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Abstract -- Due to the fact of a simple and robust crosssection design switched reluctance machines are perfectly suited to drive hydraulic pumps; either as dry-running version or as canned version for seal-less applications. Besides copper and iron losses, very high losses are produced additionally in the stator and rotor can shields of the seal-less version. These can losses usually count more than 60% of the total losses and have a big impact on the thermal behavior and stability of the switched reluctance drive. Different winding topologies for switched reluctance machines are analyzed for both pump versions with the main focus on the can losses.

Index Terms --Winding design methology, Switched Reluctance Machine, Canned pumps

I.

INTRODUCTION

Fig. 1. Cross-section of a canned switched reluctance machine with short-pitched windings

HE cross-section of a switched reluctance machine is very simple and robust because the machine has salient poles on both the rotor and the stator. Single-tooth coils are only placed around the stator poles, while the rotor does not need any windings or magnets. These concentrated windings can be pre-wounded before mounting them on the stator, which results in low manufacturing costs. Additionally, switched reluctance machines are able to start under full load condition and supply a high dynamic force under a dramatically changed load among a wide speed range. Therefore, the switched reluctance machine is appropriated for the use as pump drive under extreme environment conditions. Generally, the electric machine is protected from the pumped fluid by seals, which means that the motor is built in a dry-running version. Unfortunately, the seals cause huge maintenance efforts and thus high operation costs, especially when delivering critical fluids. In this case, can shields in the shape of hollow cylinders can be mounted on the stator and rotor to protect the stator and rotor from the fluid (Fig. 1). This canned switched reluctance machine is used as a drive for a seal-less pump application, which offers longer live cycles and hence less maintenance costs. [1, 2] The can shields are made of a non-magnetic material with a low resistivity as thin as producible to get a small effective air gap (0.9mm), which influences strongly the torque production. Additionally, the thermal behavior takes a big impact on the performance of an electrical machine. Usually, the heat generated in electrical machines is caused by copper and iron losses, but in canned electrical machines additionally losses in the stator and rotor can shields occur.

C. Laudensack is with the Institute of Electrical Drives and Actuators, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Germany (e-mail: Christian.Laudensack@unibw.de). Q. Yu is with the Institute of Electrical Drives and Actuators, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Germany (e-mail: Qiang.Yu@unibw.de). D. Gerling is Head of the Institute of Electrical Drives and Actuators, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Germany (e-mail: Dieter.Gerling@unibw.de).

Especially in switched reluctance machines these can losses can rise up to more than 60% of the total losses and thus have a big impact on the behavior and stability of the whole drive [3]. A simple and effective method to reduce the can losses in the switched reluctance drive is to control the shape of the current waveform [4]. Besides this method, the winding topology also takes an impact on the performance of the canned pump drive. The torque production of short-pitched switched reluctance machines, which have coils wound around a single stator pole, is mainly based on the variation of the self-inductance of the energized phase. This means that in the ideal case the phases are fed from current independently from each other and the phase currents do not overlap. In contrast to this well-known winding design several other winding designs are already presented. These topologies produce the main torque by using mutual-coupling among the phases, which leads to a higher torque production. When using the mutual-coupling effect, more than one phase have to be energized simultaneously, thus a more complex control strategy is needed. Unfortunately, these windings often cannot be pre-wound and need a more complex controller, which both raises the manufacturing costs. Therefore, different winding topologies are applied to the same 12/8 cross-section of both pump types, the dryrunning (also called conventional) and canned version. The motor performance and the losses, especially the can losses, are analyzed and compared to these of the conventional winding topology. II. A. GENERAL SETTINGS

Requirements The cross-section designs for the different winding topologies are based on the cross-section design of the

