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18

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19

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23

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35

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37

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45

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jzifh &Sr;vlrsKd;\tusKd;udk vkvm;oa,mifjyaomfvnf; pifppf f d tm;jzifh apmfbGm;rsm;\ya'o&mZf tmPmwnfNrJap&efom ajymqkdjcif;jzpfojzifh 'l;0g;aZmfvGef;uJhodkYyif nd§nd§EIdif;EIdif;t ay;t,lvyvYdk rvG,uojl zpfaMumif;udk awG&aomtcg Akvf k f f l Y d csKyfrm vGepmyif pdwrcsrf;romjzpfom;ayonf/ S f G f G &Sr;apmfbm;rsm;u (Complete Internal Autonomy) f G awmif;qkd&mwGif ¤if;wkdY\tmPmESifhvuf&SdtcGifhta&;rsm; wnfNrJ&efEivwvyfa&;&NyD;onfaemufyi;wGivnf; rdrwYdk S hf G f h kd f f d qE´&onftwki; vkyv&m vkyyicihf Oyrmtm;jzifh e,fpyf dS h d f f dk f kd f G a'otkycsKyfa&;atmufwif 'kre,tjzpfaevku ae&ef ¤if; f G d D D H d wk\(Memorandum) pmwrf;wGiaz:jyxm;onftwki;aqmif Yd f h d f &Guom;Eki&efwYdk jzpfygonf/ f G d f

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EXTRACT FROM THE GENERAL STATEMENT BY BURMA DELEGATION TO LONDON - JANUARY 1947 THE FRONTIER AREAS. We are aware that the long-term policy of His Majesty's Government in regard to Burma is that there should be a united or federated Burma including the whole of British Burma and perhaps also the Karenni States. We respectfully subscribe to this policy but are anxious that the peoples of these areas should be given an opportunity of sharing immediately in the constitu tional advance to be achieved by the Burmese. To that end we propose that representatives of the frontier Areas should be associated forthwith in the work of the Executive Council in a manner which would retain for these Areas autonomy in matters of internal administration. This, in our opinion, could be done by bringing the Frontier Areas within the scope of the Executive Council and by appointing a representative of the Frontier Areas to the charge of the new portfolio and providing him with two or three Deputy Counsellors representing the Frontier races of which he is not a member. Our desire is that the people of the Frontier Areas should regain their freedom together with the Burmese and enjoy equal rights with them in all respects. When constitutional reforms were introduced to Burma in 1919 Burma was divided for administrative purpose into Burma Proper and the "Backward Areas". The backward in any way. Before 1886, when Upper Burma was under Burmese rule, good relations between the Chiefs of the Frontier races and the Burmese Kings were normal. Such members of the Frontier races as happen to reside in the plains have acquired the same political rights as the Burmese. The delegation are aware that the demand for a kachin State amongst the Kachin was inspired by some military officers during the time of the operations against the Japanese. It has also come to the knowledge of the delegation that in a letter from the Burma Office, dated the 30th Novemember 1943, to the Governor, it was stated that for reasons of Imperial Defence it may be desirable for His Majesty's Government to exercise a more direct control over the Frontier Areas of Burma than over Burma itself after the latter has been granted selfgovernment. For sixty years, the conditions of these so-called backward tribes, administered by British authorities without Burmese aid, have remained without imporvement. The Delegation do not hold the view that they are politically backward and still incapable of self-government but if such is the view of His Majesty's Government, the Delegation maintain that no government outside Burma should have any claim to the privilege of trusteeship over these areas. The Delegation proposal is, however, not for the Burmese political position, actual and impending, and to a distinct share in the administration of the country to which they, the Burmese and all other races of Burma alike belong."

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49

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MEMORANDUM ON THE SHAN STATES SUBMITED BY THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE SHAN STATES SAOHPA'S COUNCIL. From the earliest times, even during the Burmese regime, the Shan States have been recognised as a seperate entity, apart from Burma proper. This view is confirmed by the following extract from the recent publication entitled "British Rule in Burma, 1824 - 1942," by G.E.Harvey, N.C.S.(Retired), an officer who for many years served in Burma and the Shan States:"Most of the Shan States (not all) were tributary to the king of Burma, but, even when the tribute was more than nominal, it was paid to his Burma Majesty in person, not to his Ministers. The Shan Chiefs were kings in subordinate alliance with their overlord, the king of Burma, and they were not subordinate to his Ministers." 2. On the annexation of Upper Burma, the whole of Upper Burma, including the Shan States, was declared to be part of British India. The British Government then automatically succeeded to the rights of the king of Burma in the Shan States. In the speech delivered at Rangoon on the 24th February 1886 His Excellency the Viceroy and the Governor General of India, the Marquess of Duffarin and Ava, declared that the Shan Chiefs would be treated as in subordinate alliance with the British Government. A Copy of an extract from this speech which, apparently formed the basis of Mr. Harvey's remarks, was incorporated in the Shan Chiefs' Memorandum submitted to His Majesty's Secretary of State for india in 1930. 3. The Shan States Act of 1888 and the Burma Laws Act of 1893 made it clear that the Shan States were a special area with a special system of administration. The Rulers were "recognised" and powers and rights embodied in the Sanads granted to them. The reason for this special treatment is obvious, namely that nowhere eles in Burma proper were there traditional and hereditary rulers like the Shan Chiefs. Even as recently as the 18th June 1934 the special status of the Shan States vis-a-vis Burma proper was recognised-vide paragraph 435 at page 240 of the Report of the Joint Committee on Indian Constitutional Reform (Session 1934-34)Volume I (Part II), Proceedings, wherein it was stated:"We should perharps explain that the Shan States, though British territory, are a quasi-automous area administered by the Shan Sawbwas (Saohpas) or Chiefs under the general supervision of the Governor (of Burma), and that since 192 they have been formed into a species of Federation for certain common purpose. The Finances of the Federation have always been kept distinct from the provincial finances of Burma, and we think it desirable that arrangement should contiue." And, again, at page 241 ibid:"The Shan States are a compact areas, and for all common purposes form a single orgainsed administrative unit." 4. The Shan States Federation came into being on the 1st October 1922 and a Federal Council of Shan Chiefs was formed. With effect from 1st July 1925 a seperate Commissioner was appointed for the Federated Shan States and he became president of the Council. The functions of the Council were purely of an advisory nature. Legislative power, in respect of the Shan States, was vested in the Governor under sub-section(2) of Section 40 of the Government of Burma Act, 1935, subject, of course, to the powers of His Majesty in parliament. 5. The Federal Council of the Shan Chiefs and the Standing Committee continued to function until the evacuation of Burma and the Shan States by the legal Government. As subsequent to the reoccupation it was felt that an efficient central co-ordination fo Administration for an unified progress within the Federated Shan States was essential, the Saohpas of the Shan States met together in March 1946 and formed a SHAN STATES SAOHPAS' COUNCIL composed of all the saohpas and all the Administrator in the Federated Shan States. As this was a somewhat unwiedly body, diffcult to convene in a country with bad means of communication rendered worse by the ravages of War, it was resolved at a later meeting, held in July 1946, that for the immediate future, an Executive Committee of Seven Saphpas by selected for the purpose of deciding all questions of future administration and policy without reference to all the individual Saohpas of the Council. This was accordingly done, and it is from this Executive Committee that this Memorandum emanates. We Shans feel that, with the historical background set forth above, we are in no wise inferior to the Burmans culturally, politically, or otherwise, and that, if in the near future, His Majesty's Government is pleased to grant independence to Burma proper, the Federated Shan States should be granted a similar status at the same time. 6. It may be said that our form of government in the Shan States autocratic. This statement may have been made with some degree of accuracy a century ago, but is no longer true. The war had many devastating effects, but one good effect it had was to bring us into contact with many nations from all parts of the World, and to cause amongst us an awakening to political conciousness. The right of our people to take a part in the administration of the country has been recognised, and State Advisory Councils have already been started. Furture, we are now in the process of constituing a Constituent Assembly and also a Shan States Federal Council including members popularly elected in both cases. 7. Since the reoccupation of Burma, a new department has been opened at the headquarters of the Government of Burma. It is called the Frontier Areas Administration, and as its name implies, it controls all the "Frontier Areas", including the Shan States, the Kachin Hill-Tracts, the Chin Hills, the Karen Tracts and so on, that is to say all the areas specified in Part I and II of the Second Schedule to the Government of Burma Act, 1935 (26. Geo. 5, c.3). 8. It has been declared that the ultimate aim of the policy of the Frontier Areas Administration is some form of amalgamation with the Frontier Areas with Burma proper. Since that declaraion was made events have moved quickly in Burma proper. 9. In the King's message to Burma, after the return of the Civil Government in October 1945, His Majesty had a special word to say to tell the hill peoples of Burma, "who have with such steadfast courage maintained for three long years to fight against the enemy." The message went on to say:"Seperate arrangements will be made for your administration os that special care and attention may be given to your welfare and your indigenous institutions may be developed. I hope that the day is not far distant when you, too, will desire of

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your own free will to take your place in self-governing Burma, and my Government will do all in the power to forward this last step in the historic task of the unification of Burma." 10. With due respect the Executive Committee of the Council of Shan States Saohpas would submit that the time has not yet arrived for the amalgamation is the Shan States with Burma proper. The first consideration is the need for the preservation of the Shan race. The experience of the past few centuries has shown that wave after wave of Shan immigrants who went South into Burma proper have been submerged in the populations there and have lost all their racial distinction. In the absence of any form of declaration made by His Majesty's Government with regards to the Federated Shan States, we do not know where we stand, if we were to stay aloof from Burma and remain within Frontier Areas Administration. Then agian, from the Constitutional point of view we do not yet feel in a position to deal with ad adjoining "Independent Burma," unless we receive guarantees and assuracnces as indicated in the notes or resolutions below, prepareed or passed by Executive Committee from time to time. SUBJECT:- Demands made by the Shan States. Peoples all the World over are now demanding their national birth-right in respect of self-determination regarding the problems, either racial, politional, or otherwise, from the dominating governments concerned. Time is now ripe for us, the Shans one of the communities in the citizenship of this world, to demand our rights in accordance with the spirit of democracy. We therefore consider that the time has come when our rights should be recognised as follows:1. The powers of recruitment, appointment, and removal of officers for service in the Federated Shan States heretofore vested in the Governor of Burma and the Secretary of State for Burma should, without any reservation, be delegated to the Federal Council of the States. 2. Powers to appropriate receipts and control expenditure out of revenue accruing, either in or out of the Shan States, to the Shan States, should be transferred to the Federal Council of the Shan States, and no longer exerciseed by either the Secretary of State or the Governor of Burma. 3. Relationships with different Countries within the British Empire. On the basis of managing and controlling their own respective internal affairs, the Shans, the Chins, the Kachins, the Karens, and the Burmans should determine, upon agreement with the consenting parties, the ways and means of their interrelation with one another. 4. Foreign Affairs. The rights and privileges enjoyed by other members of the British Commonwealth of Nations should, in equal measure, be extended and given to the Shan States for the period of her membership of the said Commonwealth. And also the right to have intercourse with her neighbouring foreign countries, such as China, French Indo-China and Thailand, when such occasion arises, for the inhabitants of these neighbouring tracts are nearly all Shan by races and in origin. The four items enumerated above were discussed and unanimously agreed to by all the Saohpalong in their meetings, held successively at Mong Kung, Panlong, and Taunggyi; as such the Saohpalongs, together with indigenous races of the Shan States, should not remain content and inactive unless and until the demands as herein set out are fully met with. "(a) The Saohpalongs of the Shan States are willing to negotiate on the question of Federation with Burma on the understanding and basis of full autonomy for the Shan States, this condition to be duly provided for and guaranteed in the future constitution for Burma whether as a Dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations or a complete Sovereign international state, with the right to secede from the Federation if so desired." 11. A copy of an extract from the minutes of a meeting of the Shan States Saohpas' Council held in July 1946, which was attended by the Deput Director of Frontier Areas, is reproduced below, and it is requested that come immediate arrangements should be made regularly to revive the Shan States Federal Fund, with necessary amendments of the shares of the Federated Shan States in certain heads of Central Revenue such as Customs etc. EXTRACTS FROM MINUTES. "The Mong Pawn Saohpa raised the question of the Federal Fund Order which expired three years after 1941. i.e 1941, and also said that according to this Order in Council which was based on the decision of a Special Tribunal, the Federated Shan States did not get its fair share of Customs from Burma Revenues. The Deputy Director, Frontier Areas, replied that althoug the Order expired in 1944 a seperate Accounts Officer for the Federated Shan States regarding the share of the Federated Shan States out of Burma Revenues. According to the Act of Parliament no one can touch it. It is for the Saohpas to put the matter up to the Government." 12. To sum up, we desire to reamain, for the time being, within the frame-work of the Frontier Areas Administration, side by side with the other hill areas, which, like our Shan Hills, are geographically, definitely seperate from Burma proper. At the same time we shall continue our friendly relations with that country. Nevertheless, if the question of Federation with Burma proper is raised, the Federated Shan States claim the right and privelege as an equal parter in any Burma Federation of treating direct with His Majesty's Government in the matter of financial or other adjustments. It is necessary, however, to emphasise on the fact that the Shan Saohpas are only willing to negotiate fon the question of federation with Burma proper on the understanding and basis of full autonomy for the Federated Shan States, this condition to be duly provided for and guaranteed in the British Commonwealth of Nations or as a completely independent Sovereign States, with the further condition that the Federated Shan States shall have the right at any time to secede from any such Burma Federation if they so desire. As regards internal administration, our aim is to have our own Constitution, a Federation of the Shan States. Dated Camp Hsipaw sd. Hkun Pan Sing, the 16th January 1947. President, Executive Committee, Council of Federated Shan States, Saohpas.

