I will only mention that the shift to the Natural Sciences will result in more an . The extreme critiques would even compare the use of psychoanalysis to the medical practice of bloodletting that was finally proven to be not only unpractical but also harmful. In this way. and do not allow for a quantitative research. From an empirical perspective. The individual experience of both the therapist and the client is reported on questionnaires. in a way that does not permit an objective evaluation of the therapy's success. The main research method in the clinical psychology is the clinical experience and the personal insights of the therapist. it is problematic and unthinkable that the same methods that were [utilized] employed a hundred years ago are still in use today. The cCognitive-behavioral therapies. Another claim against the Ppsychotherapy is directed to the stagnation that the field has faces in the last 100 hundred years. Scientifically speaking. these methods are all subjective. it is impossible to define an actual and clear ending point to the whole process. Regarding the Hebrew University. Since this is not the theme of this paper. The CBT therapies are limited in time and with specific applications. which have been developeding since the 70's.
1 Noe. and other lessons from the biology of consciousness. Alva Noe. Out of oOur heads Heads : wWhy you are not your brain. Freud himself wished to give a scientific validation to his therapy. (New York : Hill and Wang. But the idea that it is the whole story. 2009)you must capitalize each content word and the word following the colon (first of subtitle). It's a prejudice. argues in his book that "the brain is essential for our lives. Furthermore. health and experience.expansion of financial resources for research. Recent statistical research shows that the impact of the psychoanalytical therapy is equivalent to the results of CBT. This approach will give/grant a respectful status to the scientific research but will not exclude the initial and earlier insights of this field. . is not a scientific conclusion. Since the rise of the psychoanalysis and the of experimental psychology in at the end of the 19th / nineteenth century. a cognitive philosopher. his work moved back and forth from the literary narrative to the scientific theory. The bBasic human understanding is. is essential for an effective psychological treatment. It is important to remark that the psychoanalysis is not the other end of the scale. For many years. apparently. Further research suggests that the elements that make the CBT treatment successful are the dynamic elementsones."1 Noe suggests a theory that will include the body and the interaction with the world together with brain studies. physiology. Do the studies of Freud's doctrine truly harm the desired image of psychology as empirical? Is the ambition to convert the psychology into an analytical objective field realistic? Alva Noe. the relations between the two have been very complex. the global trend of brain studies in a psychological context is probably another motivating force. or even the key to understanding the story.
of the article “the. that its/If the research field of psychology is no longer human beings but rather inherent features – then it is totally disconnected from its study objects. Your nuanced formulations tend to be marred by proficiency problems. since the relocation to the new campus. and wrong use of apostrophes. Without a cultural maintenance. Best is the conclusion. together with the current changes in the syllabus. Please go carefully over my partial remarks throughout. From the very first step. it is challenging to scientifically measure the human mind. accordingly. well-organized and contentious paper. Maybe then. How can we empirically examine abstract concepts such as depression and happiness? If the psychology is a natural concept. the psychology is at runs the risk of fully blending into the medical and brain studies. and aim mainly at avoiding wordiness.” of prepositions. A possible solution to the conflict between the scientific psychology and the psychology as a practice is to define them as two different disciplines. which is well formulated and flows far more smoothly than the previous sections. the political rivalry and the slander will be replaced by co-operation between the two. Li Or.From my perspective. Moreover. I decided. the scientific psychology needs the psychoanalysis in order to preserve the cultural prestige of the discipline as a whole. the students will be able to choose the relevant pathway and acquire the right skills that will be required later on – as psychologists or researchers. This is a very interesting. contractions. when one aspect will not be a threat on to the other. super-human. to give you a higher grade than I initially though. as it reveals your potential. a colloquial register. . affirm a clear separation of the body from the soul and redefined the physiological and biological aspects as the new focus. The psychology department at the Hebrew University is also running the same risk.
Paper grade: 93 Final grade: 93 Talia .
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