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short-pitched machine to compare the different configurations to each other. Thus, many parameters like the teeth width, the yoke width, the pole pitch or the turns per winding are similar to those of the conventional configuration. Moreover, the phase and pole number, the operating point (6000rpm) and the supply voltage (540V) at the machine terminals are the same. Furthermore, special design rules for each winding topology have to be considered and the basic cross-section has to be adopted to achieve the best performance for the certain winding topology. The chosen material is electrical steel M 33035AP, a standard material widely used in the manufacturing process of electrical machines. The electromagnetic characteristics of the different switched reluctance machines are received from 2D numerical simulations based on the finite-element methods (FEM) and performed with the subsystem Maxwell of ANSYS Workbench. The implemented designs are excited at no-load condition with two different current waveforms: A current supply, which follows a trapezoidal shape with a constant amplitude and constant rate of change when rising up or dropping down. A voltage supply with either a half-bridge or a fullbridge depending on the kind of necessary current levels. The losses, which are analyzed in the following, strongly depend on the shape of the current waveform, especially on the rate of increase and decrease. Thus, the current supply with same rate of increase and decrease is used for all winding configurations to show the impact of the winding topology on the losses, especially on the can losses. Moreover, the maximum phase current is limited to 120A to allow the simulation of all different winding topologies with the requirements taken above and a tolerable flux density. Consequently, the torque can be increased by using a higher phase current dependent on the particular winding configuration. B. Loss Calculation Generally, the losses that occur in an electrical machine can be distinguished between copper losses, mechanical losses and iron core losses and additionally can losses in a canned machine. The mechanical losses, mainly caused by the friction of the rotor and the bearings, are relatively small compared to the other losses and are in the same range for all configurations. Thus, the mechanical losses are not considered in the analysis. The used calculation methods of the copper, iron and can losses are shortly explained in the next subchapters. 1) Copper losses The copper loss PCu prediction is straightforward, while the waveform of each phase current iPh and the phase resistance RPh is known:

temperature rise from the base temperature 0 to the actual temperature and the variation of the ratio between winding length lWin and winding area AWin , while is the specific resistance at base temperature and R is the thermal coefficient of the resistance:

(2)

The influence of the temperature rise on the phase resistance is not treated in these studies. Thus, the winding length lWin can be calculated from the length of the stack winding lWin , Stk and the length of the endwinding lEWin , under consideration of the stator pole number N P , S , the phase number N Ph and the turns per pole

(3) For the short-pitched windings the length of the endwinding can be estimated as

where

(4)

wWin

and wTe, S the width of the stator teeth. For windings, which enclose two or more stator poles, the length of the end-windings can be estimated either from the theory that the end-windings have the shape of a semicircle or the shape of a rectangle. The first method gives a maximum length of the endwinding, which is equal to the arc of a semicircle with the diameter equal to the average distance between the two considered coil-sides

lEWin = 2 2 / N S ( r2 hTe , S / 2 )

(5)

where r2 is the stator inside radius, hTe , S the stator teeth height and N S the number of stator poles, which are enclosed. The second method results in a shorter end-winding length because the end-winding follows the shape of a rectangle with the length of the average distance between the two considered coil-sides and the height of half of the average distance between the two coil-sides:

lEWin = 4 / N S ( r2 hTe, S / 2 )

(6)

PCu =

Ph

(i )

Ph

RPh

(1)

The phase resistance depends on the number and connection of the phase coils. The ohmic resistance of one winding RWin depends on both the variation of the

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2) Iron losses The iron losses can be further divided into hysteresis losses and eddy current losses according to the way they are generated. Hysteresis losses are caused by the redirection of the magnetic particles, which trend to line up with the changing magnetic field and thus produce molecular friction and energy consumption. In contrast, the eddy current losses produce heat depending on the material resistivity because eddy currents circulate in the machine body due to the alternating of the flux flow. Each loss is closely related to the changing rate of the flux density. For a sinusoidal flux variation the losses are often described by the Steinmetz model, but this is not applicable for the non-sinusoidal flux variation in switched reluctance machines. Thus, the model has to be discretized, which leads to the following equation: [3]

P = Chys f B + Cedd ( dB / dt )

