4th Class Notes: Abhidharma 3 – Causation and Cosmology OUTLINE I. Causation / Conditional Relations A. Causation in Buddhism B.

Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma Analysis of Causation: 6 causes, 4 conditions, 5 results C. A Specific Analysis:12-fold Chain of Dependent Arising III. Cosmology A. The World of Beings B. The Container World C. Temporal Cosmology I. CAUSATION / CONDITIONAL RELATIONS A. Causation in Buddhism 1. Basic Significance - Causation or conditional relations is a (or the) central teaching of Buddhism. One of the most important verses of early Buddhism states: ―Of those dharmas which arise from a cause, the Tathagata has stated the cause, and also the cessation; such is the teaching of the Great Ascetic.‖ - Dependent arising (pratītya-samutpāda) is the true nature of reality. It is so, whether Buddhas appear in the world or not. Sometimes dependent arising is taught as the essential content of Buddha‘s enlightenment. - The Four Noble Truths are a formula of causation: the basic problem (1. duḥkha), its origin or cause (2. samudaye), the end of the basic problem (3. nirodha) and its cause, the path (4. mārga). It is through the study of the conditioned arising of suffering that liberation can be achieved. The teaching of conditional relations validates the entire undertaking of Buddhism, that is, the possibility of definitive freedom from suffering. - The basic principle of conditioned relations (idam-pratyayata): “this existing, that exists; this arising, that arises; this not existing, that does not exist; this ceasing, that ceases.” Note: in and of itself, this basic formula, preceding the doctrine of momentariness, is neither exclusively simultaneous nor sequential, but merely a formula of concomitant conditionality. - Dependent arising emphasizes processes rather than entities, the how rather than the what. 2. Causation and No-self - The Buddhist teaching that there is no substantial self or soul, but an ever-changing series of five skandhas, has historically been criticized on a number of points: i. for contradicting our experienced sense of personal continuity, ii. as undermining any serious basis for moral responsibility, and iii. for being incompatible with the Buddhist teaching of rebirth. - The teaching of dependent arising is the key to responding to these criticisms: i. The teaching of conditional relations affirms continuity. One of the main principles of causal connections is that certain patterns tend to reproduce themselves and thus appear relatively stable over a period of time. This is not a matter of a primary substance that remains constant while its characteristics change. Such a primary unchanging substance is denied. In a sequence of causal continuity, there is neither complete identity, nor complete difference. The lack of complete identity is the denial of a substantial self. The lack of complete difference is the affirmation of continuity. Example: milk forms a serial continuity with butter – the butter is neither wholly identical with, nor wholly different from, the milk. ii. The continuity of a dependently arising series is also the basis for establishing moral responsibility. iii. A series of causal connectedness does not necessarily totally cease with the death of the ―person‖. While the body does disintegrate, mental phenomena, still in an ever-changing flow of a series of skandhas, continue to evolve and eventually coalesce or reconfigure with a new body. In the same way that there is causal continuity without a substantial self in one life, there is continuity between lives. As above, the one who is reborn (and more generally, experiences karmic retribution) is neither the same nor different from the one who died (or more generally, engaged in karmic activity).

suffering and the end of suffering.The study of causes and conditions is a synthetic. nothing exists on its own and thus nothing is apart from the process of moment-to-moment change. Analysis of dharmas Analytic Static Spatial Present moment Study of causation Synthetic Dynamic Temporal Continuity . Dependent arising affirms that everything arises through the ordered cooperation of causes and conditions. As any such functioning implies existence in this context. Causation as a Middle Way between two sets of Extremes . emphasizing continuity. . present or future. The existence of the dharmas is nothing apart from their causal efficacy or function. Four Conditions (Pratyaya) 1. and also potentially with an assertion of absolute free-will. Between eternalism and annihilationism a) Eternalism posits something that endures without change.It is also important to note that while dharmas are defined in terms of their distinctive function. . Dependent arising asserts rather that choice is a factor. fluid process and dynamic change.The Sarvāstivādin analysis of causation is primarily concerned with the arising of sentient experience and in particular. ii. The teaching of causes and conditions is thus an aspect of discerning the dharmas. b) Annihilationism posits that there is no real connection between events.The study of causation is in part the classification of different kinds of forces. causal efficacy is the criterion for the reality/existence of a dharma. Dependent arising avoids this extreme by asserting that as everything arises dependent on conditions. Dependent arising rather affirms continuity and connection through conditional relations. Dharmas are not static building blocks but dynamic interacting processes. but in an ongoing process of formation. . Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma Analysis of Causation: 6 causes. Causation explores the temporal dimension. analytic study of the intrinsic nature of the dharmas which emphasizes how they are unique. One‘s destiny is not fixed. future): dharmas can assert causal efficacy whether they are past. lives. Causes and conditions subsume all dharmas. .Dependent arising is taught as a middle way between two sets of extreme positions: i. this condition refers to causes not subsumed under the three conditions below and is identified with 5 of the 6 causes (hetu) below: all accept the efficient cause (kāraṇa-hetu). present. b) Random chaos denies causal order. The arising of the dharmas is in no way arbitrary or random – all dharmas arise through the cooperation of causes and conditions. .3. dynamic mode of studying the dharmas. a process of change.The exposition of the dharmas is a spatial analysis. etc. an exploration of the depth and extent of an instant of consciousness in the present moment. or modes of existence. 4 conditions.Through the principle of causation the complex web of dharmas becomes a coherent flow of experience.The 4 Conditions are derived from the early discourses. The present moment of mind is conditioned by the past. of the dharmas. All dharmas can function as non-obstructing causes or objectsupport conditions at any time. in contrast to the static. this is the basic import of the Sarvāstivādin position that dharmas exist in the three times (past. they are not limited to a single mode of causal functioning.In the Sarvāstivāda system. This extreme resonates with a denial of moral responsibility. examining how dharmas work together and function. The dharmas are established by virtue of making a unique causal contribution. Hetu-pratyaya: Causal Condition . The 6 Causes and 5 Results are innovations of the Sarvāstivāda. . . but it is also itself a cause and condition for events in the future. 5 results . B. Between determinism and random chaos a) Determinism posits a fixed order of causation in which there is no freewill.In the dharma theory of the Sarvāstivādins. This condition includes anything that makes a positive contribution to the causal process.