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SECOND MEMORANDUM ON THE SHAN STATES SUBMITTED BY THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE SHAN STATES SAOHPAS COUNCIL. Since drafting our first Memorandum we have received official intimation that His Majesty's Government is about to grant independence to Burma, and has invited to England a delegation from the Executive Council of the Government of Burma. The Right Hon'ble Mr. Attlee's pronouncement on the subject contains no refercence to the Frontier Areas. Our misgivings as to the future status of the Federated Shan States, are therefore, doubled. In paragraph 10 of our first Memorandum we have set forth the reasons militating against the amalgamation of our States with Burma proper, and in paragraph 12 we have clearly specified the guarantees and conditions on which we are willing to negotiate on the question of federation with Burma proper. And as regards our internal administration, we desire to repeat that our aim is to have our own Constitution, a Federation of the Shan States, as a self-governing entity. 2. The four points of vital importance coneded by His Majesty's Government to Burma may be brieftly summarised as shown below:A. That the Burma white Paper of 1946 may be discarded; B. That the people of Burma may decide their own future, where or not to remain within the Commonwealth; C. That the new Constitution for Burma may be settled by the nationals of Burma; and D. That the Burmese Government that has now been formed may within the existing constitution exercise a full measure of authority in Burma. 3. Basing our claims on the historical background and on the other facts set forth in our first Memorandum, we beg to demand that the four points cited above shall apply, with immediate effect, to the federated Shan States, and we shall now proceed to examine in what manner this may be done. 4. "A" calls for no remarks. 5. As regards "B", we have already expressed our willingess to reamin, for the present, within the frame-work of the Frontier Areas Administration, provided that if, at any time, the question of federation with Burma proper is raised, we shall claim the right and privilege to negotiate on that question on the understanding and basis of full autonomy for the Federated Shan States, and guaranteed by His Majesty's Government in the future constitution for Burma. 6. For carryingf out the terms of "C", we have already suggested to the Governor of Burma that he should, under the powers vested in him by sub-section (2) of Section 40 of the Government of Burma Act, 1935, issue a Regulation declaring the Council of the Federated Shan States consisting of all the Saohpas, Administrators and equal number of popularly elected representives of the people which will be assembled by Novemember 1947 to be a Constituent Assembly for the drafting of a new Constitution for Federated Shan States. All the members of the proposed Constituent Assembly will be nationals of the Shan States. So that, in this respect also, these States will fall into line with India and Burma. 7. There now remains "D". It appears at this stage to be necessary to consider in some detail the system of administration in force in the Shan States. In pre-annexation days the Chiefs were held to be "in subordinate alliance" to the king of Burma and in no way subject to His Majesty Ministerial Government. Even subsequent to the annexation, that is during the past sixty years or more the Chiefs have enjoyed the same status; their territories have been recognised "quasi-autonomous areas." Dyarchical Government at first and later Ministerial Government in Burma proper did not affect the rights and powers of the Chiefs to administer their country on the traditional and hierarchical sysytem. It is true that in their Sanads, the documents recognising their titles, powers, and rights, they were enjoined to exercise them subject to the guidance of their superintendents, but most Government Officers, who have served in the Shan States will, it is submitted, readily admit that such guidance was seldom called for, and if necessary, merely took the form of advice. The reason for this can easily be explained. The Rulers are hereditary. Leaving out of consideration the areas notified under Chapter X of the Burma Municipal Act and special mining areas, which, we are told, will shortly be returned to the States concerned the rule in each States is framed on a basis common to all States. Hence, it will be an easy step from ruler by one in one State to rule by a centralised body like the Executive Committee over all the States. 8. The autonomous nature of the system in force in our States has been tested by the passage of time and is still considered the most suitable for our country. 9. But we the people of the Shan States, like the people of other nations of the World, move with the times. Since the last war, we have recognised the need for some form of centralised government, while at the same time admitting, into that Government a democratic Policy, so that our people may learn and develop the principles of self-government. With the first object in view many of our brother Chiefs, in supreme act of self abnegation, have surrendered their powers and privileges to a central Executive Committee of the Shan States Saohpas' Council, to which reference was made in our first Memorandum and also here. For this praiseworthy gesture of unselfishness the Chiefs concerned deserve a high tribute of thanks, in that they have volutarily foregone their undisputed and hereditary rights. 10. With the second object in view, namely the gradual development of democratic principles, we are now in the process of including, in the immediate future, within our Council and Committee, populary elected members. 11. It is for Executive Committee of the Shan States Saohpas' Council, which has been regularly established by convention, that we beg that a full measure of authority in the Shan States be forthwith elevated, such authority including executive, complete financial autonomy and legislative power. The latter will, necessarily, under the present constitution, be subject to the power exercised by the Governor of Burma to issue Regulations applicable to the Shan States under the authority vested in him by

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section 40 (2) of the Government of Burma Act 1935. This power may be exercised until a new Constitution for the Shan States is brought into force. 12. As regards the other sphere of administration, apart from legislative, there are sufficient powers for the Saohpas to act under the Sanads granted to them and under the various orders, rules, etc., which are published in the Shan States Manual, and which will be scrutinised and amended when the draft Constitution is being framed. 14. To sum up, we ask that (1) the Federated Shan States be placed immediately on the same political status as the adjoining country of Burma proper, (2) The Council of Federated Shan States consisting of all Saohpas, Administrators and equal number of popularly elected representives of the peoples which will be assembled by November 1947 be recognised as a Constituent Assembly for drafting the new Constitution for the Shan States; (3) the powers given to the Burmese Government now functioning be similarly given to the Executive Committee, which is a regularly constituted body functioning de facto in the Shan States; (4) the Shan States Federal Fund, to which contributions have been made, or promised during the current financial year, by all the Shan Chiefs, be revived and placed within the sole financial power of the Executive Committee. Dated at Camp Hispaw, the 16th January 1947. Sd. Hkun Pan Sing, President, Executive Committee, Council of Shan States Saohpas.

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GENERAL STATEMENT BY THE BURMA DELEGATION I. The Constituent Assembly. On the 20th December 1946 in the house of commons the Rt. Hon. the Prime Minister made the following statement:"we do not desire to retain within the Commonwealth and Empire andy unwilling peoples. It is for the people of Burma to decide their own future but we are certain that it will be to their interest as it will be to ours if they decide to remain within the Commonwealth and we sincerely hope that they will arrive at such a decision. Likewise, we consider that the new Constitution for Burma should be settled by nationals of Burma and we believe that arrangementf to this end can be made as a result of the forthcoming elections, without the necessity for holding fresh elections for a Constituent Assembly, on the analogy of what has already been done in India where the Constituent Assembly is based upon the ordinary provincial elections... " In all these matters, it is the desire and intention of His Majesty's Government to hasten forward the time when Burma shall realise her independence, either within or without the Commonwealth, but for the sake of the Burmese people, it is of the utmost importance that this should be an orderly - though rapid progress." We understand from the above quotaion that His Majesty's Government are prepared to concede to Burma the right to such from of independence as she may choose and as rapidly as possible Our own demand is that this independence shall be achieved within a year from now. If the intention of His Majesty's Government and our own demand are to have effect, the Constituent Assembly will have to be convened to decide the destiny of Burma. From the beginning, our demand for the Constituent Assembly has been coupled with the demand for an election to that Constituent Assembly on an adult franchise. This franchise we have received from parlaiment, and though it has been fixed at an age qualification different from what we desire, we are prepared to acquiesce provided that the Constituent Assembly is formed by direct election.. Under the 1935 Constitution, elections can be held only for the legislature, and non nationals have the right to participate. Moreover, the working of that Constitution since its inception up to the time it was sspended by the War was associated with feature which did not meet with the people's favour. Thus we found that the participation in the elections and in the legislature of nonnationals enabled them to interfere materially in the internal politics of our country. It is the intention of His Majesty's Government to enbled Burma to have the own freedom as soon as possible, and the re-introduction of the 1935 Constitution can only delay the implemetation of that intention and would be retrograde. We are therefore in favour solely of having direct election for the Constituent Assembly. The analogy drawn between India and Burma appears to us to be unsound as in India the provincial elections were held soon after the War and before there was agreement about the formation of the Indian Constituent Assembly. But in our country we have been opposed from the beginning to the idea of elections under the 1935 Constitution and such elections have not yet taken place. We therfore respectfully demur to the proposition that just because India went through the double process we should also do the same. In our case, since neither the elections nor the composition of the Constituent Assembly has been agreed upon, we see no reason why the agreement should not be for such an Assembly to be elected directly. 2. Ther are other strong reasons also for by-passing elections under the 1935 Act. This Act has in effect long been dead. The Japanese invasion of 1942 necessarily ended the effective operation of the Act, although a Skeleton Government of Burma reassembled in Simla and carried on de jure under a proclamation under Section 139 of the Government of Burma Act. After reoccuption of the country in 1945, a Military Administration was set up, and the Govrnor returned in Octoer, 1945, the Government of the country was not under the ordinary provisions of the Act of 1935 but was again under a proclamation under section 139 of the Act , the scope of which was enlarged by the Government of Burma (Temporary Provisions) Act of 1945. An Executive Council and a Legislative Council were constituted not under the 1935 Act but under the 1945 Act. Under this latter Act, there seems to be no legal bar to the coversion by constitutional convention of the Governor's Executivef Council into a Cabinet with full responsibility for all affairs on the advice of which the Governor must act. Similarly, a Legislature can be constituted under the Act in any manner laid down by an Oder in Council, with such composition and functions as may similarly be prescribed. In view of this elastics position the re-introduction of the 1935 Constitution can tend only to make the position more rigid. It is possible now to have an Executive Council on the lines that we seek and also a Legislature. Our own proposal is to vest the elected Constituent Assembly with the powers of a Legislature pending elections under the new Constitutionff to be framed by it. II. The prewar Legislature 3. The 1935 Act was not, and has never been, accepted by the people of Burma, and is now universally comdemned. The constitution of the Legislature was in particular regarded as a device for weaking within the Legislature, and therefore inside the Government, the influence of the Burmese. Thus, out of 132 seats in the House of Representives, only 91 seats were general non-communal seats. Of the remainder, 12 seats went to Karens and 2 to Anglo-Burmans, both indigenous minorities, to the generous treatment of which we do not demur. But 8 seats were alloted to Indians without the stipulation that these should be Indians domiciled in the country, so that many of these seats were filled by Indians who were not domiciled in the country. Similarly, 3 seats were allotted to Europeans and they were invariably filled by persons not domiciled in Burma. Of the 11 seats allotted to representatives of commerce and industry, only 1 went to the Burmese Chamber of Commerce, the remaining 10 being allotted to European, Indian and Chinese institutions which ordinarily returned Members who were not domiciled in Burma. Of the 4 labour seats, 2 were allotted to Indian labour which was entitled to the question of domicile, in a House of 132 Members, the European community secured no less than 9 seats (3 European plus 5 Burma Chamber of Commerce plus 1 Rangoon Trades

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Association) and the Indians secured 13 seats (8 Indians plus 2 Indian labour plus 2 Indian Chamber of Commerce plus 1 Nattukottai Chettiars Association). The weightage given to these non-burmese minorities had tended towards the instability of Burmese Cabinets constituted under the 1935 Act. The senate was even less satisfactory in its composition. Out of 36 Members, 18 were nominated by the Governor in his discretion while the remaining 18 were elected by the Members of the House of Representatives by proportional representation on the method of a single transferable vote. Eligibility for the Senate was on qualification which were narrow and undemocratic, so that the choice of persons to be elected was strictly limited. Thus, the weightage given to these non-indigenous minorities in the lower House was faithfully reproduced in the Upper House in its elected portion while the Governor was free to weigh these non-indigenous minorities as he like in the nominated portion. 4. The people of Burma have a painful memory of the role played by the group of non-nationals representating European and Indian vested interests in the Burma Legistature from Aprilf 1937 to January 1942. During this period there were no less than three successive premiers with their respective Cabinets, with an average lifetime of only nineteen months. The 23 nonindigenous Members of the Legistature organised themselves into a group and found itself in a position to dictate terms to successive Burmese Councils of Ministers and to extort commercial and other concession as a price of its support of Government, or sometimes its neutrality on frequently recurring motions of non-confidence. No Council of Ministers could remain in office if it could not obtain the support of these vested interests. The Legislature therefore was so constituted as to minimise the possibility of Burmese portion obtaining a democratic majority, and in practice it made the non-Burman element the arbiters of the fate of the Council of Ministers. Such was experience of the people of our country in the past and with this mental background, they cannot but disapprove strongly a re-introduction of the 1935 Act or the holding of elections under its provisions. III. The Executive Council 5. The general proposition which we desire to formulate in respect of the Executive Council is that it should be entrusted forthwith with the powers of a Government of the Dominions and that accordingly the Governor should be a constitutional head bound by the advice of his Executive Council in all matters and no longer under the direction and control of the Secretary of State. We are advised that it may be possible to effect this change by a revised Proclamation under the Government of Burma (Temporary Provisions) Act of 1945 or by a constitutional convention preferably embodied in the Governor's Instrument of Instructions. It follows from this general proposition that the Executive Council of the Governor should control not only matters which are already within its province but also among other subjects Defence and External Affairs, the Member in charge of which being converted from his present position of Counsellor to the Governor in these subjects to that of a Council in charge of them. It would further follow that the Executive Council will have full financial autonomy and and that it will be open to the countries. The control of Defence would include the control of all armed froces, whether Empire or Burmese stationed within Burma. We likewise desire that the Frontier Areas should be brought within the scope of the Council in the manner which will be explained in the succeeding Section of this Statement. IV. The Frontier Areas 6. We are aware that the long-term policy of His Majesty's Govrnment in regard to Burma is that there should be a united or federated Burma including the whole of British Burma and perhaps also the Karenni States. We respectfully subscribe to this policy but are anxious that the peoples of these Areas should be given an opportunity of sharing immediately in the constitutional advance to be achieved by the Burmese. To that end we propose that representatives of the Frontier Areas should be associated forthwith in the work of the Executive Council in a manner which would retainf for these Areas autonomy in matters of internal administration. This, in our opinion, could be done by bringing the Frontier Areas within the scope of the Executive Council and by appointing a representative of the Frontier Areas to the charge of the new portfolio and providing him with two or three Deput Councillors representing the Frontier races of which he is not a member. Thus, for instance, a Shan representative could be appointed a Councillor and be assisted by Kachin and Chin Deputy Councillors. The Director of the Frontier Areas would then function as other Heads of Departments under the Councillors. The manner in which the peoples of these Areas will participate in the work of the Constituent Assembly should, we propose, be left for disscussion between Burmese leaders and representatives of these Areas without the interference of outside interests. Our desire is that the people of the Frontier Areas should reagin their freedom together with the Burmese and enjoy equal rights with them in all respects. In regard to the Constituent Assembly for Burma proper, as the elections have been fixed for next April, there is insufficient time for a Delimitation Commission for a fresh territorial division of constituencies. Also, though there have been some temporary shiftings of population, the division of the 91 general non-communal seats for the House of Representatives is reasonably fair. We propose accordingly to retain the present distribution of these seats but to double their total by doubling the representation given to these 91 constituencies. In the result we propose that the general non-communal constituencies would all become plural constituencies and return twice the number which each returned to the House of Representatives, the total being thus enlarged from 91 to 182. The Franchise would be the adult franchise at 21 already accepted by Parliament for the Legislature. In accordance with what has been accepted by His Majesty's Government, only Burmese nationals, the definition of which term we shall suggeste below will be entitled to vote in the elections for a Constituent Assembly and to stand for such election. We are of the option that there is no place in the Constituent Assembly for any special constitutuencies, but we would make provision in the Constituent Assembly in the following manner for the two indigenous communities, the Karens and the Anglo -Burmans, for whose representation special provision is made in respect of the House of Representatives. The Karens are now given 12 seats in the House. If the Karens would agree, we should be glad to add 24 seats to the 182 seats we have proposed for general non-communal of constituencies and to arrange for a guaranteed minimum of 24 Karens out of these 206 seats. In