(7)

the

frequency, the Steinmetz coefficient, Chys the hysteresis loss coefficient and Cedd the eddy-current loss coefficient, which can be obtained either by curve fitting or by manufacturing data. 3) Can losses The can shields in the shape of hollow cylinders are mounted on the stator and rotor surface and usually made of a non-magnetic material with a low resistivity. While the cans are exposed to an alternating magnetic field, a high amount of losses is generated. Especially in switched reluctance machines these can losses can rise up to more than 60% of the total losses and thus have a big impact on the behavior and stability of the whole drive. Due to the fact that the can losses are from the origin of eddy current losses, they can be calculated from the equation

PCan = J EdV = 1 / J 2 dV

(8)

where J is the eddy current density and E is the field intensity and is the material conductivity. The can losses are discussed in detail in [3] and from these different factors, which have an impact on the can losses, are derived: Concentration of eddy current. Rate of change of the phase current. Field coupling. Variation of the phase reluctance. An effective and simple method to reduce the can losses of a short-pitched wound switched reluctance machine and to improve the efficiency as well as the thermal performance of the drive is given in [4]. The method influences the shape of the phase current waveform by having a variable step voltage supply according to the rotor positions. III. SHORT-PITCHED WINDING DESIGN A. Winding design and a basic function principle of a switched reluctance machine Generally, a switched reluctance machine produces the torque by the tendency of its moveable part to move to a position where the inductance of the excited winding is maximized. A basic model of a switched reluctance machine with one phase and one pole pair on the stator and rotor is shown in Fig. 2.

stable aligned position, because in a magnetic circuit the rotating part prefers to come to the minimum reluctance position at the instance of excitation. In the aligned position the magnetic field lines pass through the rotor and stator with the minimum resistance because the air gap has the smallest size, in the unaligned position the magnetic field lines pass through with the maximum resistance. Assuming a constant current in the windings the torque changes direction at the aligned position, when the rotor and stator poles are fully overlapped. If the rotor moves through the fully aligned position because of its mass inertia, the attractive forces produce a retarding torque. To eliminate the retarding torque the current has to be switched off when the rotor poles separate from the stator poles. Obviously a continuous unidirectional torque with low torque ripple can only be achieved by reducing the gaps between the torque production with increasing the number of pole pairs or using different phases. Basically the conventionally used short-pitched windings of switched reluctance machines are non-overlapping and pre-wound because they are cheap in production and can be inserted after winding them. Generally, there is one coil on each pole, which is a much ordinary one in comparison to other machine types. This results in the problem, that each stator slot is filled with two windings of different phases. Thus, they can influence each other that either the windings can short-circuit or their magnetic behavior influences each other. The torque production is mainly based on the variation of the self-inductance of the energized phase. This means that in the ideal case the phases are fed from current independently from each other and the phase currents do not overlap. Because of these facts the maximum current and maximum torque is limited. [5] B. Rough design estimation with SPEED PC-SRD A three phase switched reluctance machine with twelve stator and eight rotor poles for the specified dimensions is designed with the computer-aided design software SPEED PC-SRD, version 8.0 [6]. The design is fed from the commonly used half-bridge with a DC supply voltage of 540V and a maximum phase current of 120A in softchopping mode. The mechanical output torque is rated to 11.01Nm, which leads to a mechanical shaft power of 6.92kW. The copper losses are calculated to 0.61kW, while the phase resistance is given with RPh = 0.03 . Moreover, the iron losses for the stator and rotor (including the hysteresis and eddy current losses) count 0.38 kW. Thus, the input power at the machine terminals is added up to 7.91kW, which leads to an efficiency of 87.4%.

Fig. 2. Simple switched reluctance machine in unaligned (left) and aligned (right) position

The two coils wound on opposite stator poles are excited simultaneously, and generate a magnetic flux from the stator through the rotor. The resulting torque tends to rotate the rotor from the instable unaligned position, towards the

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C. Performance analysis The implemented cross-section design for the 12/8 shortpitched switched reluctance machine as canned version is given in Fig. 1. In addition, the waveform from the current supply and voltage supply are presented for one excitation sequence of all three phases in Fig. 3. The copper losses of the short-pitched switched reluctance machine are received from (1) to (4), which lead to an end-winding length of lEWin = 38.9mm and a phase resistance of RPh = 0.029 .