. When a dharma projects. present or future. It is ―equal‖ in that it produces ―equal‖ (sama-) or ―equivalent‖ dharmas and ―immediate‖ (anantara) because it immediately precedes. 4. there is a difference in significance‖: Cause what is proximate is a cause what is unique is a cause what produces is a cause what fosters its own series is a cause what is direct. With the exception of the last instant mind in an arhat at the moment of entering nirvāṇa. the possibility of consciousness presupposes a real dharma as its object. That is.This condition refers to how each mind and mental factor serves as a condition for the arising of a succeeding mind or mental factor. ii.The 6 Causes unfold further distinctions in the teaching of causality to highlight and support specific features of the evolving dharma theory (both in general terms of articulating dynamic interactions of dharmas with distinct intrinsic natures. The two absorptions of extinction arise by reason of 3 conditions (no object condition) iii. or at least to the extent that they do not hinder its arising.This represents a form of reciprocal or mutual causality including dharmas that are simultaneously the cause and effect of each other. Ālambana-pratyaya: Condition qua Object.As all dharmas. which can be past. Kāraṇa-hetu: Efficient Cause . The notion that a dharma can serve as a cause merely by not hindering the arising of another dharma led to some problematic considerations. can function in terms of this condition.2. 3.This is a general type of cause equated with the Efficient Condition (adhipati-pratyaya) above. though beyond cause and effect. Nothing is Produced from a Single Condition: In terms of the Four Conditions. arising here singular a cause is that which generates unshared in its function that which induces the arising is a cause what produces is a cause Condition what is remote is a condition what is common is a condition what subsidiarily produces is a condition what fosters another‘s series is a condition what is indirect. When a dharma presents. not united. Refers to material dharmas (such as the primary elements) and the concomitance of mind and mental factors (but in this context. For example. arising in another multiple a condition is that which fosters shares with other dharmas that which sustains is a condition what accomplishes is a condition 1.This condition refers to how all dharmas are the condition for the arising of any single dharma either through some direct connection. produces or delivers that same effect – this occurs when the effect actually arises in the present and when the dharma (cause) is in the present or in the past. everything exists). . united. all dharmas can serve as the object condition. emphasizes ―having the same fruit‖. The mind-organ (manas) is defined as this condition (―the just deceased consciousness‖). The notion of reciprocal causality was controversial in the Abhidharma teachings and also very important in later Yogacara developments. ―although a cause and a condition do not differ in respect of substance. They are distinguished in later Sarvāstivādin texts.Two stages: i. Sovereign Condition . The preceding mind ―makes room for‖ and induces the next mind. A consciousness cannot arise by itself – consciousness only arises with an object. can be objects of mind. Other dharmas arise by reason of 2 conditions (no object or equal-immediate condition) Six Causes (Hetu) . The mind and mental factors arise by reason of all 4 conditions ii. the particular efficacy of grasping the effect is the activity (karitra) of a dharma. Unconditioned dharmas. For the Sarvāstivāda. in not obstructing a distant crime. Samanantara-pratyaya: Equal-immediate Condition . is one functioning as an efficient cause for that crime? (Is it then possible at all to be pure in this world?) 2. there are three categories of conditioned dharmas: i.) . all minds and mental factors are equal-immediate conditions. It is referred to as ―dominant‖ as it belongs to the greatest number of dharmas and is exercised with respect to the greatest number of conditions. Object-support Condition . or causes that share the same effect. Sahabhū-hetu: Co-existent Cause . grasps or seizes its effect – this always occurs in the present and is what determines the dharma‘s status as present.Cause (hetu) and Condition (pratyaya): Used more or less synonymously in the early discourses. conditioned and unconditioned. and specifically in relation to sarvāstitva. Adhipati-pratyaya: Dominant Condition.