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the alternative, if they so desire, we would be prepared to add 24 seats to the Constituent Assembly and allot them to the 12 Karen constituencies for the House of Representatives, each constituency to return to the Constituent Assembly two Members for the one Member which it return to the House of Representatives. In the case of the Anglo-Burmans, we would provide 4 additional seats for them in the constituent Assembly, corresponding to the 2 seats filled by their representatives in the House of Representatives, and adopt either of the two courses which we have proposed for the Karens. In the case of the AngloBurmans, the allocation of 2 seats in the House of Representatives, the total seats in which were 132, involves a very considerable weightage as, even before the War, the Anglo-Burman population was less than 20,000 out of a total population of 17 millions. As an indication of our generous attitude towards our indigenous minorities, we are prepared to let this weightage be reproduced in the Constituent Assembly, but without prejudice to whatever may eventually be decided by the Constituent Assembly in regard to communal proportions in the Legislature under the Constitution to be devised. We understand, however, that the Anglo-Burman community does not seek speicial protection or communal seats and that they are prepared to be regarded in all respect as a part of the majority community. The Constituent Assembly for Burma proper would then consist of 210 seats. V. The Definition of Burma National 7. The question of defining on an agreed basis separate nationalities for the self-governing countries in the British Commonwealth will be discussed shortly by a conference to begin in London on the 3rd February 1947. We would defer a longer term definition of a Burma National till we have had the advantage of studying the results of the conference. The final definition must of course be reserved for decision by the Constituent Assembly. Some definition is, however, necessary for the purpose of determining who is eligible for voting in the Constituent Assembly elections and for standing as candidates. Tentatively we are of the opinion that for the purpose of these elections a Burma National should be defined as a person who is born and domiciled in Burma and who was also born of parents permanently resident in Burma. VI. Miscellaneous Incidental Matters. Ther are certain incidental matters which we wish to mention. Our request for full powers for the Executive Council involves autonomy in external affairs and as a token of this autonomy it is important that Burma should be a Member of the United Nations Organisation. We have made a separate request to His Majesty's Government for sponsoring our candidature for the United Nations Organisation. There is also the question of the control over the Secretary of State's services in Burma. At present this control is exercised ultimately by the Secretary of State through the Governor. The position of independence from control of the Executive Council thus secured to these services is incompatible with Burmese self-government and we regret to have to mention that under the cover of the position thus accorded to them, some Members of these services have at times endeavoured to obstruct our policy, though we take this opportunity of acknowledging that there are others who have served us totally. We think that the time has arrived for the transfer of control over these services to the Executive Council. There is also the question of control over the Railway Board, the Public Service Commission and the Project Boards. All these are autonomous or semiautonomous institutions over which control is with the Governor in his discretion or in his individual judgement rather than with the Executive Council. In our view, it should now be open to the Executive Council to define for themselves the measure of control which they desire to exercise. Under the 1935 Constitution, the Governor exercises certain functions in his discretion and in his individual judgement in respect of certain matters relating to legislation and the legislature. The grant to the Executive Council of the power of a Dominion Government involves the proposition that the Governor should act on the advice of his Council where exercising his powers in respect of legislation and the Legislature. --------------------------------------------------FURTHER STATMENT BY THE BURMA DELEGATION The Burma Delegation have reviewed the proposals in their "General Statement" in the light of the comments made by His Majesty's Government in their Memorandum in reply and the oral discussion which have taken place at the Conference. The Delegation desire to make the following further representations. Constituent Assembly and form of interim Government. 2. The Delegation welcome the acceptance by His Majesty's Government of the view that the elections to be held next April should be for a Constituent Assembly. The Delegation agree that the Government of Burma should be carried on for the present under the Emergency Section of the Act of 1935 with a nominated Executive Council and nominated Legislative Council the latter to be enlarged to, say, 100 Members. The Delegation, however, view the period between now and the introduction of the new Constitution as being in two stages. The first stage will be the period from now till the covening of the Constituent Assembly, and for this stage. The Delegation agree to the above proposal without qualificationf. The second stage will be that from the convening of the Constituent Assembly to the introduction of the new Constitution. The Delegation cannot help anticipation that at some time during this second stage, circumstances may tender necessary the reconstitution of the interim Government and the Legislature though it is impossible to anticipate now the manner in which the Delegation would therefore like it to be understood reconstituted. The Delegation would therefore like it to be understood that the constitution of a Government and of a Legislature under the Emergency Section of the Act of 1935 may have to be reviewed in the course of this second stage.

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3. In regard to the distribution of seats for the Constituent Assembly, the Delegation acknowledge the disadvantages of convertingf the constituencies into plural constituencies. A more satisfactory solution would be the subdivision of the present general non-communal, the Karen and the Anglo-Burman constituencies, but owing to the lack of time this course must, in the opinion of the Delegation, be now regarded as impracticable. A Constituent Assembly consisting of only 105 Members would, in the Delegation opinion, be inadeaquate while a larger Constituent Assembly of 210 would provide greater opportunities for the inclusion in the Constituent Assembly of Burmans especially qualified to take part in the task of constitution-making. The Delegation are accordingly obliged to adhere to the proposal for giving to each constituency double the number of Members it returned to the House of Representatives. The Delegation are not in favour of a co-opted elements as they consider important that the Constituent Assembly should consist entirely of Members returned directly by the country. The Delegation would prefer to bring in the expert element in an advisory capacityf witout voting power though there is reason for hoping that a number of experts may be among the 210 to be elected.

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4. The position and power of the interim Government. The Delegation inter from the attitude of His Majesty's Government in regard to the position and powers of the interim Government that the wish is to approximate these to the position and powers of a Dominion Government to the fullest extent possible without the amending Legislation for which there is now insufficient time. If such is the case, the Delegation are constrained to express their opinion that the formula of "Close consultation and consideration" in the external field would not be of much value unless it is accompanied by full autonomy in the field of internal administration. The formula in respect of internal administration is that the Executive Council would be given the greatest possible freedom in the exercise of the day to day administration of the country. "Day to day administration" is undefined and the result may well be that while the Executive Council is allowed its way in respect of routine matters, important questions of policy may still be subject to the control of the Governor representating His Majesty's Government. Also approximation towards the Government of a Dominion is impossible without autonomy in the Defence and External Affairs. For these reasons the Delegation would propose that by constitutional convention, the Governor should be placed in the position of a constitutional Head of the State and be required to act on the advice of his Executive Council in all subjects. This proposition invoices the relaxation by His Majesty's Government and by the Governor of the control which is there under the existing law, but there have been many occasions in the past in which the actual powers of the Dominions have outpaced theire position under statute law and what is not permitted by law has often been achieved by constitutional convention. The formal responsibility for the government of Burma would, under our present proposal, still vest in the Governor and His Majesty's Government and the actions of the Government of Burma would still be taken in the name of the Governor but the Delegation would ask that the actual responsibility should now pass to the Executive Council. Already, in respect of the day to day administration the formal responsibility still vests in the Governorf and His Majesty's Government under Section 139 of the Act of 1935 but by constitutional convention the actual responsibility has passed to the Executive Council. If there is no legal objection to this, the Delegation are unable to see any legal objection to the same arrangement in respect what is not day to day administration and of Defence and External Affairs. 5. Defence. In regard to Defence, the Delegation have noted the observations made by the Minister of Defence in his Memonandum of the 19th Janaurary 1947. They acquiesce in the position that British forces utilised in Burma must be under the ultimate control of His Majesty's Government, but the Delegation feel that this control should be execised entirely through the Governor as the local representative of His Majesty's Government. At present, the General Officer Commanding in Chief of the army in Burma does not appear to be subordinate to the Governor but rather to the remnant of the South East Asia Command though it is understood that this Command is in the process of liquidation. For so long as the control of the British and Indian troops in Burma is exercised not through the Governor but through an agency extranneous to Burma, there can be no approximation towards the possession by the Government of Burma of the powers of a Dominion Government as envisaged in paragraph 9 of the Memorandum by His Majesty's Government. The Delegation would therefore request that early steps be taken towards vesting in the Governor the control of the British and Indian forces stationed in Burma and for subordinating the Commander-in-Chief in Burma to the Governor and the Government of Burma. It would be anomalous if, while in other spheres the Governor acts on the advice of the Executive Council, in matters relating to British and Indian forces in Burma, the Governor should act in his discretion. The Delegation would therefore ask that in respec of the control of the British and Indian Forces stationed in Burma the Governor should be required to act also on the advice of the Executive Council though the Delegation are prepared to recognise that the ultimate control of British forces should continue to vest in His Majesty's Government. In short, the Delegations view in that the immediate control of nonBurmese troops in the country should vest in the Governor acting on the advice of the Executive Council, subject to His Majesty's Government's ultimate control over British forces. British forces are, in the view of the Delegationf, not entirely necessary for the maintenance of internal security in Burma. The Delegation would therefore prefer the withdrawal of these forces from Burma if their continued use should be at the expense of impairing the autonomy which would otherwise vest in the Executive Council in respect of Defence. 6. The Delegation regard as highly unsatisfactory the present position by which the subject of Defence is outside the scope of the Executive Council though the senior Executive Councillor deals with the subject in his capacity of Counsellor to the Governor. The Delegation would urge that steps be taken by such means are possible short of legislation, for which there is no time, to bring the subject of Defence within the scope of the Executive Council and to enable the senior Member of the Council

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to share with his Colleagues his responsibilities in regard to the subject. The same request applies to the subject of External Affairs dealt with below. 7. External Affairs. The Delegation welcome the suggestion made by His Majesty's Government for the appointment of High Commissioner for Burma in London as soon as arrangements can be made. The Delegation are, however, disappointed with the suggestion that in regard to other capitals Burma should be content with the appointment of Agents-General. Agents-General, in spite of such diplomatic rank as may be accorded to them, can hardly be regarded diplomatic representatives of Burma abroad, and will not therefore satisfy Burma's aspiration for an immediate improvement of her external status. In spite of the fact that India is a member of the United Nations Organisation and Burma is not, the legal position of the Government of India in respect of External Affairs is no better than that of Burma. As it has been found posssible to secure for India diplomatic representation abroad, the Delegation are unble to see conclusive reason for denying such an arrangement to Burma, and the denial impairs seriously the agreed approximation towards the position of a Dominion. Even if it is accepted in principle that His Majesty's Government will assist Burma in obtaining diplomatic representation abroad, the actual arrangements are likely to take some time to complete. So far as the denial is due to unwillingness on the part of His Majesty's Government, the Delegation would earnestly urge the Government to reconsider the attitude. If, however, the denial is due to the apprehension that the foreign Governments concerned will not agree, the Delegation would urge that the Executive Council should be permitted to make informal approaches to the Governments concerned. That there can be no diplomatic impropriety in such approaches is evidenced by the fact that Pandit Jewlal Nehru has appointed a Personal Representative charged with the task of making informal approaches to certain Governments in Europe for the exchange of diplomatic representatives with India. 8. United Nations Organisation. The Delegation not the view of His Majesty's Government that the time is inopportune for pressing Burma's candidature for admissing to the United Nations Organisation, and while the Delegation fully appreciate this view, they still venture to hope that diplomatic may evoke responsee which may alter the present assessment of the situation by His Majesty's Government. The Delegation would therefore request that these approaches may nevertheless be made or in the alternative that the Executive Council should be authorised to make their own approaches in an informal manner. In the mean time they welcome the promise that the question of Burma's immediate representation in the international bodies operating under the United Nations Organisation would be taken up by His Majesty's Govenment with the Secretary-General of the Organisation. The Delegation would also ask that in respect of the United Nations Organisation itself, permission should be sought for the attendance of Observers representing the Government of Burma pending Burma's admission to the Organisation as a full Member. The Delegation note from Article 4 of the United Nations Organisation's Charter that Membership is open to peaceloving States which accept the obligations contained in the Charter and, in the judgement of the Organisation, are able and willing to carry out these obligations. The people of Burma are very willing to carry out these obligations but the ability to do so is dependent on the measure of autonomy to be coneded to them in Defence and External Affairs. The success of Burma's application for membership would be assured if His Majesty's Government were able to invest the present Government of Burma with the sufficient autonomy to enable them to carry out the obligations of the membership of the United Nations Organisation. 9. Finance. The Subject of Finance will be dealt with by the Delegation in a separate Memorandum but they hold strongly the view that without complete financial autonomy, the so-called autonomy in other spheres of Government would be illusory. 10. The Forntier Areas. With due respect, the Delegation do not find themselves able to agree that a Committee of Enquiry to ascertain the wishes of the people of the Frontier Areas, would at this stage serve a useful purpose. Such an enquiry must necessarily take time, and opportunity would be missed for associating these peoples in the work of the Executive Council and probably also for associating them in the work of the Constituent Assembly. The unification of Burma as a policy of His Majesty's Government is of recent origin, and indeed the present division between Ministerial Burma and the Frontier Areas is the direct result of the past policy of the British rulers of Burma, if not of His Majesty's Government to do everything possible to divide the Frontier Areas from the rest of Burma, and this was done in spite of the fact that Burma is a geopraphical unit, the long historical association of Burma proper with the rest of Burma and the fact that the Frontier Areas cnannot economically be independent of Ministerial Burma and that the Defence of Ministerial Burma would be impossible without close interconnection with the Frontier Areas. Independence recognised for Burma would be nullified if the Frontier Areas are reatined under the direct control of His Majesty's Govenment. The delegation feel obliged to review the past. The Burmese were formerly admitted to the Frontier Service but Burmese recruitment to this Service stopped in 1927, and only 4 Burmese offciers now remain in the Service. Though they are senior and though one of them is senior even to the Director of the Frontier Areas Administraton, they have not been given positions compatible with their seniority. Also an attempt was made some years ago to impose a Romanised Chin script upon the Chins with a view apparently deliberately to remove the Chins further from the Burmese. It is interesting to note the lingua franca employed in the Chin units of the Burma Army is Urdu and not Burmese as should be the case since the Chins have no common Chin language and Burmese is spoken by many of them. The Delegation would be point out the marked difference in