The impact of the supply source on the waveform of the instantaneous torque is displayed in Fig. 4 for the voltage supply. The cans not only decrease the average torque level of the canned pump, but also have an influence on the shape of the instantaneous torque. This also confirms the results from [3], that the greatest amount of the can losses occur during the increase and decrease of the phase current. IV. FRACTIONALLY-PITCHED WINDING DESIGN A. Winding design and function principle A switched reluctance machine with a fractionallypitched winding is proposed in detail in [7]. The crosssection design of the 12/8 switched reluctance machine, displayed in Fig. 5, shows that each coil encloses two stator poles. This leads to a variation of the self- and mutualinductances with the rotor position. The linearized torque for one operation point is based on: 2 2 T = 1 / 2 iA LA / R + 1 / 2 iB LB / R

2 + 1 / 2 iC LC / R + iA iB M AB / R

(9)

Fig. 3. Current (top) and voltage (bottom) supply waveform with a half-bridge

Table I presents the simulation results for the shortpitched winding topology using a winding excitation from the current supply as well as from the voltage supply from a half-bridge either for the dry-running version and the canned one.

TABLE I SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE SHORT-PITCHED WINDING TOPOLOGY FOR A MAXIMUM PHASE CURRENT OF 120A Winding T_MEC P_MEC P_Cu P_Fe P_Can P_TOT Efficiency supply Current Current Voltage Voltage Nm 13.62 10.84 13.67 10.74 kW 8.55 6.80 8.59 6.74 kW 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58 kW 0.94 0.4 0.83 0.64 kW 0 8.74 0 9.36 kW 10.08 16.57 10.00 17.33 % 84.9 41.1 85.9 38.9

+ iB iC M BC / R + iA iC M AC / R From (9) it can be seen, that positive torque generation is either possible by the rise of the positive self-inductance independent from the phase current polarity or by the rise of the mutual-inductance with the same polarity of the phase currents or by the decrease of the mutual-inductance with different polarity of the phase currents. From the idealized waveform of the self- and mutual-inductance [7], two different control schemes can be developed to energize the machine. The three-phase bipolar current control uses the variation of the self- and mutual-inductances. In contrast the two-phase bipolar current control uses the mutualinductances of two phases because the sum of the selfinductances is zero.

A huge reduction of the efficiency between both pump types can be seen, which results from the big impact of the can losses. The increase of the can losses between the current excitation and the voltage excitation occurs from the hysteresis band, when the current is limited to a fixed value.

B.

Fig. 4. Instantaneous torque waveform for the voltage supply with a half-bridge

Performance analysis The calculation of the copper losses of the fractionallypitched switched reluctance machine is based on equations (1) to (3). As shown in Fig. 5, the winding encloses two stator poles; hence the coils have longer end-windings compared to short-pitched coils. The length of the end-winding lEWin can be estimated

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either from the theory that the end-windings have the shape of a semicircle (5) or the shape of a rectangle (6). Thus, the length of the end-winding is calculated with the assumption of a semicircle shape to lEWin = 113.2mm and with the assumption of a rectangle shape to lEWin = 72.1mm , which results in 2.9 and 1.9 times longer end-windings than the windings of the short-pitched ones. With these winding lengths, the phase resistance is determined to RPh = 0.048 and RPh = 0.039 , which result in 1.7 and 1.3 times higher phase resistance than the phase resistance of the shortpitched windings. Hence the phase resistance of RPh = 0.048 is used for the simulations (Table II) to be consider the worst case.