This refers to the acquisition (prapti) of a cessation (nirodha) of a defilement through the force of attaining insight as the pure path.This refers to any result that resembles its cause. retributive dharmas or dharmas arisen from a retributive cause 3. It is a particular subset of the Co-existent Cause emphasizing the importance of the dharma theory analysis of concurrent mental factors in a moment of consciousness. Visaṃyoga-phala: Disconnection Fruit or Result . from suffering to enlightenment. Equal-flowing Result .The basic idea of this cause is that similars cause similars. 3.Dharmas exist by virtue of their causal efficacy and further. Niṣyanda-phala: Emanation Fruit. the first moment of the Path of Seeing. It is the result-side of the pattern of like causing like. (More next week. with the exception of the first pure dharmas 4.The Universal Cause refers to the function of ―universal defilements‖ which are defilements which can cause defilements in their own category (in the manner of Similar Cause) and in other categories (these categories refer to how the defilements are abandoned). Mind & its mental states arise from 6 causes excluding: Also exclude. that is. time. The analysis in terms of results approaches the study and classification of causation from the other side of effect and fruit rather than condition and cause. it is always neutral and results from a non-neutral dharma. all dharmas themselves arise conditionally. the other dharmas.‖ This cause only produces its result when it is in the past. This result pertains to the retribution of personal karma. This form of causality has soteriological significance – it functions in a series as the perpetuation of defiled consciousness until the first moment of the Path of Seeing which represents a profound shift from impure to pure.3. Sarvatraga-hetu: Universal Cause . the path is not the cause of disconnections (visaṃyoga) or cessations (pratisamkhyanirodha). Nothing is Produced from a Single Cause: Four classes of dharmas are distinguished in clarifying how many causes produce the dharmas: 1. 1. etc. This cause is particularly appealed to in explaining the continuity and apparent stability of persons and things in the context of momentariness. for other dharmas (see below): The retributive cause The conjoined or associated cause The universal cause The conjoined cause The retributive and universal The conjoined cause causes The retributive. that is. the first pure dharmas. associated with the klista-manas (defiled thinking) in Yogacara. that is. Undefined or neutral acts are not Retributive Causes ―because they are weak. and the good dharmas. substance – see last week‘s notes). Saṃprayukta-hetu: Conjoined or Associative Cause . Technically.The Retribution Result is the result of the Retributive Cause – it is the fruition of karmic activity. the dharmas associated with a defilement. 2. which are unconditioned dharmas.This cause is basically reciprocal causality (the Co-existent Cause above) pertaining only to mind and its mental states. Vipāka-hetu: Retributive Cause This refers to karmic acts that are the cause of a retribution (vipāka) at a later time. but such dharmas can nevertheless be said to be the result of the path in that the path induces the acquisition (prapti) of such dharmas. the defilements. whereas the Conjoined Cause is how they share the same food and drink. Vipāka-phala: Retribution Fruit or Result . It pertains only to sentient beings. and the dharmas having their origins in a defilement 2. aspect. universal & similar causes The conjoined cause Dharmas that are not mind and its mental states (―other dharmas‖ in the table) include material-form (rūpa) dharmas. whereas pratītya-samutpanna is the dependently arisen (Result). The result of collective karma is usually subsumed under the Dominant Result below. and formations dissociated from mind (citta-viprayukta-saṃskāras). It is the result of the Similar Cause and the Universal Cause. This only applies to mental factors that are associated in 5 ways (identity of support. Note: karmic results are twofold: personal and collective. The Co-Existent cause is compared to a caravan of merchants who help each other through a difficult pass. Sabhāga-hetu: Homogeneous or Similar Cause . The universal defilements have been identified as a potential predecessor to the defilements of self-view.) 6. Vipāka literally means ―differently maturing‖ and refers to the fact that karmic causes are good/skillful or bad/unskillful whereas karmic results are always undefined or morally neutral – the result is dissimilar from the cause. defiled dharmas. the neutral dharmas. Five Results (Phalas) . (Both these causes only grasp and project their results in the present. As such. with the exception of the dharmas of retribution. object. . (Early Buddhism distinguished cause from result in terms of dependent arising: pratītya-samutpāda is dependent arising (Cause). 4.) 5.