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the opportunities given to Christian missionaries and Buddhist missionaries in these so-called Frontier Areas. When constitutonal reforms were introduced to Burma in 1919, Burma was divided for administrative purpose into Burma in Proper and the "Backward Areas". The Burmese did not and do not subscirbe to the view that the people of these areas are backward in any way. Before 1886, when Upper Burma was under Burmese rule, good relations between the Chiefs of the Frontier races and the Burmese King were normal. The main diffence between these people and the Burmese lies in the fact that these mainly reside on the hills while the Burmese mainly reside in the plains. Such members of the Frontier races as happen to reside in the plains have acquired the same political rights as the Burmese. The proposal for bringing the Frontier Areas within the province of the Executive Council is made with view to raising the status and rights of these people to those of the Burmese and the Delegation have no reason to believe that they will not approve the proposal. In fact, to the knowledge of such members of the Delegation as have attended the Pinglong Conference of 1946 in the Shan States and other conferences, the Frontier Areas leaders are agreeable to the proposal. Any statement to the contrary submitted to His Majesty's Government is not truly the opinion of the people of those areas. For instance, the Delegation are aware that the demand for a Kachin State amongst the Kachins was inspired by some Military officers during the time of the operations against the Japanese. It has also come to the knowledge of the Delegation that in in aletter from the Burma Office, dated the 30th November 1943, to the Governor, it was stated that for reasons of Imperial Defence it may be desirable for His Majesty's Government to execise a more direct control over the Frontier Areas of Burma than over Burma itself after the latter has been granted self-gorvenment. The Delegation are also awar that Mr.Stevenson, the Director of Frontier Areas Administartion, addressed last December to the Kachin people in respect of the demand for a Kachin State, certain words which distorts starngely the intentions of the Burmese. He said; ''No order has as yet been passed on the subject of the formation of a federated Kachin State. The main reason for this is that the Burmese leaders are convinced that the Kachins do not really want such a State, but that it is only the Frontier Areas Adminstration that wants it. This view has been put before His Majesty's Governmentf and it is another of the subject upon which Mr. Walsh Atkins is here to listen to the Kachin view point direct from the Kachins. It is the hope of His Majesty's Government that by mutual discussion, an agreed solution acceptable to both the Kachins and the other people of the Myitkyina and Bhamo Districts will be possible." The above statement by the Director of the Frontier Areas Administration contains two points to which the Delegation must take exception. One is the misrepresentation that the Burmese have placed before His Majesty's Government the view that the Kachins do not really want a Kachin State. The other is the statement, never communicated to the Executive Council, that it is the hope of His Majesty's Government that by mutual discussion, an agreed soulution acceptable to both the Kachins and the other people of the Myitkyina and Bhamo Districtfs will be posssible. In fact, without intimation to the Executive Council, the Deputy Commissioner of the Myitkyina District and already held, a series of meetings for that purpose though they are said to be unofficial. For sixty years, the conditions of these so-called backward tribes, administered by British authoritiesf without Burmese aid have remained without improvement. The Delegation do not hold the view that they are politically backward and still incapable of self-government but if such is the view of His Majesty's Government, the Delegation maintain that no Government outside Burma should have any claim to the privilege of trusteeship over these areas. The Delegation's proposal is, however, not for the trusteeship of these areas by the Government of Burma but for elevating them to the Burmese political position, actual and impending, and to a distinct share in the administration of the country to which they, the Burmese, and all other races of Burma alike belong. In the opinion of the Delegation, what is needed now are immediate measures to bring the Burmese and Frontier races into close association in the govenment of the countryf as a whole and it may confidently be anticipated that such immediate association will facilitate the implementation of His Majesty's Govenment expressed aim of a unified Burma. The Delegation's suggestion for the inclusion in the Executive Council of a Frontier Areas portfolio to be held by a member of one of the Frontier races with the assistance of deputies belonging to other Frontier races, if accepted, cannot fail to be a striking gesture of good -will towards the Frontier races alike by His Majesty's Govenment and by the Burmese. 11. Definition of Burma Nationals. The Delegation have studied the not by the Conference Secretary dated the 18th January 1947 on the definition of Burma nationals. The Delegation agree that persons enrolled in the Indian and European constituencies should be eligible for enrolment in the non-communal general constituencies for the elections to the Constituent Assembly if they can satisfy some simple test devised for the occasion. A good many Indians born in Burma are of parents not habitually resident in Burma and do not regard Burma as their home. Similarly, many Indians reside in Burma for long periods in trades and occupations without severing their connection with India whcih they still regard as their home. In these circumstances, alternativef tests of birth and habitual residence may enfranchise for the Constituent Assembly many Indians who do not regard Burma as their home. The Delegation are therefore of the opinion that the test should be a double one, i.e., not birth or residence but birth and residence. It is doubtful whether it would be practicable to distinguish in a summary enquiry between residence and habitual residence and the Delegation would prefer to make it simple residence for a comparatively long period. In the result the Delegation are of the opinion that the test should be birth in Burma plus not less than eight years total either in the ten years immediately preceding the 1st January 1947 or in the ten years immediately preceding the 1st January 1942. The second alternative is suggested to provide for those Indians who left Burma on account of the War and who would not be able to satisfy the test in the first alternative. Persons who satisfyf the double test of birth and residence would be enrolled if they are otherwise eligible. --------------------------------------------------------

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THIRD STATEMENT BY THE BURMA DELEGATION. The Burma Delegation have given the utmost consideration to the points in the Memorandum by His Majesty's Government received on the 23rd January 1947, and desire to make the following further observations. 2. Constituent Assembly and formation of Interim Government. While appreciating the reason for the stiputation made in the last sentence of paragraph 2 of the Memorandum by His Majesty's Government, the Delegation are, with respect, unwilling to accept definitely the position envisaged by His Majesty's Government that there can be no change whatever in the form of the Interim Government of Burma during the period intervening between the convening of the Constitution Assembly and the introduction of the new Constitution. The Delegation would therefore like it to be understood that they do not regard themselves as being bound to refrain from seeking any change which may be outside the scope of the existing legal provisions. The Delegation would also like to state that while it would be the task of the Constitutuentf Assembly to determine the new Constitution for Burmaf within the period of one year which is the time limit which the people of Burma have set for their country's independence, the Delegationf would like to emphasise that after the Assembly has decided on a Constitution based on independence within or without the commonwealth, the new Constitution should be recognised forthwith. 3. The Delegation accept the suggestionff in paragraph 4 of the Memorandum by His Majesty's Government that the Interim Legislature may be given indirectly an elective basis by nominating to the indigenous general seats in it persons who have been elected to the Constitutent Assembly. 4. Position and powers of the Interim Government. The Delegation have noted the comments and explanations made in a paragraphs 5 and 6 of the Memorandum by His Majesty's Government, and are well aware of the legal difficulties that stand in the way of their acceptance in full on this point. They are, however, convinced of the necessity of the immediate provision of a really tangible and definite method of close approximation to the position and powers of a Dominion Government and this method, in their view, is provided by their proposals regarding the powers and competency of the Interim Government under which the Executive Council shall be fully responsible for all affairs while the Governor will function only as the Constitutional head. The Executive Council shall thus function on the lines of a Cabinet and every Member forming the Cabinet and holding charge of any portfolio will have all the powers of a Minister of the Cabinet. The Delegation note that His Majesty's Government hold the same view in the matter but that they are so far unable to agree to a formal transfer of these powers to an Executive Council functioning as a Cabinet owing to the diffculties arising from the existing satatutory provisions. The Delegation would suggest as a way out of the diffculty that these proposals and intentions be embodied in an Instrument of Instructions to the Governor. A formal embodiment as proposal is necessary to clarify the constitutional position and powers of the Interim Government in as much as only a written agreement emanating from His Majesty's Government and not a verbal assurance on the matter will be accpetable to the people of Burma. 5. Relation Between the Executive Council and the subjects of Defence and External Affairs. The Delegation have noted the comments made in paragraphs 7 and 8 of the Memorandum by His Majesty's Government. While acquiescing in the legal position, the Delegation would suggest that the convention outlined in the second sentence of paragraphs might well be embodied in the Governor's Instrument of Instructions. The Delegation would also make the further point that, again by convention executive authority might be entrusted to the Counsellor for Defence and External Affairs in the same manner as such authority is in fact entrusted to the Executive Councillors though under Section 4 of the Act of 1935 the Governor, and not his Ministers, form the executive authority for Burma. It is very necessary that the Counsellor for Defence and External Affairs must have similar powers and responsibility as other Members of the Executive Council, irrespective of the name by which his office may be called. 6. Defence. The Delegation have already submitted their considered views on the question of the measure of control to be exercised by the Government of Burma over non-Burman troops. They welcome the accpetance of His Majesty's Government in principle that the G.O.C.-in-C. Burma Commads, should become subordinate to the Governor and the Government of Burma at the earliest moment practicable, but they would urge that in the mean time a practical approximatin towards this position should be made by close colaboration between the Governor, the Government of Burma, and the authorities concerned. The Delegation would likewise suggest a similar close collaboration in respect of the control exercised over no-Burman troops employed in Burma. 7. External Affairs. The Delegation desire to take this further opportunity of expressing the importance which they attach to the immediate advancement of Burma's international status which could be secured by her diplomatic representation abroad. The Delegation are unable to accept any proposal which denied Burma a full and immediate opportunity of external relations through accredited diplomatic representations of her own and hold that nothing short of this would be in line with the assurance of His Majesty's Government that the Interim Government will approximate to a Dominion Government to the greatest possible extent. The Delegation await the further communication on this subject promised by His Majestys' Government.

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8. The United Nations Organisation. The Delegation cannot pretend that they are satisfied with the position reached in respect of the proposal for seeking Burma's admission to the U.N.O. Arising from the immediate task reconstruction, Burma has certain claims of international scope which she cannot advance effectively without membership of the U.N.O. One such claim is that of repartions from Japan. There are other claims arising from the widespread destruction and devastation she has suffered as the result of a war fought for four years over the country, and from the entire repudiation by the allies of the Japanese currency held by the Burmese in exchange for labour, commodities and other real wealth supplied by them. The Delegation would therefore urge His Majesty's Government again to do everything possible for the admission of Burma into the U.N.O. at the earliest possible date though they are constrained at the moment to accept the advice tendered on this point by His Majesty's Government. 9. The Frontier Areas. The Delegation feel that there has been a misunderstanding of the implicationsf of their proposal for the appointment of a member of the Frontier races to the charge of a new portfolio of Frontier Areas in the Governor's Executive Council. This has been taken by His Majesty's Government as being in effect the administrative unification of Burma proper and the Frontier Areas. It was never intended by the Delegation that the Executive Council, thus augmented should in anyway interfere with the internal administration of the Frontier Areas and it was intended chiefs, other rulers and councils in these Areas would function as before. The Executive Council would administer in respect of the Frontier Areas only subjects of common interest to Burma Proper and these Areas. This, the Delegation believe, will be a distinct gain to the people of the Frontier Areas as, at present, participation in the administration of subjects of common interest like Defence, External Affairs, Tariff policy, the administration of Customs, and income-tax etc. is confined to the leaders and representatives of the people of Burma Proper. The creation of a representative of these races in the substantial measure of self-government already attained by the Burmese. The Delegation are of strong opinion that they should share such freedom as the Burmese have obtained with the people of the Frontier Areas. To the Delegation it is inconceivable that these people would not agree to so substantial an improvement in their constitutional position. From a position of complete subordination to the Governor, acting through the officers of the Burma Frontier Service, the Frontier races will have a share in the Executive Council which will administer the whole of Burma and the Frontier Areas Executive Council will not only have direct access to the Governor but become the official superior of the Director of the Frontier Areas Administartion. The Delegation also demur to the statement that there has been a conflict of evidence in regard to the wishes of the people of the Frontier Areas. Among the documents copies of which have been shown to the Delegation, none contains anything which indicates that the steps they have proposed will be unacceptable to the people of the Frontier Areas. What was made clear in these documents is that the future of the Frontier Areas should not be settled at the present conferecne at which their people are not represented. The Delegation submit that their proposal in reagard to a Frontier Areas portfolio does not constitute a settlement of the future of the Frontier Areas. The diffculty in regard to seeking the views of the people of the Frontier Areas lies in the fact that a free expression of opinion is unlikely so long as the Frontier Areas and the Chiefs are administered, as at present, through the Frontier Areas administration. The Chiefs are under the close control of the Frontier Service offiecers and such Burmese officers as were appointed to this Service in the past have, as far as possible been diverted into posts of comparative unimportance so that the very ideas of the Frontier Chiefs and leaders are moulded to a large extent by the British officers of the Frontier Service. There are no fixed rules of succession to vacant Chieftain-ships and the recommedation of the Frontier officer is the decisive factor in the choice between several possible heirs. On the death of a Chief in the Shan States, the post is usually kept vacant and the State administered by a British officer till a selection can be made of the claimant likely to be most amenable to the influence of the British officers of the Frontier Service. Also, the continuance in office of the chief depends a great deal on the report of the Frontier officer under whose advice he is placed. In these circumstaces, the Delegation have serious reason to apprehend that an expression of free opinion. The Delegation cannot, however, without appearing to lack confidence in the acceptability of their own proposal, object to the proposal by His Majesty's Government that the Frontier Areas Chiefs and leaders should be sounded at the Panglong Conference to be held next month. The Delegation do not however, know precisely who have been invited to the Conference and they must therefore make a stipulation that the selection of the Panglong Conference as the place and time for the sounding of opinion must be subject to the attendance at the Conference being sufficiently representative and that, if it is not, the sounding of opinion should take place at a conference specially convened for the purpose. ***************************************

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aemufqufwGJ(i) &Sr;jynfvi,frsm;u (21-1-46)aeYpjJG zifh f l z?q?y?vtzGcsKyfoYkd ay;pm YJ rS? ok?Yd &Srf;jynf taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; vli,frsm; z?q?y?vtzGJYcsKyf ukd,fpm;vS,f &efueNf rdKU/ k (acwå)&efukef/ aeYp/ 1946 ck? Zefe0g&Dv (21)&uf/ JG udpö/ /&Srf;jynfaemifa&; av;jrwfpm tpD&ifcygonfcifAsm;/ G H z?q?y?vjrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m nDvmcHobifBuD;odkY wufa&mufem;axmifMu&ef &Sr;jynfrS uRefawmfwvi,fu,f f Ydk l dk pm;vS,frsm; qif;vmMuygonf/ odkYaomf uRefawmfwkdYonf w&m;0ifaom uk,pm;vS,tjzpf wufa&mufEicir&Syg/ om d f f dk f G hf d ref{nhfonftjzpfESifhom wufa&mufem;axmifcGifh&ygonf/ ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf rwufa&mufEkdifjcif;rSm uRefawmfwkdYwGif z?q?y?vpaom toif;tyif;rsm; r&SaomaMumifjh zpfygonf/ d toif;tyif;tzGtpnf;rsm; r&Sjd cif;rSmvnf; uRef YJ awmfwkdYwGif toif;tyif;tzGJYtpnf;wnfaxmifEkdifaom vGwfvyfpGm ajyma[mcGifh? a&;om;cGifhpk&kH;pnf;a0;cGifhpaom jynfot"dutcGita&;rsm; r&SaomaMumifomjzpfygonf/ Yl hf d h yk'r(10)e,fjcm;Oya'paom zufqpfqefqeff jyif;xefaom f csKyfcs,fzdESdyfrIrsm; wnf&Sdaejcif;aMumifh jzpfygonf/ tpGrf; ukeajym&vQif pmMunfwuuav;udyif vGwvyfpm rwnf f h kd f k f G axmifEkdifyg/ raeY (20-1-46) nDvmcHwGif tqkdrsm;zwfjy&mü (z,fxkwfxm;aome,frsm; yl;aygif;a&;tqkdwpf&yf ygvm onfudk awGY&ygonf/ uRefawmfwkdY 0rf;ajrmuftm;wufjcif; tm;twkdif;rodawmh/ Armacgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;? igwkdYwkdif;&if;om;vlenf; pkrsm;udk *&kjyKvmNyD? ta&;,lvmNyD[k auseyfaysmf&ijf yKH;Mu T &ygonf/ vlrsKd;a&;udk,fydkifjy|mef;cGifh? qE´tavsmuf cGJxGuf vku cGxuEiciukd rlwnfxm;onf[k od&aomtcg 1946 d J G f dk f G hf ck? ArmrsKd;cspfBuD;rsm; igwkdYwkdif;&if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;tay: oabmxm;BuD;ygayonf/ jrifhjrwfygayonf/ tjrifus,f 0ef;ygayonf[k tifrwefrStm;&ESpfouf pdwfwuf<ujcif; jzpfMuygonf/ þtqkrsKd;udk uRefawmfwYdk wki;&if;om;ud,wiom d d f k f dk f wifoGif;vkduf&vQif b,favmufaumif;rvJ? uRefawmfwkdYvl enf;pkawG uk,wiaxmufc&vQif b,favmufaumif;rvJ? d f dk f H uRefawmfwkdYawmifay:om;awG ukd,fwkdifom twnfjyKvdkuf &vQif b,favmufaumif;rvJ/ odkYaomf uRefawmfwkdYtm; jynfolYt"dutcGifhta&; rsm; r&&SMd uí uk,pm;vS,rsm;r[kwEiaomaMumifh tifr d f f f dk f wefonf;cHcsKyfwnf;atmiftnf;aeMu&ygonf/ ta&;um; h uRefawmfwkdY\wkduf&kdufta&;yif jzpfygonf/ þtqkrsKd;wifoi;jcif;? axmufcjH cif;jyK&efukd rqkd d G f xm;ESi/ þnDvmcHobifukd uRefawmfwYdk wufa&mufaMumif; hf tmPmykdifrsm; od&SdcJhygvQif uRefawmfwkdYtm; tdrftjyefwGif tb,fud aESmif,ucsKyfcs,fMuOD;rnfrodyg/ xkaMumifh uRef h S f Yd awmfwYdk nDvmcHBuD;udk wdwwwuav;wufa&mufí NidrNf idrf f d f uav; em;axmifMu&ygonf/ uRefawmfwEiwu&uoufqiaeaomtqkd ygvm Ydk S hf dk f dk f dk f íom þpmtm;jzifh vlBuD;rif;rsm;xH wdwwwuav; ay;ydYk f d f axmufcH&jcif;jzpfygonf/ vm&usKd; enf;enf;eyfonf[k vnf; ,lqygonf/ odaomf uRefawmfwum; þrQavmufEihf Yk Ydk S rwif;wdrfao;yg/ uRefawmfw\b0atmufusaemufus jzpf&ykukd vl Ydk H BuD;rif;rsm;tm; pkpvifvif tpD&ifcvygao;onf/ &Sr;jynf H Hk H dk f \vGwfvyfwkd;wufBuD;yGm;rI vrf;pudk b,fvkd&SmMuH&rnfudk vnf; vlBuD;rif;rsm;xHrS tMuHÓPftultnDudk &,lvygao; dk onf/ &Srf;-Arm wu,f&if;ESD;yl;aygif;a&;twGuf rnfuJh odYk a&SUqufaqmif&uMf u&rnfuvnf; odvygao;onf/ G kd dk nDvmcHESifhywfoufí vlBuD;rif;rsm; rtm;rvyf atmiftvkyawG zdp;aeaMumif; aumif;pGmod&yg\/ odaomf f D dS Yk xkdrtm;rvyfonfhMum;xJu tcsdeftenf;i,f xkwfEkwfí awmifue;a'orS vma&mufMuaom uRefawmfwtm; axmuf k f Ydk xm;ojzifh wki;jynftwGuf aqmif&ucsifaompdw"mwfom d f G f f vQif &Sí b,fupí bmudk aqmif&u&rSe; aocsma&&mpGm d G f f rodMuaom uRefawmfwkdYtm; vrf;jya&SUaqmiforI jyKMuyg rnftaMumif; av;jrwfpm awmif;yefygonf/ h G av;pm;pGmjzifh 1/ wif{? tif;om;? anmifa&T? awmifyi;/ kd f 2/ cGex;? &Sr;? yifv?Hk awmifyi;/ f D f kd f 3/ xGe;jrif?h &Sr;? [J[;/ f f dk 4/ oef;az? &Sr;? [dye;/ f k k f 5/ bwif? awmifo?l [kye;/ d k f 6/ tke;az? &Sr;? awmifBuD;/ f f 7/ pHaz? tif;om;? awmifBuD;/ 8/ okw? "Ek? yif;w,/ 9/ {ausmf? &Sr;? ausmufr(ajrmufyi;)/ f J kd f