TABLE II SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE FRACTIONALLY-PITCHED WINDING TOPOLOGY FOR A MAXIMUM PHASE CURRENT OF 120A Winding T_MEC P_MEC P_Cu P_Fe P_Can P_TOT Efficiency supply Current Current Voltage Voltage Nm 29.46 21.4 18.94 13.29 kW 18.50 13.44 11.89 8.35 kW 1.87 1.87 1.36 1.46 kW 1,39 0.99 1.16 1.17 kW 0 0 kW 21.77 14.43 % 85.0 31.8 82.5 16.6

magnetic flux path is shorter in the fully-pichted machines, because the magnetic flux flows only in the stator poles nearby the energized winding and do not cross one quarter of the stator yoke. Long end-windings, which result from the fully-pitched winding topology, require additional space and more copper material than the end-windings of the short-pitched wound switched reluctance machine. Additionally, the windings cannot be pre-wound, which both leads to higher manufacturing costs. Machines with fully-pitched windings produce much more torque than short-pitched machines with equal size because at the same time two phases are excited and produce torque. Thus, the phases are coupled and the change of inductivity depends on the mutual-inductivity instead of the self-inductivity. This results in a complex calculation method for the operation behavior and controller strategy. The implemented cross-section design for the 12/8 fullypitched switched reluctance machine is presented in Fig. 7, while different excitation strategies are given in [10].

The comparison of the produced torque with two-phase bipolar excitation fed from a current and a voltage source shows a reduction of the average torque about 35% for the dry-running version and 38% for the canned version. These great torque reductions are caused by the fact, that the value of the supply voltage is too low to impress the necessary current. Depending on the supply mode the average value of the can losses are 9 and 15 times higher than the iron and copper losses together. The impact of the can shields on the waveform of the instantaneous torque is displayed in Fig. 6 for the voltage supply. It can be seen, that the waveform of the instantaneous torque has for both pump versions the same shape at different torque levels.

B.

Performance analysis The end-winding length of the fully-pitched switched reluctance machine is approximated to lEWin = 222.9mm

with (5) and to lEWin = 141.9mm with (6), which leads to a phase resistance of RPh = 0.140 and RPh = 0.108 , respectively. Hence the phase resistance of RPh = 0.140 is used for the simulations to consider the worst case. Table III presents the simulation results with a maximum phase current of 120A for the fully-pitched winding topology for a winding excitation with the current and the voltage supply either for the dry-running and the canned version. Independent from the excitation sequence the waveform of the instantaneous torque has the same shape for both pump types. For example the instantaneous torque for threephase bipolar voltage supply with a full-bridge is presented in Fig. 8, while the same is true for the one-phase unipolar voltage supply.

Fig. 6. Instantaneous torque waveform for the two-phase bipolar voltage supply with a full-bridge

V. A.

Winding design and function principle The fully-pitched winding design and the control strategies are descripted in detail in [8, 9]. The windings of the 12/8 fully-pitched machine enclose three stator poles. In contrast to the short-pitched topology only one phase is mounted between two stator poles. Additionally, the

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TABLE III SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE FULLY-PITCHED WINDING TOPOLOGY FOR A MAXIMUM PHASE CURRENT OF 120A Winding T_MEC P_MEC P_Cu P_Fe P_Can P_TOT Efficiency supply Current Uni2ph Current Uni2ph Current Bi3ph Current Bi3ph Voltage Uni2ph Voltage Uni2ph Voltage Bi3ph Voltage Bi3ph Nm 27.51 21.39 35.75 27.26 23.31 24.54 18.34 12.07 kW 17.05 13.43 22.45 17.12 14.64 15.41 11.52 7.58 kW 4.16 4.16 5.69 5.69 2.56 2.91 5.07 5.02 kW 1.08 0.71 3.83 1.59 0.92 0.94 5.57 4.96 kW 0 17.33 0 39.59 0 12.23 0 21.58 kW 22.31 35.65 31.97 64.00 18.13 31.51 22.17 39.15 % 76.4 37.7 70.2 26.8 80.7 48.9 52.0 19.4

compared to the short-pitched machines. [11, 12] The difference to switched reluctance machines with fully-pitched windings is that the switched reluctance machines with segmental rotors produce the torque by changing the self-inductance while the torque generation of fully-pitched switched reluctance machines results from the change of the mutual inductance. The implemented cross-section for the 12/8 switched reluctance machine with segmental rotors, presented in Fig. 9, is designed in accordance to the design rules given in [11, 12], but with constraint of comparability to the other winding topologies: The gap between the rotor segments should be equal to that of the stator slot opening. In the aligned position the overlap between the stator tooth and rotor segment should be equal to the width of the stator teeth. The stator yoke width and rotor segments width should be equal to the width of the stator teeth. Stator tooth tip angle and the rotor segment angle should be in a range of 30 to 60. The implemented cross-section design for the 12/8 fullypitched switched reluctance machine with segmental rotos is presented in Fig. 9. The rotor segments are manufactured from laminations of electrical steel and mounted on a nonmagnetic shaft, while the rotor is an isolating material.