) The saṃskāras are. [Childhood] Grasping is the state of one who desires pleasure and sexual union…this lasts until one begins to search out these pleasures. this is an active result. Adhipati-phala: Fruit of Dominance. bad. and are activated through ignorance. There is sparśa. [Bhāva signifies ―action. Running around in this manner one does actions which will have for their result future existence (bhāva): this is bhāva. Tṛṣṇā (grasping) 9. The six āyatanas are the five skandhas from the first appearance of the organs until the coming together of the organ. .The basic formula is: depending on ignorance. Present life 3 lives 1. The five skandhas. The five skandhas at the moment when reincarnation takes place after death is jati. corresponding to the Dominant Condition (adhipati-pratyaya) and the Efficient Cause (kāraṇa-hetu). Puruṣa-kāra-phala: Virile Fruit or Result . Thus. nāma-rūpa.‖ for existence takes place by reason of it. negative or indeterminate. The series of the previous life. Old age-and-death lasts until sensation . until the production of the six āyatanas (or 4. designated according to the most predominant dharma(s) involved. This is the series until adolescence. because the result is simultaneous with its causal activity (dharmas that are cause and result of each other). ṣaḍ-āyatana: (6 organs) 6.Basic approach of Sarvāstivāda: The 12 links extend over 3 lifetimes (see table) in a ―static‖ (avasthika) interpretation: Each link is a state of the 5 skandhas. The 12-fold chain explains suffering in terms of the concomitance of a number of conditioning factors which work together in repeated patterns which can be discerned. above). is the overall impression – positive.Dependent arising is the nature of reality (A. Bhāva (becoming) 11. contact & sensation which are. etc. 5. Predominating Result . Vedanā (sensation) 8. in a previous life. Jarā-maraṇa (old age & death) Description of the 12 parts in terms of static dependent arising Ignorance is.‖ 3 fold Defilement Action Result Result Result Result Result Defilement Defilement Action Result Result 3. Future Life 2.. 6 āyatana. Saṃskāra (formations) 3. Past life .This refers to how dharmas are the result of their own mutually conditioning activity in the present moment. above).4. Correlation of the 4 Conditions. the object of consciousness. at the moment of rebirth (or re-linking: pratisamdhi). 6 Causes and 5 Results 4 Conditions (Pratyayas) 6 Causes (Hetus) 5 Results (Phalas) Sahabhū-hetu (Co-existent Cause) Hetu-pratyaya (Causal condition) Saṃprayukta-hetu (Conjoined Cause) Sabhāga-hetu (Similar Cause) Sarvatraga-hetu (Universal Cause) Vipāka-hetu (Retributive Cause) Samanantara-pratyaya (Equal-immediate Condition) Ālambana-pratyaya (Object Condition) Adhipati-pratyaya (Predominating Condition) ------Kāraṇa-hetu (Efficient Cause) --Vipāka-phala (Retributive result) ----Adhipati-phala (Predominate Result) Visaṃyoga-phala (Disconnection Result) Puruṣa-kāra-phala (Virile result) Niṣyanda-phala (Emanation result) C. It is the result of the Co-existing and Conjoined Causes. Sparśa (contact) 7. which does good. the state of action. [Birth] Vedanā. Upādāna or attachment is the state of one who runs around in search of the pleasures. etc. is acquired. [Consciousness without an object? Predecessor of alaya?] Nāmarūpa (is the series) from this moment on. in a previous life. Upādāna (attachment) 10. in the womb. or contact. the body-organ and mind-organ already exist). . in a future existence designated by ―old age and death. feeling. among the basically passive results. or neutral actions. The 12-fold chain of dependent arising is an attempt to reveal the actual pattern and structure of the arising of suffering. A Specific Analysis:12-fold Chain of Dependent Arising .the ―container‖ universe (bhājana-loka – see below) – as the result of the collective karmic activity of the totality of living beings. The Sarvāstivādin doctrine of the 6 cuases. and the consciousness takes place. Jāti (birth) 12.] Jati is the new reincarnation.: 12-folds 1. it arises by reason of all dharmas non-hindering its arising. Nāmarūpa is made up of the five skandhas in the womb. Avidyā (ignorance) 2. 4 conditions and 5 results is an abstract analysis of dependent arising (B. Nāma-rūpa (name-&-form) 5. depending on formations. The consciousness is the skandhas at conception. constitute the saṃskāras. This result includes the physical world . of suffering.there are four parts of the present existence. formations arise. It is thus a kind of expansion of the 1 st and 2nd Noble Truths of Suffering and Origin. consciousness arises. the state of defilement (All the defilements in fact accompany ignorance. Vijñāna (consciousness) 4.The most generic or general result. until the moment when the capacity to distinguish the cause of pleasure.