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&Sr;jynfvi,frsm;u (20-2-46)aeYpjJG zifh f l z?q?y?vtzGcsKyfoYkd ay;pm YJ rS? od?Yk &Srf;vli,f taxGaxGtwGif;rSL; ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;? zqyvtzGJYcsKyf? awmifBuD;/ &efueNf rdKU/ k 1946 ck? azaz:0g&Dv 20 &ufaeYp/ JG udpö/ /8-2-46 &ufaeY aqG;aEG;yGJ xifjrifcsuf/ av;jrwfpm tpD&ifcygonfcifAsm;/ G H zqyvtzGcsKyf&;cef;ü usif;yaom zqyv 8-2YJ Hk 46 tvkytrIaqmifrsm;ESiuRefawmfwYdk &Sr;vli,ff ud,pm; f hf f k f vS,frsm; aqG;aEG;yGJrS &&Sday:aygufvmaom uRefawmfwkdY\ xifjrif,qcsufwukd vlBuD;rif;rsm; od&awmfryg&ef tpD&if l Ydk dS l cHvkdygonf/ a&S;OD;pGm uRefawmfwkdYf wifjyxm;aom ar;cGef;rsm; teuf(1) ESifhywfoufí zqyvu &Srf;jynfa&;&mepfem csuf? vkdvm;csufrsm;ukdvnf;aumif;? aoG;pnf;a&;udkvnf; aumif;? tjyifuaeNyD; 0g'jzefay;rnfqojzifvnf;aumif;/ Y dk h (2)ESiywfoufí >cif;csefxm;aom e,frsm;udk vTwf hf NyD; 0g'jzef&ef pnf;&k;&ef BudK;pm;ygrnfqojzifvnf;aumif;/ Y H dk h (3)ESiywfoufí wki;&if;om;vlenf;pkXmewpfck odYk hf d f r[kwf yk*¾KdvfwpfOD;? xkdEkdifiHa&;XmeatmufwGif xm;ay;&ef BudK;pm;rnfqkdojzifhvnf;aumif;/ (6)ESifhywfoufí vmrnfhESpf nDvmcHESifhwGJvsufjzpf ap? ,ckEptwGi;jzpfap >cif;csefxm;aome,fajrvlxnvm S f f k D cHac:,lusif;yay;&ef pDpOfBudK;pm;rnfqojzifvnf;aumif;/ dk h (8)ESifhywfoufí uRefawmfwkdY awmifay:om;rsm; ukd,fwkdifu qkdif&me,fESifhapmfbGm;wdkYESifhyl;aygif;um ukd,fxl uk,x tepfemtyifyef; tzrf;tqD; toD;oD;'kucNH yD; pGr; d f © f pGr;wrH BudK;pm;tm;xkw&ef xufjrufp;&Sí xda&mufvaom f f l S tMuHÓPf Mo0g'rsm;udk ay;urf;ojzifvnf;aumif;/ fh uRefawmfwkdYrSm rsm;pGmrSyif 0rf;omtm;&pdwfrmef wuf<uMuygonf/ vduvuvvvnf; aus;Zl;Oyum&wif I f dI f JS JS &SMd uygonf/ uRefawmfwYdk tpGr;ukef ÓPf&orQ BudK;pm;tm; f dS xkwygrnf[vnf; av;eufpm uwdjyKMuygonf/ f k G þod0rf;omNyD;aemuf aus;Zl;wifNyD;aemuf uwdjyK Yk NyD;aemuf tcsKdUtcsKdUaom yk*K¾ vBf uD;rsm;\ajymykqy?Hk oabm d H dk xm;ykEiywfoufí uRefawmfwYdk rauseyfcsufrsm;? rESpouf H S hf f csufrsm;? rvkvm;csufrsm;udk xifoavmuf jrifoavmuf wd d wdvif;vif; tpD&ifcvygao;onf/ oabmxm;BuD;BuD;xm; H dk

í vufcHzwf&IaphikqifjcifawmfrlMu&efvnf; awmif;yefyg onf/ þodkYtpD&ifcH&mü uRefawmfwkdY\ArmjynfESifhaoG; pnf;yl;aygif;NyD; e,fcsJUpepfudk wkdufzsufvkdaomt"duapw emudk ,krm;oHo,r&Sapvkyg/ *syefr0ifrD *syefvufxufu H S d d *syefxuNf yD;aemuf &Sr;jynfvi,frsm;u apwemESivyief; G f l hf k f udk od&aom yk*K¾ vreorQ uRefawmfw\&nf&,csufudk ,kH dS d f S f Ydk G f rSm;oHo,&Svrrnf r[kwyg/ ]]&Sr;? Arm wu,faoG;pnf; d d hf f f h yl;aygif;a&;}}rlukd "r®"|mefjyKvsuf uRefawmfwYdk a0zefom;yg d G &ap/ uRefawmfw\ar;cGe;(1)ESi(2)udk ajzqk&mü ]]tjyif Ydk f hf d ty? 0g'jzefay;ygrnf}} ]]vlvw&ef BudK;pm;ygrnf[qjdk cif; Y T f k onf}} tvkyavQmufxm;oltm; olaX;BuD;u ]]at;? igMunfh f OD;r,f}}qkdonfESifhwlygonf/ >cif;csefxm;aome,frsm;\t a&;onf Armjynf\twGi;a&;r[kw?f tjyiftyta&;uJoYkd f h t"duta&;r[kw?f omrnta&;uJozqyvu,lqaMumif; h Ykd xif&m;aeygonf/ xkaMumifh ayghayghqq ajymNyD; ayghayhgqq S Yd vkyfMuonfESifhwlygonf/ ar;cGe;(7)ESiywfoufí ]]>cif;csefxm;aome,frsm; f hf rygbJ Armhvwvyfa&; &Ekionf[yif zqyvu ,lqaeyg G f d f k onf/ þoabmxm;onf zqyv\]]rl}}jzpfaeygonf/ þ uJoYkd ]]uk,ta&;}}[k oabmrxm;bJ ]]olta&;}}[k oabm h fd hf Y xm;jcif;aMumifh (1) tjyifyu 0g'jzefay;rnf(ar;cGe; 1)/ Y f (2) vlvw&ef BudK;pm;ygrnf (ar;cGe; 2)/ T f f (3) ArmvlxBk uD;u vlrsKd;i,frsm;tay: rapmfum;&atmif ]]uREkfyfwdkYtpkd;&r[kwfvkdY}} xdxda&mufa&muf ta&;r,lEkdif bl;(ar;cGe; 3)[kayghayghqq ajzMum;jcif;/ f trSerm acgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;u wef;wltcGita&; f S hf ay;&rnf/ aoG;pnf;&rnf[k rnfuJhodkYyif atmf[pfa&;om; aeapumrl Armvlxtapmfum; zdEyaernfqvQif trIuup k dS f dk d f jymom'fr;avmifqouJoYkd wu,fppfreaom aoG;pnf;a&; D dk h h S f ukd &Ekdifrnfr[kwfyg/ trIdufudk omreftrIduftjzpffrxm;bJ jymom'fudk rD;avmifapwwfonhftrIduf[k oabmxm;NyD; acgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;u xdxa&mufa&mufav;eufpm ta&; d G ,loifhygonf/ (4) wu,fnvmcHBuD;wGif tcsif;csif;acgif;aqmif h D rsm;udk zdwac:zk&ef *&krpdujf cif;? zdwí vmrvmrSm tzdwcH f Yd k f f &aom olw\tvky/ zdwac:zk&efrm zqyv\wm0efjzpfyg Ydk f f Yd S onf/ vlenf;pkta&;udk ukd,fhta&;[k oabmrxm;cJhjcif; aMumifom rzdwac:jcif;jzpf&monf/ tcsder&Sí tvkyrsm; h f f d f aeí rvmEkib;xifí rzdwaMumif; ajymvQif a&&maom t d f l f

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aMumif;jycsufrjzpfEkdifyg/ uRefawmfwkdYwpfawG vma&mufMu jcif;rSmf ukd,fhapwemESifhudk,fvma&mufMujcif;rQjzpfygonf/ &Si;&Si;ajym&vQif tqktrSwf 7-udk awmifBuD;rS udazcifom f f d k ra&muf&cvQif wifoi;rS wifoi;jzpfrvm;[k uRefawmfwYdk dS hJ G f G f u ,aeYwif oHo,jzpfaeMuygonf/ (ar;cGe; 4) dk f (5) wki;&if;om; vlenf;pkXmeoD;jcm;xm;&efuyif d f dk aiGueoav; vlr&Soav;ESiqifjcifay;aejcif;? aemufq; k f d hf Hk ü EkdifiHa&;XmeatmufwGif xm;rvkdvkd aomifrwif a&rus ajymvkujf cif;rSm ]]ud,ta&;}}[k oabmrxm;aMumif; xif d k hf &Sm;ygonf/ (ar;cGe; 5) f kd (6) (State Peoples' Conference) ac:ay;&efuyif aiG odyueonf[k nOf;wGm;vkuao;jcif;rSm aiGrukeoifaom f k f d f f h ta&;[k ,lqxm;[ef wlygonf/ (ar;cGe; 6) odaomf BudK; f Yk pm;í usif;yay;rnfqkdojzifhom aus;Zl;wif&ygonf/ (7) &ckitrsKd;om;rsm;\udpEiywfoufí *&kpuf d f ö S hf dk oifoavmuf rpduonfukd &ckiu,pm;vS,ajymjycsuft& h k f d f kd f f Mum;od&jcif;? &ckijf ynfpprf;a&;oGm;&ef odyMf umrnf? odyyif d Hk f yef;rnfponfjzifh trsKd;rsKd;taMumif;jyaejcif;? trSefrSm & ckdifjynfonf uRefawmfwkdYuhJodkY cGJxkwfxm;aom e,fr[kwf? Armjynfxrmyif yg0ifaeygvsuf ]]uk,ta&;}}[k vIuvuf J S d hf d f dI vSvJS ta&;r,ljcif;onf uRefawmfwYdk pdwukd tvGexcuap J f f d dk f ygonf/ txufygtcsufrsm;ukd axmufxm;vsuf zqyvu wki;&if;om; vlrsKd;i,frsm;\ta&;udk ]]ighta&;}}[k oabm d f rxm;bJ]]olta&;}}[k oabmxm;onf[k uRefawmfwYdk 0rf; Y enf;aMuuGpm pGypygonf/ þoabmxm;rSm e,fcsJUorm;\ J G f JG puúLjzLpmwrf;udk axmufc&m a&muf ra&muf vlBuD;rif;rsm; H pOf;pm;awmfrEiygonf/ nDvmcHq;jzwfcsuf]]y,fxm;aom l dk f Hk e,frsm; yl;aygif;a&;}}tqkdatmufwGif... ]]puúLjzLpmwrf;t& &Srf;jynf? ucsifawmif? csif; awmifponfe,frsm;pGmudk ArmjynfrS cGxwxm;aMumif;? xkd h J k f e,frsm;onf ArmjynfrBuD;ESiy;aygif;vku xke,foe,fom; hf l d d l rsm;\qE´twkdif;jzpf&rnf[lívnf; qkdxm;aMumif;/ þuJoYkd awmifwef;e,frsm;onf oD;oefcxwxm; h Y JG k f jcif;udk þnDvmcHBuD;u uefuuaMumif; qkxm;aomfvnf; Y G f d tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJY\oabmxm;onf xkduefYuGufcsufukd uefuuaeonf[yif uRefawmf xifjrif,qygawmhonf/ Y G f k l þae&mwGif oifavsmfavsmufywfonf[k ,lqygo h jzifh tdE´d,jynf apmfbGm;e,frsm;ESifhywfoufí tdE´d,trsKd; om;uGe*&uf\oabmxm;udk xkwEwaz:jycGijf yKawmfrap f f k f l vkdygonf/
"The integrity and unity of India was an essential part of the independence we worked for, and the same full measure of political, social and economic freedom was to come to the States as to the rest of India. There could be no

ference, February 1928. Ludhiana.)

wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd;i,fta&;ESifhywfoufí *syef r0ifracwfu ArmEdiia&;ukd *kP;*Pwkteuf wkArmtpnf; D k f H d f Yd Yd t&kH;ESifhazbD,HygwDwkdYu vGJí b,folrS *&krjyKvmcJhyg/ odkY aomf xkdtpnf;t&kH;wkdYrSm xkdpOfu wpfjynfvkH;udk MoZmay; Ekiaom tpnf;t&k;rjzpfcojzifh ta&;rygcJyg/ xkpOfu Ekif d f H hJ h d d iHa&;orm;fwonf e,fcsJUorm;u 'De,fawG cGxm;w,f? oGm; Ydk J rwd;eJqonftwki; rwd;cJMh uacs/ *syefacwfuvnf; b,f k Y dk h d f k Ekiia&;orm;rS &Sr;jynfukd *&krpduacs/ yl;aygif;vkupOfu d f H f k f d f vnf; Armtpk;&\vkyuiyrm ykí aoG;uGapcJygonf/ t d f kd f kH S d J h us,f&i;jy&ef vktyfrnf rxifyg/ S f d ,ck t*Fvyjf yef0ifvmaomtcgüvnf; puúLjzLpm d wrf;u cGxm;w,f? oGm;rwk;eJqonftwki; vkuemaxmuf J d Y dk h d f d f cHovkjd zpfaeayonf/ tajymta[mtm;jzifh wk;wufvmo d vkd&Sdaomfvnf; vufawGYvkyfief;tm;jzifh *syefr0ifacwfu xuf rwk;wufao;[k ,lq&ygrnf/ d vlBuD;rif;rsm;cifAsm;? ,ck ta&;wumhta&;BuD; qk;tcsufukd uRefawmfwYdk nTejf y&ygap/ H 8-2-46 &ufaeY aqG;aEG;pOfu ]]&Sr;jynf[m (Land f Locked) (uke;acgifacgif? acsmifyw)jzpfaeí (AkvcsKyf)Arm f d f d f jynfreJraygif;csifb;[k acgif;rmae&if Armjynf(vGwvyfa&; Y l f wkdY? rqkdxm;ESifh)'dkrDeD,Havmufyif &onfhtcg pD;yGm;a&;pDrH udef;vkyfvkduf&if wpfcgwnf; aygif;vm&rSmbJ[kvnf; ajym vkdufygonf/ bdvyfpm;yGJ0kdif; uGefz&ifhwGif apmfbGm;wpfOD; tm; OD;babu ]]&Sr;jynfu &xm;vrfawGjzKwfypfr,f? pm f wkuawG? aMu;eef;wkiawG jyefor;ypfvur,f? tmvl;awG d f d f d f dk f r0,fbl;pojzifh (Economic Threat) vkyfEkdifonfhtaMumif; ajcmufvefvuaomtcg ¤if;apmfbm;BuD;u ]][m-'Dvawmh Y dk f G dk rvkyygeJ}Y }[k awmif;yefonftaMumif; nTeMf um;NyD; &,farm f h ajymqkvuygao;onf/ uRefawmfw&r;rsm;tzkYd rnfrQpdwf d dk f Ydk S f xdcuom;onfukd vlBuD;rif;rsm; pOf;pm;rd[ef rwlyg/ þodYk dk f G pD;yGm;a&;jzifh Ncdr;ajcmufí aygif;apvkjd cif;xuf zufqpfqef f

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compromsie on this and the Congress declared afresh in favour of full responsible government and the guaranty of civil liberty in the States. Further it declared to be its right and privilege to work for the attainment of those objectives in the States. There was no question of non-intervention, the Congress, as representing the will of the Indian people recognises no bars which limits its freedom of activites in any matter pertaining to India and her people. It is its right and privilege and its duty to intervene any such matter whenever the interests of India demand it. Not to do so would be to deny its own function and to betray the cause which it seeks to represent. ........"The Congress know well that the backwardness of the States hindered our national progress and that there can be no freedom for India unless the States cease to be what they are." (Unity of India P. 29 from the Presidential Address of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru at the All India States Peoples Con-

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tpd;&ESiy;wGaygif;bufyEiywfoufí rdrwxifjrifcsufrsm; k hf l J Hk S f d Ydk udk xkwfaz:ajymqkdEkdif&ef aemufvqef;wGif usif;yrnfjzpf aom 0efBuD;uGefz&ifhwGifvnf;aumif;/ odkYr[kwf þudpöt wGuf usif;yaom txl;uGefz&ifhwGifvnf;aumif;? e,fjcm; a'o&Sd vlrsm;\acgif;aqmifrsm;? udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk ar; jref;&rnf/ (*) yifvkHtpnf;ta0;? odkYr[kwf txl;uGefz&ifhtpnf;t a0;NyD;qkH;onfhtcgwGif bk&ifrif;jrwftpdk;&ESifhjrefrmEkdifiH awmftpkd;&wkdYonf e,fjcm;vlrsm; xkwfaz:ajymqkdaomxif jrifcsufrsm;ESifhvkdufavsmnDpGm trsm;oabmwlvkdvm;csuf rsm;udk jznfpr;&ef taumif;qk;aomenf;pHepfrsm;udk oabm h G f H wlncsuf ,lvrrnfjzpfaMumif;/ D d hf (C) jrefrmEkiiawmftycsKyfa&;Oya'opftwki; aqmif&uf d f H k f d f G &mü e,fjcm;om;rsm; aygif;pnf;qufqEi&ef taumif;qk; H dk f H aom enf;pHepf&mazG&eftwGuf pkprf;a&;aumfrwDwckukd csuf S H csif;wnfaxmif&ef 0efBuD;rsm;tkycsKyfaom jrefrmEkiiawmf f d f H &yfuua'orS trIaqmifaumifptzGu wifajr§mufaomt G f D YJ zG0ifrsm;ESie,fjcm;a'oacgif;aqmifrsm; wkiyifE;aESmvsuf YJ hf d f DS wifajr§mufaomtzGJY0ifrsm;? xkdaumfrwDwGif OD;a&tnDtrQ yg0ifvrrnfjyif? oabmwla&G;cs,faom jrefrmEkiiawmft d hf d f H jyif Mum;aeyk*¾KdvfwOD;udk Ouú|cefYxm;rnfjzpfaMumif;/ þ aumfrwDu wkdif;jyKjynfjyKvTwfawmftpnf;ta0;rprD tpD &ifcpm wifoi;&ef awmif;qkrnf/ H G f d

2/ ]]EkdifiHcsif;csif; aiGaMu;&efykH}}ESifh]]EkdifiHcsif;csif; bPf}}wGif yg0ifvkdu avQmufxm;&ef tajctae&SdonfESifh wNydKifeuf ckivaom tzG0ifwOD;tjzpfukd &pdraomiSg bk&if d f Hk YJ hf rif;jrwftpk;&wku pGr;tm;&Soavmuf aqmif&u&ef wm0ef d Yd f d G f ,lNyD;jzpfonf/ 3/ 1945-ck? atmufwkdbmvrS 1946-ck? pufwif bmvtxd jrefrmEkiiawmf b@ma&;ESptwGi; jrefrmEkiiH d f H f f d f awmfu twk;vGwa&T'*Fg;aygif; 8ç000ç000 cef(tom;wif) d f Y &&ScNhJ yD/ xkjYd yif 1946 ck? atmufwbmvrSpí 1947 ck? puf d dk wifbmvtxd b@ma&;ESptwGi; aemufxyf 75 oef;(t f f om;wif)&&Sd&eftwGuf oabmwlNyD;jzpfonf/ e,fjcm;a'o rsm;twGuf axmufyHhaMu;rsm;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;í &kd;&kd; bwf*sufwif ,ckEpavsmhaomaiGtwGuf xyfraxmufyrnf G S f H hH [k ,ckb&ifrif;jrwftpd;&u oabmwlNyD;jzpfonf/ k f k 4/ (tpkd;&wkdY\ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;vkyfief;rsm; ESifha,bk,stm;jzifh oufqkdifaom)y&kd*sufpDrHudef;qkdif&m bwf*sufEipyfvsOf;í bk&ifrif;jrwfu bdvyfEiirS tcsKyf S hf dk f H tcs,fr&Saomfvnf; tjyeftvSef tjynftpkH taMumif;Mum; d h enf;ESiowfrwxm;aom aiGacs;a&;udpjö yKvkyEirnf rvkyf hf S f f dk f Ekirnfukd bk&ifrif;jrwftpd;&u pkprf;ppfaq;vdrrnf/ d f f k H hf 5/ b@ma&;tajcrSersm;udk xyfrwbuf ppfaq;í f H JG &aomwGuue;rsm;ukd owdrNl yD;vQif twk;vGwacs;iSm;aom f d f d f aiGwpdwwa'oudk tNyD;tNidr; axmufyaiGtjzpfoajymif; f f hH Ykd vJEionfukd rltm;jzifh oabmwl&ef bk&ifrif;jrwftpd;&u dk f k 9/ b@ma&;/ tqifoifh&Sdonf/ b@ma&;jyóemrsm; tawmftwef pOf;pm;cJNh yD;í 6/ wOD;tay:wOD; wm0efrxm;bJ b@ma&;tajc þudpörsm;udk rnfodkYpDrHcefYcGJ&ef oabmwlnDcsufwck qkduf rSefudk jrefrmEkdifiHwGif xyfrHwGJbufppfaq;&ef oabmwlnD a&mufcNhJ yD;jzpfonf/ oabmwlcsufurl yl;wGyg aemufqufwJG aMumif;? tyk'i,f 3? tyk'i,f 4 wGif az:jyxm;aom oabm kd J d f d f wGif az:jyxm;onf/ wlncsufxuf ydrí bk&ifrif;jrwftpk;&xHrS xyfrtultnD fD k dk d H tvk&ojzifh xkoaom tultnDay;cJvQif oabmwlnxm; d dS d Ykd h D aemufqufwJG (u)/ aom pnf;urf;csufrsm;twki; jzpfvrrnf/ d f f d hf vmrnfha&G;aumufyGJrsm;wGif rJqE´ay;a&G;aumuf jcif;cHEicitvkim jrefrmEkiiawmfwif arG;zGm;í 1942-ck? 10/ tjcm;udprsm;/ dk f G hf Yd S d f H G ö ZEé0g&Dv 1 &uf odr[kwf 1947 ck? ZEé0g&Dv 1 &ufaeY ra&S; Yk jrefrmEkiiawmf\tqiftwef;ajymif;vJjcif;ESihf pyf d f H h raESmif;jzpfaom 10 ESptwGi;wGif pkpaygif; 8 ESpxufrenf; vsOf;í bk&ifrif;jrwf\tpdk;&ESifhjrefrmEkdifiHawmftpkd;&wkdY f f k f jrefrmEkdifiHawmfwGif aexkdifcJhaom NAdwdoQvufatmufcH odkY oabmwlqkdufa&muf&ef tjcm;jyóemrsm; ay:aygufvdrfh r[kwf tdE,e,fvufatmufcEiiom;ukd jrefrmtrsKd;om; rnf/ þjyóemrsm;udk ay:aygufvmfonftavsmuf vufcH d´ H dk f H f f fh [k t"dygÜ ,faz:jyonf/ í ,ckaqG;aEG;yGrsm;wGif xif&m;cJaom rdwaqG&if;csmorm J S h f 0g,rESv;xm;jzifh aqmif&uvrrnf/ Hk G f d hf aemufqufwGJ(c)/ bk&ifrif;jrwftpdk;&ESifhjrefrmtrIaqmifaumifpD\f b@ma&;/ ud,pm;vS,rsm;onf wkiyifE;aESmjcif;ESiun,i;yif;jcif;? k f f d f DS hf l D dk f 1/ jrefrmEdkifiHawmfonf ukd,fydkifb@ma&;tkyfcsKyf ,ckenf;ukqufvufapaomtm;jzifh NAdwoQ]aumfarmf0vo}f d d J f cGifh&Sdoifhonfudk bk&ifrif;jrwftpkd;&wkdYu oabmwlNyD;jzpf twGi;wGijf zpfap? tjyiftyrSjzpfap? uk,yivwvyfaom f d f kd f G f onf/ jrefrmEkiiawmfb0odYk a&mufapvkaom ESpO;ESpbuf&nf&,f d f H d f D f G 84

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THE PANLONG AGREEMENT. 1947 A conference having been held at Panlong, attended by certain members of the Executive Council of the Governor of Burma, all Saohpas and representatives of the Shan States, the Kachin Hills and the Chin Hills: The members of the Conference, believing that freedom will be more speedily achieved by the Shans, the Kachins and the Chins by their immediate cooperation with the interim Burmese Government:

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The members of the Conference have accordingly, and without dissentions, agreed as follows: 1. A representative of the Hill peoples, selected by the Governor on the recommendation of representatives of the Supreme Council of the United Hill peoples (S.C.O.U.H.P), shall be appointed a Counsellor to the Governor to deal with the Frontier Areas. 2. The said Counsellor shall also be appointed a member of the Governor's Executive Council without portfolio, and the subject of Frontier Areas brought within the purview of the Executive Council by Constitutional Convention as in the case of Defence and External affairs. The Counsellor for Frontier Areas shall be given executive authority by similar means. 3. The said Counsellor shall be assisted by two Deputy Counsellors representing races of which he is not a member while the two Deputy Counsellors should deal in the First instance with the affairs of their respective areas and the Counsellor with all the remaining parts of the Frontier Areas, they should by Constitutional Convention act on the principle of joint responsibility. 4. While the Counsellor, in his capacity of Member of the Executive Council, will be the only representative of the Frontier Areas on the Council, the Deputy Counsellors shall be entitled to attend meetings of the Council when subjects pertaining to the Frontier Areas are discussed. 5. Though the Governor's Executive Council will be augmented as agreed above, it will not operate in respect of the Frontier Areas in any manner which would deprive any portionf of these areas of the autonomy which it now enjoys in internal administration. Full autonomy in internal administration for the Frontier Areas is accepted in principle. 6. Tough the question of demarcating and establishing a seperate Kachin State within a Unified Burma is one which must be relegated for decision by the Constituent Assembly, it is agreed that such a State is desirable. As a first step towards this end, the Counsellor for Frontier Areas and the Deputy Counsellors shall be cousulted in the administration of such areas in the Myitkyina and the Bhamo Districts as are part II scheduled Areas under the Government of Burma Act of 1935. 7. Citizens of the Frontier Areas shall enjoy rights and privileges which are regarded as fundamental in democratic countries.

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8. The arrangements accepted in this Agreements are without prejudice to the financial autonomy now vested in the Federated Shan States. 9. The arrangements accepted in this Agreement are without prejudice to the financial assistance which the Kachin Hills and the Chin Hills are entitled to receive from the revenues of Burma, and the Executive Council will examine with the Frontier Areas Counsellor and Deputy Counsellors the feasibility of adopting for the Kachin Hills and the Chin Hills financial arrangements similar to those between Burma and the Federated Shan States.