Fig. 8. Instantaneous torque waveform for the three-phase bipolar voltage supply with a full-bridge

VI. FULLY-PITCHED WINDING DESIGN WITH SEGMENTAL ROTORS Winding design and function principle The switched reluctance machine with segmental rotors is a further development of the fully-pitched switched reluctance machine, explained before. The stator configuration and the winding topology are equal to the fully-pitched version, while the rotor consists of separate segments instead of a toothed rotor. The advantage of this design is that the magnetic flux path only encloses a single stator slot and does not flow through the whole stator yoke. This results in a very short magnetic path at the aligned position because the rotor segment closes the magnetic path between two stator poles. This leads to a higher permeance than in the short-pitched winding topologies. In the unaligned position the rotor segments are located over the teeth, thus the unaligned permeance is limited by the slot opening. A comparison of the average torque shows that the torque of the switched reluctance machine with segmental rotors is more than 40% higher than the torque of the conventional switched reluctance machine because each turn of the segmented rotor switched reluctance machine carries almost the double of the flux of a conventional switched reluctance machine. But unfortunately with the consequence of greater torque ripple at low speeds

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A.

Fig. 9. Cross-section of the canned fully-pitched winding design with segmental rotors

Performance analysis The copper losses of the fully-pitched switched reluctance machine with segmental rotors are the same as the copper losses for the fully-pitched windings; hence the phase resistance RPh = 0.140 is used to consider the worst case. Table IV presents the simulation results with a maximum phase current of 120A for the fully-pitched winding topology with segmental rotors for a winding excitation with the current and the voltage supply either for the dryrunning version and the canned one. It is quite remarkable to the other winding topologies, that when using a voltage supply instead of a current supply for the canned switched reluctance machines the can losses decrease and thus the efficiency rises. Independent from the excitation sequence the waveform of the instantaneous torque has the same shape for both pump types. For example the instantaneous torque for the

B.

TABLE IV SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE FULLY-PITCHED WINDING TOPOLOGY WITH SEGMENTAL ROTORS FOR A MAXIMUM PHASE CURRENT OF 120A Winding T_MEC P_MEC P_Cu P_Fe P_Can P_TOT Efficiency supply Current uni1ph Current uni1ph Current bi3ph Curret bi3ph Halfbridge uni1ph Halfbridge uni1ph Fullbridge bi3ph Fullbridge bi3ph Nm 22.3 19.11 23.42 16.06 21.13 17.94 21.81 16.50 kW 14.00 12.00 14.71 10.09 13.27 11.27 13.69 10.36 kW 1.88 1.88 5.16 5.17 1.83 1.78 4.15 4.19 kW 1.54 0.97 0.70 1.08 1.06 1.06 1.20 1.26 kW 0 16.34 0 15.27 0 13.89 0 12.40 kW 17.43 31.20 20.57 31.62 16.16 28.00 19.05 28.21 % 80.4 38.5 71.5 31.9 82.1 40.2 71.9 36.7

pitched one for a selected cross-section, but with the disadvantage of raising manufacturing costs. In most cases the shown performance of the configuration can be increased by adapting the cross-section design to the certain winding topology under consideration of special design rules and increasing the phase current, if it is possible. VIII.

[1]

REFERENCES

three-phase bipolar voltage supply with a full-bridge is presented in Fig. 10, while the same is true for the onephase unipolar voltage supply. It is important to know, that the three-phase bipolar excitation results in a lower torque ripple than the one phase unipolar excitation.