iii. Becoming (i. without an end: Defilement [5th class] World [4th class] Action [5th class] . this one is preferred and it actually includes the Prolonged approach (3 lives). It is important to note that the chain of conditional relations are exactly that: conditional relations – if the root conditions cease.. Formations and 10. Describes how suffering arises. Static or Pertaining to States (avasthika: embracing twelve states.‖ [This approach emphasizes connection of one moment to the next as cause & effect (sometimes in contrast to Momentary (cut-off/flashing).‖ and so on.‖ [All 4 approaches are represented in Sarvāstivāda. the entire chain ceases. Momentary or of one moment (ksanika): ―realized in one and the same moment.] 3. 7. grasping and attachment) cease. or periods. present & future. Birth and 12. analyzing the dynamic patterns of relationship between defilements and action and the perpetuation of conditioned existence in/as saṃsāra: i. Defilement (kleśa): 3 parts: 1. the 2nd Noble Truth of Origin) iii.‖ [This perspective extends the analysis throughout saṃsāra and past. through the union of causes and effects): ―the dharmas produced through dependence. Consciousness. The ceasing of suffering (nirvāṇa) conditioned by meditation and knowledge. are ―cause‖ – they are the active causes which maintain saṃsāra. The 12-links are an uninterrupted continuance. Prolonged (prakarsika: extending over many moments of many existences): ―extending itself over three consecutive existences. Ignorance.THREEFOLD: 12-fold pratītya-samutpāda is threefold.] . Action (karma): 2 parts: 2. Name-and-form. the 12 links demonstrate how rebirth (=cyclic suffering in saṃsāra) is propelled by defilement and action. and potentially. ii. There are thus two basic causal currents of interest to Buddhism: i. (iii. Sensation. and the 1st Noble Truth of Suffering. Foundation (vastu): 7 parts: 3.FOUR APPROACHES: It is also said that pratītya-samutpāda is fourfold: 1. of the five skandhas). Six organs.‖ [The 12-links are viewed in terms of the conjoined dharmas functioning simultaneously in a single moment. Old age and death. suffering comes to an end. as demonstrated by the ceasing of the 12-fold chain: ―with the complete cessation of ignorance. is ―result‖ and equated with the world. ii. Dependent arising thus describes the arising as well as the ceasing of suffering. and ii. 4. . Serial or Connected (sambandhika. Sautrantikas object to this and Static pratītya-samutpāda.) This threefold analysis is also appealed to in demonstrating that the series does in fact feed into itself and is thus without beginning. The study of the arising of suffering unfolds how to realize liberation from suffering. Specifically. In particular.] 2. ―made up of the twelve states (avastha) embracing the five skandhas. Contact. there is the complete cessation of karmic formation. 11. present and future self which transmigrates. 6. saṃsāra. Grasping and 9. These parts are called ―foundation‖ because they are the ―support‖ of the defilements and action (karma). in the 3 life version. The arising of suffering (saṃsāra) conditioned by defilements and karma. . This teaching is also interpreted as a demonstration of how rebirth takes place without a self but through a series of conditional relations. Attachment ii. as demonstrated in the 12-fold chain.] 4.MAIN POINTS of this teaching: i. if the three folds that are defilement (ignorance. 8. but in order to free practitioners from belief in a past.THE END OF SUFFERING: The 12-fold chain describes how suffering arises. 5. Such a demonstration is not just for the sake of establishing a basic Buddhist position.

the world is foundation and result (the 3rd – 7th and 11th – 12th links).In terms of 12-fold dependent arising. realized when one has transcended or completely let go of the desire or sensuousness of Kāmadhātu. cosmology. Ārūpyadhātu is fourfold through its mode of existence. Ārūpyadhātu: The Realm of Formlessness. COSMOLOGY .In the Abhidharma approach. . C.Three Realms (tri-dhātu): 1. Ignorance is taught as the root of all the defilements.Three basic components: A..The 12-fold chain incorporates two major approaches to the origin of suffering: i. Neither perception nor… Ārūpyadhātu Ārūpyadhātu Nothingness heaven 3. Meditation states have for their basis or support a being of their own sphere or a lower sphere. 2. Meditation states of a lower sphere ―have no usefulness‖ – with one significant exception (the defilements pertaining to Bhāvagra are abandoned in the 3rd Ārūpya-dhyāna of Nothingness). craving. A. conception (samjna). the two principle causes of the world of cyclic existence. III. is a description of saṃsāra. the world is impure (sāsrava). heav. 2. humans and six deva realms. (In general. this formula is sometimes associated with emphasizing the primal importance of ignorance. 1. Rather. Nothingness Formless Formless Infinite Cons.In terms of causation.) . Rūpadhātu & Ārūpyadhātu are also taught as realms of meditation. Realized upon completely letting go of even the subtle material existence of Rūpadhātu. animals.The World of Beings (sattva-loka) . The 8th and 9th links of grasping and attachment express the emotion-centered approach. As the ―foundation‖ or ―support‖ for the defilements. are beyond the 3 Realms] 3 Realms (Tri-dhātu) 5 Destinies (gati) Realms Dhyānas 3 Realms (Tri-dhātu) Bhāvagra 4. ii. Rūpadhātu: The Realm of Form. Rūpa here refers to a subtle material existence.. 