5/ txufwif oabmwlnonftwki; bk&ifc\trIaqmif G D h d f H aumifpukd csJUrnfjzpfaomfvnf; e,fpyfa'orsm;\e,fwi; D G f tkyfcsKyfa&;wGif ,ckcHpm;&aomudk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;udk rnf onfenf;ESirqkd wpkw&mvufvwap&ef tqkygaumifpu h hf H G f d D jyKvkyjf cif;r&Sap&/ e,fpyfa'orsm;twGuf e,fwi;tkycsKyf d G f f a&;wGif udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&; &mckdifEIef;tjynfh&Sdap&rnf[l aomrlukd oabmwlnMD uonf/ 6/ yl;aygif;xm;NyD;onfhjrefrmjynftwGif; oD;oefYucsifjynf e,fwck? e,ferwowfrwíwnfaqmuf&ef jyóemrSmwki; d d f S f d f jynfjyKvTwawmfu qk;jzwf&efjzpfaomfvnf; þuJoo;jcm; f H h Ykd D jynfe,fwpfckxm;&SdoifhaMumif;udk oabmwlnDMuonf/ þ &nf&G,fcsuftxajrmuf&eftvkdYiSg yxrajcvSrf;taejzifh 1935-ckEp?f jrefrmEkiiawmftpk;&tufOya't&aemufquf S d f H d wGJpm&if;tykdif;(2)a'orsm;uJhodkY jrpfBuD;em;ESifhAef;armfc&kdif wk\tkycsKyfa&;wGif e,fpyfa'otwkiyifcy*K¾ vEi'w, Yd f d f H k d f S hf k d twkdifyifcHyk*¾KdvfwdkYtm; aqG;aEG;wkdifyif&rnf/ 7/ e,fpyfa'orsm;\e,fo^om;rsm;wkonf 'Drua&pDEiiH l Yd dk dk f rsm;wGif tajccHrsm;tjzpf todtrSwfjyKxm;aomtcGifht a&;wkukd cHpm;Ekici&ap&rnf/ Yd d f G hf dS 8/ þpmtkywif oabmwlnMD uonftpDtpOfwrm - ya' f G h Ydk S o&mZf&r;jynfe,fajrpkwif ,cktyfEi;xm;NyD;jzpfaomb@m S f G S f a&;ESiywfoufonfu,yitycsKyfa&;ukd xdcujf cif;r&Sap hf f h kd f kd f k f dk d &/ 9/ þpmcsKyfwGif oabmwlnDMuonfhtpDtpOfwkdYrSm jrefrm jynf tcGefawmfaiGrsm;rS ucsifawmifwef;e,frsm;ESifhcsif; awmifwef;e,frsm;u &oif&xkuaomb@ma&;tultnDudk h d f xdcujf cif; r&Sap&/ jrefrmjynfEiya'o&mZf&r;jynfe,fajr dk d S hf S f pk\b@ma&;tpDtpOfrsm;uJhodkY ucsifawmifwef;ESifhcsif; awmifwef;rsm;ftwGuf tvm;wl tpDtpOfrsm;fukd xm;&Susifh f d ok;&ef jzpfEirnf rjzpfEirnfukd bk&ifc\trIaqmifaumif H dk f dk f H pDu e,fpyfa'orsm;\twkiyifcEi'w,twkiyifcy*K¾ vf d f H S hf k d d f H k d wkEitwl ppfaq;Munh&&rnf/ Yd S hf f I jrefrmEkiiawmftpk;& d f H d AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; 12-2-47/
E-book is created by shanyoma

&Srf;aumfrwD 1/ cGeyef;pdef - awmifyip0fzvkH f kd f 2/ p0fa&Touf - anmifa&Tp0fzvkH dk 3/ p0f[z - ajrmufoEp0fzvkH Hk d Dé 4/ p0fEHG - vJcsm;p0fzvkH 5/ p0fpxe; - rki;yGep0fzvkH H G f d f f 6/ p0fxe;at; - omrki;crf;p0fzvkH G f d f 7/ OD;jzL - oxkNH rdKUpm;uk,pm;vS,f d f 8/ cGeyef; - vlxu,pm;vS,f f k dk f 9/ OD;wif{ - vlxu,pm;vS,f k dk f 10/ OD;xGe;jrifh - vlxu,pm;vS,f f k dk f 11/ p0f,yz - vlxu,pm;vS,f d f k dk f 12/ OD;cGex; - vlxu,pm;vS,f f D k dk f 13/ OD;Mumyk - vlxu,pm;vS,f k dk f 14/ OD;cGeapm - vlxu,pm;vS,f f k dk f ucsifaumfrwD 1/ qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;aemif (jrpfBuD;em;) 2/ 'l;0g;aZmf&pf (jrpfBuD;em;) 3/ OD;'if;&wef(jrpfBuD;em;) 4/ aZmfv (Aef;armf) (vufrwa&;xk;xm;jcif;r&S) S f d d 5/ 'l;0g;aZmfvGef;(Aef;armf) 6/ vAef*a&mif;(Aef;armf) csif;aumfrwD 1/ OD;vTmrke; (zvrf;) f 2/ OD;aomifZmckyf (wD;wif) 3/ OD;uG,ref; ([m;cg;) f

87

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1947 ckEp?f {NyDvwGif a&G;aumufwifajrmufvuaom wki;jyKjynfjyK vTwawmftrwfrsm;/ S dk f d f f &efukefc&kdif yJcl;c&kdif/ 1/ OD;atmifqef; - (,ck a':cifMunf)/ 33/ OD;om'if/ 2/ a':apma&T/ 34/ OD;pHjrif/ h 3/ a':cifv/ S 35/ Akvat;az/ d f 4/ Akvrif;acgif - (,ck Akvvat;)/ d f d f S 36/ Advcifarmif/ k f 5/ ocifve;abmf - (Ekwxuonf)/ G f f G f 37/ Akvwifatmif - (,ck Akvvif;)/ d f d f 6/ OD;baz - (,ck OD;ukuBkd uD;)/ d 38/ AkvMf umnTe/ d Yf 7/ ocifvauR/ S 8/ OD;oef;pde/ f [if;omwc&kdif/ 39/ OD;wifx#/ G f tif;pdefc&kdif/ 40/ OD;jrif ([oFmw) 9/ ocifausmfxe;/ G f 41/ OD;xGe;0if;/ f 10/ ocifO;cif/ D 42/ OD;xGe;az/ f 11/ Akvwup;/ d f dk f dk 43/ Advpebef;/ k f d f 12/ q&mqmxl;/ 44/ ocifcspfarmif/ 45/ OD;oef;wif/ [Hom0wDc&kdif/ 46/ Akvatmifaz/ d f 13/ OD;bcsKd - (,ck a':cify)/ k 47/ OD;bode;/ f 14/ OD;wif - (jrefatmif)/ 48/ OD;xGe;Munf/ f 15/ OD;bwif/ 16/ Akvxe0if;/ d f d f ykodrfc&kdif/ 17/ ocifarmifarmifBuD;/ 49/ OD;jrpde/ f 18/ Akvatmifjrifh - (,ckAvAwif)/ d f dk f 50/ Akvxe;vif; (Ekwxuonf/) d f G f f G f 51/ ocifpe/ d f om,m0wDc&ki/ d f 52/ OD;atmifausmf/ 19/ ocifjr/ 53/ OD;pdearmif/ f 20/ Akvpere/ d f d f S f 54/ AkvvjS rif/ d f h 21/ ocifcspfarmif/ 55/ Akvbe;atmif/ d f k f 22/ ocifausmfNidr;/ f 56/ OD;ausmfwif/ h 23/ ocifxe;tH/ f G f h 24/ OD;azoef;nTe/ Yf zsmykHc&kdif/ 25/ OD;armifarmif/ 57/ OD;0if;/ 26/ ocifjrav;/ 58/ apmausmf&if/ 59/ OD;wifne/ T Yf jynfc&ki/ d f 60/ ocifbouf/ 27/ OD;ausmfNidr;/ f 28/ OD;vSarmif/ ajrmif;jrc&ki/ d f 29/ ocif0wif/ 61/ ocifwif/ 30/ AdvatmifBuD;/ fk f 62/ OD;cifarmifvwf/ 31/ Advue;aZmf/ k f G f 63/ OD;xGe;&if/ f 32/ OD;xGe;a&T/ f 64/ Akvnearmif/ d f T Yf

E-book is created by shanyoma

88

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rtlyifc&kdif 65/ a':vS&i/ S f 66/ Akvpexe;/ d f d f G f 67/ ocifcspf/ 68/ OD;jrarmif/ usKdu©rDc&kdif/ 69/ ocifatmifbi/ G hf 70/ Akvausmfoef;/ d f 71/ Akvatmifabmf/ d f 72/ rGeO;cifarmif/ f D 73/ OD;oef;jrif/ h 74/ ocifc/ dk 75/ ocifoif;vIi/ d f 76/ ocifpa0/ H oxkHc&kdif/ 77/ Akvat;BudKif/ d f 78/ ocifatmifwif/ 79/ ocifxe;jrif/ G f h 80/ rGexe;&if/ f G f awmific&ki/ l d f 81/ OD;oef;az/ 82/ Akvoe;'ef/ d f d f 83/ Akvz;uGe;/ d f dk f 84/ OD;ausmfaZmf/ xm;0,fc&kdif/ 85/ OD;qifuKG i/ d f 86/ OD;azpde/ f 87/ OD;ba&T/ 88/ Akvae0if;/ d f Nrdwc&ki/ f d f 89/ ocifE/ k 90/ Akvxe;pde/ d f G f f ppfawGc&kdif/ 91/ OD;csufzg;/ 92/ OD;a&TapmOD;/ 93/ OD;xGe;0if;/ f 94/ OD;ausmfO;/ D 95/ OD;pHxe;atmif/ G f

96/ AkvnKd xGe;/ d f f 97/ OD;armifarmifxe;atmifausmf/ G f 98/ rpöwmplvweftmruf/ 99/ rpöwmtyÜ'*zg;/ l 100/ OD;atmifZa0/ H ausmufjzLc&kdif/
E-book is created by shanyoma

101/ OD;omxGe;/ f 102/ Akvbapm/ d f 103/ OD;a&Te/ D 104/ OD;rJausmfO;/ D 105/ OD;atmifjr/ 106/ AkvbvIi/ d f d f rauG;c&kdif/ 107/ AkvwifO;/ d f D 108/ ocifapmvif;/ 109/ OD;ÓPf&e/ dS f 110/ ocifAoef;/ 111/ OD;xGe;a&TO;/ f D 112/ ocifvi/ G f 113/ OD;b0if;/ (,ck OD;vSarmif) 114/ OD;atmifoef;/ rif;bl;c&kdif/ 115/ ocifAouf/ 116/ Akvpxe;/ d f H G f 117/ Akvva&mif/ d f 118/ OD;ode;az/ f o&ufc&kdif/ 119/ Akvatmif/ d f 120/ AkvNf idr;armif/ d f 121/ Akvxe;pde/ d f G f f 122/ OD;ausmfjrif/ h yckuúLc&kdif/ 123/ OD;ausmf&e/ dS f 124/ OD;bk;atmif/ d 125/ OD;uGe;/ f 126/ Akvoe;armif/ d f d f 127/ Akvbmbm/ d f 128/ OD;Arl/ 129/ OD;pd;Eki/ k d f 130/ OD;aomif;az 89

OD;azcif

jrif;jcHc&ki/ d f 131/ ocifoef/ Y 132/ Akvt;wif/ d f Hk 133/ OD;oef;xGe;/ f 134/ OD;pk;armif/ (,ck OD;jrifaqG) d h 135/ OD;qif/ 136/ OD;b*srf;/
E-book is created by shanyoma

ppfudkif;c&kdif/ 165/ OD;pdexm;/ f G 166/ Akvxe;Munf/ d f G f 167/ OD;usifapm/ 168/ Akvpeouf/ d f d f txufcsif;wGif;c&kdif/ 169/ ocifcifarmifBuD;/ 170/ AkvwifarmifO;/ d f D atmufcsif;wGif;c&dkif/ 171/ AkvAode;/ d f f 172/ ocifcspfpe/ d f 173/ Akvwifvi/ d f dI f 174/ OD;atmifaz/ uomc&di/ k f 175/ ocifAode; (Ekwxuonf/) f f G f 176/ ocifAxGe;/ f 177/ ocifapm,Ge;/ f 178/ OD;bMurf; (ykor)/ d f Aef;armfc&kdif/

rEÅav;c&kdif/ 137/ rpöwmat-&mZwf(,cka':cifcif) 138/ OD;boD/ 139/ Akvcifarmifuav;/ d f 140/ Akvxevif;/ d f d f 141/ Akvvaz/ d f S 142/ Akvwifarmif/ d f 143/ ocifarmifarmifav;/ 144/ OD;vSaz/ 145/ OD;oef;nTe/ Yf 146/ ocifAode;/ f ausmufqnfc&kdif/ 147/ Akvrif;EG,/ d f f 148/ OD;xGe;pde/ f f rdw¬dvmc&kdif/ 149/ OD;xGe;ZH/ f 150/ AkvuuBkd uD;/ d f kd 151/ Akvatmifne/ d f T Yf 152/ OD;aiG/ a&Tbkdc&kdif/ 153/ AkvArif;/ d f 154/ OD;b<u,f/ 155/ Akvapmarmif/ d f 156/ OD;jr&D/ 157/ ocifq/ k 158/ ocifausmf &rnf;oif;c&kdif/ 159/ OD;jr (aysmfb,) G f 160/ OD;rk;/ d 161/ ocifwifxe;/ G f 162/ ocifazwif/ h 163/ OD;armifarmif/ 164/ OD;azcif/