Fig. 10. Instantaneous torque waveform for the three-phase bipolar voltage supply with a full-bridge

Laudensack, C.; Yu, Q.; Gerling, D.: Static design tool for canned Switched Reluctance Machines; International Conference System Modeling and Control (SMC); Lodz, Poland; 2011 [2] Laudensack, C.; Yu, Q.; Gerling D.: Geschaltete Reluktanzmaschinen als Antriebe fr Spaltrohrpumpen; Internationaler ETG-Kongress, VDE, Wuerzburg, Germany; 2011 (paper in German) [3] Yu, Q.; Laudensack, C.; Gerling, D.: Loss Analysis of a Canned Switched Reluctance Machine; International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS); Beijing, China, 2011 [4] Yu, Q.; Laudensack, C.; Gerling, D.: Controller Design for a Canned Switched Reluctance Machine; International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS); Sapporo, Japan, 2012 (paper in press) [5] Miller, T.J.E.: Switched Reluctance Motors and Their Control; Magna Physics Publishing, 1993; ISBN 1-881855-02-3 [6] Maccon: Users Manual for PC-SRD 8.0 Switched Reluctance Brushless Motor Design Simulation Software; Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow; Maccon, Munich, 2002 [7] Li, Y.; Tang, Y.: Switched Reluctance Motor Drives with Fractionally-Pitched Winding Design; 28th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC); St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 1997 [8] Mecrow, B.C.: Fully pitched-winding switched reluctance and stepping-motor arrangements; Electric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings B, Issue 1, Vol. 140, p. 61 70; 1993 [9] Clothier, A.C.: Switched Reluctance Motor Drives with Fully Pitched Windings; Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England; 2000 [10] Mecrow, B.C.; Clothier, A.C.; Barras, P.G.; Weiner, C.: Drive Configurations for Fully-Pitched Winding Switched Reluctance Machines; 33rd Industry Applications Conference (IAS); St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 1998 [11] Mecrow, B.C.; Finch, J.W.; El-Kharashi, E.A.; Jack, A.G.: The Design of Switched Reluctance Motors with Segmental Rotors; 15th International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM); Brugge, Belgium, 2002 [12] Mecrow, B.C.; Finch, J.W.; El-Kharashi, E.A.; Jack, A.G.: Switched reluctance motors with Segmental Rotors; 15th International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM); Brugge, Belgium, 2002

VII.

Christian Laudensack was born in Germany, 1981. He graduated in 2007 at the Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen in aerospace engineering. His employment experience included the German Federal Armed Force, the IABG mbH, Ottobrunn, the Systemzentrum fr Luftfahrzeugtechnik, Erding, and the Institute for Electrical Drives at the Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen. His special fields of interest include switched reluctance machines. Qiang Yu was born in China, 1982. He graduated from the Northwestern Polytechnical University in Xian, China in 2008 and is now at the Institutes of Electrical Drives, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Germany as a PhD student. His technical interest includes electromagnetic field analysis and switched reluctance machines. Dieter Gerling, born in 1961, got his diploma and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the Technical University of Aachen, Germany in 1986 and 1992, respectively. From 1986 to 1999 he was with Philips Research Laboratories in Aachen, Germany as Research Scientist and later as Senior Scientist. In 1999 Dr. Gerling joined Robert Bosch GmbH in Bhl, Germany as Director. Since 2001 he is Full Professor and Head of the Institute of Electrical Drives at the Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Germany.

Besides the generally used short-pitched windings different other winding topologies, as the fractionally-pitched as well as the fully-pitched and the fully-pitched with segmental rotors, are applied to the same cross-section of the switched reluctance machines. The analyses of the torque and of different kinds of losses are based on the same requirements and environmental conditions. In addition to the copper and iron losses, can losses occur for canned pumps, which are necessary in seal-less pump applications when delivering critical fluid. From the studies it is obvious that for all winding topologies the can losses are a multiple times higher than the iron and copper losses together and thus have the biggest impact on the thermal behavior and consequently on the stability of the drive. Generally, it can be quoted that the short-pitched configuration has the lowest torque production either for the dry-running and canned version, but together with the fractionally-pitched version the highest efficiency for the dry-running version. It is possible to increase the average torque up to the double value when using other winding topologies than the short-

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