3rd Dhyāna Form Form 3 Limitless Light… 2nd Dhyāna 3 Brahma heavens 1st Dhyāna 6 deva-realms [Titans (Āsura)] [Āsura] Humans (Manuṣya) 4 Continents Kāmadhātu Non-concentrated Worldly Kāmadhātu Realm of Desire States of Mind. the Buddhist view of the world.. As ignorance is listed first in the 12-fold formula. The 3 realms correspond to the 5 destinies (gati) and the dhyāna meditation states as follows (note also: the 5 destinies are undefiled-neutral as they are the result of retribution): Cosmology Psychology [Noble Ones (aryas = enlightened beings) / Pure Minds: Training (Saiksa) and Beyond Training (Asaiksa) – Cosmologically. non-material dharmas and past or future material dharmas do not have a location. The Container World. resonating with the importance of the 3rd skandha. B. Kāmadhātu: The Realm of Desire or Sensuousness. feeling or sensation (vedanā) and the 2nd Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering which is identified in the early discourses with grasping (tṛṣṇā – desire. the world is result and karmically neutral. Includes four heavens which are not places. The 1st link of ignorance expresses the intellect-centered approach. . Rūpa here does not refer to material form as in the rūpa of the 1st skandha. pretas. thirst). .These are 3 realms as realms of existence. nor to visible matter as in the rūpa as the object of the eye-organ. Infinite Space Dhyānas as 5 Suddhavasas as Samādhi Heavenly Beings [1 non-thought] 4th Dhyāna Existence (concen(Deva) Rūpadhātu Rūpadhātu 3 Great Fruit… tration) Realm of Realm of 3 Limitless Beauty. they do produce any karma to be retributed in the 3 realms. and psychologically. It is the result of the defilements and action (karma). Infinite Consciousness Realm Realm Dhyānas Infinite Space heav. The World of Beings. All impure (sāsrava) dharmas are also referred to as the ―(five) aggregates of clinging‖ (upādāna-skandha). 3. Realm of Desire Animals (Tiryak) [various] Ghosts (Preta) [various] Hells (Naraka) 8 hot and 8 cold . resonating with the importance of the 2nd skandha. Includes the hells. Temporal Cosmology. The World of Beings . the 1st Noble Truth of Suffering.

but there are many universes and beings can traverse them. There he sees his father and mother united. Intermediate existence (antarā-bhāva) Basic definition: ―Between death—that is. earth. No-self: ―An entity that abandons the skandhas of one existence and takes up the skandhas of another existence.an existence in hell. and some say it is a very short period of time. .‖ 2. installs itself there. an internal agent of action. .The 4 ―Existences‖ (from Chapter III of the Abhidharmakosa) or aspects of sentient existence in saṃsāra: 1. and. then that exists. the mental series takes up birth after being reproduced without discontinuity from the place where death took place. In the same way.‖ Driven by desire: Beings which arise from moisture go to their place of rebirth through desire for odors. and incapable of transmigrating. etc. Existence as arising (upapatti-bhāva) (also see Summary K16-17 below) Defiled: Existence as arising is always defiled. inversely.is the same action that projects the intermediate existence by which one goes to this realm of rebirth. Awareness: A Cakravartin (wheel-turning king) enters in full consciousness.‖ (The intermediate existence arises but is not ―born‖. enjoying its pleasures. Four wombs: i) ‘Womb of beings born from eggs’: beings who arise from eggs. but this will never exhaust the innumerable beings in all world-systems. cows. and by all the defilements of the sphere to which it belongs. some say it lasts 7 days. when they appear in a place distant from that in which they have been found. the intermediate being perishes.3. or the mother.The actual origination of beings and the world process is not addressed – it is beginningless. When the intermediate being is male. some say there is no fixed rule as it lasts until the necessary conditions come together for rebirth. if this exists. the five skandhas of the moment of rebirth—there is found an existence—a ‗body‘ of five skandhas—that goes to the place of rebirth. and other sentient beings accomplish these stages with a troubled mind. whom it regards as either a male or a female rival…Then the impurities of semen and blood is found in the womb. pigs. etc. c) Duration: As for how long the intermediate being exists. etc . it is because they are reproduced without discontinuity in intermediate places. new beings do not enter the system. the five skandhas of the moment of death—and arising—that is. What is this causal relationship? Namely. the intermediate being. geese. when it is female. through the arising of this. horses. iii) ‘Wombs of beings born from moisture’: beings who arise from the exudation of the elements. stays and leaves in full consciousness. independently of the casual relationship of the dharmas. Existence in-and-of-itself . it effectively becomes another realm of existence. worms. Intermediate existence . and results exist. it is gripped by a male desire with regard to the mother. His mind is troubled by the effects of sex and hostility. In fact the Blessed One said. ‗Actions exist.. cranes.4.‖ b) Consumption: They eat odors. and birth arises that is called ‗reincarnation‘ (pratisamdhi). a Buddha enters. some 7 weeks. it hates either the father. This existence between two realms of rebirth (gati) is called intermediate existence. Apparitional beings through desire for residence (to those born in hell.‖ Form of antarā-bhāva: ―The action that projects the gati or the realm of rebirth .. Then the skandhas harden. a Pratyekabuddha (Enlightened Alone) enters and stays in full consciousness. there is the arising of that. elephants. Existence as arising . Buddha‘s lead innumerable beings to nirvāṇa. it is gripped by a female desire with regard to the father. insects. etc. Thus called ―Gandharva‖. ii) ‘Womb of beings born from wombs’: beings who arise from a womb. such as the series that constitutes a grain of rice and which one transports to a distant village by passing through all the villages in the interval. which in turn would contradict numerous teaching from the early discourses. the heat or cold appears to be attractive or somehow comforting).2.‘…[the skandhas] are momentary. etc.‖ Characteristics: a) Movement: ―Filled with the impetus of the supernormal power of action…The Buddhas themselves cannot stop him… Even a diamond is not impenetrable to him. Existence at death 1. As a consequence antarabhāva or intermediate existence has the form [as a child] of the future purvakala-bhāva of the realm of rebirth towards which he is going. a Purusa. Beings born from wombs and eggs through desire for sex.—this atman does not exist. Technically. If it was born. Pratītyasamutpāda. peacocks. Reincarnation: ―Even though distant he sees the place of his rebirth.) A series without discontinuity: ―The momentary dharmas exist in a series. but there is no agent who abandons these skandhas here and takes up those skandhas there.