179/ AkvvBS udKif/ d f 180/ OD;bOD;/ jrpfBuD;em;c&dkif/ 181/ OD;barmif/ 182/ ocifjyef/ t*Fvyjf refrmujym;/ d 183/ rpöwm tD; bm;e'f/ 184/ rpöwm at pD a&mh'&'f/ 185/ rpöwm at-a&;Ag;(pf)/ 186/ rpöwm tdy(csf)trf(rf)zpf&m;/ f S u&iftrsKd;om;trwfrsm;/ 187/ apmomZif/ 188/ q&mvSrif;/ 189/ OD;bk;ZH ac: AkvnKd cif/ d d f 190/ ref;0if;armif/ 191/ q&mtab;/ 192/ apmarmifa'guf/ 193/ apmatmify/ 90

ukd,fawGYyifvkH

194/ ref;xGe;&if/ f 195/ OD;omqif/ 196/ OD;aygvl/ 197/ OD;barmif/ 198/ ref;uHat;/ 199/ ref;atmif&e/ Sd f 200/ ref;xGe;&k/ f H 201/ AkvatmifNrdKif/ d f 202/ OD;omvIi/ d f 203/ OD;pHne/ T Yf 204/ OD;b&if/ 205/ apmtke;nTe/ f Yf 206/ apm0if;wif/ 207/ apm*Refqif 'Dz;rif;/ dk 208/ apmaemfwifbm;/ G 209/ ref;bckif (,ck ref;bqki) d d f 210/ apmpHb;oif/ dk e,fpyfa'o (&Srf;trwfrsm;) 211/ usKdi;wkapmfbm;BuD;/ f H G 212/ anmifa&Tapmfbm;BuD;/ G 213/ awmifyiapmfbm;BuD;/ kd f G 214/ odEawmifyi;apmfbm;BuD;/ Dé kd f G 215/ rk;rdwapmfbm;BuD;/ d f G 216/ oki;b[ef/ d f 217/ rki;yGeapmfbm;BuD;/ (,ck pum;apmfbm;BuD;) d f f G G 218/ apmxGe;&if/ (Ekwxuonf) f f G f 219/ apma&Tre/ G f 220/ OD;jzL/ 221/ omrki;crf;apmfbm;BuD;/ d f G 222/ yifrapmfbm;BuD;/ DS G 223/ OD;pHv/ l 224/ OD;ausmf'e;/ G f 225/ OD;xGe;jrif/ f h 226/ OD;bk;cif/ d 227/ OD;bZH/ 228/ OD;xGe;tk/ f H 229/ OD;pHjrwf/ 230/ OD;xGef;at;/ 231/ OD;cifarmifvwf/ 232/ OD;oef;armif/ 233/ OD;pHci/ dk f

e,fpyfa'o(ucsiftrwfrsm;) 234/ qrm;'l;0gqif0gaemif/ 235/ vbef;*a&mif;/ 236/ OD;BuD;xifeef;/ 237/ r&pfatmifb/ 238/ 'l0gaZmvGr/ f 239/ 0gabmfaZmf&pf/ 240/ qvefurr&if*rf/ G f e,fpyfa'o(csif;trwfrsm;) 241/ OD;0rfu[ef/ dk 242/ OD;q0pf/ 243/ uyÜwerefw;Eke;/ d f Hk f 244/ OD;iGew;/ f dk 245/ OD;xyfvi;/ dk f 246/ OD;0rfo;armif;/ l 247/ OD;,0rf/ u&ifeDftrwfrsm;/ 248/ apmode;/ f 249/ OD;bDw&/ l D e,fjcm;a'oqkdif&mtjcm;trwfrsm;/ 250/ apm0D&ausmf/ (,ck apmvlv) D l 251/ apmbDb;ul;/ dk 252/ &HMunfqi/ dk f 253/ aZmfb/ 254/ av&S0rf;/ D 255/ OD;bom/ tajccHOya'a&;qGJa&;aumfrDwD/ (1) AkvcsKyfatmifqef;(,ck ocifE)/ (2) ocifjr (,ck [oFm d f k wOD;jr/ (3) OD;ausmfNidrf;/ (4) OD;jr(aysmfbG,f) (5) OD;bcsKd (,ck OD;jrpde) (6)rpöwm&mZwf(,ck OD;oef;jrif) (7) OD;wif f h xG#/ (8) OD;b0if; (,ck apmausmf&if) (9) OD;b*srf;/ (10) f Akdvfatmif/ (11) OD;ausmfjrifh/ (12) ocifvGef;abmf/ (13) OD;wif(jrefatmif)/ (14) ocifwif/ (15) AkdvfpdefrSef/ (16) AkdvfatmifBuD;/ (17) OD;0if;/ (18) OD;xGef;0if;([oFmw)/ (19) OD;oD/ (20) OD;om'if/ (21) OD;xGe;az/ (22) OD;pdebm;/ f f G (23) OD;cifarmifvwf(ajrmif;jr) (24) AkdvfxGef;vif;/ (25) ocifvi/ (26) ocifcspfarmif/ (27) OD;azcif/ (28) OD;cif G f armifuav;/ (29) OD;pHxe;atmif/ (30) AkvnKd xGe;/ (31) G f d f f OD;atmifoef;/ (32) ocifpa0/ (33) OD;b*srf;(uom) (34) H OD;usifapm/ (35) Akdvfzkd;uGef;/ (36) ocifwifxGef;/ (37) 91
E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;azcif

rpöwmtD; bm;? e'f/ (38) ref;bcki(,ck apmaemfwifbm;)/ d f G jrefrmEkiiawmf tvHocsif;ESiwqyaumfrw/ d f H D hf H d f D D (39) apmpHb;oif;/ (40) ref;0if;armif/ (41) apmb&if (42) dk (1) OD;bcsKd(,ck ocifwif)/ (2) OD;atmifZa0/ (3) H q&mat;bD/ (43) 0D&Dausmf/ (44) qrm;'l0gqif0gaemif/ AkvrL;atmif/ (4) rGexe;&if/ (5) AkvatmifBuD;/ (6) a': d f S f G f d f (45) 0gabmfaZmf&pf/ (46) 'l0gaZmfve;/ (47) OD;0rfu[ef/ cifv/ (7) q&mvSrif;/ (8) rki;yGeapmfbm;BuD; (,ck rd;rdwf G f kd S d f f G k (48) OD;q0pf/ (49) uyÜwdefref;wkH;Ekef;/ (50) rkdif;yGefapmf apmfbm;BuD;)/ (9) OD;aZmfvr/ (10) OD;0rf;ud[ef/ G G f k bGm;BuD;/ (,ck omrkdif;crf;apmfbGm;BuD;)/ (51) rkd;rdwfapmf bGm;BuD;/ (52) anmifa&Tapmfbm;BuD;/ (53) OD;xGe;tkH (54) G f xyfjznfhftjyiftyyk*¾Kdvfrsm;/ OD;ausmf'Gef;/ (55) OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;)/ (11) OD;aiGci/ (12) OD;tk;vGi/ (13) '*keq&mwif dk f H f f (14) OD;boef;/ (15) OD;cifaZmf/ (16) OD;xifzwf/ (17) OD; xyfjznfhtrwfrsm;/ odef;[ef (wdkif;jynfjyKvTwfawmftxl;t&m&Sd)/ (56) OD;vbef;*a&mif;/ (57) apm*Refqif'z;rif;/ (58) OD; D dk atmifNrdKif/ (59) oki;b[ef/ (60) AkvvBS udKif/ (61) a': d f d f jrefrmEkiiwi;jynfjyKvTwawmft&m&Srsm;/ d f H dk f f d cifv/ (62) OD;0rfo;armif;/ S l Ouú| - anmifa&Tapmfbm;BuD; apma&Tou/ G kd f t&Hobmywdrsm; - ref;uHat;? OD;pHxe;atmif? G f xyfjznfhtjyiftyyk*¾Kdvfrsm;/ OD;cifarmifvwf? qrm'l0gqif0gaemif? OD;0rf;ud[ef? k (63) OD;wif{/ (64) w&m;0efBuD;qmbOD;/ (65) qmjrbl;/ OD;ausmfNidr;? Akvz;uGe;? awmifyiapmfbm;BuD;? f d f dk f kd f G (66) w&m;0efBuD;OD;at;armif/ (67) qmarmifBuD;/ (68) tkycsKyfa&;Oya'tMuHay;t&m&Sd - OD;csefxe;? f G f OD;pd;nTeYf (69) rpöwm trf?at?&m&Sp/ (70) rpöwmZk&mqif/ k f d twGi;0ef - OD;xGe;wif? 'kw,twGi;0ef - OD;pde?f f f d f vufaxmuftwGi;0efrsm; - OD;baomif? OD;cifarmifoef;? f vrf;nTefaumfrDwD/ OD;eef;EG,?f OD;aomif;? (1) OD;atmifqef; (,ckocifEk)/ (2) ocifjr(,ck vTwawmftxl;t&m&Sd - OD;ode;[ef/ f f ocifvGef;abmf)/ (3) ref;bckdif(,ck OD;jrif aysmfbG,f)/ (4) OD;pHxGef;atmif/ (5) OD;azcif/ (6) OD;ausmfjrifh (7) OD;0if; (8) ref;0if;armif/ (9) apmaemfwifbm; (10) Akvxe;vif;/ G d f G f (11) rkdif;yGefapmfbGm;BuD;/ (,ck rkd;rdwfapmfbGm;BuD;)/ (12) OD;xGe;jrifh (13) OD;0rf;uk[ef/ (14) qrm;'l0gqif0gaemif/ f d tajccHOya'tacsmudif aumfrw/ k D D (1) vTwfawmfOuú|(obmywd) (2)ocifEk/ (3) OD; wifx#/ (4) ocifve;abmf/ (5) ocifwif/ (6) ocifwif G f G f xGe;/ (7) ref;0if;armif/ (8) OD;boD/ (9) OD;ausmfjrif/ (10) f h rpöwmat? a&;Ag;(pf) (11) Akvxe;vif;/ (12) apmaemfwif d f G f bGm;/ (13) rk;rdwapmfbm;BuD;/ (14) OD;vbef;*a&mif;/ (15) d f G OD;0rf;udk[ef/ (16) OD;wif(jrefatmif)/ xyfjznfhtrwf/ (17) OD;xGef;az/ xyfjznftjyifty yk*K¾ vrsm;/ h d f (18) qmjrbl;/ (19) qmarmifBuD;/ (20) qmbOD;/ (w&m;0efBuD;)/ (21) OD;at;armif(w&m;0efBuD;)/ (22) rpö wm? trf(rf)at&m&Sp/ (23) OD;0ef(wuúovausmif;) (24) f dk f OD;rsKd;rif;(wuúovausmif;)/ (25) OD;ode;[ef(wki;jynfjyK dk f f d f vTwfawmftxl;t&m&Sd)/ 92

E-book is created by shanyoma

ukd,fawGYyifvkH

E-book is created by shanyoma

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OD;azcif

E-book is created by shanyoma

(1) anmifa&Tapmfbm;BuD; (2) OD;azcif (3) OD;b&if (4) odEapmfbm;BuD; G Dé G (5) OD;apm (6) awmifyiapmfbm;BuD; (7) OD;Ek (8) ref;bckif (9) rk;rdwapmfbm;BuD; p0fcecsKd (10) OD;b*srf;/ kd f G d d f G G f

yxryifvkHtpnf;ta0; (1946 ckEp) S f

a&SUwef; (0Jr,m) S

_ ? _ ? _ ? ocifE?k awmifyiapmfbm; p0fceyef;pde?f 'l;0g;aZmfve;? OD;apm? anmifa&Tapmfbm;? rdwvmOD;b&if? _ ? _ ? _ ? dk f G G f G f G d¬ omrki;crf;apmfbm; p0fxe;at;? yifrapmfbm;/ d f G G f DS G aemufwef; (0JrS ,m) _ ? _ ? ref;bcki?f ajrmufoEapmfbm;? OD;b*srf;? _ ? _ ? OD;azcif? rki;yGeapmfbm;p0fpxe;? _? _ ? _ ? _ ? _ ? _ ? _ ? d d Dé G d f f G H G f

ukd,fawGYyifvkH

yxryifvkHtpnf;ta0;wGif 0J rS ,m - (1) OD;b&if? (2) OD;apm? (3) OD;azcif? (4) OD;Ek?

AkvcsKyfatmifqef;\ 1946 ckEp?f &Sr;jynfc&D; uavmü em;pOf d f S f

a&SUwef; (0Jr,m) - omrki;crf;apmfbm;? rki;yGeapmfbm;? AkvcsKyfatmifqef;? anmifa&Tapmfbm;? _ ? _ ? _ ? _ ? S d f G d f f G d f G aemufwef; (0J rS ,m) - OD;azcif(azmhO;xkyjf zif)? Akvxe;vS (ppf,eazmif;jzif)/ D h d f G f l D h

E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;azcif

AkvcsKyf\ 1946 ckEp?f &Sr;jynfwpfcif c&D;pOf (anmifa&Tü) d f S f G

E-book is created by shanyoma

0J rS ,m - (1) OD;azcif? (2) AkvcsKyfatmifqef;? (3) anmifa&Tapmfbm;? (4) rki;yGeapmfbm;/ d f G d f f G

ukd,fawGYyifvkH

1947 ckEp?f azaz:0g&Dv 12 &ufaeY/ S 'kw, yifvnvmcH d Hk D

0J rS ,m - (1) OD;azcif? (2) bm;ewfvuf'0pf (jrefrmEkiiqi&m 0efBuD;&k;t&m&d)? (3) rpöwmabmfwrav? (4) AkvcsKyfatmifqef;/ d f H dk f H S G f d f

E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;azcif

1947 ckEp?f azaz:0g&Dv 12 &uf ]]'kw, yifvnvmcHwif yifvpmcsKyf vufrwa&;xk;MupOf}} S d Hk D G Hk S f d

E-book is created by shanyoma

vGwvyfa&;vIy&m;rIwif yg0ifaom &Sr;ausmif;om;rsm; f f S G f

ukd,fawGYyifvkH

yifvNHk rdKU&Sd ]]awmifwef;jynfr yl;aygif;a&;pmcsKyf txdr;trSwf ausmufwi}f } ,cif (12-2-47) f dk

E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;azcif

zGJYpnf;ykHtajccHOya' a&;qGJa&; aumfrwDtpnf;ta0;

E-book is created by shanyoma

(0J rS ,m) yxracgif;aygif;ESiy*K¾ vrS pí- (1) 'D;'kwO;bcsKd? (2) qmarmifBuD;? (3) OD;csefxe;? (4) AkvcsKyfatmifqef;? hf k d f f D G f d f (5) OD;pdef (vTwawmftwGi;0ef)? (6) OD;azcif (aq;wHjzif)? (7) ocifjr/ f f h jrefrmjynfEiu&ifejD ynf rdwquftzGYJ &efueNf rdKU S hf f k 1946 - ckEp?f {NyDv 30 &uf/ S

a&SUwef; 0J rS ,m odYk - apmode;? p0fv0D? apma&T? OD;pdef (u&ifeya'gifaumifpOuú|)? AkvcsKyfatmifqef;(zqyvtzGcsKyfOuú|)? OD;atjrav; f D D d f YJ OD;baz? oki;b[ef? apmZde? OD;jr/ d f tv,fwef; 0J rS ,m odYk - ocif0wif? OD;vGZ?D apm0Dc0g;? OD;A*srf;? OD;wif? ref;bcki?f ocifoef;xGe;(uGejf rLepfygwDtwGi;a&;rSL;)? OD;wif? d d f f OD;baomif;? OD;azcif? ocifcspf/ aemufwef; 0J rS ,m odYk - OD;ausmfjrif?h OD;atmif0if;? OD;bqki?f OD;atmifZa0? OD;ndr;? OD;odr;atmif? apmbOD;BuD;(autif(ef),ltzGcsKyfOuú|) d H f f YJ OD;xGe;vS? apmcvlv,f? OD;wifarmif/ f

ukd,fawGYyifvkH

]]awmifwef;jynfr yl;aygif;a&; txdr;trSwf vuf&ausmufwi}f } f dS dk

E-book is created by shanyoma

1947 ckEp?f arv 19 &ufrS 23 &uftxd *sLAvDa[mwGif usif;yaom zqyvtzGcsKyf yPmrjyifqifrI nDvmcH S YJ

1/ AkvcsKyfatmifqef;? 2/ ocifE?k 3/ ocifjr? 4/ OD;AaqG? 5/ OD;xGe;tk(jrLrif;BuD;a[mif;)? 6/ OD;wif(jrefatmif) d f f H 7/ 'D;'kwO;bcsKd? 8/ OD;wif(jrefrmhtvif;) 9/ ref;bcki?f 10/ q&mBuD;OD;&mZwf? 11/ OD;azcif? 12/ ocif0wif/ f D d

E-book is created by shanyoma

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