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The

Nervous System - Overview


1. Neurons (Chapter 7) Lecture 24 Intro to the Nervous System 2. Anatomy (Chapter 8)
How are groups of neurons organized into structures that carry out the brains functions? What is the structure of a neuron? How do they send and receive signals?

3. Drugs and Disease (Chapter 8a)


What happens when the brain function is altered?

Overview of the Nervous System


The nervous system coordinates all of the bodies activities:
1.Sensory Perception If the NS isn't functioning properly... ________________________________ 2.Motor Skills -Death ________________________________ 3.Internal Organs -Multiple Sclerosis ________________________________ 4.Breathing -Chronic Pain 5.Emotions -Cerebral Palsy ________________________________ 6.Learning -Parkinson's ________________________________ 7.Hormone Secretion -Chrohn's ________________________________ 8.Heartbeat -ect. 9.Languages

Central vs. Peripheral Nervous System

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is composed of Brain and Spinal Cord The CNS does not regenerate The CNS is protected by the skull and by the bony vertebrae.

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the body to the CNS

The PNS can regenerate It includes all nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord.

Cells of the Nervous System


Neurons (nerve cells)
Send and receive signals Responsible for sensory perception, movement, thoughts, emotions, etc.

Cells of the Nervous System


Three categories of neurons
1. Sensory (or afferent) neurons 2. Motor (or efferent) neurons 3. Interneurons (or association neurons)

Glial cells
Outnumber neurons 10 to 1 Provide structural support, growth factors, and insulating sheaths around axons.

Cells of the Nervous System


Sensory (afferent) neurons
These cells are sensory receptors. Convert physical stimuli into electrical signals that the brain can understand. They carry information to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

Cells of the Nervous System


Motor (efferent) neurons
These cells send signals that affect the function of muscles and glands. They carry information from the CNS.

Cells of the Nervous System


Interneurons
These cells signals between the sensory and motor neurons. They are found only in the central nervous system and comprise 99% of all neurons. Responsible for reasoning, planning, interpreting sensory information...
Sensory Neuron InterNeuron

Motor Neuron

Structure of Neurons
Neuron are specialized for communication The neuron has 3 major parts
1. Dendrites = Receiving 2. Axon = Sending 3. Cell body = Integration

Anatomy of the Nerve Cell

Structure of Neurons
Nerves
Bundle of axons traveling together. Covered with tough connective tissue Classified as: sensory motor mixed (sensory & motor)

Structure of Neurons Myelin Sheath


Myelin sheath is found in many neurons.
Wraps around the axon. Allow signals the travel more quickly. Created by many Schwann cells that wrap tightly around each neuron.

A single Schwann Cell

Structure of Neurons Myelin Sheath


Gaps between adjacent Schwann cells are called nodes of Ranvier Saltatory Conduction: Electrical signals travels faster as they jump from node to node.

What if the myelin breaks down


In multiple sclerosis (MS) the immune system breaks down the neurons myelin. Signals are transmitted so slowly that they die out before traveling down the axon.
Damaged Myelin

Healthy Myelin

Neuron Function
Neuron communicate by nerve impulses, which are elcetrical signals. During a nerve impulse, the electrical signals are generated by the movemenent of sodium (Na+) and potassium ions (K+).

Neuron Function: The Nerve Impulse


During a nerve impulse, ions move in and out of the neurons through ion channels that are located on the cell membrane. The ion channel is a pore that allows ions to passively diffuse from an area of high to low concentration.

Neuron Function: The Nerve Impulse

Neuron Function: The Nerve Impulse


Ion concentrations are established by the sodium-potassium pumps. Using ATP energy, these pumps move Na+ out of the neuron and K+ into the neuron.