are food…(i) Food by the mouthful makes the body grow. and which are similar to a wet-nurse. Pretas are born from a womb and apparitional.‘‖ Four Types of Food: (i) Food by the mouthfuls exists in Kāmadhātu… In the three Dhātus. upeksa…This sensation is not active. at the navel. Beings in Hell. Apparitional birth is the ―best‖ – but Buddhas are born from wombs (to encourage & reassure beings. is produced from the seed which is the (iv) consciousness ‗informed‘ through action.‖ Where consciousness dies: ―When death is gradual. The Container World . These are called apparitional. this new existence.iv) ‘Womb of apparitional beings’: beings who arise all at once. Humans & Animals are of all 4 types. its point of support. it would itself be active. with all their major and minor limbs. in the heart. Existence in and of itself (purvakala-bhāva) How do beings last?: ―Everyone lasts through food…Food signifies that which makes existence (bhāva) grow… food has for a result causing to endure. projects a new existence. in this hypothesis. Existence at death (maraṇa-bhāva) With a neutral sensation: ―The mind consciousness. because they are skillful at appearing. the other sensations are active and. thus:] The consciousness dies through the destruction of the organ of touch. and leave relics). is associated with the sensation of indifference. while (ii) contact makes the mind grow.‖ B. at death and at birth. and because they arise all at once [without an embryonic state. as a consequence. beings in hell.The World of Beings (sattva-loka) above only pertains to living beings. when they are impure. semen and blood]. These two foods which cause that which is born to live. Mental volitional action and the consciousness are thus the two foods which cause birth. (iii) volition. an arising and a dying consciousness cannot be associated with them. the organ of touch perishes bit by bit. 3. and which are the major items for the production of the existence of a being who has not yet been born. Towards the end of life. and (iv) consciousness. (iii) Mental volitional action which is active. among the Suras [gods]. causing to go ‗those that exist‘. which takes place in a certain place. . are the major items for the duration of a being who is born. Devas & antarā-bhāva are apparitional. (ii) contact. which are similar to a mother. at the end it remains only in a certain part of the body where it finishes by disappearing.‖ 4. among humans. accordingly as the being goes below. or beings in an intermediate existence. of favoring ‗those desiring re-existence (sambhāvaisin). thus projected. with their organs neither lacking nor deficient. such as gods. the manas dies in the feet. for. or is not reborn…[Consciousness though nonmaterial is bound to the organ of touch. The Physical or Container World (bhājanaloka) is a description of the physical arrangement and inter-relationships of the universe in which beings live.

‘ Yet there appeared the ‗juice of the earth. without a teacher. and Jambudvipa. the period of creation. K98: ―The Sutra says. There are thus two dharmas: attachment to taste and & the world is entirely consumed from small kalpas. of beautiful color. a person enters by respectively]. with complete and intact organs. they then took different forms. From 10 years to 80. 18 kalpas where lifespan goes from 10 years in length to 80.-19.‖ K90: ―The coarse and heavy and their luminosity come to an end: and then darkness appeared. Calm is the pleasure and joy that arise which repeats 7 times & ―One cut rice in the morning for the morning meal. actions which should be retributed in which are similar to winds come gradually and. and laziness which are the beginning of this long degeneration. The world is destroyed. The mansion of Brahma appears this rice.‘ the idea of property: then the rice.-19. one seized the goods of another. the other beings then did the same. by reason of the K90: ―The world. attached to it. to a length of ten years. This was the beginning of dynasties. and the world has been too. Then they distributed the fields. K90: ―When not a conducted by the wind. mutatis mutandis. other and recut. travelling through the air. are born in the heaven order to prevent robbery. or an eon. other persons also enter into wind. seven suns successively appear. into the First Dhyana. were seized by this crocodile which is wrong of dharmas]. Meru. they conceived an active desire for pleasure and so had sexual intercourse. then holds for the gods of Kamadhatu. No receptacle world.) . cut words. The king punished them exhaustion of the collective action has been destroyed as in the hells. ‗There are visible beings. The rule is that the which has created the physical world. and living a long single being remains in the hells. of fine figure. Videha. ‗Happy is the pleasure and 7 destructions by fire the world is now created to this the joy that arise from detachment! followed by1 by water which is craving. hell. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Lasts from the primordial winds Lasts from the non-production of hell. One being. of greedy temperament. then him to be reborn in the hell of another but which extend ―Because of the attachment of beings to taste. and by reason of the emptiness of the destroyed for a long first. Kalpa of Emptiness (vivarta-kalpa) (vivarta-siddha-kalpa) (samvarta-kalpa) (samvarta-siddha-kalpa) =20 small kalpas: =20 small kalpas (K91-92): =20 small kalpas: =20 small kalpas: 1. 1. Then. universe not in the process of higher‖ [to the 2nd and we have just described: a circle of Prthiviparpataka disappeared and a forest creeper appeared and beings then became destruction…―Among humans of 3rd dhyana rupa heavens water. This eating made their bodies become which is not destroyed. and in the evening for the ―2. ―Of what does a kalpa consist? The kalpa is by nature the five skandhas. and under a certain king. In into the world of Brahma. finally. The world is emptied of beings. One was the owner of absorption and. and because he charmed his Kamadhatu.‘ the taste of which had the sweetness destruction of beings in hell is world of Brahma…So in the actions of creatures. by reason of first and then all the mansions until and sexual organs. Kalpa of Creation 2. and It is from this moment on that the beings of Kamadhatu were possessed by the demon exclaims. ‗We have not committed such actions. is born in the mansion him. time—during twenty increased and the lifespan of humans became shorter and shorter. The world is created. Temporal Cosmology (Ch III. Those who abandoned the householder's life received the name of Brahmins. Kalpa of Duration or Abiding 3. hells. And then there appeared the sun and the moon. The judgment.‘ and this was the beings who disappear last reappear beginning of lying…From this moment on. disease and famine K99. having all their beings until the destruction of the inflamed. the juice of the earth gradually there arises all of the receptacles as disappeared Then prthiviparpataka appeared. dying one after the other in one field. and.‖ (K93).From this world thus until the production of hell-beings. and beings attached themselves to it. of finally.38. stopped growing. a sphere of gold. he received the name of ksatriya. by each time. And the of honey. But this is only reason of their previous habits. from infinite decreases to 10 years in length 1. & the 3rd dhyana man in order that he protect the fields: this man was given the name ksetrapa or Brahmakayikas.000 years and 20. Coming out of this Dhyana. murder. having perceived the smell of this achieved. having joy for their food. there does not dhyana heavens every 8 of the Brahmapurohitas. a wind endowed with special burns the houses of the by themselves. after their death. the Paranirmitathe destruction of the persons of heavens once every 64 guardian of the fields. is finished. There is twenty small kalpas. there were many bandits and thieves.Process of the World. The others imitated from detachment!‘ Understanding these then 7 by fire and 1 by Abhasvara. K89-102) A Kalpa (劫波) is an extremely great span of time.‖ subjects. which among the Pretas and animals. This was the beginning of robbery. etc. pass heavens are destroyed beings. in Uttarakuru. When a being is born in the world. he destructions: physical world is thus created.39).‖ kalpas terminate through 3 calamites: war. This creeper disappeared and then rice grew.-20. the 2nd Abhasvara. Beings with sexual differences. Kalpa of Disappearance 4. by dharmata [see VIII. a coarse food.000 years in length Rupa heavens. When. It was reduced. gave forth waste: beings then developed organs of excretion himself. of lazy temperament. the remain a single person in Jambudvipa. dying in evening meal. & in 20. The lifespan of humans. ―the seed of a new universe is wind. One being. the force of these actions causes destruction through fire constitute a circle of wind. With provisions arose the idea of ‗mine. The 1st dhyana of Brahma which is empty. This was the destroyed to that extent: if a being of the destruction through wind is the wind of Rupadhatu this universe has committed any water and through wind. etc. Beings all reside in the (Human lifespan is ―infinite‖) back down to 10 years in length. K90: ―Then. extent. took pleasure in it and ate it. the flame. There are different types of kalpas: Maha-Kalpa (Great Kalpa = 80 small (antara) kalpas (K93)) – Cycles through 4 Kalpas: 1. Then a being. Because he was very esteemed by the multitude. shining receptacle world. transformations K102 outlines a 64 those of the Yamas. made provisions. vasavartins and the other gods of Jambudvipa is finished… The same kalpas [K100-101]. the powers which have their beginning time. we have seen. is instrumental cause (nimitta) of this juice. stays by the sword Others said. the bad courses of action. only space where the the period of duration begins…‖ [continued in next column] world once was. he became the Raja Mahasammata. they came together and gave a sixth part to an excellent this continual process. born of the mind. as he was a ksetrapa. Godaniya. World is filled with beings 2. kalpas. members. kalpa cycle of after the circle of wind arises. beginning of eating by mouthfuls (III. unworked and unseeded: Jambudvipa.‖ (The first 19 small this sphere with its continents to Meru. 2.

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